Introduction
1
Pictures fromand based on the books :
Ship Dynamics for Mariners (IC Clark, The Nautical Institute)
Ship resistance & flow (SNAME 2010)
Viscous Fluid Flow (Franck White)
Fluid characteristic
Definition of a fluid : A continuous, amorphous substance whose
molecules move freely past one another and that has the
tendency to assume the shape of its container; a liquid or gas.
Properties :
Isotropy : same characteristics whatever the considered
direction direction
Mobility : it will take the shape of a tank
Viscosity : is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is
being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress
Compressibility : the density depends on the temperature and
the pressure (for water, we consider its independent of the
pressure
2
Forces on a fluid
Gravity : volume force
Pressure : force per surface
Friction : interaction between particles and surface
Inertia : proportional to acceleration
Capillarity Capillarity
Surface tension
Chemical forces
Magneto hydrodynamic force
3
In general,
smaller than
the other 4.
In static
Only the first 2 forces have to be considered:
So, it become : p + g h = 0
The difference of pressure between two points depends The difference of pressure between two points depends
only on the vertical distance between the points :
P
b
P
a
= g Z
Unit of the pressure : Pascal (Pa)
1 Pa = 1 N/m
4
Statical pressure on a boat
The pressure forces are perpendicular to the plate.
The statical pressure is quite easy to calculate.
5
Dynamic pressure
The static pressure is a kind of
potential energy per unit volume.
If we make a small hole, because of
this pressure, there will be a jet.
Potential energy will be changed
into kinetic energy into kinetic energy
It give the dynamic pressure : g h =
V
6
Bernoulli
Daniel Bernoulli (Groningen, 8
February 1700 Basel, 8 March
1782) was a DutchSwiss
mathematician and was one of the
many prominent mathematicians
in the Bernoulli family. He is in the Bernoulli family. He is
particularly remembered for his
applications of mathematics to
mechanics, especially fluid
mechanics, and for his pioneering
work in probability and statistics.
(from wikipedia)
7
Bernoulli
Bernoullis theoremshows the conservation of energy.
8
It can be written :
g h + V + p = constant
Bernoulli
Lets consider this pipe.
Liquid
incompressible, so
same volumetric flow
rate : A
1
V
1
=A
2
V
2
9
g h
1
+ V
1
+ p
1
= g h
2
+ V
2
+ p
2
Because same
pressure
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
=
A A
h g
V
Bernoulli : the pitot tube
The pitot tube measure
the pressure (static
and dynamic) with
one opening and the
static pressure with
the other one. the other one.
10
) ( 2
s t
p p
V
=
Bernoulli around a ship
Around the hull, the
flow is modified as in
the previous tube.
There are 3 zones (high,
low and high
pressure), wave pressure), wave
Two stagnation point :
pressure =1/2 V
11
Too simple.
No friction considered
Surface tension
Due to molecular forces
Try to reduce the surface for the
volume (thats why the drops are
spherical).
In still water, force to open the sea In still water, force to open the sea
= force to close no effect.
In rough water, the spray : it costs
energy
12
Viscosity
Due to intermolecular attractive forces
When we move the upper plate, there is a resistance force.
Viscosity is define as the ratio
So the frictional force : F = A V / S
S V
A F
so
rate Strain
stress Shear
/
/
=
13
Viscosity
The classical formulation is (for 2D) :
Behaviour of the fluids :
Fortunately, water is a
y
u
=
newtonian fluid
Unit of Ns/m or kg/(ms)
14
Laminar flow
All the particle trajectories
are parallel.
The energy is transfered by
the viscosity. the viscosity.
Resistance proportionnal to
the speed of the flow.
15
Turbulent flow
If the speed increases or if the surface length becomes too big, it
will be instable.
Turbulent
Particles move in all
16
Particles move in all
direction and the
Kinetic energy is directly
transfered.
Resistance proportionnal to the
square of the flow speed.
Turbulent flow
At the beginning,
laminar.
After, turbulent.
It occur in the boundary
layer (zone in which
viscosity is viscosity is
considered).
17
At the end of the plank, the wake.
Bernoullis law doesnt apply as energy is being dissipated in
turbulence. The streamline doesnt fully converge increase
of resistance : formdrag.
Reynolds
Osborne Reynolds (23 August
1842 21 February 1912) was
a prominent innovator in the
understanding of fluid
dynamics. Separately, his
studies of heat transfer studies of heat transfer
between solids and fluids
brought improvements in
boiler and condenser design.
18
Reynolds number
O. Reynolds worked on the
transition of laminar to
turbulent flow in pipe.
He concluded that the transition
VD VD
= = Re
He concluded that the transition
is function of the ratio inertia
force / viscosity force.
19
is the dynamic viscosity
is the kinematic viscosity
Reynolds number for a ship
The length to consider is no more the diameter. We consider the
hull length.
The critical Re (for
transition) is from
0.4x10
6
to 10
6
(even
10
7
), function of the
20
10
7
), function of the
hull and the
roughness.
For sea water, =1.87x10
3
at 0C and 0.97x10
3
Ns/m at 25C.
So, with =1.4x10
3
and =1025 kg/m, Re=112x10
7
Transition point is around 0.2 % of the length.
Foil
A flow on a profile produces a
lift and a drag forces.
Great to make the aircraft flying but also for the ships :
21
Great to make the aircraft flying but also for the ships :
Foil
The force is created by the asymmetrical flow.
Its the combination of a symmetrical flow (no lift)
And the circulation
Difference of pressure proportionnal to V
22
Foil
The drag costs energy and the lift is what we want.
If the profile is symmetrical and no angle of attack no lift
If the profile is asymmetrical or angle of attack lift
23
Foil
Along the profile, the separation occurs at the end of the
profile.
So, there is a wake.
If the angle of attack is to big, the seperation point will be
more in the beginning of the profile stall
24
Foil
What does the lift depend on?
25
So :
 The angle of the rudder
should be limited.
 The rudder area of a fast
boat will be smaller.
 The force will increase
linearily with the area.
Cavitation
2 problems : the lifting force can not increase (the difference
of pressure is limited).
The bubbles appear but collapse when the pressure
decreasedamage
It can be a problemfor propellers
26
Cavitation
If the difference of pressure is to big, the water will boil
(changes state fromliquid to water vapour)
The vapour pressure should counteract the surface tension.
27
Resistance : the separate components
Hull still water resistance
Frictional or Residuary Frictional or
skin resistance
Formdrag
Residuary
resistance
Wave
making
Eddy
making
Appendages
Air
resistance
28
Resistance : skin friction
Skin friction and residuary resistance are not linked.
Skin friction is function only of the speed, the viscosity, the
wetted area and the length of the hull.
So, it depends on Re and the wetted area
Tests were done with plates in towing tanks (so no residuary Tests were done with plates in towing tanks (so no residuary
resistance) and curve fitting has been doen.
29
Resistance : skin friction
We often work with coefficient of resistance.
Its a way to have adimensional value.
S V
R
C
f
f
2
1
=
So, following the ITTC conference of 57 :
30
S V
2
2
1
( )
2
10
2 Re log
075 . 0
=
f
C
Eddy making resistance
If the change of flow direction is too severe (>20), it will fail
to follow the contour
Separation and creation of eddy making resistance
Increase of resistance and, here, problemfor steering
31
Eddy making resistance
Separation occurs later when turbulent boundary layer (water
fills more easily the available space)
For eddy making resistance, it is better to have turbulent flow
It can also appear in the fore part, if the waterline is too convex. It can also appear in the fore part, if the waterline is too convex.
32
Eddy making resistance
When a ship is relatively slow moving for its length : 2 main components
of resistance :
 Friction
 Eddy making resistance if bad shape
Spherical to reduce the wetted area
Aft part very narrow to redure eddy making resistance
Large bow because slow speed, so no wave
Cods head and mackerel tail (1585)
To increase the deadweight, adding
at the midship section
33
Lord Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin,
(26 June 1824 17 December 1907)
was a mathematical physicist and
engineer.
At the University of Glasgow he did
important work in the mathematical important work in the mathematical
analysis of electricity and
formulation of the first and second
Laws of Thermodynamics, and did
much to unify the emerging
discipline of physics in its modern
form. Lord Kelvin is widely known
for realising that there was a lower
limit to temperature, absolute zero.
34
Kelvin wave pattern of a moving
disturbance
Group velocity of a wave is
the velocity with which the
overall shape of the wave's
amplitudes
The phase velocity of a The phase velocity of a
wave is the rate at which
the phase of the wave
propagates in space
Here, group velocity=0.5
phase velocity
35
Kelvin wave pattern of a moving
disturbance
Speed of the wave phase Cw =V sin Q
Speed of the wave group Cg =0.5 V sin Q
36
Kelvin wave pattern of a moving
disturbance : two kinds of waves
Transverse waves: same phase velocity, perpendicular to the
motion
Divergent waves : slower phase speeds, angle which
decreases for waves of lower phase speed. (includes a whole
spectrumof waves) spectrumof waves)
37
Kelvin waves : submarine
During the 2
nd
world war, the waves created by the periscope
made themvisible
38
Kelvin waves for a ship
On a ship, creation of such wave system on points where we
have change of pressure gradient. On a ship : 2 points
High pressure centre at about 5% aft of the bow where the
streamlines start to converge causing pressure to reduce
downstream, so the waves originates as crests
Low pressure at ~5% forward the stem, divergence of
streamline, pressure increases troughs streamline, pressure increases troughs
39
Interference
Because wavelengths depend on the speed and 2 systems of waves
are created Interference between the waves
Speed of wave:
2
g
V =
Half l:
Number of half l:
Because 180 difference of phase: odd N : constructive interference
even N : destructive
40
g
V
2
5 . 0
=
2
9 . 0
5 . 0
9 . 0
V
L g L
N
PP PP
= =
Trend in wave making
41
Wave resistance
Fr = 0.38 is the limit for displacement ship
(Friction resistance has to be added)
Above that, the bow wave increases.
To reduce the wave resistance, the waterline should be as
smooth as possible.
But contradiction with the goal of merchant ship which is to
increase the deadweight concave shape
Contradiction with seakeeping performance (concave ships
have more buoyancy reserve).
42
Bulbous bow
Goal of the bulbous bow: to create a wave, which will make
destructive interference
Problem: it is done for certain speeds. At different speed, we
may have constructive interference
Other advantage: add forward buoyancy waterplane may
be finer
43
Appendage resistance
Rudder, stabilisers fins, propeller, etc increase the resistance
Not placed for towing tank test
(too many variable)
They have their own Fr and Re
44
Air resistance
In air resistance, we consider frictional and
eddy making resistance
In calmconditions : ~4% In calmconditions : ~4%
When wind, it can increase considerably
45
Formdrag
Frictional resistance is considered equal to the resistance of a
flat plate with the same wetted area
But, if we make test at low Froude (so wave making resistance But, if we make test at low Froude (so wave making resistance
can be considered as negligible), the total resistance is not
the frictional resistance. There is an additional residuary
resistance : the formdrag
Formdrag is siginificant for wider boat
46
Formdrag
It is due to the boundary layer which is thicker when the
beamto length ratio increase.
Bernoulli flow is forced to undergo a greater acceleration,
which make the boundary layer thickness.
The stern pressure is lower, so the wake is bigger. The stern pressure is lower, so the wake is bigger.
47
Towing tank
Why?
CFD is not yet very accurate to estimate the power of a boat.
Statistical laws are limited
Is it possible to use the results? Is it possible to use the results?
Yes, with some conditions
48
Towing tank
3 kinds of forces are involved :
Inertial force (ma)
Gravitationnal force (mg)
proportional to r U l
proportional to g lr
Viscous force
49
proportional to U l
If the ratio of these forces are
the same, the flow will be
similar
Towing tank
gl
U
l g
l U
Gravity
Inertia
2
3
2 2
= =
Ul
Ul
l U
Viscous
Inertia
= =
2 2
gl
U
Fr =
Ul Ul
= = Re
50
Ul Viscous
Viscous
Inertia
Gravity
Inertia
Viscous
Gravity
1


\

=
So, it means that if the Re and
the Fr numbers are the
same, the flows will be
similar.
Same Fr and Re numbers
=
M
S
l
l
S
S
M
S M
S M
S M
U
gl
gl
U U
gl
U
gl
U
Fr Fr = = = =
The scale
51
S
S M
gl
gl gl
2
3
Re Re
S
S
M
S
M
S M
S
S S
M
M M
S M
l
l
U
U l U l U
= = = =
Great, we can have similar flows
We just need to respect the two relations above.
No problem, lets replace the water by a liquid with another
viscosity, there is just 2 100 000 l to put and if we change the scale, we will replace it again, its easy
Towing tank test
Following Froude, friction and residuary
coefficient are independent.
( ) ( ) ) ( Re Re, Fr C C Fr C
R F T
+ =
So, if we can obtain the friction resistance, we
can calculate the total resistance with respect
of Froude number.
52
Towing tank test
Froudes method :
Performthe resistance tests with the model.
So, we have R
( ) ( ) ) ( Re Re, Fr C C Fr C
R F T
+ =
So, we have R
TM
We know that :
And that for the model and the
ship
53
M M M
TM
TM
S V
R
C
2
2 1
=
R F T
C C C + =
Towing tank test (2)
Following ITTC 57 :
(we can calculate it for the model and the ship
Calculate C
RM
Thanks to Froude similitude :
( )
2
10
2 log
075 . 0
=
Rn
C
F
FM TM RM
C C C =
Thanks to Froude similitude :
We make the same procedure by the other
side
54
RS RM
C C =
Towing tank test (3)
Following ITTC 57 :
for the ship
Calculate C
TS
(the last termis the roughness allowance :0.0004)
( )
2
10
2 log
075 . 0
=
S
FS
Rn
C
F FS RS TS
C C C C + + =
(the last termis the roughness allowance :0.0004)
Finally :
So, we can calculate the power :
55
S S S TS TS
S V C R =
2
S TS E
V R P =
Towing tank test (ITTC78)
Some differences with the 57th method. The
decomposition is in a viscous resistance, which includes
the formeffect on friction and pressure and wave
resistance.
Assumption is :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) F C C k Fn C + + = + Re 1 Re
Assumption is :
Compute C
FM
Calculate the formfactor k
56
M M M
TM
TM
S V
R
C
2
2 1
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n w F T
F C C k Fn C + + = + Re 1 Re
0
Towing tank test (ITTC78)(2)
Calculate C
WM
Remark : the wave resistance is smaller than the
residuary resistance for Froude method
Compute the roughness allowance (according to
Bowden): 1
 
Bowden):
Where kMAA is the roughness in microns according to the
MAA method. ITTC recommend 150 microns.
Determine the air resistance coefficient:
Where AT is the frontal area of the ship above the waterline
57
S
A
C
T
AA
= 001 . 0
3
3
1
10 64 . 0 105



\

\

=
L
k
C
MAA
f
Towing tank test (ITTC78)(3)
Calculate the total resistance coefficient C
WM
Calculate the total resistance coefficient as before.
( )
AA F WS FS TS
C C C C k C + + + + = 1
Calculate the effective power as before also.
58
Formfactor
It includes the ratio of the viscous resistance and the
resistance of the equivalent flat plate.
So, it includes the formeffect.
Empirical formula (Watanabe):
Another way is to calculate it at low Re (<0.15) (Cw=0)
but small forces, so problems on measurement
59
T
B
B
L
C
k
B
2
6 . 25 095 . 0

\

+ =
Formfactor
Method of Prohaska : assumption: wave resistance
coefficient is proportional to the 4th power of the Fr.
So:
Or:
( )
4
1
1 Fn k C k C
F T
+ + =
( )
T
Fn
k k
C
4
1 + + =
If the assumption in the wave resistance is correct:
60
( )
F F
T
C
k k
C
1
1 + + =
Planing
When a ship goes faster and exceed Fr = 0.38 (with enough
power and adequate shape, it can go faster than its wave.
A lifting force appears.
So, displaced water decreases and resistance is smaller.
61
Planing
A part of the flow goes forward : spray
Hard chine is better.
The weight has to be lower
Planing hull is common for pleasure craft
(in some case, not enough buoyancy)
62
Shallow water
The Bernoulli pressure distribution distorts the waterline.
It will be more pronounced if the depth is small.
Between the river bottomand the hull, water is accelerated,
creating a depression reduction of the under keel
clearance, called the squat. clearance, called the squat.
It depends on :
Static pressure, so it will increase in proportion of V/g
The sectional area of the water flow (blockage factor)
The block coefficient (the flow will be more restricted in case of high
Cb
63
Squat
Squat is NOT an augmentation of the draft.
It is the total reduction in under keel clearance.
(water level also goes down)
64
Squat
Blockage factor :
So,
Squat can be like :
( )
0 1
5 . 0 W W D
d B
S
+
=
S=
Ships immersed midship sectional area
Sectional area of the unobstructed canal
Squat can be like :
65
( )
m
B
n
C K S K
g
V
K S
3 2
2
1
=
Squat in narrow channels
Following A. D. Watt :
B
C S
g
V
s Squat =
2
2
2 . 2
With
And V the speed in m/s (and g=9.81 m/s)
66
S C
S
A A
A
S
=
2
Squat in narrow channels
Following Dr C. B. Barrass:
With
B
k
C S
V
s Squat =
81 . 0
08 . 2
20
S
A
S =
With
And V
k
the speed in knots
Attention: these formulas are available in a
narrow channel
67
S
S
A
A
S =
Comparison of the method
Speed : 8 kts
Sectional area Ac = 0.5 (40+60) x 12 = 60 m
Sectional area As = 8 x 20 m
Block coefficient : 0.8
Following Watt :
S Squat 8 . 0
160 514 . 0 8
2 . 2
=
Following Watt :
Following Barrass :
68
m S Squat
S Squat
1 . 1
8 . 0
160 600
160
81 . 9
514 . 0 8
2 . 2
=
=
m S Squat
S Squat
04 . 1
8 . 0
600
160
20
8
81 . 0
08 . 2
=
\

=
Squat in open shallow water
The previous formulas were available for narrow channel, but
in shallow water, the squat phenomenon is also present.
Dr I. Dand proposed a formula :
B k
C
D
d
V S Squat =
2
95
1
With : V
k
speed in knots, d deep water draft, D water depth
and C
B
the block coefficient
69
B k
C
D
V S Squat =
95
Squat in open shallow water
Barrass proposed an empirical formula. His philosophy was to
consider a width of influence, function of the beamof the
ship.
Width of influence :
Open water blockage factor S
Open water squat
70
) (
04 . 7
85 . 0
m
C
B
F
B
B
=
Effect of squat on trimand list
Distorsion of waterline may change the fore and aft position
of the center of buyoancy.
If a vessels centre of buyancy is forward of midship (the bow
is fuller than the stem)head trimming moment is fuller than the stem)head trimming moment
Faster flow on the fore part, so more succion head
trimming moment
Acceleration on the propeller stern trimming moment
71
Squat over a shoal
If the water depth is small: constant squat
But if the vessel sails over a shoal ?
72
Squat and heel
What about the heel?
73
Other effects of squat
Frictional resistance is increased, wave making resistance also
the ship slows down
This increase of resistance loads more the propeller more
slip and the propeller revolution tend to decrease
Proximity of the seabed greater vibration Proximity of the seabed greater vibration
Increase of turbulence and vibration under the stern if soft
sediment, water can be discoloured.
Higher bow wave
Response to helmaction slower
Motions (rolling, pitching) tend to be dampened by the
cushioning effect of the seabed
74
Wave making resistance in shallow
water
Waves depend on the water depth (when water depth is
reduced to less than ~40% of the wavelength, its influenced
by the seabed).
Phase and group speed decreases
First, the waves with longer wavelength are modified : higher First, the waves with longer wavelength are modified : higher
and longer
75
l(deep water)=
l(12m water)=
m
g
V
64
2
2
=
m
D
g
V
101
2
tanh
2
2
=

\

+
Waves in shallow water
Waves are longer when depth decreases
So, angle of 19.28 is no more available
It will increase when the speed increases and the depth
decreases.
76
Waves in shallow water
Limit speed : kind of wall in front of the ship: as sound wall
After this limit, resistance decreases
77
Waves in shallow water
This effect was discovered accidentally in British canals, around
1844 when barges were towed by horses.
A horse took fright and ran with the barge.
The prominent bow wave suddenly disappeared and the speed
was much more bigger. was much more bigger.
It was because :
Canals were artificially built with a depth around 1 m (critical speed 3 m/s)
Barges: long and narrow
Barges towed fromashore, so no squat by the propeller
78
Fluid dynamic
Fluids have different kind of properties :
Kinematic properties : linear and angular velocities, vorticity,
acceleration and strain rate. Properties of the flow more than
the fluid itself
Transport properties : viscosity, thermal conductivity and Transport properties : viscosity, thermal conductivity and
mass diffusivity
Thermodynamic properties : pressure, density, temperature,
enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, Prandtl number, bulk
modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion
Other miscellaneous properties : surface tension, vapor
pressure, eddydiffusion coefficients,
79
2 formulations : Lagrangian
Consider a rocket lifting off
You control it fromthe ground. You will see the
different parts separating fromthe main part and
you can follow the different trajectories
Lagrangian description
Very useful for the solid mechanic
80
2 formulations : Eulerian
Now, you want to follow the flow out of the nozzle. Fromthe
ground, youll see a complicated unsteady flow.
But if you examine themfromthe rocket, you will observe a
nearly steady flow nearly steady flow
Eulerian description
You can choose coordinate with a good orientation, making
the flow appear more steady
You dont study all the particle but the velocity field
81
Differential
Fundamental laws are Lagrangian in nature (formulated for
particles).
Variation of a function Q
dt
Q
dz
Q
dy
Q
dx
Q
dQ
=
We follow an infinitesimal particle, so : dx=udt, dy=vdt, dz=wdt
So:
dQ/dt is called substancial derivative, particle derivative or
material derivative
82
dt
t
dz
z
dy
y
dx
x
dQ
=
z
Q
w
y
Q
v
x
Q
u
t
Q
dt
dQ
=
Material derivative
The way to write it :
In the vectorial form:
With
Dt
DQ
( )Q V
t
Q
Dt
DQ
+
=
With
If the speed is = 0:
83
z
k
y
j
x
i
=
t
Q
Dt
DQ
=
Deformation
4 types of motion or deformation:
Translation
Rotation
Extensional strain or dilataion
Shear strain
Rotation
Dilatation
Shear strain
Shear strain
We work with rate, i.e. a time
derivative
84
Translation
Shear strain
Angular rotation
Angular rotation= avergage
counterclockwise rotation of
the side AB (d) and BC (
d).
So : ( ) d d d
z
=
1
So :
Following the schema:
85
( ) d d d
z
=
2
dt
x
v
dxdt
x
u
dx
dxdt
x
v
d
dt
=




\

1
0
tan lim
dt
x
v
dxdt
x
u
dx
dxdt
x
v
d
dt
=




\

1
0
tan lim and
Vorticity
Instead of working with
And is called vorticity
In termof vector :
dt
d
= 2
V VV V V VV V = = curl In termof vector :
One property :
If =0, the fluid is irrotational
86
V VV V V VV V = = curl
0 = = = V VV V curl div div
Shearstrain rate
2 lines are initially perpendicular.
This angle decreases: measured by shearstrain rate.
By the same way as vorticity, we can change the formulation

\

+ =
dt
d
dt
d
d
xy
2
1
By the same way as vorticity, we can change the formulation
of and
So :
The last element are dilatation :
87


\

=

\

=


\

=
y
w
z
v
and
z
u
x
w
y
u
x
v
yz xz xy
2
1
2
1
;
2
1
( )
dt
x
u
dx
dx xdxdt u dx
d
xx
=
+
=
/
Shearstrain rate
Shearstrain tensor is symmetric :
It may be visualized as a array :
ji ij
=



\

=
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
ij
\
zz zy zx



\

=
3
2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
ij
Coefficient of viscosity
Lets consider, as prevously, 2 walls.
The upper wall moves at a speed V
The shear stress (the stress to move the wall at the
constant speed) is constant
The speed has only 1 component : u(y)
xy
= + +
Conservation of mass (2)
So, if we combine the equations, we finally
obtain :
( ) 0 0 = +
= + V div or divV
D
= + V div
t
or divV
Dt
D
0 = divV
When we consider a fluid volume,
if the volume decreases or
increases.
Density has to increase or
decrease (to keep the mass)
Conservation of momentum
Newtons second law : F=ma
We work with density (more convenient):
Body force : gravity (we ignore magnetohydrodynamics force)
surface body
f f f
Dt
DV
+ = =
Body force : gravity (we ignore magnetohydrodynamics force)
Surface forces are those applied by external
stresses on the sides. Tensor like strain rate
96
g f
body
=
Conservation of momentum(2)
Total force on each direction :
If the element is in equilibrium, forces balanced.
But if acceleration, front and backface will be different by
differential amount:
... =
+ + =
y
zx yx xx x
dF
dxdy dxdz dydz dF
differential amount:
If we just take the net force :
So, per volume unit :
97
dx
x
xx
back xx front xx
+ =
, ,
dxdy dz
z
dxdz dy
y
dydz dx
x
dF
zx
yx
xx
x

\

+


\

+

\

z y x
f
xz
xy
xx
x
NavierStokes equations
Finally :
We can transformit for Newtonian fluid :
ij
g
Dt
DV
+ =
divV
x
u
x
u
p
ij
i
j
j
i
ij ij
+


\

+ =
NavierStokes equations :
98
x x
i j
\
Kronecker
operator



\

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
Second
coefficient of
viscosity
Lam constant or
coefficient of bulk
viscosity
(
(
+


\

+ = divV
x
u
x
u
xj
p g
Dt
DV
ij
i
j
j
i
Thermodynamic properties
The first thermodynamic law :
With: dE : the change in total energy of the system
dQ : the heat added to the system
dW: the work done on system
dW dQ dE + =
dW: the work done on system
Finally, after the same kind of transformation than before :
With
99
( )
j
i
ij
x
u
T k div
Dt
Dp
Dt
Dh
+ + = '
divV
x
u
x
u
ij
i
j
j
i
ij
+


\

= '
Fluid mechanics equations
Finally :
p g
Dt
DV
ij
+ = '
( ) 0 = +
V div
t
+ + = '
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