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The Cold War

1919 1939 1941 -

Red Scare in USA: suspected communist arrested, imprisoned, some deported

Non-Aggression Pact between USSR and Germany

Manhattan Project November: Land-and-Lease Agreement: America loaned the enemies of Germany military equipment for the duration of the war at no cost December: Pearl Harbour bombing 1941-1944: Leningrad: German siege (Russian deaths: more than combined British and American war dead)

1943 1944 -

November: Tehran Conference

June: D-Day (allied invasion of German-occupied Northern France) Bretton Woods Conference: International Monetary Fund, World Bank Lublin Committee: Stalin set up a Polish pro-Soviet government to fix Soviet boundaries with Poland

1945 1946 -

February: Yalta Conference May: San Francisco Conference: UN, USSR membership July: Potsdam Conference OPEN DOOR POLICY: opening markets to imports; national economies organised around the principles of the free market; private sectors role (not the states) emphasized ATOMIC DIPLOMACY: tactic of trading the secret of the atomic bomb for political concessions DOLLAR DIPLOMACY: US using its finance muscle to extract political concessions

February 22: Kennans Long Telegram CONTAINMENT: allowing no further encroachment of Soviet influence (e.g. in Greece, Yugoslavia etc.): policy practiced from Kennans Long Telegram to prevent the spread of communism beyond those areas where it already existed main assumption: USSR constantly attempts to extend its power establishing control over the Eurasian land mass Containment in Asia: Japan as US satellite state Financial assistance to anti-communist forces in China, Vietnam, South Korea

DOUGLAS MACARTHUR: general leading the occupation of Japan; he embarked on a programme of nation-building, economic reconstruction, demilitarisation and democratisation; no war clause (Article Nine of Japan constitution) March 5: Iron Curtain speech by Churchill June: Baruch Plan: frequent inspection of atomic energy installation in the UN member states July: Bizone created (merging British and American zones of occupation into one area) McMahon Act: prohibition of the exchange of atomic energy information with any foreign power, including American allies

1947 -

March: Truman Doctrine June: Marshall Plan announcement: containment of communism European recovery beneficial for American economy MOLOTOV PLAN: Soviet version of the Marshall Plan, being an attempt to bind the countries of Eastern Europe and the USSR into a single economic area September: Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) established; functions: circulation of propaganda abroad liaise with the communist parties of western Europe and assist their attempts to obstruct elected governments - National Security Act: merging War and Navy Departments into a new enlarged Defence Department at the Pentagon, CIA creation, National Security Council - Rio Pact: attack on any one country in Americas means an attack on all

1948 1949 1950s McCarthys era April: NATO establishment (12 states, collective security principle) August: free election in the Federal Republic of Germany: Konrad Adenauer the first chancellor August: Soviets successfully tested atomic bomb PRC established by Mao Zedong September: Federal Republic of Germany proclamation October: German Democratic Republic set up till 1953: First Cold War June: new currency in the 3 zones of West Germany implemented June: Soviets West Berlin blockade of all supplies, war of nerves until May 1949 Democratic Republic of Korea (Kim Il Sung) and The Republic of Korea (Syngman Rhee) proclaimed Organization of American States (OAS)

1950 -

Red Scare McCarthyism relentless search for communist in American public life

1951 1952 1953 -

Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship NSC 68 publication: military strength increase proposal downfall of Soviet system as an aim North Koreas forces invasion of South Korea UN intervention in Korea Chinese intervention European Defence Army (or Community EDC), West Germany rearmament

ANZUS Pact (USA, Australia, New Zealand: mutual protection in case of aggression) US Peace Treaty in San Francisco Ethel and Julius Rosenberg sentenced to death (in 1953 executed at Sing Sing prison)

Turkey and Greece becoming NATO members

1954 -

till 1957: the thaw end to Korean war (peace treaty at Panmunjom) consequence of the war: militarisation of the Cold War March, East Berlin: uprising by the workers December: Eisenhowers (Ike) Atoms for Peace plan presented to the UN: Major powers should deposit a portion of their nuclear stockpiles in a bank of nuclear materials supervised by the UN; material would be then used for the peaceful generation of nuclear energy USSR rejected NEW LOOK new containment strategy: Increased reliance on nuclear weapons Cutting the number of armed services (rejection of NSC 68) CIA & president close relations Negotiations with PRC and SU Iran: Operation Ajax to overthrow the leader

SEATO Treaty (South-East Asia Treaty Organization) USA, France, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Pakistan, Thailand model on NATO to prevent communist interference in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia

1955

Khrushchev in power: peaceful coexistence of capitalist and communist states recognition of West Germany abolition of Cominform agreement on the future of Austria Warsaw Pact West Germany becoming member of NATO Austrian State Treaty end to Austria occupation by the 4 powers unification of Austria Austrian neutrality Geneva Summit Open Skies Eisenhower proposal: allowance for mutual aerial inspection of weapons sites dialogue, climate of goodwill spirit of Geneva Baghdad Pact, from 1959 known as CENTOS (Central Treaty Organization) (UK, Iran, Iraq; US: observer status) Suez Crisis: Soviet-Egyptian alliance British and French actions pushed Nasser away from Western powers response: Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) Diem becomes a president of South Vietnam thanks to US backup VIETCONG: small bands of communist in the south Vietnam forming military units that conducted guerrilla warfare against Diems government; in 1960 they established National Liberation Front

1956 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine power to send economic or military aid to any Middle East state seeking assistance launch of Sputnik worlds first inter-continental missile (ICBM) fired by the USSR Hungarian crisis Soviet intervention

1958 -

till 1962: Second Cold War February: Rapacki Plan for nuclear-free central Europe; USA rejected November: Berlin Crisis over 2 million East Germans escaped to the West during 1949-1958 period Khrushchev demands that all Western troops should withdraw from West Berlin and make it a free city Lebanon: US forces landing NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Agency) set up

1960 1961 -

Khrushchev ultimatum Fidel Castro in power 1958-1960: satellites

Paris Summit (failure due to U-2 incident) American U-2 plane shot down over SU

J. F. Kennedy a new president FLEXIBLE RESPONSE: Kennedys containment policy: increase in conventional forces nuclear arsenal negotiations with USSR reaction to the new strategy of the communist powers and expansion of the Cold War into new areas of the world similarity to NSC 68 economic aid as an instrument of containment US breaking off the diplomatic relations with Cuba Vienna Summit Berlin Wall

1962 1963 1968 1969 1970 1971

US-USSR agreement in Geneva on the Laos neutrality Invasion of the Bay of Pigs (US failure) Cuban missile crisis Policy of dtente (easing tension) 1963-1979 period of dtente hot line connecting Kremlin and the White House nuclear test-ban treaty (only atmospheric ones) (US, USSR, UK) Diem assassinated Kennedy Assassinated

invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact Forces

first man on the moon

SALT talks begin

Four Power Agreement on Berlin recognition of PRC by USA until 1971: Two Chinas policy policy denying diplomatic recognition of PRC and ensuring that the Chinese place in the UN was occupied by Taiwan

1975 1979 1983 1985 1989 1990 Germany re-united Berlin Wall breached Gorbachev in power Pershing and Cruise missiles installed in Western Europe 1979-1991: The Third (or New) Cold War USSR invades Afghanistan Helsinki Final Act