Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 55

Pictures of the Future

The Magazine for Research and Innovation | Spring 2009


www.siemens.com/pof

Product Life Cycle Planning


Products that use fewer resources from raw materials to recycling

Digital Watchmen
Innovations that improve safety, from smart detectors to RFIDs

Affordable Solutions
Robust, Energy-Efficient Technologies for Developing Markets

Pictures of the Future | Editorial

Contents
S
ome 125 years ago Werner von Siemens said, I wont sell the future for a short-term profit. Today we use the term sustainability to describe this attitude. And the principle of thinking long term rather than being shortsighted has become more important than ever before. That is true not only of the worldwide system of finance and business, but also of the effects that our actions or lack of them have on the environment and the climate. And here climate protection and economic growth are by no means mutually exclusive. On the contrary, in the years ahead, environmental technologies will be an engine of economic development. purchase price is cost-effective if the locomotives energy consumption can be reduced by as little as two percentage points (p. 24). The same principle applies to energy-saving motors. Here, the purchase price represents less than three percent of total costs, while electricity accounts for 95 percent of lifetime costs. Such motors pay for themselves in less than two years, sometimes even within one year. Long-term thinking is also well worth the effort when it comes to buildings, and even entire cities. A study showing how Munich could become CO2-free, for instance, reveals that the additional costs required to boost the energy efficiency of most of the citys buildings would amount to about 200 per resident annually. In the end, though, the measures would yield savings of at least 1,200 per resident per year not to mention an annual reduction of three million tons of CO2 for the entire city (p. 6). Some improvements dont even require big start-up investments just an ability to see the big picture and all its interconnected aspects. Specialists at the Lifetime Management department at Siemens Energy Sector, for example, upgrade existing power plants by fine-tuning various parameters, including pump flow rates and feedwater temperatures, and by adjusting the control systems accordingly. This reduces the time needed to start up plants by more than half an optimization that pays for itself after just one year (p. 27). Siemens is also developing many similarly smart solutions for the unique needs of customers in developing countries and emerging markets (pp. 72105) including solar-powered energy-saving lamps for African regions that are far from power grids; affordable, robust equipment for monitoring pulse rates at maternity wards in rural India; and the combination of traditional medicine and Western image processing technology in China. These examples confirm that one thing is paramount when it comes to intelligent solutions: people who understand not only the possibilities of modern technology, but also the requirements of different markets. Or, as Kuan Chung Tzu, a Chinese philosopher, put it 2,300 years ago, If you are planning for one year, plant grain. If you are planning for a decade, plant trees. If you are planning for a lifetime, enlighten the people. That is the essence of the principle of sustainability.

Pictures of the Future

Seeing the Big Picture


Barbara Kux is a member of the Siemens Managing Board, Head of Supply Chain Management and Chief Sustainability Officer at Siemens AG

Life Cycle Planning


110 Scenario 2025 Energy-Saving Sleuth 112 Trends Assessing Product Impact 116 Lamps Let There Be Savings! 118 Interview: Michael Braungart Remaking the Way We Make Things 120 Holistic Assessments Products from Dust to Dust 122 Interview: Stig Irving Olsen Developing a Holistic Approach to Environmental Impact 124 Rail Systems Timely Trains 127 Power Plant Optimization Oh What a Tune-Up! 130 Manufacturing High-Speed Throughput 132 Appliances Miracle in the Laundry Room 135 Facts and Forecasts The Energy-Efficiency Pay Off 136 Financing Clean Investment

Digital Watchmen
140 Scenario 2025 Cold Comfort 142 Trends One Step Ahead 145 RFID Chips Products that Dont Lie 148 Banking No More Mr. Nice Guy 150 Quantum Cryptography Code of Silence 152 Interview: Anton Zeilinger A Quantum Computer in Your Cell Phone 154 Neural Quantum Computers Catching Worms with Quanta 157 Parking Lots Driving out the Crooks 158 Facts and Forecasts Boom in IT Security Technologies 160 IT Security in Medicine Indefatigable Guardians 162 Bacteria Detection Closing in on Deadly Enemies 164 Fire Lab Where Theres Smoke, Theres... 1

Innovations for New Markets


172 Scenario 2025 Goddess of Wisdom 174 Trends Tapping New Sources of Hope 178 China Innovations Tailored for China 183 Smart Cameras for India Affordable Vision 184 Interview: Rajendra K. Pachauri Reflecting on the Simple Things 186 Interview: Nandan Nilekani Imagining Indias Future 188 Biomass in Brazil Sweet Savings 190 Interview: Jos Goldemberg Brazils Ethanol: Liquid Solar Energy 191 Facts and Forecasts Objective: Affordable Products 192 Energy Hubs for Africa Light for Lake Victoria 196 The Future of the Electric Car Electric Ecosystem 102 Interview: Eileen Claussen Toward an Energy-Efficient U.S. 103 Saving Energy in the U.S.

Cover: Worldwide, 1.6 billion people either live in the dark at night or are forced to use expensive and dangerous kerosene lanterns. But for fishermen on Lake Victoria in Kenya, clean, affordable light is now available thanks to battery-powered lanterns from Osram that can be recharged at solar-powered Energy Hubs.

Thats because such technologies are often focused on efficiency gains. Innovations in this sector can therefore conserve resources, thereby cutting costs. Just how effective this approach can be is covered in this issue of Pictures of the Future, which features many impressive examples of efficiency (pp.1037). Energysaving lamps, for instance, last 15 times longer than an incandescent light bulb of the same brightness, while consuming about a fifth of the electricity. As a result, the extra purchase cost can be recouped within 800 hours. Whats more, thanks to the lower electricity consumption involved, less carbon dioxide is produced. In fact, the amount saved per lamp is higher than the amount of carbon dioxide that a tree can absorb in an equal period of time (p. 16). At Siemens, life cycle assessments have become invaluable tools. They have been used to determine, for example, that over 90 percent of the environmental impact of household appliances occurs during operation. Transport and recycling are nearly negligible factors, and even production adds only a few percentage points. Applying this knowledge, engineers have developed an entirely new heating pump for a dryer, which consumes 40 percent less electricity than the limit required by Europes Class A designation making it the new energy-efficiency world champion (p. 32). Siemens is conducting similar in-depth studies with regard to locomotives. The results show that a ten-percent increase in

Sections
004 Short Takes News from Siemens Labs 006 Study of a CO2-Free Munich Paths to a Better Planet 038 Research in Russia Fresh Oil from Old Wells0 68 Economic Crisis Engines of Tomorrows Growth 69 Interview: Ottmar Edenhofer Climate Protection: Not Optional 71 Interview: E.-U. v. Weizscker Efficiency and Civilization 106 Feedback / Preview

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Short Takes

Safe Drinking
esearchers from Siemens Corporate Technology have developed a fully automatic system to test drinking water for the presence of toxic substances. A lab demonstration model can analyze water samples every 15 minutes and can detect over 100 toxins, such as insecticides. At the heart of the system is a biosensor that measures the activity of special enzymes. The signal is transmitted electrically, which means that the system is fast, highly sensitive, and robust.

Unique Scanner
T
he Acuson SC2000 is the worlds first ultrasound system that can generate full volume images of the heart in a single heartbeat in real time. An unprecedented information rate of 40 volumes per second at a depth of 16 cm replaces conventional techniques requiring four or more heartbeats to stitch together a volume. Enabled by the active cooling technology in the transducer, the systems full-volume acquisition capability has the potential to improve diagnosThe Acuson SC2000 recognizes tic confidence and to reduce anatomical landmarks. exam times. In addition, the new system allows the examination of a wider range of patients, including those with arrhythmias and those who cannot hold their breath or stay still long enough. Using intelligent software and an expert database, the Acuson SC2000 recognizes anatomical patterns and landmarks and enables automatic measurements.

Capturing Carbon
iemens and German energy producer E.ON are building a pilot facility for sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) at an existing coal-fired power plant near Hanau, Germany. Starting this summer, the companies will test a so-called post-combustion capture procedure, which is designed to mix the flue gas from combustion with a solution that absorbs about 90 percent of the CO2 contained in the gas. The purified exhaust gas will then be emitted into the atmosphere with a minimal amount of residual CO2. The technology has been tested in the lab and is especially suited for retrofitting in conventional power plants.

A testing system for drinking water detects chemical weapons agents.

Concept design of a coal-fired plant with a pilot CO2 sequestration system.

Siemens Velaro trains for Russia stay cosy even under extreme test conditions .

Cold? No Way!
T
he latest high-speed train from the Velaro family has successfully passed an endurance test in Russia. Before delivery to the customer, experts from Siemens tested the train in a climatic wind tunnel in Vienna. The train is slated to connect Moscow and St. Petersburg from the end of 2009, and it has to withstand severe weather conditions at all times. To ensure that this will be the case, fierce snowstorms were simulated at the Rail Tec Arsenal (RTA) testing facility in Vienna. During these tests, storm conditions raged at wind speeds of up to 250 kilometers per hour and outside temperatures were as low as 40 degrees Celsius. Siemens engineers had prepared Russias first high-speed train to withstand such conditions by incorporating special-grade materials such as steel and plastic that retain their properties even at low temperatures. In addition, special lubricants, a refined design, and auxiliary safety functions for the drive and switching systems were needed to ensure the smooth operation of the train under the most adverse temperature conditions. Besides demonstrating the trains functionality in snow and ice, the test showed that passengers are in for a comfortable ride. Thanks to the use of enhanced thermal insulation, passengers can count on remaining warm despite the icy cold. na/sw

Light Wait
n Munich Airports Terminal 2, travelers can check into futuristic-looking napcap booths that make waiting a pleasurable experience. The booths are equipped with a couch, a desk, and Internet access. The right lighting for the booths is provided by a sophisticated concept from Osram that generates different colors and levels of brightness. Depending on the users preferences, this can either be a bright blue-tinged working light that promotes activity or a warm red light for relaxation.

Winning Team
ictures of the Future, the Siemens magazine for research and innovation, recently received the two highest awards in the Magazines category of a competition that was organized by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). The STC is a professional organization for technical writers, editors, illustrators, managers and educators. With approximately 18,000 members in 2008, the STC is the worlds largest professional organization in its field. The awards were presented at a ceremony in Washington, D.C. Siemens flagship publication (circulation 100,000) not only won the top-rated Distinguished award, but was singled out for the Best of Show award, which means that the magazine was judged to be superior to all other competition entries with regard to its quality, concept, execution and presentation. Commenting on the publication, one of the judges remarked: I am impressed that a translation from German can look so great, considering all the constraints. This is a huge effort, and was fantastically executed. Added another, This periodical successfully presents highly technical material by balancing the details with a general perspective and a sense of the human element amidst all of the technology.

The Pictures of the Future team (standing, from left to right): Jrgen Winzeck (Picture Editor); Rolf Seufferle, Rigo Ratschke (Layout); Florian Martini (Managing Editor); Sebastian Webel (Editor). Seated: Irene Kern (Picture Editor); Natascha Rmer (Illustrations); Arthur F. Pease (Publisher and Executive Editor English edition); Judith Egelhof (Picture Editor), Dr. Ulrich Eberl (Editor-in-Chief and Publisher). Airport napcap booths are outfitted with Osram LED lighting modules.

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Short Takes

| Study of a Carbon-Free Munich

Inventions in the Wind


enrik Stiesdal certainly has what it takes to be a top inventor. The oil crisis in the 1970s and the debate about future supplies of energy prompted Stiesdal, at that time a recent high school graduate, to build one of the first wind turbines ever on his parents farm in Denmark. He got the materials mainly from scrap yards. Today, at 51, Stiesdal is one of the most successful pioHenrik Stiesdal wants to make wind power more robust. neers in the field of wind energy, having made 74 inventions and filed 85 patents worldwide, some of them before he joined Siemens. Wind parks have great prospects, especially if theyre on the open sea, he says. However, several challenges still need to be overcome, such as the fact that wind turbines use a gearbox that converts the rotors low rotational speed into the high speed used to generate electricity. But gear boxes are very complex machines that are liable to break down and expensive to repair, explains Stiesdal. To overcome this problem, he is currently working on developing a turbine without a gearbox. Instead of a gearbox, the system uses a synchronous generator that is excited by permanent magnets so that it can directly convert the rotor movements into electrical energy. If the concept works, wind park operators will be thrilled, says Stiesdal.

Paths to a Better Planet


Cities are responsible for four fifths of all greenhouse emissions. That means that effective steps to cut emissions in urban areas can have profound effects on the environment. A new study based on the city of Munich shows how a major metropolitan area could make itself virtually carbon-free within a few decades. Most of the technology thats needed is already available and putting it to work would save money.

Facelift Fit for a Queen

CT scanning reveals that a concealed face is hidden under Queen Nefertitis visible face.

ccording to researchers working in Berlin, Germany, the famous bust of Queen Nefertiti originally had a completely different face. Under the outer layer of plaster is a second face, which at first glance looks much older than the outer one. For example, there are visible wrinkles around the mouth, and the nose fits in less harmoniously with the other features. The researchers uncovered this secret using a Somatom Sensation 64 computer tomograph from Siemens, whose image resolution is 0.3 millimeters. The scanner provided the team with a detailed image of the limestone core of the bust. Experts believe that more than 3,000 years ago the Pharaoh Akhenaten was dissatisfied with his spouses image and ordered the sculptors to remodel the bust of this queen of ancient Egypt. In line with his wishes, the sculptors emphasized Nefertitis cheek bones and straightened her nose. fm

ities are attractive places to live. They promise work, a vibrant cultural life, and a host of leisure activities. All of which is very true of Munich, Bavarias capital. From here, its only a short hop to go climbing or skiing in the Alps, to reach crystal-clear lakes, or to drive to Italy and the Mediterranean. Little wonder then that Munich is one of the few cities in Germany that is set to grow in the coming decades. Although an exception in Germany, the city is, however, very much in line with the trend toward ever-larger metropolitan areas. In the worlds newly industrializing and developing countries people flock to cities in search of work and education and in hope of a better life. And last year a watershed was reached. In 2008, for the first time ever, half of the worlds population lived in cities. By 2050 this figure is forecast to grow to 70 percent. This will result in huge urban sprawls that consume resources and pollute environments. Although metropolitan areas cover only one percent of the earths surface, they are responsible for 75 percent of the worlds energy consumption and 80 percent of greenhouse gases, not least carbon dioxide (CO2). As such, they are storing up trouble for themselves, since experts expect cities to be seriously affected by climate change. Shanghai, for example, is likely to suffer from storms and heavy rains, and Germanys Federal Environment Agency predicts that by the end of the century Munich will see a significant increase in the number of hot days and tropical nights each year. Is there any good news about cities? Well, yes. The very fact that they are not only the biggest culprits in climate change, but that they are so concentrated offers a good opportunity to tackle the problems they cause, since the key levers for climate protection have their

From coal 2.4m t

Coal 7.4 TWh

Losses resulting from power generation and transmission as well as energy consumption in the energy sector: 11.4 TWh = 30%

Cutting CO2 by 80 to 90 Percent. The study sketches two alternative scenarios for Munich. The so-called target scenario adopts the very optimistic view that the vision of a carbon-free future can be more or less achieved over the 50-year span under consideration in the study. Another scenario the so-called bridge scenario is somewhat more conservative and assumes, for example, that increased efficiency in power generation will be offset by rises in demand and that individual transportation will remain similar to its present-day form. Nevertheless, the results are impressive in both

Total energy requirements: 29.0 TWh per annum From natural gas 3.2m t Natural gas 15.8 TWh Trade + Industry 11.8 TWh Space heating and process heat 7.5 TWh Electricity 4.3 TWh From crude oil 2.6m t Households 12.0 TWh Space heating 9.5 TWh

Figures rounded, 1 TWh = 3.6 PJ = 122,700 t hard coal equivalent

Crude oil 9.7 TWh

Renewables 1.0 TWh

Electricity 2.5 TWh Transportation 5.3 TWh Fuel 5.0 TWh Electricity 0.3 TWh

Nuclear power 6.5 TWh

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Source: City of Munich, 2008; Stadtwerke Mnchen; estimates by Wuppertal Institute, 2008

biggest impact here. The major metropolitan areas of the world are thus in a unique position to lead the way to more environmentallyfriendly modes of living and doing business. How can a modern city, despite population growth, reduce carbon emissions without having to compromise on living standards or risking a slowdown in economic growth? This is the question that has occupied researchers from Germanys Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy with the support of Siemens. Their study Munich Paths toward a Carbon-free Future presents a detailed look at what the city can do to minimize its environmental footprint between now and 2058. The study concludes that it is possible to transform a city like Munich into a practically carbon-free area. This, it says, will require close cooperation between municipal authorities, energy companies, and the population, along with a clear commitment to efficient technologies, ranging from energy-saving refrigerators to power plants, as well as a general willingness to invest in greater use of renewable energy sources such as wind, solar power, biomass, and geothermal energy.

cases. The optimistic target scenario predicts that through the implementation of comprehensive efficiency measures the average CO2 emissions per inhabitant can be curbed by around 90 percent to 750 kilograms per annum by the middle of the century. The more conservative bridge scenario, on the other hand, results in a average CO2 reduction of almost 80 percent to approximately 1.3 metric tons. In comparison, on the basis of the IPCC World Climate Report of 2007, the European Unions environmental ministers came up with a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions worldwide by over 50 percent and thereby to an average figure of less than two metric tons per capita. Both of the Munich scenarios undercut this target substantially.

The Munich study analyzes in detail which measures will achieve the greatest reduction in CO2 emissions and whether they are economical. Almost half of Munichs CO2 emissions are the result of energy used to heat the citys homes and buildings. Improving the insulation of roofs, facades, and basements would thus yield significant savings. It is therefore crucial not to scrimp in this area. In fact, the study assumes that the refurbishment of existing housing in Munich will conform to the Passive House standard and that all future housing will also conform to this standard. This includes the use of not only the best insulation and vacuum-insulated windows but also ventilation systems that recover residual heat from the houses exhaust air before it is blown outside.

CO2 emissions Primary energy from energy sector 40.4 TWh 8.2m t CO2 per annum per annum

Munichs Energy Requirements in 2008

Pictures of the Future | Study of a Carbon-Free Munich

rent figure of 0.5 percent to 2.0 percent per annum. This means that four times as many homeowners must implement such energy improvements than is currently the case. The idea of improving the energy efficiency of a city like Munich on a more or less wholesale basis over 50 years sounds like a major challenge. Yet such efforts are worthwhile. Although it is more expensive to build according to the Passive House standard than to implement the Energy Conservation Act of 2007, the additional costs involved in such refurbishment and the construction of new housing would amount to around 13 billion for the entire city

Home Power. Of course, insulation is by no means the end of the story. More has to be done if CO2 emissions are to be cut to almost zero. Greenhouse gas emissions can also be reduced by the use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Such heating systems are particularly efficient, since they utilize around nine tenths of the energy contained in their primary fuel. Both Munich scenarios also assume that the use of district heating will rise from the current figure of 20 percent to 60 percent. This is not an unrealistic proposition. In Copenhagen, for example, around 70 percent of all households are heated this way.

be largely satisfied by renewable sources. The study assumes that the city will continue to obtain electricity from larger power plants in the region as well as further afield in Germany and abroad. Such power could be generated essentially by large offshore and onshore wind farms in northern Europe or by solar-thermal power plants in southern Europe or northern Africa and then transported to the cities of central Europe via low-loss HVDC transmission lines. Some of this power could also be generated in low-carbon power plants equipped with technology for carbon capture and storage. Plugging Cars into the Picture. One of the most striking changes investigated by the study is the massive shift to electric cars. It is likely that by the middle of the century most car trips in the Munich area will be made in electric vehicles. For longer trips, people will probably still use hybrid or highly efficient diesel or gasoline cars that consume on average less than five liters of fuel per 100 kilometers. The large number of electric vehicles in Munich will also become an important link within the power supply chain (p. 96), helping to buffer fluctuating loads from photovoltaic and wind sources, whose output of electricity differs according to the weather and the time of day. When power is plentiful (and therefore cheap), electric car batteries will serve as an intermediate storage system. At times of high demand (and peak rates), they will feed some of their power back into the grid. At the same time, better town planning can help reduce the amount of traffic in Munich

and therefore reduce its CO2 emissions. Both scenarios are based on reduced travel requirements. Instead of building shopping malls on green field sites that can only be reached by car, the study favors the creation of urban neighborhoods in which homes, workplaces, and stores are close to one another. That way, many more trips can be completed on foot or by bicycle. The authors likewise advocate making public transit more comfortable in order to encourage its increased use. This includes the provision of individual services to inform passengers about fares and connections via mobile terminals. Why Savings Offset Expenses. In addition to analyzing Munich as a whole, the study presents a detailed plan of how to improve energy efficiency in an actual district on the periphery that contains both old and new housing. Here a 30-year period is considered. The authors conclude that it would be possible to create a low-carbon neighborhood within this relatively short period of time. Moreover, they say that the cost of refurbishing existing structures and building new ones in line with the Passive

Improving the energy efficiency of buildings will cost 13 billion but result in energy savings of 30 billion.
Based on the above steps, the study finds that it should be possible to reduce heating requirements for existing buildings from the current figure of around 200 kilowatt-hours per square meter per annum (kWh/m2a) to between 25 and 35 kWh/m2, while new housing will require only between 10 to 20 kWh/m2a. At the same time, new buildings are to be fitted with solar power systems, so that most of them will be able to cover their remaining energy requirements autonomously and even feed excess energy into the grid. In order to ensure that the energy efficiency of most buildings is raised to the requisite level over the next 50 years, the rate at which such refurbishment is being carried out must increase from the curof Munich. That would mean extra costs of approximately 200 a year per inhabitant around one third of an average annual gas bill. By 2058, however, this additional investment would be offset by energy savings of between 1.6 and 2.6 billion per year, which translates into an annual sum of between 1,200 to 2,000 per inhabitant. The refurbishment of existing and construction of new housing in line with the Passive House standard would according to the study result in energy savings of more than 30 billion by 2058. Moreover, this scenario also applies to other areas, since the study comes to the conclusion that measures designed to enhance efficiency generally pay for themselves over their lifetime. Other measures designed to reduce CO2 emissions include the use of economical electric appliances and lighting as well as renewable and low-carbon energy sources such as photovoltaic systems, solar collectors, and geothermal systems. The study assumes that electricity will be increasingly generated on a decentralized basis for example, by CHP plants for individual areas of the city or even micro CHP units for individual buildings, which supply not only heat but also electricity for residents (Pictures of the Future, Fall 2008, p. 78). According to the study, if all the opportunities to save electricity were rigorously exploited from stoplights to tumble driers the power consumption of a city like Munich could

CO2 Emissions by Sector


Thousands of metric tons CO2 p.a.
8,000 7,000 6,000

House standard would be offset by savings in energy that would have been consumed for heating within a 30-year timeframe. The savings would be sufficient to fund the creation of a carbon-free district heating distribution system powered by geothermal energy. In other words, investment in a carbon-free supply of heating would not only reduce emissions substantially but would also save the district an average of 4 to 6.5 million per annum over the lifetime of the systems. It must be remembered that private individuals and the business sector also have a role to play in boosting energy efficiency, since in many cases it is they who must choose between traditional technology and a more efficient but often, at the outset, more expensive alternative. This applies equally to the construction of housing, electric appliances, and industrial motors. Yet the study emphasizes that this often involves merely a change in behavior, not a compromise in the quality of life. Frequently it is high costs that prevent a wholesale shift in attitudes and the widespread use of low-energy technology. And frequently this is because consumers fail to appreciate the potential savings in energy costs over a full product lifetime. However, experience clearly shows that peoples behavior can be nudged in the right direction by the use of appropriate financial assistance and incentives combined with targeted information campaigns. The study therefore concludes that greater energy efficiency is chiefly interesting when it makes sound financial sense. And that is almost always the case. Tim Schrder

Sources of Munichs Energy Mix


TWh per annum
9 8 7 2.75 6 5 4 0.37 3 2 1 0 Reference (2008) Target (2058) Bridge (2058) 0.68 0.38 0.28 1.44 Total: 5.28 1.18 0.79 Coal-fired power plant with CCS 0.16 Solar-thermal electricity generation Wind power on-/offshore Biomass Geothermal Hydroelectric Photovoltaic Decentralized CHP Centralized CHP
CCS: Carbon Capture & Storage

Munichs Transport Energy Mix


12.6 % 40.3 % TWh per annum
Total: 4.32 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0 Reference (2008) Target (2058) Bridge (2058) Total: 1.99 LPT electricity LPT biofuel
Source: Wuppertal Institute, 2008

Building Heating by Source


46.5 % TWh per annum
18 Total: 17.0 22 % 1% Percentage of CO2 emissions in Munich (2008) resulting from heating of buildings: 46.5 % -79 % 77 % Total: 3.5 60 % 2 0 Reference (2008) Target/ Bridge (2058)
CHP: Combined heat and power

-87 % 5,000 4,000 3,000

-79 %

CO2 Emissions Per Capita

Total: 7.44

Total: 8.03 Power generation: Accounts for 40.3 % of CO2 emissions in Munich (2008)

Annual CO2 per capita (in kg)


2,000 1,000 0 Reference (2008) Passenger transport Commercial transport Power and heat from CHP (coal)
Source: Wuppertal Institute, 2008

-32% -54% Total: 2.92

Public transport: Accounts for 12.6 % of CO2 emissions in Munich (2008)

7,000 6,000 5,000 -89 % 4,000


Source: Estimate by Wuppertal Institute, 2008

16 14 12 10 8 6 4

Target (2058)

Bridge (2058)

-80 %

District heating Decentralized CHP Direct supply of heat

3,000 2,000

6,549

LPT fuel (fossil) MIT electricity MIT biofuel MIT fuel (fossil)
MIT: Motorized Individual Transport LPT: Local Public Transport

Power and heat from CHP (natural gas) Heat from CHP (natural gas) Power from CHP (natural gas) Power generation (coal with CCS) Direct heat generation (heating oil) Direct heat generation (natural gas)

750 1,000 1,300 0 Reference (2008) Target (2058) Bridge (2058)

20 %

20 %

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Source: Estimate by Wuppertal Institute, 2008

L i f e C y c l e P l a n n i n g | Scenario 2025

Highlights
16 Let there be Savings! Researchers have studied the life cycles of lamps from production to disposal. Result: Efficiency and life span are the keys to a healthy environmental balance sheet. Making Things for Tomorrow An interview with chemist Michael Braungart, developer of the cradle to cradle concept, concerning the never-ending materials cycle. Products from Dust to Dust The first environmental impact assessment conducted by Siemens for its Corex/Finex technologies showed that even pig iron can be produced in ways that are relatively environmentally friendly. Timely Trains Detailed life cycle analyses help engineers design trains that are environmentally friendly in their operation, production, and recycling. Oh What a Tune-Up! Modernizing old power plants can result in huge savings for operators while sharply reducing CO2 emissions. Siemens is a leader in overhauling plant control systems and replacing turbines. Miracle in the Laundry Room Bosch Siemens Hausgerte has developed a dryer that uses only half the power of conventional products an energy-efficiency world champion.

18

20

EnergySaving Sleuth
The scene is New York City in 2025. Henry Poiret, a former FBI scientist, is a specialist in environmental balance sheets who tracks down energy wasters of all kinds for his clients. For the very first time, he allows a journalist to watch him at work and to get an inside glimpse of his new lab.
urn the light off for heavens sake! The elderly man hurries across the room, past his secretary, and claps his hands quickly three times. The bright ceiling lights go out, and at the same time the dark-tinted panorama windows become transparent, revealing a view of Manhattan. A few more kilowatt-hours saved, he says with evident satisfaction. Welcome to my office. It wasnt easy getting an appointment with Henry the Sniffer Poiret least of all as a journalist, because if theres one thing the 70year-old former FBI scientist cant stand, its publicity. Poiret prefers to work out of sight, and the prodigious wrongdoers he strives to hunt down power hogs and energy wasters, gas guzzlers, and climate killers often remain elusive as well. In short, anything that consumes too much electricity, raw materials, or other resources must go. Poiret is an energy-

24

27

32

2025
into the power grid. 10

In his special lab, energy-efficiency sleuth Henry Poiret fine tunes the environmental balance sheets of new locomotives for a railway company. The trains and the entire production hall are represented as holograms. Poiret is assisted in his work by his avatar Virtual Watson. Here, he presents a new drive system that produces electricity as soon as the train brakes, and feeds it back

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

11

Life Cycle Planning | Scenario 2025

| Trends

Production, use and disposal. Companies are looking ever more closely at the life cycles of their products from development and production to operation and recycling.

efficiency sleuth. In recent years, he has made a name for himself by cracking a number of spectacular cases. In 2020, for example. Without him, the city council would surely not have succeeded in setting up an almost completely CO2-neutral district. And many of us remember what happened last summer, when the yellow cabs in Manhattan finally went green thanks to electric drive technology. The old fox had a hand in that too. At the moment, Poiret is ready to help a European manufacturer of railway systems. U.S. Track, the local New York transit operator, wants to use a new generation of environmentally-friendly high-speed trains. So it announced a competition with the contract to be awarded to the company whose locomotive can demonstrate the best energy-efficiency and most favorable environmental balance sheet throughout its service life. Naturally, the Europeans dont want to miss the opportunity to submit a concept, and they believe they can maximize their chances with Poirets assistance. The master sleuth has taken time out for our magazine and has even agreed to give us an exclusive look at his new laboratory. Bobby, give the lad something to drink and start up the lab, were going down, the master says. His secretary hands me a cup of coffee and urges me into an elevator at the end of the room. Ive set up a small workroom in the basement, says Poiret. Thats where I also show customers my results from time to time. Mr. Watson is expecting us. When the elevator doors open, I am met by a wave of loud factory noise. We are in the middle of a cavernous assembly hall; welding robots are everywhere, working on half-finished trains, and the air has a metallic taste. Watson, calls Poiret, turn off that soundtrack immediately, its unbearable. The din subsides in seconds. A figure that seems strangely transparent glides forward from behind a locomotive. Allow me to introduce Virtual Watson, says Poiret. You dont have to extend your hand, he couldnt shake it anyway. Mr. Watson is an avatar, a hologram, just like the entire hall. An entirely new technology, and not exactly inexpensive. Poiret takes a sip of coffee. The entire locomotive production process can be simulated down here, he explains. The manufacturer has already transferred the data to me, so I can find out where energy and raw materials are wasted, for example, and determine the best ways to save even more. Poiret pulls an ultra-thin folding OLED display from his pocket. But now lets get to work. Were not playing a computer game here. Watson, explain to our young friend what weve learned.

Very well, sir. We invited the Europeans to our lab, and together we took the simulated trains apart literally down to the last screw, while the design stage was still under way. In the process we noticed that the designers wanted to use mainly aluminum panels from China flawless in quality, but rather inappropriate with regard to the trains environmental balance sheet. Virtual Watson straightens his perfectly simulated bow tie. Production of these panels is very energy-intensive. And in China electricity still comes to a large extent from coal-fired power plants they have become more efficient in recent years, but they still havent integrated a system of CO2 storage. So they emit a relatively large amount of CO2. This is why we have recommended using aluminum panels from Iceland and Norway. In those countries, the electricity comes entirely from renewable sources such as geothermal energy and hydropower. That would considerably improve the trains environmental balance sheet. Poiret nods in approval and browses through pages on his OLED display. Of course, we had other suggestions, reveals the energyefficiency detective. Watson, show us the front drive section. The avatar strolls over to one of the locomotives and touches the underbody. As if by a magical force, the entire train becomes transparent. The drive system is not only gearless and ultra-efficient; it also serves as a generator. Whenever the locomotive is moving downhill or its brakes are applied, it accumulates braking energy. It feeds the power back into the electrical grid or uses it for its onboard systems so the train not only consumes electrical energy, but also produces it. Poiret gestures to Watson to climb aboard one of the trains. The assistant takes a seat in one of the compartments and lights up a virtual pipe. Mr. Watson has just made himself nice and comfortable atop what is essentially a compost heap: All the seat covers are completely environmentally compatible, and whats more, they will even become valuable fertilizer after they have been used, explains Poiret. In theory, you could even eat them. Incidentally, the whole train is completely recyclable and contains no toxic substances whatsoever. We succeeded in hunting down all the environmental polluters before it was too late. Poiret types a combination of keys into his PDA. Slowly, the production hall disappears, and all that remains is a small white room and Virtual Watson. I still have a thing or two to do here. Unfortunately, my holographic room uses quite a bit of power, he admits. But I can hardly bear to turn off Mr. Watson. Florian Martini

Assessing Product Impact


Anyone who wants to protect the environment while cutting costs needs to look at the entire product life cycle. With the help of environmental life cycle assessments, Siemens investigates how much in the way of energy and raw materials products use during their life times and what volume of harmful substances is produced as a result. These analyses are translated into efficient new technologies.

f goods were alive, they would lead a desperate existence. Monitored constantly from the moment of birth, they have to perform perfectly throughout their entire lives. And when they grow old, they are carted away to be cannibalized. But something that sounds like a horror story for humans is actually a desirable goal for products, since only thorough analyses can determine which products need as little energy as possible while resulting in as few harmful by-products as possible. And in the light of climate change, growing environmental awareness, and the focus on energy efficiency, this has now become an important requirement in order to succeed with customers. Companies are therefore examining the journey their products take from the drawing board to the recycling yard more and more closely. A products environmental footprint can be determined using a so-called environ-

mental life cycle assessment. These balance sheets summarize all the environmental impacts that are associated with the creation of a product or service. This is a holistic approach in which the environmental compatibility of every step of production from the extraction and processing of raw materials to the disposal of a product is evaluated, explains Professor Stig Irving Olsen, a sustainability specialist at the Technical University of Denmark (p. 22). At Siemens Corporate Technology (CT), specialists involved in the detection of environmental changes teamed up with Professor Olsen and other partners in 2008 to examine two complex technologies. In the Corex/Finex process for steel manufacturing, pig iron is generated in a single process step from ore fines. As coking and sintering are no longer needed, resource consumption and investment fall as do production costs. The exact scale

of the environmental benefits, however, was unclear until recently. The scientists therefore compared Corex/ Finex with conventional blast furnaces and documented the impact on air, water, and soil (p. 20). In this analysis, each step was carefully investigated and evaluated from extraction and preparation of raw materials to processes such as dedusting, gas cleaning, and desulphurization. We discovered that the environmental life cycle assessment of Corex/Finex is significantly better than the blast furnace route, says CT materials expert Frank Walachowicz. This was especially true of emissions. The amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and dust produced is considerably lower with Corex/Finex. Waste water is also significantly less contaminated. With environmental life cycle assessment, weve been able to demonstrate for the first time just how environmen-

tally compatible the process is compared to conventional methods, says Walachowicz. Saving Energy. Environmental compatibility is also the credo of Bosch und Siemens Hausgerte GmbH (BSH), Europes biggest white goods manufacturer. For instance, a strict internal guideline at BSH stipulates that every effort must be made to minimize the impact on the environment of the companys washing machines in all phases of their life cycles. This approach is well-grounded in economics since customers want white goods that consume as little water and power as possible. By 2030, for instance, the market volume for energy-efficient products such as home appliances is set to almost double in the U.S., according to the American Solar Energy Society (p. 35). BSHs environmental experts have conducted studies of their home appliances to find out how devel-

12

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

13

Life Cycle Planning | Trends

opers can improve their products life cycle assessments. These studies show that product use accounts for more than 90 percent of environmental impact, while transport and recycling barely register. In the case of dryers, this figure is 97 percent, with water vaporization being especially

prove their energy efficiency (p. 16). If we can increase our light bulbs luminous efficiency by just one to two percent, we can achieve more than if Osram were to completely cease emitting carbon dioxide generated as a result of the production process, says Christian Merz, a sustainability expert at Osram.

Life cycle studies show that an aluminum sheet from Iceland has a lower CO2 footprint than one from China.
energy-intensive. This was reason enough for BSH to develop a dryer that puts all other appliances in the shade (p. 32). Developers analyzed dryers of all types, counted screws, weighed components, and tested current consumption and noise. In September 2008 The European Unions ban on conventional light bulbs is therefore logical. The switch to efficient lighting can help save 900 billion kilowatt-hours a year worldwide or about one third of all the electricity used for lighting, explains Merz. With todays energy mix, this adds

Customers want a good locomotive that also meets the highest environmental standards, says Martin Leitel, an expert in sustainable approaches at Mobility. Life cycle analyses are frequently a precondition for participation in tendering processes. For his analysis, Leitel uses a database containing many thousands of part numbers and detailed information about the materials from which each component is made. Another database lists the primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with each material, differentiated by region. For instance, an aluminum sheet from Iceland, a country rich in regenerative energy sources, is rated as having a much lower CO2 footprint than one from China, where electricity is largely obtained from coal-fired power stations. Graphics ultimately show where energy is consumed.

As part of a life cycle assessment of trains, Siemens mobility engineers use a database that details each components primary energy consumption and CO2 footprint.

Siemens launched its blueTherm dryer the result of two years of development and testing. The dryer uses a new type of heat pump and consumes only half as much electricity as an average condenser dryer of efficiency class B. The blueTherm even undercuts the threshold of class A by 40 percent. That makes us the energy-saving world champion, says BSH project manager Kai Nitschmann. Although the dryer is more expensive than its conventional counterparts, it ultimately saves money given average use and German electricity prices, it consumes just 18 of electricity a year, while the operation of a vented dryer costs around 50. Cutting Emissions. Siemens subsidiary Osram is also taking a closer look at the life cycle of its products, in this case light bulbs. The company wants to market only bulbs that are more environmentally compatible than their predecessors. The best way of achieving that is to im-

up to a reduction of 450 million tons per year in CO2 emissions almost half of Germanys total emissions. Youd have to plant a forest about the size of Sweden to achieve the same effect, says Merz. Osrams scientists are working on an environmental life cycle assessment for LEDs, which have major green potential. In terms of efficiency, the pinhead-sized lights can already compete with economical fluorescent bulbs and new materials are set to significantly increase their luminous efficiency. Energy dieting is also becoming popular among the products from Siemens Mobility division, as railways leave behind a sizeable environmental footprint. Trains, streetcars, and subway vehicles therefore need to be as economical as possible and emit as few harmful emissions as possible during use, manufacture, and recycling. The Mobility division is also using life cycle assessments to determine the most environmentally-friendly designs (p. 24).

Freight locomotives are particularly energy-intensive during operation. For example, in Europe, between 200,000 and 400,000 tons of CO2 can be generated over a locomotives 30years lifetime, depending on how it is utilized. Locomotive production, on the other hand, generates only around 250 tons of CO2. On the other hand, the recycling phase generates savings of 100 tons of CO2 because a large proportion of a locomotive consists of recyclable materials. For engineers, Leitels data trove is an important tool, because life cycle assessments can be used to develop the most environmentally friendly railways possible. Experts at Siemens, however, dont regard the fact that sustainable locomotives can be more expensive than their conventional equivalents as an obstacle to progress. A ten percent higher purchase price for a locomotive still pays off for the customer if the energy efficiency is two percentage points higher, Leitel explains.

Saving Money. Ralf Pfitzner, Head of ProductRelated Environmental Protection at Siemens, is convinced that calculating product life time energy demand will become an essential part of how amortization value is derived. In the medium term, energy costs will continue to rise. For customers, the consideration of the entire life cycle is therefore going to play an ever greater role, says Pfitzner. Theres a massive market for this that has yet to be tapped. The point at which investments in environmental technology innovations are balanced out by the energy costs saved varies significantly from product to product, however, and also depends on electricity prices. For instance, for an energy-efficient motor thats used 2,000 hours a year for ten years, the purchase price accounts for less than three percent of total costs. Energy costs, by contrast, account for more than 95 percent. Here, higher procurement costs are amortized in less than two years, explains Pfitzner. Energy-efficient products dont just spare the environment, they also save money. In addition to demanding energy-efficient products, customers are also looking to modernization of existing facilities as a way of reducing long-term operational costs. Many power plants, for instance, are over 30 years old and are no longer at the cutting edge of technology. In order to cut costs and emissions, however, such plants need to be operated as efficiently as possible. Siemens Energy therefore offers a kind of tune-up for power plants (p. 27). In order to turn such dinosaurs into racehorses, engineers examine all of a plants parameters. Often, simply giving control systems new electronics generates significant improvements. For instance, the time it takes to bring a plant up to full power can be shortened, saving money and avoiding the production of tons of CO2. Power plants can also be made more efficient by optimizing individual components. Consequently, Siemens fits modernized turbines to around 20 to 25 power plants a year an improvement that markedly increases efficiency and reduces emissions. Prof. Olsen regards life cycle assessment as one of the most powerful weapons companies can use in the battle against environmental damage. Such assessments not only improve the environmental compatibility of products and their production processes, they also sharpen consumers awareness of environmental issues, he explains. Companies themselves also benefit from this process, says Olsen. With the aid of an environmental life cycle assessment, they can increase their attractiveness both to customers and to clients from the public sector, he says. Florian Martini

Holistic Approach Solves Problems

Companies that are planning to launch products as quickly and flexibly as possible, while maximizing quality and minimizing costs, would do well to comprehensively review the life cycles of these products. In Product Life cycle Management (PLM), the entire chain from idea to recycling is minutely analyzed. We have to make this chain more efficient by injecting technical expertise into the process and integrating it in a practical way, explains Steffen Grnwaldt, who is a Project Manager for the PLM Technology Center at Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) in Munich, Germany. The PLM Center, which was founded in October 2008, strives to achieve this objective by bringing together expertise from various CT departments including process and production optimization, design, materials management, software and factory design, as well as supplier integration and service. The fundamental goal of our Technology Center is to support the Siemens Sectors so that they can manufacture products that satisfy market demands as quickly as possible, says Grnwaldt. We also provide experts from various disciplines throughout Siemens with an ideal development environment for the mechatronic integration of their planned products. Networked workstations help achieve this, as do modern meeting rooms, databases, and 3D simulations of entire production lines. For Grnwaldt and his team, the holistic utilization of the pool of experts is paramount. With our PLM Technology Center, we can avoid tunnel vision, since the purpose of the Center is to ensure that products are no longer regarded from the perspective of one individual department, but rather that the entire added value chain can be examined for its optimization potential, explains Grnwaldt Very simply, the PLM Technology Center works as follows, says Grnwaldt. Lets assume that the Siemens Energy Sector receives a maintenance inquiry concerning a turbine in a remote region and that the Sectors specialists know they will have difficulty meeting this request, since it would be too difficult and cost-intensive to send an engineer there or train personnel locally. This is the kind of scenario in which the holistic approach of process consulting could come into play, he says. On the one hand, CT experts would draw up a sophisticated version of remote maintenance with the Siemens Sector. On the other, the project team would analyze issues that were not addressed in the original description of the problem, but that could contribute effectively to a solution. In the case of turbines, this could be a recommendation to optimize the design and materials in terms of robustness, so that the turbine would be less likely to require repairs and maintenance. Remote maintenance can therefore be the original question, but completely different factors can contribute to an economically sustainable solution, says Grnwaldt. As well as providing a solution- and application-oriented process consulting services, the PLM Technology Center can also help with the implementation and market launch of innovative ideas. For instance, the Center supports research into electro-mobility in other words, the development of electric-powered vehicles and their integration into a corresponding infrastructure (p. 96). At the moment, the Center is still in its infancy. The first pilot projects have begun, and the Center is set to officially go into operation in the second half of 2009. Additional PLM Technology Centers are already in the pipeline for Siemens locations in Princeton, New Jersey and Beijing, China. Kirstin Schliekau

14

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

15

Life Cycle Planning | Lamps

Fluorescent lamp manufacturing. Most of the energy consumed during a lamps life cycle results from operation, while production (small images) requires a relatively small proportion of energy.

The results of Krobans extensive investigation made one thing very clear: The environmental balance sheet for lamps is largely determined by their energy consumption during operation, she says. As Kroban discovered, only one to two percent of total lamp energy consumption is attributable to lamp production. Thats why efficiency during operation is the most effective lever for making lamps more environmentally friendly, says Merz. So, if we can raise lamp luminous efficiency even just one or two percent, well achieve more than if we covered up all our smokestacks and no longer released production-related carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The desired efficiency increases can be attained through extensive refinements, such as limiting tolerances during production in order to minimize a lamps environmental impact. Soon, for example, it should be possible to fill lamps with precisely the amount of gas needed to make them light up most efficiently. Implementation of many such measures can raise the luminous efficiency of todays common lighting systems by around 20 percent. When Less is More. Osrams developers can also use such life cycle analyses to identify those parts of the production process where resources can be conserved, and future waste

then, Osram has continually updated its figures. According to this data, by simply switching to modern lighting solutions, around 900 billion kilowatt-hours would be saved, or onethird of the electricity currently being used for lighting. Given todays energy mix for electricity production, that would be equivalent to a 450-million-ton reduction in carbon dioxide emissions each year. Youd have to plant 450,000 square kilometers of forest an area about the size of Sweden to achieve the

ing the same operating life span, which corresponds to half-a-ton less in carbon dioxide emissions than a conventional bulb. Thats more than a tree can absorb during the same period, says Merz. The modest energy consumption of fluorescent lamps also saves money. Although they cost around 10 more than a conventional light bulb, fluorescent lamps pay for themselves after about 800 hours of operation and save their owners 250 over their entire life span.

An energy-saving lamp lasts 15 times longer than a light bulb and saves one megawatt-hour of electricity.
same effect, says Merz, who adds that it therefore makes sense to ban incandescent light bulbs. Thats a good idea and weve already got the lamps in stock to replace them with, he says. Comparing Life Spans. For the sake of comparison, Osram scientists have examined the energy consumption and life spans of various types of lamps. Among the light sources compared were a 75-watt incandescent bulb and a 15-watt Osram Dulux EL Longlife energy-saving lamp, both of which have practically the Moreover, because they are long lasting, energy-saving lamps seen in a life-cycle context consume less energy during production. Thats because even though the production of one lamp requires five times the energy used for a conventional bulb, a total of 15 bulbs would have to be produced to achieve a similar total luminous output. Energy-saving lamps do pose one environmental problem, though: They contain mercury. Without mercury, their luminous efficiency would be two-thirds lower, says Merz, explaining why Osram still needs to use the

Let there be Savings!


Researchers who have studied the life cycles of various lamps from Osram, a Siemens subsidiary, have found that their environmental balance sheet from production to disposal is almost exclusively determined by their efficiency and life span.
algorzata Kroban spent months traveling to manufacturing workshops and production halls every day. The young engineer visited Osram glass manufacturing centers, where glass cylinders and tubes are made from a large number of materials melted together in giant hot furnaces. Kroban witnessed lamp bodies being coated with phosphor, filled with gases, fitted with electronic circuits and stuck to plastic parts. She spoke with factory managers, researchers, and developers, and sifted through numerous databases. Her objective which was also the

topic of her doctoral dissertation at the Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus, Germany was to put together a comprehensive environmental balance sheet for fluorescent lamps and various other Osram lighting systems. This dissertation marked the first time that the entire lamp life cycle had been closely examined everything from quarry operations and extraction of the materials for the glass to recycling and disposal facilities, says Christian Merz, a sustainability expert at Osram. It was thus at once a premiere and a complex detec-

tive assignment. Every detail had to be identified and recorded. Where do raw materials come from, and how are they extracted, transported, prepared, and processed? What exactly occurs during the manufacturing process, and which machines and tools are needed? How much material and energy is used, and which energy sources are involved? How much electricity do the lamps consume when operating; how long do they last? And finally, which substances are recyclable, and can therefore be reused when the lamp reaches the end of its service life?

thus prevented. For instance, Krobans studies show that in some cases, energy consumption can be reduced by using less material. The Osram T5 fluorescent tube, for example, which is about as thin as a finger, performed much better in terms of energy efficiency than the commonly used T8 tube, which is as thick as a broomstick. The leaner model actually consumes around 40 percent less energy while delivering the same level of brightness. Osram and the Energy Research Center in Munich began assembling data on the energy consumption of lamps 20 years ago. Since

same brightness. What the researchers found was a huge difference in energy consumption. Not only is this due to the fact that the energysaving lamp can convert more electricity into light than heat; its also because the energysaving lamp can operate for 15,000 hours, or 15 times longer than the incandescent bulb. The collective energy consumption of 15 light bulbs is therefore five times higher than that of a single energy-saving lamp that burns for exactly the same amount of time. Conversely, an energy-saving lamp saves a total of one megawatt-hour of electricity dur-

toxic heavy metal. Still, the lamps hold only one tenth the mercury that fluorescent lights had around 30 years ago. Thats less mercury than a coal-fired power plant releases when it produces the electricity used by a conventional light bulb during its lifetime, Merz reports. Nevertheless, over the long term, mercury will have to be eliminated from the lamps. In fact, there is already a fluorescent car headlight on the market known as Xenarc Hg free that employs a potassium-iodine compound that produces sufficient lighting power without any mercury.

16

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

17

Life Cycle Planning | Lamps

| Interview

Krobans dissertation serves as a valuable foundation for further environmental balance sheets being drawn up by Osram for new products. Our goal is to market only those products that are more environmentally friendly than their predecessors, says Merz. With this in mind, the company is producing an environmental balance sheet for light-emitting diodes. These pinhead-sized lamps can already compete with fluorescent lamps in terms of efficiency, and use of new materials should significantly increase their luminous efficiency. At the same time, a lamp developed on the basis of environmental criteria is worthless if no one buys it. Thats why we always have to

determine how appealing a lamp is to consumers, Merz explains. Such a study could necessitate altering lamp shapes to conform with consumer tastes, even if a different design would offer a technologically superior solution. Its also important that the lamps have a dimmer function and can be easily integrated into existing lighting systems. Of course, they should also emit pleasant, natural-looking light. After all, environmentally-sound lighting should create a relaxing effect. But theres no time to relax for Osrams lamp developer. Theyre already busy working on the next generation of innovative lighting Andrea Hoferichter systems.

You develop environmentally friendly products, yet you dont think much of the idea of sustainability. Why? Braungart: The conventional interpretation of sustainability is boring. Its all about reducing, minimizing, and saving. In other words, do everything the same way as before, just not as badly. Not as badly is not the same as good, however. Thats why I prefer intelligent wastefulness. Instead of developing less damaging things, we should be developing useful things. How would this work? Braungart: Its really not that difficult once you start to redefine the concept of waste. Take nature as an example. The worlds ants

Would a cradle-to-cradle world produce absolutely no waste? Braungart: Yes: Even automobile exhaust gas could serve as a source of valuable raw materials. At the moment, for example, were working on a technology that can convert nitrogen oxide exhaust into valuable fertilizer. How would complex products like TVs or computer chips be recycled? Braungart: We simply have to reinvent our products. Of course, at the beginning, there is the pure market-economy question, which is: What do customers want? Well, they certainly dont want a TV that contains more than 4,000 different contaminants; they just want to

tificate also serves as a recruiting ad for young scientists. Ultimately, our award brings together those experts who are the driving forces behind intelligent innovations. In that sense the cradle-to-cradle certificate is also a communication platform. Steven Spielberg is also a big believer in cradle-to-cradle. Hes given your institute $2 million and is producing a documentary film about your work. Braungart: I cant comment on that due to contractual issues. But I can say that there are many celebrities in the U.S. who publicly promote the cradle-to-cradle concept, including Cameron Diaz, Brad Pitt, and Susan Sarandon.

The DULUX ELs Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions are more than 80% Lower than those of Light Bulbs over a 15,000-Hour Life Span
9,723 MJ of primary energy used

Remaking
Michael Braungart, 51, is a professor of Process Technology at the University of Lneburg, Germany. He also serves as director of the Environmental Protection and Encouragement Agency (EPEA) in Hamburg, which he established. Braungart works with both small companies and global corporations on the development of products that contain no pollutants and can either be composted or used in some other way after they have served their purpose. In 2003, Braungart was presented with the Presidential Green Chemistry Award by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. His supporters include film director Steven Spielberg. A documentary film about Braungarts work will soon appear in movie theaters.

The Way We Make Things


consume as much energy as 30 billion people, but only produce biomass theres no waste. We could do this too if we created products designed for a never-ending cycle. This concept is known as cradle-to-cradle, and with it no valuable raw materials are ever lost. Instead, they are used over and over again. Experience shows that this works. EPEA, for example, issues cradle-to-cradle certificates to new products every year. For example? Braungart: Its already possible to buy cradleto-cradle carpets that are not only free of contaminants but can also remove fine dust from the air. Were also working on a new type of concrete that can clean the surrounding air. In addition, there are cradle-to-cradle seat coverings in the Airbus 380 that contain absolutely no harmful substances in fact, you could even eat them. After their useful life, they can be converted to valuable peat. T-shirts that can later be used as compost are also now on the market. But you cant convert everything to compost. Braungart: What cant be used as humus should be designed in a manner ensuring it can be recycled over and over again without any loss of quality. This could be done with everything from office chairs to sneakers. Instead, however, most materials today are generally recycled down, and the result is lower and lower quality. Not only that, they often contain a lot of pollutants. Even a classical ecological product like recycled toilet paper can contaminate millions of liters of water. watch a movie or a show. Consumers want clean clothes, but not necessarily a washing machine. In such cases, it makes sense to sell the utility rather than the product. Its like a kind of ecological leasing and if the products were to remain owned by the manufacturer, completely different types of materials could be used to make them. These would be the best materials rather than the cheapest. Right now, for example, were working with an automaker to build a car body whose components will be glued rather than welded together. The vehicle wont be sold; instead customers will purchase 100,000 kilometers of use. After theyre done, the body will be immersed in a solution containing bacteria that will break down the adhesive, allowing the components to be used again. Isnt the production of such high-quality products expensive? Braungart: Experience has shown that companies can profit quickly from their cradle-tocradle products. Airbus has cut costs by 20 percent with its new seat coverings, for example, because it no longer has to dispose of the old upholstery as hazardous waste. Occupational safety costs are also lower and in general, cradle-to-cradle products sell well because people dont mind spending money on them. Does your institute issue cradle-to-cradle certificates to companies as well as products? Braungart: When implemented, the cradle-tocradle concept becomes part of corporate culture. Those who work for a cradle-to-cradle company tend to be proud of the fact. The cerArnold Schwarzenegger also recently declared California to be a cradle-to-cradle state. Why is Germany, your home country, so unenthusiastic about the concept? Braungart: Many Germans excessively romanticize nature and quickly view technical and chemical innovations as a threat. Still, its possible to look at cradle-to-cradle rationally, as they do in Japan, where its synonymous with quality assurance. In Japan, a product that contains pollutants and that cant be recycled is simply considered a bad product. Do you expect the concept of neverending cycles to take hold over the next few decades? Braungart: Im optimistic because more and more young, motivated engineers and scientists are becoming top managers. In addition, developments in some countries are proceeding much faster than we anticipated. The Netherlands, for example, is well on its way to becoming a cradle-to-cradle nation everywhere from its kindergartens to its royal palaces. We have a lot of projects there, in which were working on new cradle-to-cradle ideas with construction and civil engineering companies, electronics manufacturers, and government agencies. Cradle-to-cradle products also sell very well in the Netherlands. Could legislation promote the concept? Braungart: No. People have to want to buy these products. They have to believe in the cradle-to-cradle concept. As this happens, a popular phrase will acquire enhanced meaning: Yes, we can. Interview by Andrea Hoferichter

-2,906 MJ
6,817 MJ

-7,934 MJ

1,789 MJ 599.4 kg CO2 420.2 kg CO2 110.3 kg CO2

15 x 60 W light bulbs (1,000 h each)

7.5 x 42 W HALOGEN ENERGY SAVER (2,000 h each)

1x 11 W DULUX EL LONGLIFE (15,000 h)

-30% CO2 -81% CO2 Production 0.18 kg CO2/lamp x 15 = 2.7 kg CO2 Use 39.78 kg CO2/lamp x 15 = 596.7 kg CO2 Total: 599.4 kg CO2 Production 0.33 kg CO2/lamp x 7.5 = 2.5 kg CO2 Use 55.7 kg CO2/lamp x 7.5 = 417.7 kg CO2 Total: 420.2 kg CO2 Production 0.87 kg CO2/lamp x 1= 0.87 kg CO2 Use 109.4 kg CO2/lamp x 1 = 109.4 kg CO2 Total: 110.3 kg CO2
Source: OSRAM

18

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

19

Life Cycle Planning | Holistic Assessments

Life cycle assessments can be prepared for a variety of products, from small power protection devices (left) to the Corex/Finex process for the production of pig iron.

and wastes were produced during their manufacture, transport, operation and disposal? The CT experts began by preparing a materials declaration and then designing a life cycle assessment model that was based on the data revealed by their research. The result demonstrated that climate-relevant emissions occur primarily during the use phase of the protection devices life cycle. In the late 1990s, the question of the environmental impact of a product over its entire life cycle was still a rather exotic subject pursued by universities and research institutes. The first simplified method for measuring climate-relevant emissions was introduced in early 2000. Since then, life cycle assessments have developed into a holistic tool for the collection, documentation, and graphic representation of environmentally relevant data. A life

source-intensive, explains Walachowicz. Even though GaBi takes a lot of work off their hands, CT experts like him still spend roughly 80 percent of their working time looking for information about materials or component substances. One of the first orders for the preparation of a comprehensive life cycle assessment was received in 2005 from Siemens former Communications Division, which wanted an assessment of a family of telephone systems. This was followed by similar orders pertaining to mobile phones and medical devices. But it was the order from Italy for power protection devices that started the trend toward determining the environmental impact of products, says Walachowicz. The reduced availability of resources such as water and energy is forcing companies worldwide to do business with an eye to the long

a coking plant nor a sintering plant are required with Corex/Finex. Thus, not only is resource consumption lower, but investment and production costs are also lower than with a conventional blast furnace. The Technical University of Denmark, the Technical University of Berlin, and the University of Leoben in Austria also participated in drawing up the life cycle assessment. Siemens contributed the steel-making expertise and the universities provided the methodological foundation for the life cycle assessment, says Walachowicz. Scientists compared the Corex/Finex process with that of a traditional blast furnace and measured impact on air, water, and soil. Every step was assessed, from mining and preparation of raw materials to manufacturing processes and processes such as dedusting, scrubbing, and desulphurization.

Products From Dust to Dust


Ever more companies are assessing the environmental impact of their products and production processes. One recognized method of doing this is life cycle assessment, in which environmentally relevant data are collected and visualized over a products entire existence from raw materials to recycling. Siemens has now presented its first-ever life cycle assessment, which focuses on the production process for pig iron.

t was a power company in Italy that got the ball rolling. Seeking information for its recycling documentation, the company asked Siemens in 2005 about the substances contained in its Siprotec power protection devices. Siprotec devices prevent high-voltage lines and terminal equipment from being damaged in the event of excess voltage or lightning strikes. That was the start of life cycle assessment for the Siprotec device family, says Frank Walachowicz of Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) in Berlin. Walachowicz and his team of materials experts were asked to completely dismantle the shoebox-sized Siprotec protection devices, study their insides, and assess their environmental friendliness. Among the questions to be answered by the team were the following: What resources were used in the production of the coils, resistors, circuits, and capacitors? How much primary energy was used in the process? What emissions

cycle assessment can be prepared for a single product. It can refer to a transportation process or be tailored to a plant. When I joined CT in 1991, software was extremely limited in term of its ability to process information. Nor was it possible to model process sequences and material flows for products, production lines or locations. You had to laboriously enter all of the data into an Excel spreadsheet, recalls Walachowicz. Today, however, his team has better tools at its disposal namely, commercial software such as GaBi (an acronym based on German words for holistic balancing), with which comprehensive life cycle balances can be prepared. GaBi also helps CT staff with the management of large volumes of data and the modeling of product life cycles. Once models have been created, we think about what can be improved. For example, we try to make the processes more energy-efficient and less re-

term. Life cycle assessments help them to intensify their efforts to protect the environment while putting these efforts on an objective foundation. Why Corex/Finex Cuts Emissions. In 2008, Siemens Industry Solutions Division asked Walachowicz and his team to assess Corex/Finex, two innovative processes for the production of pig iron. The Corex technology (Pictures of the Future, Fall 2006, p. 39) was developed by Austrian Siemens subsidiary VAI which today is part of Siemens Industry Solutions and is considered to be particularly easy on the environment. With conventional blast furnace processes, coke and sinter are required to produce pig iron from iron ore. A Corex plant, on the other hand, can be operated with ordinary hard coal. Finex is a refinement of Corex. Here, the pig iron is produced from ore fines in a single process step. Neither

Life Cycle Assessment of Processes by Region


Unweighted CML normalization EU-25
Conventional blast furnace

China
Conventional blast furnace

Brazil
Conventional blast furnace

COREX

FINEX FINEX COREX

COREX FINEX

0 The same technologies at different locations have different environmental impacts. Corex, for example, can help to reduce acidification in China because the gas produced during the Corex process can be used to generate electricity, eliminating the need to burn sulfur-rich coal. (Abiotic) resource consumption Acidification potential Summer smog: near-ground formation of oxidants such as ozone Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment) Greenhouse gases

There are enormous differences, particularly with respect to emissions. The blast furnace process produces significantly more sulfur dioxide per metric ton of pig iron than does Corex/Finex. Emissions of dust and oxides of nitrogen are similarly reduced. And postCorex/Finex waste water contains significantly less ammonia, phenols, and sulfides, says Wolfgang Grill of Siemens VAI. Grill, an expert from VAIs Reduction Technology department, has been working on the development of the Corex process for five years. He points out that one of the major advantages of the process is that steel producers can use the gas produced during the Corex process to drive turbines and thus generate electricity for their own use. Even though the production of steel continues to be associated with the consumption of energy and resources as well as CO2 emissions, Corex/Finex has a much better life cycle assessment than the

20

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Source: Siemens

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

21

Life Cycle Planning | Holistic Assessments

| Interview

blast furnace process. Corex/Finex is particularly advantageous in economies where sulfurrich coal is used to generate electricity, concludes Walachowicz. Thats because the high-energy-value gas produced during the production of pig iron can replace conventional process sequences in power generation. The gas can be converted into electrical energy in a combined-cycle power plant to help cover a steel plants own electrical power requirements. The Corex process helps to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 30 percent, but thats not all. It also has the advantage that it does not contribute to the acidification of the environment. This is of particular benefit in China, because the coal-fired power plants there burn locally-mined hard coal characterized by a high sulfur content, says Walachowicz. One of the reasons that the Siemens Sectors are so interested in the expertise built up by Walachowicz and his team is that Siemens has mandated the use of efficiency-enhancing

technologies and materials in all of its products and the avoidance of CO2 emissions. Siemens has invested a great deal of effort over many years in continuously refining its own environmental management system, which includes the company standard SN 36 350 for the environmentally compatible design of products and plants. This standard helps company development engineers to comply with the environmental declaration that is required by the German government. Even more important in Walachowiczs eyes is consideration of environmental impact during the development process prior to the construction of a plant and the product production process itself a task for which life cycle assessments are ideally suited. Environmental assessments also drive competition for the most environmentally friendly developments. Life cycle assessments enable Siemens business units to show how much better they are than the competition, says Walachowicz. Evdoxia Tsakiridou

Whats the purpose of environmental life cycle assessments? Olsen: The purpose is to register all of the negative impacts on the environment that are connected with the manufacture of a product, an item, or the provision of a service. Its a holistic approach in which the environmental compatibility of every step of production from the extraction and processing of raw materials to the disposal of a product is registered and evaluated. This body of knowledge then has to be taken into account in the development of new products and goods. What progress have environmental life cycle assessments made so far?

aluminum, and plastics. In principle, almost all products can be evaluated using environmental compatibility criteria. That also applies to complex production processes such as those that support agriculture and meat production. In these areas it is important to also take into account the production processes of the raw materials involved, such as animal feed. The petrochemical industry with its refining processes is also a candidate for environmental life cycle assessments. How did you organize your work with Siemens? Olsen: Our department has accumulated wide experience with European companies. How-

Olsen: Its obvious that an industrial company has to operate profitably. Companies have an interest in enhancing their attractiveness to customers and public sector clients with the help of environmental life cycle assessments. Such assessments not only improve the environmental compatibility of products and their production processes, they also sharpen consumers awareness of environmental issues. And they help people to identify potential ways of saving resources and reducing energy consumption. At universities, the focus is generally on the academic interest in other words, on research. For politics and the public sector, environmental life cycle assessments are important tools that can encourage companies to

Developing a
Prof. Stig Irving Olsen, 48, an Associate Professor in the Department of Quantitative Sustainability Assessment at the Technical University of Denmark, was a member of the team of scientists that advised and supported Siemens evaluation of the Corex process for steel production. Olsen is recognized worldwide as an expert in the field of environmental life cycle assessment.

Holistic Approach to Environmental Impact


Olsen: The energy crisis of the early 1970s marked the birth of environmental life cycle assessments, but the concept was not subsequently pursued consistently. In the mid 1980s the packaging industry showed interest, but that was more for marketing reasons in order to enhance its profile and position itself better in the market in comparison with other actors. A scientific approach was gradually worked out, and in 19972000 it was standardized by a series of ISO norms. Today, environmental life cycle assessments are part of many EU directives, such as EC2002/96, which covers end-of-life electric and electronic devices. What are the limits of this method? Olsen: Environmental life cycle assessments are very time-consuming and sometimes very hard to perform. Thats especially true if the links of the production chain and the disposal process havent been adequately described in terms of their environmental effects. Increasingly short life cycles for high-tech industrial goods are a big challenge because of rapidly changing production technologies. Another problem lies in the complex processes used by the chemicals industry, where reactions are often inadequately documented and thus hard to take into account. What are some examples of the use of environmental life cycle assessments? Olsen: Environmental life cycle assessments are conducted in almost all areas of industry, from the sectors that process raw materials to the consumer goods and waste disposal industries. One can also conduct environmental life cycle assessments of materials such as steel, ever, many of these projects were academic in nature. In other words, they were managed by the university, but the results were not necessarily implemented within companies. With Siemens, it was clear from the start that the research results would be incorporated into the companys own environmental protection program and implemented. Besides, it was very important for Siemens that the results be applicable in practice. What have you learned from working with Siemens? Olsen: The aim was to create a framework for Siemens so that it could improve the environmental compatibility of its products and production processes. To do so, we had to adjust our assessment methods so that Siemens could use them effectively. The assessment process also had to be compatible with the Corex/Finex process we studied for Siemens in order to show how the method works. Of course the company couldnt adjust its technical processes to our methods; instead, we had to subordinate our method to existing production processes. As external scientific advisers, we could only offer our ideas and expertise; Siemens management was responsible for implementing them. However, we didnt want to prepare a report that would only gather dust on a shelf once the project was over. We considered it important to sensitize Siemens employees to the importance of conducting environmental life cycle assessments. Do you make a distinction between the requirements of industry and those of public authorities or of a university? engage in greener and more sustainable production and consumption. Whats the outlook for environmental assessments? Olsen: They are increasingly developing into an instrument with whose help environmental policy directives can be gently implemented in the EU and other parts of the world. They also support the increasing interest in sustainable lifestyles by providing concrete data. In contrast to the carbon footprint, which mainly takes into account CO2 emissions, environmental life cycle assessment are holistic. They take into account all the substances that impact the environment. Companies everywhere are starting to recognize the signs of the times and are using environmental life cycle assessments not only to optimize their products but also to correct weak spots in production processes. The European Commission is now preparing a handbook with directives and data sets that will serve as universal guidelines for many industrial sectors. The aim is to increase trust in the assessment process and the level of acceptance within industry. The climate debate has greatly increased industrial companies efforts to reduce CO2 emissions as much as possible and produce CO2-neutral products. But focusing only on CO2 isnt the right way to arrive at the most environmentally compatible lifestyle, as it doesnt take into account the toxic risks of many chemical substances. Theres a danger that people will assume that minimizing CO2 emissions is the same thing as achieving a good level of environmental compatibility. We have to counteract this tendency early on. Interview by Evdoxia Tsakiridou.

Environmental Impact of Pig Iron Production

Conventional blast furnace

Conventional blastfunace & VAiron


-2 %

COREX

FINEX

Unweighted CML normalization

-35 %

-31 %

Corex/Finex: major reductions in resource consumption, acidification and ozone formation

Source: Siemens

(Abiotic) resource consumption Acidification potential Summer smog: near-ground formation of oxidants such as ozone

Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment in bodies of water) Greenhouse Gases CML is a method to normalize various environmental impacts to make them comparable. Region EU-25

22

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

23

Life Cycle Planning | Rail Systems

At a Siemens locomotive factory in Allach, Germany, efforts to maximize product environmental compatibility and flexibility include, among other things, the use of LED signal lights (facing page).

Such conflicts are a part of Leitels routine. In addition to conducting life cycle assessments (LCAs), his job at the Allach locomotive factory near Munich is to ensure coordination with customers when drawing up custom-tailored technical specifications for their locomotives. Combining these two goals has proved to be a good idea. Customers simply want a good locomotive that meets the highest environmental standards, he says. Whats more, life cycle analyses are often a prerequisite for taking part in tendering processes. Quick LCAs. Munich has been a locomotive production site since 1841 at one time under the name Krauss-Maffei, whose logo still adorns the front of the factory hall that Siemens took over in 1999. But much has changed over the years. While steam locomotives churned out enormous amounts of soot and carbon dioxide, their modern counterparts are subject to strict environmental regulations. And its not just the emissions caused by operation of these powerful locomotives that need to be low; environmental impact throughout their entire life cycles must also be kept to a minimum. This begins with the manufacturing process and continues all the way through the

weighs 87.1 kilograms, including 68.1 kilos of aluminum, 6.6 kilos of glass, and 4.2 kilos of elastomers, with the remaining weight accounted for by other materials, including steel and insulation elements. Just a few mouse clicks is all it takes to evaluate specific assemblies or material classes and determine their proportion of total weight. Another database lists the primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions associated with each material, as well as regional

the most part metals and coolants are reused, which obviates the CO2 emissions that would have been produced if the materials had been manufactured from scratch. Materials Review. Leitel believes that the material analysis process can be improved. Were reviewing the entire range of materials now in use, he says. The idea is to use batteries that dont contain heavy metals, as well as coolants made of biodegradable materials and to

A database lists the primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions associated with different materials.
differences. For example, an aluminum panel made in Iceland, a country that uses a lot of renewable energy, has a much lower CO2 value than one from China, where most electricity is generated in coal-fired power plants. The material analysis does not extend down to the last bolt; this would require too much effort and expense. We make a general estimate of the energy consumption and emissions of small components, Leitel explains. The analysis ultimately produces charts that show where generally ensure that new designs have more recyclable parts by avoiding use of composites as much as possible. The ideal would be to loosen a few bolts and have the whole locomotive break apart into sets of unmixed materials, Leitel explains. Not every trend is as good as it sounds, however. Although lightweight construction with plastics and composites reduces operating energy consumption, it also poses recycling problems, which means that it is not necessari-

Timely Trains
Todays locomotives should consume as little energy as possible not just when they are in operation, but also during production and eventual recycling. Life cycle assessments can help with selection of the most environmentally compatible designs.

he assembly hall is filled with locomotives, some of them missing their roofs, others without control cabins. And some are even mounted on temporary platforms that make them appear to be floating on air. Martin Leitel, who is responsible for making life cycle assessments of locomotives for Siemens Mobility in Allach, Germany, points to a yellow locomotive without a roof. That ones going to Australia, he says, a country where rail service operators recently started making energy conservation a

higher priority. In fact, the model will be the first electric locomotive on the island continent to be equipped with an energy recovery system. The system collects braking energy generated on downhill stretches by trains full of coal that are traveling from the interior of the country to the coast. It then feeds the energy into the grid for use by empty trains going uphill. Another locomotive, Leitel explains, is for a European leasing company. Its equipped with a transformer that achieves optimal efficiency

because it was built using more copper than is usual, which also makes it heavier than similar units. In order to compensate for the transformers additional weight, other parts of the locomotive must be lighter, which is why its roof is made of aluminum. Naturally, all of this results in higher energy consumption during manufacturing. But, as Leitel points out, after only a few years of operation, the transformers high efficiency and the aluminums light weight counterbalance these energy costs.

products life to disposal, which will soon become the legal responsibility of the manufacturer. As a result, developers must now plan to recycle as many components as possible. To ensure that the associated analyses also known as material balances remain accurate, Leitel relies on an extensive database containing thousands of parts numbers and information on the materials used in each component. This database reveals, for example, that the left door of a locomotive control cabin

energy consumption is highest. With freight trains its clearly locomotive operation itself. Over a service life of roughly 30 years, a locomotive in Europe emits between 200,000 and 400,000 metric tons of CO2, depending on the type of use. Locomotive production results in only about 250 metric tons of CO2 emissions, however. And the recycling phase generates savings of 100 metric tons of CO2 because over 95 percent of the materials in a modern locomotive are recyclable. These materials for

ly good for the environment. A locomotive also shouldnt be too light because it has to pull a train 20 to 30 times its own weight. When asked if all the environmental effort that is now being implemented will ultimately pay off in the form of orders, Leitel says hes certain it will, but cautions that the locomotive market is price-sensitive, so the sales price is still often decisive. Nevertheless, customers are well aware of the fact that the purchase price of a locomotive

24

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

25

Life Cycle Planning | Rail Systems

| Power Plant Optimization

Engineers at Siemens Mlheim plant near Dusseldorf, Germany have developed a range of solutions for significantly improving the performance and efficiency of power plants.

is only around 15 percent of the cost of powering it throughout its service life. So a ten percent higher list price for a locomotive still pays off for the customer if energy efficiency is two percentage points better than the competitions, Leitel points out. Recyclable Subway. This argument is familiar to Dr. Walter Struckl, who works at Siemens Mobility in Vienna, where subway trains, railway cars, and trams are built. The market for these products is also extremely price sensitive,

together with hook-and-loop fasteners rather than glue, for example, which makes it easy to disassemble them. The LCA, however, can still be improved. Experts estimate that an additional 30 percent in energy savings could be achieved in actual operation and that the associated costs would be recouped in one year, says Struckl even though the system already consumes around one-third less energy than its predecessor, mostly thanks to more efficient heating and more effective insulation.

derground and its winters are warmer, meaning that its trains can get by with less heating and that an investment in improved insulation wouldnt really pay off anyway. What would pay dividends, says Stuckl, would be a more efficient drive unit like the Syntegra bogie with its permanently excited gearless electric motors, which Siemens is testing as a prototype (see Pictures of the Future, Fall 2007, p. 70). Struckls goal is to turn the focus away from the LCA of individual assemblies and toward the overall mobility system. Siemens offers de-

hen it comes to the quest for optimal performance, nothing beats a well-oiled Formula One racing car team. Here a tightly drilled squad of mechanics waits in the pits, poised to swap tires, tighten bolts and tweak components all in pursuit of a few more mph or a little extra traction. In some ways, tuning up a power plant is a similar endeavor. Even if it doesnt move like a Formula One car, it often has to be run at full load, just like Felipe Massas Ferrari at the Nrburgring race circuit. When operating in this mode, a power plant generates a lot of energy, usually in the form of electricity. At other times,

Siemens locomotives are designed to be efficient for instance by returning braking energy to the grid that is generated when traveling downhill.

and energy-saving innovations here have to pay for themselves within two to three years. Struckl opens a copy of his doctoral dissertation from Vienna Technical University. In this work, Struckl calculated down to the last detail the energy balance of the Oslo subway system probably the most efficient subway in the world in terms of resource conservation. When Struckl joined Siemens in 2003, it still wasnt possible to market the environmental aspects of a product, but today LCAs are a normal part of the tendering process. Life cycle costs have to do with costs, but life cycle assessments address environmental concerns. People tend to confuse the two, says Struckl but theyre not contradictory, given that greater energy efficiency usually has a rapid and positive effect on life cycle costs. With regard to the Oslo subway system, a total of 84 percent of its materials can be recycled; the rest are burned and the resulting energy is exploited. There isnt much left to improve here because the rail cars are held

Mobility in Context. Struckl warns against generalizations, explaining there is no such thing as a good or bad LCA. Absolute numbers, such as those for CO2 emissions, dont reveal much in and of themselves. Instead, each application scenario must be carefully studied in context in order to develop optimal measures. Subway trains such as those in Oslo, for

vices that store braking energy either on trains themselves or as stationary units on tracks. The company also supplies efficient technologies for producing electricity at power plants and transporting it to tracks, as well as traffic management systems that intelligently network rail and road transport. Siemens Complete Mobility concept attracted lots of interest at the Inno-

Oh What a Tune-Up!
It takes around a decade to plan and build a power plant. As a result, within a few years of commissioning, most plants no longer meet the latest technological standards. But in many cases, replacement of key parts and adjustments to a plants control system can help it to meet evolving requirements, save huge amounts of energy, and significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Siemens is a leader in upgrading existing facilities.

A ten percent higher purchase price pays off for customers if energy efficiency is two percentage points higher.
example, produce only 827 metric tons of CO2 during a 30-year service life a low figure due to the fact that 99 percent of Norways electricity is generated with hydro power. On the other hand, the same trains would emit 47,900 metric tons of CO2 equivalent if operated in the Czech Republic because most of that countrys electricity comes from coal-fired power plants. But unlike Oslos trains, Pragues run mostly untrans fair in September 2008 in Berlin. These days, companies in Norway receive a cash bonus for every kilowatt-hour of energy saved; and other countries plan to introduce emission trading systems for the transportation sector. When transport companies also begin to bear the cost of carbon dioxide emissions, many of them will quickly become interested in our innovations, predicts Struckl. Bernd Mller

when the grids hunger for power is lower, the plant is operated at partial load. But unlike racing cars, power plants do best when operated at a relatively uniform pace. No gas turbine or coal-fired boiler, for instance, can reach full power in seconds. In fact, depending on the type of plant, reaching full output may require anything between 10 minutes and several hours. Increasingly, however, electricity companies need to be able to ramp up generation on short notice, not least because the growing use of renewable sources of energy leads to greater fluctuations in capacity. Since the wind and sun are variable factors, solar and wind farms feed power into the grid on an irregular basis. For this reason, the hours of darkness or periods of calm at sea must be bridged by conventional base load power plants. This, in turn, means that such plants need to operate more flexibly than before in order to compensate for load variations and prevent blackouts. Older plants in particular have problems cushioning such rapid changes in load. Given the growing trend toward renewable energy

26

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

27

Life Cycle Planning | Power Plant Optimization

Power plant efficiency can often be significantly improved by upgrading operational instrumentation and control systems (below right). Enhancing individual components can also improve efficiency.

sources, a lot of base-load plants now need to be upgraded. And theres another, equally pressing reason to modernize existing turbines, boilers, and generators: With the cost of fuels such as gas and oil set to become more and more expensive in the long term, operators are looking for optimal efficiency from their power plants. Whats more, as they invest in efficiency improvements, they and their customers stand to benefit from reduced carbon dioxide emissions per kilowatt of energy produced. Teasing out the maximum. According to estimates by the German Association of Energy and Water Industries (BDEW), a quarter of Germanys total generating capacity of 130 gigawatts needs to be replaced for climate-protection reasons and due to the fact that many power plants are three or four decades old. That, says the BDEW, will require investment of 40 billion euros between now and 2020. At the same time, the International Energy Agency calculates that the colossal sum of $16 trillion will be needed until 2030 to expand and modernize the worlds energy infrastructure. Around $10 trillion of this is earmarked for power supply systems. The modernization and upgrading of power plants is an important line of business at Siemens Energy. In the German town of Mlheim an der Ruhr, its the job of Ralf Hendricks and his colleagues from the Lifetime Management Unit to turn combined cycle power plants (CCPPs), which are operated at base load, into racing machines. On behalf of a client in the UK, for example, they have recently upgraded a CCPP without having to replace any components. The first step was an inspection tour of the facility to determine its condition, as a prerequisite for puting together a

package of measures that is tailored to the customers needs. After that, a team of experts from Mlheim and Erlangen traveled to England for three days to optimize all parameters of the 400-megawatt plant, modifying the load ramps of the steam and gas turbines, for example, and adjusting the pressure rates to the boiler. By fine-tuning these parameters, the team was able to optimize the operations control system, which means full load can now be reached with maximum speed. Optimizing the open and closed-loop control technology helped us get the best out of the plant, Hendricks confirms. As a result it now takes only 60 minutes, rather than an two hours, for the turbine to run up to full load after having been shut down for ten hours. In other words, only one

it now takes only 60 hours, says Hendricks. Thats a time difference of four days, which is a valuable saving when an operator is waiting to start routine inspection and maintenance. Energy providers that rely on this technique can save millions of euros for every overhaul, for minimal investment costs. Efficient Megawatts In addition to shortening start-up and shutdown times, improvements can also be made in other areas. For example, upgrading individual components not only increases the service life of a power plant but also improves its efficiency, which in turn reduces its carbon dioxide emissions. There is often also scope to extract more performance from the turbines without the need for extra fuel consumption, thereby in-

largements are usually not an option in an existing plant. This is a huge benefit for customers, explains Dr. Norbert Henkel, who is responsible for upgrading steam turbines at Siemens in Erlangen, Germany. We fit between 20 to 25 power plants a year with upgraded turbines. Last but not least, there is also the generator, which converts the rotary motion of the turbine into electrical energy. In itself, a generator has an efficiency of almost 100 percent. However, it has to be tailored to other components, which as a rule age faster. In older plants, for example, the turbine blades have to be replaced either because the material has become brittle and there is a danger of failure or in order to make the turbine more efficient. Its like a champion cyclist getting onto a normal bike, says Anastassios Dimitriadis from Siemens Energy in Mlheim. Obviously we have to check

whether the existing generator is up to handling the increased performance. If necessary, a new rotor has to be installed or the coils rewound. Upgrading Output. Over the years Siemens has ramped up the performance of many power plants. At the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Sweden, for example, all the internal parts of the low-pressure turbines were recently replaced, which not only boosted the capacity of the facility by 30 megawatts or almost three percent of its total rating of 1,200 megawatts but also extended its service life. The same applies to coal-fired power plants. Using Siemens technology, the output of the 690-megawatt Mehrum facility, which is situated east of Hanover, in northern Germany, was increased by 38 megawatts, thus boosting efficiency from 38.5 to 40.4 percent.

Time saved due to a reduction in cooling time can cut the cost of overhauling large power plants by millions of euros.
hour elapses from the time the gas turbine is started until it runs up to full load and without the need for any new hardware. In only half the time it used to take, the power plant is up to full load and feeding its total output of 400 MW into the grid. Such improvements soon pay off. Usually after one to two years time, the operator has recovered the costs of the upgrade. But cost savings are realized not only when running up a CCPP: Using the forced cooling technique reduces the time needed to cool the steam turbine. The trick is to actively cool the steam turbine by extracting air from the turbine hall. Instead of having to wait 160 hours for the turbine to cool before the plant can be shut down, creasing generating capacity without additionally burdening the environment. The effectiveness of a turbine depends very much on its blades and flow area. In this connection, major advances in the field of 3D computer simulation over the last 20 years have given rise to the development of turbine blades that exhibit very low flow resistance. Moreover, when additional improvements are made to the blade path, this reduces losses even further, thus resulting in very high efficiency. This means that as much thermal energy as possible is transferred from the gas or steam to the turbine blades. All of this, in turn, allows efficiency to be increased without having to increase the volume of gas swept by the blades and therefore the size of the turbine. Thats important, since turbine en-

Start-Up Times for Full-Load Operation


Output (%)
100

80

Gas turbine ignition Upgraded power plant

Almost 100% output after 40% of the time formerly required Standard power plant

60

40

20

0 40

Time (%)

100
Source: Siemens

As might be expected, this kind of upgrading is of major interest to utility companies, since it can yield substantial cost savings. Modernization is an important step on the road toward greater cost efficiency and climate protection, says Nikolaus Schmidt from Eon Energie in Hanover. For Schmidt, Mehrum is a great example of a successful energy efficiency project, as is the Farge coal-fired plant near Bremen, where efficiency has been ratcheted up by three percentage points to 42 percent. All in all, he estimates that upgrading at Mehrum and Farge has resulted in the creation of 200 green megawatts of additional generating capacity, which for operator Eon will mean a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of almost a million metric tons by 2010. Inevitably, the state of technology in the energy industry tends to lag behind the latest technological developments, points out Thomas Sattelmayer, Professor of Thermodynamics at the Technical University in Munich. For this reason, every new power plant that goes online is already to a certain extent out of date. It therefore makes good sense to upgrade efficiency when conducting routine maintenance, says Sattelmayer, who is spokesman of Kraftwerk 21, a Bavarian energy research alliance. Sattelmayer sees huge business opportunities in the optimization of power plants. Whatever the outcome of that prediction, government interest in reducing carbon dioxide emissions from power plants certainly coincides with the goals of utility companies, which want to operate the most efficient plants possible. Considering this, we can expect to see a major increase in the number of projects introduced to upgrade the efficiency and start-up speeds of power plants in the Jeanne Rubner years to come.

28

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

29

Life Cycle Planning | Manufacturing

The Siemens Production System is optimizing processes with U-shaped work cells such as those at the Messgertewerk plant in Berlin (left), and at plants that produce wind and industrial turbines.

High-Speed Throughput
The new Siemens Production System is the first company-wide mechanism aimed at dramatically optimizing production. At one location it led to a 90 percent reduction in throughput times as well as higher quality and productivity.

he scales fell from my eyes when I saw what the Siemens Production System could mean for us, says Wolfgang Machate, production director at Messgertewerk Berlin, Germany, (MWB), a part of Siemens Energy Automation Division. MWB manufactures digital protection devices of the SiProtec family. The devices prevent high-voltage lines and terminal equipment from being damaged in the event of excess voltage or lightning strikes. Machate isnt the only one who suddenly saw the light. The 400 other employees at the plant are equally energized. All of us were so used to the shortcomings in our working methods that we were blind to them, says Machate. Now, we see things in a different light and are much better at identifying waste and potential improvements. Machate is not referring to machine production times, nor is he alluding to the use of materials. He means, for instance, that inventories of fully assembled equipment used to collect dust in the production hall; that workers had to go long distances to pick up materials and had to waste time during functional testing; that they would repeatedly interrupt their duties to prepare for the next step in a process, sort tools, or organize records; and that after every step, the product would end up in a container where it would wait for the next worker to carry out the next step. Time was therefore wasted again and again. Today, everything at MWB is different. The Siemens Production System (SPS) was introduced at MWB in the spring of 2008. And it

amounted to the first company-wide effort to focus on lean production a methodology that Toyota introduced to the auto industry in 1940. But although the concept has been around for a long time, the trick to its success is to implement it systematically at all times. Our SPS strategy is to design and carry out all processes on the basis of whether they add value, says Dr. Bernd Mssig of Corporate Supply Chain Management and Procurement (CSP). His department is the extended arm of the Global Manufacturing Board, which is the highest-level Siemens committee responsible for production and represents all of Siemens divisions. The Global Manufacturing Board initiated the new production system in 2005 and is responsible for its development. In the SPS, any processes that benefit the customer are viewed as adding value. Thats why we define as waste the periods in which a product is not progressing because employees are busy rearranging things, sorting or waiting. The customer shouldnt be expected to pay for rejects or for product storage, says Mssig. Eliminating Waste. Machate remembers well when representatives of the Corporate Supply Chain Management and Procurement organization visited his plant. There was a desire for more space to expand production. It was only for this reason, in fact, that the CSP experts for plant design were originally called in. The person from CSP wanted to show me how we could gain more room even without an annex

while increasing both quality and productivity, says Machate. At first, I didnt understand that. But the fact that MWBs parent, the Energy Automation Division, could see plenty of ways of improving its subsidiarys operations should not have come as a surprise given the fact that that Division has led its competitors for many years and can boast increasing earnings and growing market share. And the tip to first eliminate the waste was therefore not understood immediately. Everyone asked themselves what it was that they could do better. The training session on learning to see then revealed the waste that was lurking all around. Machate stood in the production hall inside a circle marked with chalk. For a whole hour, he simply watched. And that opened his eyes. I was suddenly surprised to see inventories lying all around. If they hadnt been there, there would have been more space available. It also struck me that workers had to stand around and wait for things. Does that serve the customer? says Machate, a 30-year veteran of Siemens, as he recounts his impressions. After the training session, things moved very quickly. In just a few weeks, the workers reorganized their workstations themselves. Beforehand, they analyzed the whole production process and completely redesigned their workstations, which they simulated with cardboard models. As they did this, they changed the sequence of the process steps. The production lines at which they had formerly sat in parallel separated by large spaces were converted into

U-shaped cells. And since May 2008, they have been working together in these U-shaped areas in a permanent group. With this arrangement, all the work steps are synchronized, and the required materials are ready at hand, as are tools and testing equipment. When employees complete a shift, they can pass unfinished products to incoming colleagues so that the next step can be completed without missing a beat. Each worker passes unfinished products on to the next person in the production chain until each product is ready and packaged. Seamless Flow. The plant has thus moved away from batch production and now concentrates on one-piece flow production. Whereas, previously, a typical 50-piece order went through a process and then waited for the next step, each individual piece now runs through the entire process chain without any intermediate stops. This rearrangement results in many advantages: The work area has not only been optimized for each step in the process, but has become smaller and easier to navigate. The distance between workstations is as short as possible. And re-sorting stages and needlessly subdivided steps have become a thing of the past. Our processes are now more synchronous and better adjusted to one another, says Machate, who points out that productivity has already risen 20 percent at MWB, and that throughput time has been shortened by more than 90 percent.

In the past, it took four days for a product to be produced, fully packaged and ready for transport to the warehouse. But today it takes only an hour. The number of unfinished parts has been reduced by 95 percent and the reject rate by 25 percent. Whats more, SPS has freed up about 1,200 square meters of space at the MWB plant, a savings of 30 percent. Lean production is currently experiencing a renaissance. Nevertheless, Mssig concedes, the pioneer in this field Toyota is still unrivaled. So far, no other technology company has succeeded in introducing a uniform, inte-

lated departments, such as purchasing and development. There are also training programs designed to develop SPS specialists. One important element is communication. We start at the very top with decision-makers. They have to believe in SPS and set an example. Thats the only way they can get workers onboard, says Mssig. By 2010, 80 percent of all Siemens plants will have launched the SPS which means there is plenty of work for Mssigs team. After all, Siemens runs approximately 300 production sites in 40 countries. At the moment,

It used to take four days for a product to be produced and packaged. Now it takes only one hour.
grated production system. In fact, for most companies, lean means little more than an add-on program aimed at cutting costs. But at Siemens, the objective is to make lean a vital part of corporate culture. The Siemens Production System should therefore not be be seen as a modular set of building blocks or ready-made concepts imposed on production centers from outside. The principles of SPS are always the same, but the solution is different in each plant, says Mssig. The nice thing about all of this is that it can be implemented right away. You can redesign your production the next day. The SPS includes training sessions for all employees involved in production and for reabout ten percent of the companys plants are in the process of implementing the system. But this is only the beginning of Siemens transformation into a lean company. The next challenge is getting leaner in other areas in logistics, accounting and purchasing, for example says Mssig. Those in charge at MWB see things the same way. We have laid the foundation for production. Next in line are order processing, the technology planning units, and our operations department, says Machate. Asked what will become of the 1,200 square meters of extra space, he doesnt hesitate for a moment before answering: Thatll be used for new products. Evdoxia Tsakiridou

30

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

31

Life Cycle Planning | Appliances

At the heart of Siemens new dryer is an innovative heat pump (right). Designed to be the most efficient dryer on the market (center), blueTherm passed endurance tests (left) with flying colors.

Miracle in the Laundry Room

Once considered to be power gluttons, dryers are becoming much more conservative in their energy demand. For instance, Siemens new blueTherm heat-pump dryer consumes 40 percent less energy than is permitted within Europes top Energy Efficiency Class A a new record. A visit to the developers at BSH Bosch und Siemens Hausgerte GmbH in Berlin reveals how they achieved this latest success.

he number-one manufacturer of home appliances in Western Europe, Bosch und Siemens Hausgerte GmbH (BSH) of Munich, Germany is committed to minimizing the environmental impact of its products. Before we develop any new household appliance, we always conduct a thorough analysis of its potential impact, says Dr. Arno Ruminy of the BSH Environmental Protection department. In fact, a strict internal guideline stipulates that all washing machines, refrigerators, and dryers must have a minimal impact on the environment in all phases of their life cycles. Before the development process even begins, each product idea is carefully examined in order to identify the most environmentally-compatible and recycle-friendly materials, determine the areas where material savings can be achieved, and produce a design that allows the easy replacement of used parts. Every new device must be better than its predecessor in terms of environmental protection, says Ruminy. By designing energy efficient appliances, BSH is also meeting the needs of its customers. Thats because appliances still account for around 40 percent of total energy consumption in private households despite the efficiency gains achieved with refrigerators and such over the last ten years. Life cycle studies carried out by BSH environmental experts also show that such appliances mainly impact the environment through electricity and water consumption when theyre being used. Transport and recycling play only a minor role, and re-

source consumption in production accounts for only a small percentage of the total resources used. In contrast, operation is responsible for more than 90 percent of the overall environmental impact of most appliances, says Ruminy. In the case of dryers, this figure is as high as 97 percent. Making things more efficient here will benefit the environment and save consumers money, Ruminy says. Heat Pump Strategy. Back in August 2006, BSH engineer Kai Nitschmann was given the assignment to develop a clothes dryer equipped with heat-pump technology that would outperform all other dryers on the market in terms of energy efficiency. The first thing Nitschmann and his colleagues did was to define target values. We were looking to achieve energy consumption of 2.1 kilowatt-hours for seven kilograms of laundry, which was just slightly above the world record at that time, Nitschmann recalls. His development team at BSHs Berlin plant started out by disassembling all types of dryers, counting their nuts and bolts, and weighing their plastic parts. They also measured the dryers energy consumption and loudness. Their analysis resulted in the conclusion that the only way to achieve their ambitious energy efficiency goals was to use a heat pump a technology that had never before been used in a dryer. A heat pump prevents the energy contained in the vapor and hot air from escaping from the dryer, says Nitschmann.

The results of the teams efforts are preserved in a glass case in Nitschmanns office. There are, for example, copper arteries through which a coolant flows. Circulation is maintained by a powerful electric motor whose output is four times that of the motor that turns the dryer drum. A compressor pumps the condensed and thus heated coolant into the copper pipes, which repeatedly twist through two aluminum frames. The first of these frames is a heating unit in which the coolant transfers the heat it contains to the circulating air. This heated air then flows into the dryer drum, where it absorbs moisture.

greenhouse gas, which is why BSH commissioned the Institute for Applied Ecology in Freiburg, Germany to determine whether the heat pump approach made sense. As Ruminy explains, the institute established that the lower energy consumption by far offsets the greenhouse gas potential involved. The Freiburg experts did, however, emphasize the importance of effective recycling. Specifically, steps would have to be taken to ensure that the dryers coolant, like that of a refrigerator, would be disposed of properly and not released into the environment at the end of the machines service life.

More than 90 percent of the environmental impact of household appliances results from their operation.
A second aluminum frame works as a cooler. When hot, humid air returns from the drum, it comes into contact with this frame, which has been cooled down by the cooled coolant. Moisture condenses as the air cools, and the heat obtained from the air is then transferred back into the coolant. The energy in the hot dryer air and in the vapor is temporarily stored in the coolant and then used for heating purposes, Nitschmann explains. Ruminy points out that the coolant, which is known as R407c, conducts heat very effectively, which significantly reduces energy consumption. Unfortunately, however, it is also a Meanwhile, developers in Berlin were faced with the challenge of incorporating heat-pump technology into a dryer for the first time, since up until that point they had been used only in refrigerators, air conditioners and heating units. If it hadnt been for our Spanish colleagues experience with air conditioners, we wouldnt have succeeded so quickly, says Nitschmann. The team in Berlin also had to integrate a second new technology for optimizing efficiency: an innovative lint cleaner for the condenser. Tiny pieces of lint in the wash can eventually clog condenser frames and that nega-

32

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

33

Life Cycle Planning | Appliances

| Facts and Forecasts

were put to work drying one wash load after another in the huge testing hall at the BSH plant. In the end, each one handled about 2,000 washes. These endurance tests ensure that our appliances will operate error-free for ten to 15 years, says Nitschmann. Champion Energy Saver. The result of all this development work was launched in September 2008 in the form of a dryer known as blueTherm. The appliance uses only half as much electricity as a conventional Efficiency Class B condenser dryer, and 40 percent less energy than the permitted limit for a Class A machine, which itself appeared unattainable just a few years ago. In other words, we really are the energy-saving world champion, says Nitschmann. Thats not all. Freiburgs Institute for Applied Ecology also found that the heat-pump dryers overall environmental impact is only around half that of a conventional air-vented dryer. The dryer is in some cases even more economical than a clothesline, says Carl-Otto Gensch, who managed the institutes study. Contrary to popular belief, you dont necessarily conserve energy by hanging up the wash to dry. For instance, if you do so in a heated room, youll use more energy than the heat-pump dryer consumes. Although at around 1,000, blueTherm is more expensive than a conventional dryer, the investment pays off. According to the institute, blueTherm consumes 1.9 kWh per load, or 10 percent less than was originally planned. A normal air-vented dryer needs 4.1 kilowatt-hours for one load so assuming average use and German electricity prices, blueTherm will cost 18 per year, while a conventional air-vented dryer will cost approximately 50.

The Energy-Efficiency Pay Off


T
he purpose of energy-efficient products is to help decouple economic growth from energy consumption. In combination with frequency converters, for example, energy-saving motors can help reduce the amount of electricity needed by pumping systems, which according to the EU Commission, account for four percent of global electricity consumption. An important market for this sector is India, where business with pumps and compressors for use in the construction industry, infrastructure projects, agriculture, and the processing industry is booming. According to the Indian Pump Manufacturers Association (IPMA), the sectors market volume increased at an annual rate of 1215 percent between 2003 and 2006, when it totaled approximately 1.8 billion. The U.S. is another major market that offers great potential for energy-efficient products. An American Solar Energy Society (ASES) study found that market volume for energy-efficient household appliances, lamps, computer equipment, and buildings (including windows and doors) was $160 billion in 2006 and will nearly double by 2030. Developments here are driven mainly by energy-efficient buildings, but energy-saving lamps from high-pressure gas-discharge lamps to LEDs are also in demand. Measures to boost energy efficiency in buildings and households also pay off in Germany, where, for example, insulation of a basement ceiling in a one-family house costs approximately 2,000 and reduces heating costs by 150 a year. Combined with a subsidy from the governments building renovation program, this investment will pay for itself in around ten years or even sooner if oil and gas prices increase. A high-efficiency refrigerator (A++) is about 50 more expensive than a less efficient device, but will save its user 11 a year. Investment in energy-saving lamps also pays off, as their higher procurement costs compared to conventional incandescent light bulbs are amortized after as little as 240 hours of operation which is why the EU plans to ban the use of light bulbs soon. Some 3.7 billion incandescent light bulbs are now being used in Europe, compared to only around 500 million energy-saving lamps. Sylvia Trage

Whereas the global market volume for energy-efficient products and solutions totaled 450 billion in 2005, that figure could rise to approximately 900 billion by 2020, according to an analysis conducted by the Roland Berger consulting firm. The effects of the current economic crisis were not taken into account in the study, but various new stimulus programs that focus on the application of energyefficient solutions make the future look bright for the sector. Among growth drivers here are energy-saving motors. According to the German Copper Institute, use of a highefficiency motor to drive a cooling water pump at full capacity for 8,000 hours a year can reduce energy costs by 405 if such a motor replaces a 30 kW standard motor. Given procurement costs of 1,650 for the high-efficiency motor and 1,300 for the standard motor, the amortization period for the additional cost of the energy-saving motor is only 9.5 months.

Condensate washes away lint, which reduces energy consumption, and eliminates the need for a filter.

Distribution of Impact over Appliance Life Cycle


Production 49 %

(Consumption of raw materials, energy, and water) < 0.5 %

Raw materials
(Non-ferrous metals, steel, plastics, glass, other)

Distribution
(Energy consumption for merchandise transport)

90-95 %* of appliances total


< 0.5 %

Global Market for Environmental Technologies: One Trillion Euros


Absolute growth of annual market volume 20052020 (in billions of euros) Energy efficiency Sustainable water management Energy generation Sustainable mobility Natural resource & material efficiency Closed systems, waste, recycling 450 290 190 170 90 20 CAGR 20052020 5% 6% 7% 5% 8% 3% Key technologies Measuring and control technology, electric motors Decentralized water treatment Renewable energy sources, clean power generation
Source: Roland Berger

Disposal
(Consumption of raw materials, energy, and water)

environmental impact

Use
(Consumption of water, energy, and chemicals)
Source: UN 2005

* Depending on product and use

Alternative drive systems, clean engines Biofuels, bioplastics Automated material separation processes

tively affects heat transfer, says Nitschmann. The team rejected the conventional solution of removing lint with a filter. The user would then have to clean, wash, and dry several filters its simply too much effort, says Nitschmann. In addition, tests conducted at BSH labs showed the energy efficiency of a so-called ADryer falls to the level of a less efficient C or DDryer if the filters arent regularly cleaned. Engineers therefore came up with a completely new solution: a type of shower for the condenser. Here, the condensate is pumped into a container on top of the dryer and then pumped out again four times per drying cycle, rushing over the condenser like a waterfall, and thus washing away the lint. Energy consumption here is consistently low over the dryers entire

World record: The blueTherm dryer uses only half as much electricity as a conventional dryer. Amortization Periods of Energy-Efficient Solutions
service life and the customer doesnt have to do anything, says Nitschmann. While all these technical questions were being addressed and prototypes were being improved under various test conditions in the labs, Nitschmann began considering which production lines could accommodate the new dryers, which tools and machines should be used, and whether suppliers would be able to provide enough compressors in time to meet pre-series production. Despite these pressures, everything went according to plan. The pre-series machines And operating costs are expected to be reduced even further in the future. Were continually working to enhance efficiency, Nitschmann reports. Theres definitely potential for improvement. For example, use of alternative coolants and improved drive motors for the cooling cycle could save a few kilowatthours. Consumers, in any case, need no further convincing. BSH marketing experts had expected to sell 10,000 units in blueTherms first three months on the market but the company ended up selling 50,000 instead. Ute Kehse
Amortization period for additional costs (through energy savings) Energy-saving lamp vs. incandescent lamp of the same brightness Conversion from incandescent to LED traffic lights Speed-controlled energy-saving motor vs. conventional motor A++ refrigerator vs. an appliance in a lower efficiency class BlueTherm dryer compared to efficiency class B dryer* (p. 32) Energy-efficiency-based building renovation through technical measures Energy-efficient solutions for rail vehicles Optimization of control system at combined cycle power plant** (p. 27)
* Based on a family of 4 using a dryer 229 times per year. **Based on 50 starts per year and 80 per megawatt

800 hours of operation About 5 years 0.52 years 45 years About 3.9 years
Source: Own research

510 years 23 years About 1 year

34

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

35

Life Cycle Planning | Financing

Around 225 buses outfitted with ISE series hybrid drives are already in use. An electric motor drives the axles, and a small combustion engine charges the energy storage system.

Clean Investment
With its environmentally-friendly hybrid drive systems for heavy-duty commercial vehicles, ISE Corporation, a young, California-based company, is targeting a rapidly growing market. Siemens Venture Capital (SVC) recently invested in this long-standing Siemens partner.

In Brief
Companies are taking an ever-closer look at the life cycle of their products. A products environmental footprint can be determined using life cycle assessments, which measure all of the environmental loads associated with its production. Such analyses are often a prerequisite for participating in tenders. Osram has studied the life cycles of various lamps from production to disposal. The result: The life cycle assessment is largely deterPEOPLE: Life Cycle Assessments for Lamps: Christian Merz, Osram c.merz@osram.com Holistic Assessments: Frank Walachowicz, CT frank.walachowicz@siemens.com Wolfgang Grill, Siemens VAI wolfgang.grill@siemens.com Life Cycle Assessments of Trains: Martin Leitel, Mobility martin.leitel@siemens.com Dr. Walter Struckl, Mobility walter.struckl@siemens.com Power Plant Modernization: Ralf Hendricks, Energy ralf.hendricks@siemens.com Dr. Norbert Henkel, Energy Siemens has for the first time prepared a life cycle assessment for a new pig iron production process. The assessment shows the Corex/Finex technology to be substantially more environmentally friendly than conventional methods: Not only are pollutant emissions significantly lower, but toxin levels in the wastewater are lower as well. (p. 20) Todays locomotives should consume little energy and emit few pollutants not just in operation but also during production and eventual recycling. Siemens uses life cycle assessments to identify the most environmentally compatible design. (p. 24) Many power plants have been in operation for at least 30 years and no longer meet the latest technological standards. Modernization measures offered by Siemens, such as overhauling the instrumentation and control system or replacing a complete turbine, can help to make the plants more efficient and reduce costs and CO2 emissions. (p. 27) An internal guideline stipulates that appliances made by Bosch Siemens Hausgerte must have a minimal impact on the environment. The new blueTherm dryer consumes only half as much electricity as a conventional dryer. The blueTherm is thus not only the worlds most energy-efficient dryer, its also easy on the wallet. (p. 32) LINKS: Institute for Applied Ecology: www.oeko.de EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung GmbH: www.epea.com Website Prof. Michael Braungart: www.braungart.com ISE Corporation: www.isecorp.com EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: www.epa.gov American Solar Energy Society: www.ases.org Technical University of Denmark, Dept. of Management Engineering: www.man.dtu.dk henkel.norbert@siemens.com Anastassios Dimitriadis, Energy anastassios.dimitriadis@siemens.com Siemens Production System Dr. Bernd Mssig, CSP bernd.muessig@siemens.com The Worlds Most Efficient Dryer: Dr. Arno Ruminy, BSH arno.ruminy@bshg.com Kai Nitschmann, BSH kai.nitschmann@bshg.com Fridolin Weindl, BSH fridolin.weindl@bshg.com Financing Green Technolgies: Gerd Gtte, SVC gerd.goette@siemens.com

mission regulations are becoming more demanding in the U.S., where the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) intends to dramatically reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide and particulates from engines in heavy-duty commercial vehicles such as buses and trucks. California, which has been particularly hard-hit by air pollution, has stipulated that carbon dioxide emissions must be cut by 30 percent by 2020. The state is now being backed in these efforts by President Barack Obama, who announced that the federal government intends to provide funding for fuel-efficient vehicles and introduce more stringent CO2 limits. These goals are ambitious for heavy vehicles like trucks and buses, given their high fuel requirement and intense stop-and-go drive cycles. ISE Corporation, a young American company, is doing its part by providing environmentally-friendly hybrid technology for such vehicles. ISEs mature products and good market prospects have also impressed managers from Siemens Venture Capital (SVC). As a result, Siemens investment specialists joined four other venture capital firms last November in investing a total of $17.5 million in ISE, which was established in 1995. The investment is intended above all to help ISE further develop its products and sales network. Decoupled Engine. ISE, which employs 136 people, has enjoyed Siemens support in its development work for years and uses Siemens electric motors and converters in its drives. The company offers a hybrid system in which electrical components and energy sources can be modularly exchanged depending on the application. ISEs series hybrid drive system is technically superior to conventional parallel hybrid systems, says Gerd Gtte, a managing partner

at SVC, and a member of ISEs supervisory board. The great advantage of ISEs technology is that the combustion engine it uses is smaller than those in conventional, heavy-duty commercial vehicle drive systems. Thats because the engine isnt connected to the drive shaft and is only used to provide power to the energy storage system or electric motor that propels the vehicle. Thats why it always operates in the most optimal, efficient manner possible, which means low CO2 emissions. The ISE system also ensures that the energy storage system is charged when the vehicle is braked. This brake energy recovery and the use of high-performance energy storage systems like double-layered ultracapacitors or ultracaps (ISEs Ultra-E 500) enables the system to deliver brief power spurts for acceler-

drive systems can be offered with a choice of either a diesel engine, a gasoline engine, or a fuel cell system. ISE has the broadest product range in a dynamically growing market, says Gtte. As a result, ISE ideally meets the expectations SVC has of companies it invests in. An investment such as this should provide Siemens with access to new technologies, while at the same time generating a good return, says Gtte. Fuel Cell Bus. Approximately 225 buses equipped with the ISE hybrid system are already on the road. Customers include 19 transportation agencies, among them Transport for London, which is planning to purchase at least eight hydrogen fuel cell buses by 2010. At the heart of ISEs successful technology is the com-

The hybrid bus market can be expected to grow by 50 percent or more in coming years.
ation or inclines, without requiring the combustion engine to provide additional energy. ISE has important expertise in energy storage and energy management, says Gtte. The combustion engine in a conventional parallel hybrid operates less continuously than in ISEs series hybrid. Thats because the engine has to cover increased energy demands by operating at a higher power level to immediately supply extra power to the vehicle drive, alongside the electric motor. This increases fuel consumption and emissions when parallel hybrids are used in heavy vehicles like buses, which are often driven in stop-and-go traffic. Another advantage of the ISE technology is that the companys series-produced hybrid panys adaptable control software, which regulates the finely-tuned interaction between the combustion engine, the generator, the energy storage system, and the electric motor. ISEs proprietary control software is used with its diesel hybrid drive systems, gasoline hybrids, and fuel cell variants. The software and the Ultra E-500 Energy Storage System are critical contributors to ISEs high energy efficiency. The control software is what enables us to obtain the maximum yield from brake energy recovery, and it also allows for automatic cutoff of the combustion engine whenever a vehicle comes to a stop or reduces its power demand, explains Kevin Stone, ISE Director of Engineering Applications.

Growth prospects for efficient, low-emission hybrid technology are good. The hybrid bus market alone can be expected to grow by 50 percent or more in coming years, says Gtte. And its not just the U.S.; were seeing an increasing interest in hybrid technology in Europe and parts of Asia as well. ISE is set to profit greatly from these developments. The companys sales have in fact been growing at an average annual rate of 141 percent since 2006. With ISEs order books well-filled at present, this trend is likely to continue despite the currently difficult economic situation. Sales of gasoline hybrid vehicles in particular are expected to increase rapidly in the near future, because they meet the tighter limits on nitrogen oxide and particulate emissions that are already in effect in smog-plagued southern California and which will become law throughout the U.S. in 2010. The outstanding environmental compatibility of ISE drive systems is also important to SVC. Environmentally-oriented investments are a top priority for us, reports Gtte. Thats because the clean-tech sector offers Siemens opportunities for major growth. Siemens generated sales of 19 billion with its environmental portfolio in 2008 and that corresponds to around 25 percent of the Groups total sales. Accordingly, some 25 percent of SVCs total venture capital volume of 800 million is currently invested in clean-tech innovations such as ISEs hybrid drives and this percentage is increasing. SVC believes its clean-tech investment volume will continue to grow despite the current economic crisis. This is because the sector benefits from a unique demand profile: the urgent need to solve infrastructure problems worldwide in a rapid, environmentally-responsible manner. Anette Freise

mined by energy consumption during their operation, with only a small fraction of consumption attributable to lamp production. The key to making lamps more environmentally friendly is thus making them more energy-efficient. (p. 16)

36

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

37

Research Cooperation | Oil Well Efficiency

A foam-based process developed under the leadership of Andrey Bartenev (right) and Rosneft Oil increases oil well flow, and therefore the effectiveness of production sites.

drilling facilities in Russia. Here, the team has succeeded in gaining the state-run oil company Rosneft as a research cooperation partner. Rosneft, Russias leading oil producer, extracts about 110 million metric tons of oil annually and has a workforce of 75,000 people. Acidic Foam. Siemens engineers Dr. Vitaly Malinin and Dr. Stepan Polikhov, who work in Bartenevs department, have been specializing in oil-deposit cleaning techniques. Together with RN-Ufanipineft a research institute operated by Rosneft in the city of Ufa near the Ural mountains they have developed an efficient, cost-effective method for increasing the oil-flow rate in the nearborehole zone of an oil reservoir. The technique uses a foam consisting of water, hydrochloric acid, and other chemicals. The method is based on a long-applied technique for cleaning oil wells. It involves use of an acid solution to dissolve impurities, such as calcium, gypsum, and barium sulfates, which are found in oil-bearing sediments and would otherwise block the flow of oil into the bore-

While researching the process of multiphase filtration, specialists from Siemens Corporate Technology found a way to ensure that the solution gets to precisely where it should be. This foam thats pumped into the bore hole in the first step seals off most of those areas of the underground reservoir that dont need to be cleaned, but which nevertheless soak up large amounts of the solution, said Bartenev after extensive computer simulations. After just five months of work, and with the help of computer systems from Siemens CT Russia, research was completed in February 2008. As Bartenev explains, the results not only provide a solution to flow-process problems; the numerical calculations also were supplemented by development of an analytical model that gives researchers a better understanding of technological aspects of the cleaning process. Rosneft has been using the results since the spring of 2008. The new solution has provided us with deeper insight into how to lower the permeability of the highly porous sediment segments, and into how the acid mixture reaches exactly those areas where

confirmed, however, that the new model does result in a significant increase of oil production compared to conventional chemical cleaning methods. After monitoring 27 wells, the researchers determined that conventional acid cleaning resulted in an average increase of only 8.6 metric tons in the daily flow, while the foam-plus-acid technique boosted it by an average of around 17 metric tons. In addition, the sealing effect of the foam method means that it requires the use of fewer chemicals. This not only yields savings in time and money; it also helps to protect the environment. More Projects Planned. Because CT researchers were able to benefit from the practical experience of Rosnefts staff, as well as from the companys extensive data, we succeeded in obtaining valuable new knowledge in the field of foam-acid treatment. This allowed us to clearly demonstrate our capabilities, which will serve as an excellent foundation for future business relations with Rosneft, says Bartenev. In fact, we have already begun

Fresh Oil from Old Wells


Oil deposits need to be regularly cleaned to keep them viable. A promising new process developed by Siemens in Russia and oil company Rosneft uses a special foam that cleans oil wells more efficiently, ensuring significantly higher oil throughput.

ts a well-known fact that crude oil cant be pumped out of the ground until a well goes dry. The amount of oil that can be extracted from a well depends on the nature of the deposit and the properties of the oil that lies within it. The average recovery factor worldwide today is between 35 and 40 percent of a total deposit. And only around ten percent of the petroleum is initially channeled by natural pressure into boreholes, which can extend to depths of between three and six kilometers. From there it is pumped to the surface for further processing. Once the natural pressure in a deposit begins to abate, oil companies need to get creative. One method they use is to pump water or gas into the ground in order to increase reservoir pressure. The artificial pressure dis-

places the oil and forces it into the borehole. Use of this technique often raises the rate of extraction by 20 percent, or by 30 percent at most. Another option is to pump in steam. This increases reservoir pressure and lowers the oils viscosity, which allows it to flow more easily into the borehole. Despite their varying degrees of effectiveness, these methods have the same drawback: They require sophisticated technology that is also very costly in relation to the amount of oil it frees up for pumping. Thats why it used to be a very common practice to close a well when it showed signs of exhaustion, and then to move on to a new oil field. Today, however, a growing number of oil drilling companies are taking another look at extracting more crude from older deposits

not least because of the anticipated high price for crude oil over the long term. A recent study conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy found that mature deposits in the West contain up to 200 billion barrels of oil (one barrel = 159 liters), and that at least 89 billion barrels of this oil could be extracted in subsequent operations using the methods described above. This figure can also be expected to increase as extraction techniques improve. One man who is working on refining such extraction techniques is Russian physicist Dr. Andrey Bartenev, the director of the Power Engineering and Energy Resources department at Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) in Moscow. A key area that Bartenevs team is focusing on is the modernization of old oil-

hole. The reservoir is first flooded with the solution, which is then pumped out and the affected rock is washed with water. Without this treatment, which is normally carried out once every two to five years, the product extracted from roughly one million boreholes, which yield 30 billion barrels annually worldwide, would be around 30 percent less. Still, the cleaning methods effectiveness hasnt entirely measured up to expectations so far. When you use an acid solution alone to clean the reservoir rock of an oil deposit, you often find a large portion of the chemicals dont necessarily get into the places you want them to be in order to eliminate the blockages, says Bartenev. Thats because when the solution flows into the borehole, part of it disappears into layers of sediment where it just isnt needed.

blockages need to be eliminated. Then the oil flows more easily to the pump, Bartenev reports. In order to be able to investigate the effect of the acid-foam solution, Bartenevs team obtained extensive data from Rosneft on borehole depths, permeability, pressure ratios, and flow rates, which the state-run company had systematically gathered and kept at its oil fields. Thanks to all that data from the boreholes, we were able to develop a detailed analytical model for foam-acid treatment, Bartenev says. The Foam method does not return extraction levels to the average value achieved at new wells around 700 barrels per day, with an average Rosneft well producing only about 100 barrels of oil per well but It has been

talks with the aim of intensifying our cooperation on efforts to substantially improve equipment used in oil and gas industry automation systems. Another area of activity that the partners are looking into is extraction of oil from oil shale, for which a feasibility study is already under way. Rosneft is also optimistic about the success of the partnership. The work we accomplished together was very stimulating for both sides, says Vladimir Savichev, head of Production, Development, and Research at the research center in Ufa. We have been able to exchange concrete, specialized knowledge while combining the strengths of Siemens CT Russia and RN-Ufanipineft. That has shown us how we should be moving forward in the future. Thomas Veser

38

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

39

D i g i t a l

W a t c h m e n | Scenario 2025

Highlights
45 Products that Dont Lie Thanks to new algorithms and reductions in power requirements, radio frequency ID chips track sterile pads in the operating room, make transfusions safer, and help to prevent product piracy. No More Mr. Nice Guy According to crime statistics, banking transactions are anything but safe. New technologies for online banking and ATMs will make life tougher for criminals. Code of Silence The IT industry is discovering quantum physics. Examples include a quantum computer soon expected to achieve a previously unheard-of level of computational power, and a quantum cryptography chip that encrypts data with absolute security. Pages 51, 52 Driving out the Crooks The digital camera is a real jack of all trades. In addition to protecting against theft and vandalism in parking lots, when used with a fire alarm it can identify and report fires. Pages 57, 64 Indefatigable Guardians Thanks to an innovative remote maintenance concept, computer viruses are under fire in hospitals. Live bacteria are also heading for trouble as Siemens develops promising new methods of early identification. Pages 60, 62

Cold Comfort
Svalbard, 2025. On this archipelago north of the Arctic Circle, scientists at a research station owned by ReLife are studying unknown micro-organisms frozen in the permafrost millions of years ago. But are they safe from spies?

48

50

he mountain has a huge underground facility inside it, Magnus. Ole is surprised when, after several laborious attempts with his thick gloves, he finally succeeds in unrolling an e-paper display with a cross-sectional view of a gigantic laboratory. He holds it up against the mountain range. An IT security expert, Ole knew, of course, that his native Svalbard is de-

scribed as the largest laboratory in the world for arctic research. But he had no idea there was such a large research station here. Impressive, isnt it? replies his brother, biologist Magnus Caspersen. Among other things, he adds, this station conducts research on algae that used to grow here when there were still subtropical temperatures, before they were frozen

57

60

2025
hands on the research results. 40

In the ice of the Svalbard archipelago, researchers of the ReLife Institute have discovered organisms millions of years old based on previously unknown genes, which could revolutionize the biotechnology industry. Competitors are alarmed. Biologist Magnus Caspersen and his brother, IT specialist Ole, have been sent to look for a way to get into the research center or at least to get their

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

41

Digital Watchmen | Scenario 2025

| Trends

Counterfeit products cause financial damage that adds up to billions every year. Customs agents are largely powerless and reduced to simply destroying the counterfeits they do find.

for millions of years. And the scientists are bringing them back to life, as the name ReLife suggests. In the revitalized organisms, these researchers have discovered previously unknown genes that could revolutionize the entire biotechnology industry and even be useful for clean power generation. Now you see why our client wants to know at all costs whether its possible to obtain the research results and, if so, how. While Oles gaze scans the sketch in front of him, Magnus signals with a hand gesture to the huskies, commanding the dogs to be absolutely quiet. Lets start figuring out how to gain access. Is there any way we can get inside? he asks. Ole cant help but laugh faintly in reply. Not very likely, he answers. As you can see, every inch of the outer area is carefully monitored with video cameras. They register not only anything that is approaching but also what the object is whether a bird, a polar bear, or a person. And if its the latter, you can be sure theyll sound an alarm. Magnus stares raptly at the reclining dogs for a moment and then tramps over to Ole to take a closer look at the layout of the station. Even if we could make our way into the mountain, Ole continues, wed reach a dead end in front of every laboratory door, according to this map. There are hand scanners that use infrared technology to examine the structure of hands, down to the smallest wrinkles, including veins, and then automatically compare the structures with a database and that in combination with biometric voice identification. Its going to be impossible to crack all that. His brother Magnus is slowly running out of patience. But we have to get in there somehow, he insists. He sneezes. Well, your cold isnt going to make it easier, says Ole, trying to see the humor in their predicament. There is also a biochip detector in front of every laboratory door. In just a few seconds it tests your breath for the presence of DNA components of certain bacteria, and other organisms that shouldnt be allowed in the labs. That reminds me, says Magnus, wiping off the fogged-up e-paper. Pretty soon we wont be able to see anything at all anymore thanks to our breath. If we cant get in physically, he ponders, then maybe virtually for example with a specially programmed Trojan horse that we can use to spy on the computers and Not a chance, interrupts Ole without looking up from the map. A completely new antivirus program provides security for their IT system. Its coordinated from the mainland headquarters with a quantum computer that can simulate all imaginable virus combinations and identify them during an attack.

Ole looks thoughtfully at the northern lights. But the station here and the headquarters have to communicate with each other somehow. With a high-performance computer, we could crack the encryption and eavesdrop on the data traffic, he points out. But Magnus dismisses this too. Forget it, he says. Even a biologist like me can see from the e-paper that the satellite connection is using a quantumcryptographic encryption system. And that means its not physically possible to crack the data flows theyd notice any attempt at eavesdropping. Ole is growing irritated. Then it looks like theres just no way for us to get the results. If thats the case, our client says that we should then examine how we can manage to at least put a stop to the ReLife research. His biologist brother considers for a long moment. We could use a drone to drop gas cartridges near the air shafts. That would destroy the highly sensitive micro-organisms. That wont work, says Ole. I can see from the diagram that the whole complex, including the ventilation system, has fire alarms installed, equipped with gas sensors that our informant says are incredibly precise. Each of these devices can sniff out dangerous gases in the air and sound the alarm if there are any irregularities. Apparently, the same thing applies to the containers holding the organisms, in the storage rooms. Each of them has a wireless sensor chip that not only measures ambient data and the temperature but also uses an automated system to ensure the ideal air composition which is different for each species of organism and storage chamber. As soon as these tiny sensors detect even the slightest anomaly, they seal off the air intake and mix their own air by means of reserve tanks. Well, I guess that settles it then, says Magnus wearily. He steps onto the dog sled and snaps his fingers. The dogs leap up instantly and jostle into formation. Whats settled? asks Ole. The station is an impregnable fortress. Whats your opinion? Ole nods and grins, placing a checkmark on the e-paper and putting it away. Inspection passed, he says and climbs onto the sled as well. ReLife your client and my employer is going to be very pleased, indeed, says Magnus. I dont think there is anyone who would stand a chance of infiltrating this place. Lets write the report and call it a day. Youll stay for dinner I hope, brother? Emma is making her famous reindeer roast tonight. I wouldnt consider missing out on a chance to experience the culinary skills of my sister-in-law, says Ole with a hearty laugh, giving the huskies a shout that sets them in motion: Ready lets go! Sebastian Webel

One Step Ahead


Online scammers are defrauding us of huge sums while dangerous counterfeit products flood markets. The security sector is working overtime on solutions that include RFID and quantum cryptography chips.
ne of the most spectacular criminal cases in recent years began back in May 1988 in Germany. At that time, Arno Funke, an extortionist, threatened to detonate bombs in a number of department stores and demanded a hefty sum of money, throwing not only department store owners but also the police into a state of chaos. Funke was made famous by the media as Dagobert (the German name for Walt Disneys Scrooge McDuck character was used as a code name during the negotiations). He used a surprising number of intricate mechanical devices, including remote-controlled vehicles with false bottoms and a mini submarine where money was to be placed and repeatedly managed to evade the police. Funke was finally captured in April 1994, after six years and a total of 30 attempts to hand over the money. Media coverage of the case took on the character of a road movie, with the ingenious criminal making fools of the police time and again. The public eagerly followed the story, which provided a picture of criminality that was entertaining, and thus entirely inaccurate. Crime, after all, was and remains omnipresent and its anything but amusing.

A total of 6,284,661 crimes were reported in Germany in 2007; in the U.S. the number was 11,260,000. Obviously it takes more than just the police to prevent such crimes, and cries for preventive measures go hand-in-hand with rising crime rates. One glance at figures for Security 2008, the worlds largest security trade show, which takes place in Essen, Germany, confirms this trend. The number of visitors in attendance doubled from the previous year, and the 1,100 exhibitors also set a new record. Among the fairs highlights were new video monitoring capabilities including solutions provided by Siemens (p. 57) and the latest generation of fire alarms, which literally sniff out invisible and toxic carbon monoxide. Manufacturers also presented innovative fire extinguishing systems, such as the Sinorix H2O Gas from Siemens, which features a special nitrogen-water mixture (p. 64). The latest financial figures confirm that the industry is booming, with worldwide growth of about ten percent. And the engine that is driving this growth will surely continue to hum along (p. 58), particularly in sectors with rising crime rates such as information technology (IT), since life without a computer and the Internet is now unimaginable.

Criminals at Work. The Internet is already the marketplace of the future. Experts estimate that online sales in Germany alone will rise to 694 billion euros by 2009; in 2005 the figure was 321 billion euros. The number of online customers is growing too. According to the German Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), 27 million Germans made Internet purchases in 2007, thus putting their personal data into circulation online. This represents a potential feast for scammers, reports Dr. Udo Helmbrecht, President of the German Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) in Bonn. Internet crime has become a flourishing, globally organized underground economy, he says. While computer hackers use Trojan horses to gain unauthorized access to other peoples computers, where they steal and sell private data such as account numbers and PINs, scammers make targeted use of this data to get their hands on money. And lots of it, in fact. According to BitKom, an IT trade association, 4,100 such cases of theft, with damages totaling 19 million euros, were reported in Germany in 2007 alone, and the German Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) estimates that the number of unreported cases is actually much higher than that.

The corporate world also has suffered enormous damage. A survey conducted by Corporate Trust, a consulting firm, found that roughly 20 percent of German companies surveyed had been victims of at least one case of espionage in recent years, cases in which confidential company information was the primary target. And the situation is not any better abroad. The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), a U.S. consumer protection agency, reported a record-breaking $240 million in damages in the U.S. alone in 2007 an increase of 20 percent from the previous years figure. BSI President Helmbrecht explains, however, that just a few precautions are needed in order to substantially limit damage. Many users underestimate the danger on the Internet, he says. Its as if they were running around with an open wallet full of money while shopping from their livingrooms. He adds that Internet users have to be aware of potential risks at all times and take appropriate security measures. That begins with a healthy distrust of dubious e-mails and installation of security solutions, he says. Such solutions can include biometric systems external to the PC, such as a credit cardsized Internet ID card bearing the users finger-

42

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

43

Digital Watchmen | Trends

| RFID Chips

RFID chips (bottom, left) have many uses whether its in the operating room to count and track abdominal pads (large photo), to monitor banked blood, or to ensure that products are not counterfeit.

prints (p. 48). With this technology, for instance, authentication data never comes in contact with the PC, putting it out of reach of anyone trying to spy at least for now. Over the long term, however, it could prove difficult to find a tool for fighting Internet criminality, since ongoing technological development benefits not only the security industry, but also the scammers. Take, for instance, the quantum computer, which uses quantum physics to achieve unparalleled computing performance (p. 54). The BSI considers this kind of computer, which is still in the development

When Counterfeits Kill. When it comes to counterfeit products, most companies can only dream of achieving victory over criminals. In product categories ranging from brand-name jeans to luxury watches to MP3 players, trade in counterfeit products causes approximately 30 billion euros worth of damage each year in Germany alone, according to the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce. And the EU Commission estimates that losses suffered worldwide as a result of product counterfeiting are somewhere between 200 and 300 billion euros.

along the supply chain has to support this infrastructure and be trustworthy. Whats more, it wouldnt take a lot of effort to copy the code and print it on a counterfeit. No systems are available that can tell the difference. Copy protection is Brauns area of expertise. His team recently developed a solution that could deliver the blow to the counterfeiters that is so eagerly anticipated by industry: a copy-protected RFID chip based on public key cryptography, allowing reliable verification of its authenticity (p. 45). Our radio chip makes it possible for the first time to verify the authen-

Product authenticity can be verified using copy-protected RFID chips (left) and a reader.

stage, to be one of the greatest challenges facing the entire IT security industry. In Helmbrechts opinion, as soon as such a computational powerhouse hits the market, Internet criminals will have no problem cracking todays standard method for encrypting data. As the central IT security services provider to the German federal government, the BSI must be able to anticipate future scenarios such as the quantum computer and to work with research institutions on the development of solutions that can thwart this previously unimaginable level of computing power, says Helmbrecht. One such defense mechanism could be the quantum cryptography chip developed by the Vienna-based Austrian Research Center in cooperation with Graz Technical University and Siemens (p. 50). This chip protects data by generating a random sequence of numbers from light particles also known as photons. Because quantum mechanical processes alter the photons, any attempt at tapping is recognized immediately and the chip simply generates a new key. Here, the laws of physics themselves make it impossible for anyone to crack an encrypted message. If it ever goes into production, the chip would be a tremendous benefit to security technology.

With an Internet ID, sensitive data never finds its way online (right).

Even worse, counterfeit products are becoming a health hazard in the pharmaceutical sector. In a best case scenario, medications contain powdered milk or starch instead of an active substance. But in the worst case, the wrong dose or even the wrong active substance is used. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that ten percent of the European market was affected by these risk cocktails in 2007. The corresponding figure during this same period was 20 percent in the former Soviet states, and it has reached 30 percent in parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The European Union Commission is well aware of the issue. In late 2008, it published a proposal for combating pharmaceutical piracy. One suggestion calls for special 2D bar codes on packaging to be scanned by the manufacturer and stored in a central database. The data can then be compared online to verify its authenticity as the product moves through sales chains. But such bar codes offer only limited protection, cautions Dr. Michael Braun of Siemens Corporate Technology in Munich. Everyone

ticity of a product offline at any point, says Braun. The chip encodes a query from a reader device with its own private key. The receiver is then able to verify the correctness of the answer to this query by means of the matching public key. The prototype device functions perfectly. But Braun sees areas that still need improvement before the system can be brought to market. His team is working closely with customers and semiconductor manufacturers to start several pilot projects. The projects are designed to determine which additional functionalities over and above pure authentication may be needed for a range of different user scenarios. The results of this work will support the successful introduction of a mass-market product. But even as RFID chips gradually enter the mainstream, they certainly will not offer a universal solution to the plague of counterfeit products. Experts fully expect the neck-andneck race between criminals and security technology to continue in the years ahead. Its a cat-and-mouse game one in which the bad guys certainly are inventive. But unlike Dagobert, most will never experience even a moment of public sympathy. Sebastian Webel

Products that Dont Lie


Wireless identification tags made their first appearance over 40 years ago as bulky antitheft devices in warehouses. Today, thanks to advanced algorithms, reductions in chip power requirements, and other improvements, their applications are far more diverse. Siemens engineering laboratories are developing counterfeit-proof radio chips that will prevent product piracy, track sterile pads in the operating room, and make transfusions safer by ensuring that blood has been consistently cooled.
rom watches, jewelry and clothing to water faucets and brake disks virtually no product is safe from counterfeiters. Product piracy is a booming business. Dr. Michael Braun, Project Manager for RFID Security Systems at Siemens Corporate Technology in Munich, Germany, estimates that the worldwide economic damage due to counterfeit products amounts to at least 56 billion annually. And he emphasizes that this figure is based on very conservative calculations. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Brussels estimates the figure to be

five times higher. Product piracy therefore is a major threat to manufacturers, who face the prospect of immense losses in sales. It is therefore not surprising that they want to prevent such nefarious activities and are striving to protect their products against counterfeiting as effectively as possible in much the same way as governments protect paper money. Solutions involve the identification of products with color-changing inks, reflective pigments, watermarks, holograms, and bar codes. The ultimate identification technology uses electronic tags, known as RFID chips (Radio Fre-

44

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

45

Digital Watchmen | RFID Chips

quency Identification), which make counterfeiting particularly difficult. RFID operation is based on a secret key that is known both to the chip and to the reader. This approach is therefore referred to as a symmetrical method. Such chips may for instance store encoded product data or a serial number. The reader receives this information by a radio signal and uses the same key to decode the contents. However, as RFID expert Michael Braun is quick to emphasize, anyone who manages to steal the secret key could hack into this symmetrical security system. At Siemens we have therefore chosen whats known as the asymmetrical approach, which is based on the pub-

ing optimized algorithms. Instead of a programmable processor, they use fixed, nonprogrammable circuit elements. This substantially reduces the energy consumption and size of the chip, which are important cost factors. Braun therefore believes this new technology has a great chance of establishing itself in the market for authenticity verification. And theres another advantage. In addition to providing maximum security, the technology costs only around one-tenth as much as comparable smart card technology. In addition, it can, for instance, be used throughout the entire value chain from supplier to customer for authenticity testing without a database link.

basket by the end the operation. If the two numbers agree, its clear that no pad was left behind in the patient. But despite this safety procedure, in rare cases a pad does get left behind, admits chief surgeon Prof. Hubertus Feuner, who adds that this happens in roughly one out of every 5,000 (mostly abdominal) operations, and can result in a lifethreatening infection. Although aluminum strips have been woven into sterile pads and are visible in x-ray images, forgotten pads may be difficult to see in post-op medical images depending on their position. In 2007 Siemens therefore launched a three-year program in cooperation with Intel,

chips from the present limit of 50 cm. Thats especially important in order to allow the readers antenna underneath the operating table to register an RFID chip in a pad that is inside a very obese patient. The solution will be to use abdominal pads outfitted with a sewn-in antenna that is several times longer and therefore more effective than the one in the previous prototype. Another issue involves the RFIDs transmitting frequency. By transponding on the standard high frequency of 13.56 MHz, the device could interfere with operating room medical equipment. Jell can now exclude this for Siemens products. Were in the process of

donor to recipient and also store additional data, such as the blood group. This is important because blood spoils rapidly when it is stored without effective cooling. The system not only records the temperature of every blood bag but also closes the communications gap between donor stations, explains Harald Speletz, who heads the RFID Solutions Department at Siemens Process Automation in Linz, Austria. Our solution enables complete documentation from vein to vein and substantially improves patient safety. Siemens scientists are committed to making the cooling chain of banked blood completely transparent using this new recording system, he said.

Using this new solution, medical personnel will attach an RFID chip to each blood bag as soon the blood has been donated. And that chip will stay with the blood throughout its life cycle from whole blood to blood cell concentrate even in the centrifuge. The electronic chips system, which includes a temperature sensor with a battery, is so robust that it can withstand being spun at a centrifugal force of up to 5,000 g. This RFID system for monitoring banked blood is now sufficiently mature to enter the market, says Speletz. So it wont be long before wireless tags help to ensure the safety of a Rolf Sterbak range of medical procedures.

How a Crypto Chip Works


On an elliptic curve you can easily define the n-fold product of a number with itself

Q P

(the diagram symbolically shows an addition). But to recalculate the factor n from the result is virtually impossible. This fact makes it possible to develop an efficient encoding method that combines short key lengths with fast coding times. Such a solution is ideal for chip cards and mobile phones.

Developments in RFID tag technologies are making it possible to track sterile pads in the operating room...

Ensure that donated blood has been kept cool, and...

Track blood products throughout their life cycle.

lic key concept, to develop a counterfeit-resistant system, he says. In this system the reader operates with a commonly accessible public key, which is consequently of no interest to hackers. The RFID tag, on the other hand, contains a private, secret key the chip uses to encode a test inquiry of the reader. This asymmetrical method is presently used, for example, to encode e-mails and digital signatures. To ensure that the private key isnt copied and transferred to another chip, Siemens researchers have additionally developed an algorithm that interacts with so-called elliptical curves. The RFID tag gives a different response to each inquiry by the reader. This means that criminals can only clone obsolete information that is of no use in attacking a security system, explains Braun. But until recently, such methods could not be applied to RFID chips, which have limited computing power. Now, however, Siemens researchers have solved this problem by develop-

Researchers have already developed a prototype and presented it at the CeBIT 2009 computer fair. RFIDs in the O.R. In the surgery suite of the Klinikum Rechts der Isar, a major medical center in Munich, a patient lies on an operating

Fujitsu Siemens and the Klinikum Rechts der Isar medical center to develop an RFID system that detects and counts radio chips sewed into the sterile abdominal pads. The system makes it possible to count the number of pads on the preparation tray, in the patient, and in the waste bin. When the operation is completed,

RFID chips equipped with temperature sensors can monitor the entire cooling chain of banked blood.
table with his abdominal cavity open for treatment. The surgeons use sterile pads to stop any bleeding. One pad after another disappears into the fissures and spaces between the organs, only to be removed and discarded soon afterward. A surgical nurse counts the number of pads she has handed to the surgeons, as well as the number that have accumulated in the waste the system displays the totals of counted pads on a monitor and the surgical staff knows exactly where the pads have ended up. Thats the idea. But theres still quite a bit to be done, before the system is market-ready, cautions Thomas Jell, Head of RFID Delivery at Siemens IT Solutions and Services. For example, development engineers intend to at least double the present wireless range of the radio

making our system compatible with currentlyavailable operating room equipment, he says. But that still leaves the fact that some medical devices, such as electrocoagulation systems, emit high-frequency pulses that can interfere with RFID systems. Responding to this challenge, Siemens researchers have developed reader software that simply filters out these brief interruptions Tracking Blood. Another major area in which RFID tags could save lives is in monitoring the temperature of donated blood. With this in mind, in 2008, a consortium consisting of Siemens, French blood bag manufacturer MacoPharma, and circuit board manufacturer Schweizer Electronic of Schramberg, Germany, clinically tested a temperature sensor-equipped RFID system in collaboration with the Medical University in Graz. The newly-developed RFID tags monitor the entire cooling chain of banked blood from

E: y2=x3+ax+bmodp with a=2 b=98041560852373919804497702945164778239981033357 p=1461501637330902700854603783655214859383685196123 consists of 10146150163733090270085460620150685408864185482153 points.

The secret key used in Siemens crypto chip employs a computational method based on so-called elliptical curves. If these formulas are visualized as an x/y-axis graph, the resulting curve resembles the cross-section of a doorknob. Initially, two points (P and Q) are defined on this curve. A straight line through these points intersects the curves at a third point R, which is reflected symmetrically to intersect the lower arc of the curve. This arithmetic formula is then repeated one trillion times. As a consequence, the new end points are always created at different locations on the elliptical curves. Final results are computed from these values. The secret of the key lies in the multiplicity of times this process is repeated. With every query that the reader poses to a digital chip, the computation starts all over again and creates a new resulting point transmitted to the reader as a response. This method has been known to mathematicians for about 30 years, but was too complicated for the computing power of small, passive RFID chips that lacked an integral power supply. Such chips derive the energy required for computation from the electromagnetic field of their associated reader. Considering this stringent requirement, Siemens researchers have compressed the algorithm upon which calculations are based to the point where reasonably priced, passive standard tags can use it. This is where the special know-how of crypto researchers comes in. For instance, RFID experts have managed to transfer some of the computational functions to the reader in order to reduce demands on the passive crypto chip.

46

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

47

Digital Watchmen | Banking

No More Mr. Nice Guy


Banks are under fire for not taking sufficient steps to ensure security. Thats not surprising, given that misuse of banking data is on the rise in some cases leading to disastrous consequences for banks and their customers. New technologies from Siemens are set to make life a lot tougher for criminals.

a credit card, is equipped with a fingerprint scanner and six optical sensors. It requires no additional hardware or software installation, which means that it can be used with any Internet-enabled computer. Any user wishing to conduct a bank transfer initially identifies himself or herself by means of a fingerprint. This print is compared to a previously made copy of itself, which is already stored on the device. The banks website then sends a flicker code to the users computer, and the code is registered and decrypted by the ID cards sensors. During this process, the users monitor displays six rapidly flickering fields. In addition to the transfer data already entered using the computer keyboard, the flicker code contains the associated

shops and services, he says. The system is already being widely utilized within Siemens, especially with applications that involve external partners. In such cases, the device ensures that only authorized persons can gain access to internal Siemens data. Because users identify themselves with their fingerprint, you always know that the individual in question was physically present when they logged onto the system, Badstbner explains. That means theres absolutely no possibility that a third party can get in by stealing a password. Despite the varied range of application possibilities, Badstbner continues to focus on the banking sector. One reason: manipulation of ATMs is increasing dramatically. Approximately 5,000 instances of ATM fraud were recorded in

Read My Hands. The new system works as follows: An infrared scanner installed in the ATM registers the vein structure in the customers hand. This data is then transferred to a biometric data recognition unit that compares the scan with the users stored information. This type of ID provides customers with additional security to supplement their PIN number, Badstbner explains. Siemens developed the technical equipment for data recognition and comparison, while Fujitsu supplied the infrared scanner and sensor. Along with enhanced security, this procedure also offers the benefit of touchless operation. Unlike the fingerprint ID, the handvein reading unit doesnt require the customer to touch the scanner, says Badstbner.

Voiceprint by Phone. Badstbners development laboratory has also come up with a third verification application, one that makes use of speech biometrics technology. Speaker recognition is an ideal solution for telephone banking and Siemens is now offering a system that registers the individual characteristics of a users voice and then uses this data as a basis for verifying the customers identity in all future telephone transactions. And to prevent fraud attempted by means of replaying recordings of the users voice, the system also generates a random number sequence that the customer must repeat. Then the customers voice is compared with the stored data to ensure completely secure identification.

Thanks to scanners and optical sensors, verification data for Internet identification doesnt even need to pass through a PC.

Non-contact hand vein scanners will make banking more secure and life tougher for anyone attempting online fraud.

nline banking conducted from the convenience of the customers home is becoming increasingly popular. In fact, in Germany alone, there are more than 35 million online accounts that generate nearly 1.7 billion online fund transfers per year. But the other side of the coin is that crime in the online realm is also on the rise in the form of phishing scams, for example, where hackers try to gain access to bank account data by setting up fake web sites. According to Germanys Federal Criminal Police Office, Internet scams in 2007 alone resulted in damages totaling approximately 19 million, which was 50 percent higher than the figure from 2006. Also not to be underestimated is the damage these scams can cause to a banks reputation. In an effort to combat this problem, Siemens is developing several solutions that

will make banking more secure not only online but also over the phone and at bank branches. Many Internet users prefer to do their banking conveniently online, but they are nevertheless worried about the security of their personal data, says Olaf Badstbner, who is responsible for Worldwide Banking and Insurance Security Services at Siemens IT Solutions and Services in Frankfurt am Main. Our goal is therefore to offer solutions that combine user-friendliness with the highest security standards. The key question here always boils down to how we can securely identify ourselves via anonymous communication channels such as the Internet and telephone lines. Mini Scanners. Together with a Swiss biometric solutions company, Siemens now offers an Internet ID product that puts a stop to online scamming. The device, which is the size of

transaction authentication number generated by the bank (TAN). Using an integrated cryptographic key, the ID card deciphers the code and displays the information on its small screen. The user can check the data to make sure its correct and then complete the transaction by entering the TAN. The new ID eliminates the need for separate passwords and TAN lists, explains Badstbner and that makes the system not only easier to use but also much more secure than conventional setups. At the moment, the Internet ID device is being offered exclusively to banks, but Badstbner believes it could also be used for less security-critical online applications. Whether youre booking travel arrangements or downloading music from the Internet the ID has 128 different keys and could theoretically be used for a corresponding number of online

Europe in 2007, but that number had climbed to more than 6,000 in just the first six months of 2008 a staggering increase of 143 percent. Three out of every four such incidents involve what is called skimming a method by which a thief gains access to bank card data

Whats more, the scanner avoids the problem that even just a little dirt or a slight cut can lead to an error in fingerprint identification, which could otherwise impede the authentication process. Hand-vein scanning can be used to identify customers doing business inside a bank

Customers who use the hand vein scanner dont even need to touch the device in order to be identified.
by installing a mock-up card slot, equipped with a scanner and miniature camera, in the cash machine. A new system that uses hand vein scanning could put a stop to that, because each individuals vein structure is unique and can therefore be used as a means of identification. branch as well, eliminating the need for them to present their IDs. Time-consuming signature checks would also become a thing of the past. Several British banks are particularly interested in this technology and are now engaged in talks with Siemens about the possibility of obtaining the system.

Siemens is currently involved in negotiations with German, Spanish, and Turkish banks that are interested in using its speaker-recognition technology, which could simply be added on to a banks existing telephone banking system. And Siemens is already successfully using the system internally to prevent the time-consuming documentation process that had been necessary for retrieving or changing passwords. Now, when employees forget their passwords, they simply call a number where their identity can be confirmed on the basis of their recorded voiceprint, Badstbner reports. They can then reset their password quickly, easily, and securely. Secure, fast, and easy these are exactly the qualities that apply to all three of the security solutions from Badstbners development department. Kirstin Schliekau

48

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

49

Digital Watchmen | Quantum Cryptography

| Interview

Detectors measure the polarization of photons generated by a laser, and a cryptochip uses these measurements to continually create new encryption codes.

od does not play dice with the universe, said Albert Einstein once in criticism of quantum physics. But it was Einstein who had helped to launch the most successful physics theory of the 20th century, with a Nobel Prizewinning paper on light quanta (photons) back in 1905. Today we know that God does play dice in the sense that certain phenomena in quantum physics cant be predicted; instead they become real only at the moment in which they are measured. Einstein was also wrong about something else: The peculiar entanglement of light particles, which he dismissed as spooky action at a distance in 1935, is a real phenomenon. When specially prepared twin pairs of photons are created, one photon always knows the state of the other without any delay in time and across any distance, even that of the entire universe. This unusual behavior that so irritated Einstein is ideally suited for data encryption. Physicists working in this field exploit the entanglement of the twin photons and the fact that their state can only be determined at the moment they are measured. If such photons are sent through fiber-optic lines in order to exchange encryption keys, anyone listening in can still pick up the data, but the laws of physics ensure that their eavesdropping will not go unnoticed, and that action can then be taken. This is because if one of the photons is measured by an outside party, the transmitter and receiver will immediately see this in the

tween two parties. Because photons are lost as they pass through glass fiber lines, system range has also been limited to just a few kilometers. What has been missing here is a superordinate authority that passes the code on across several point-to-point connections and controls the quantum cryptography devices linked with the network. In October 2008 partners in an EU project known as SECOQC (Secure Communication based on Quantum Cryptography) presented the first such network at a conference in Vienna. Consisting of seven participants, the network was able to pass a quantum key from node to node, and it can be expanded to include any number of connections. The project partners included the University of Vienna and Siemens IT Solutions and Services Austria, with the latter providing the network infrastructure. The project was managed by Austrian Research Centers (ARC) in Vienna. Entangled Twins. The projects cryptographic network used commercially available devices whose operation is based on different quantum cryptography technologies. Their effectiveness is limited, however. Devices that use photon phase shifts as a quantum property, for example, are susceptible to inaccurate measurements. Thats why the network relied for the first time on a system for generating entangled photons, which was developed by Anton Zeilinger, a professor at the University of Vien-

How did the SECOQC project come about? Monyk: Our goal was to liberate quantum cryptography from its academic isolation and take a decisive step toward an actual application. Although commercial solutions already exist, they are only suitable for point-to-point connections. Our cryptochip, on the other hand, makes possible the creation of networks with many participants, and thus the bridging of great distances. Is your cryptochip market-ready? Monyk: Its ready to be used and we could offer it to customers right now but at 100,000 per unit, the system is still very expensive. Thats because its built by hand and has to be

Affordable Quantum Cryptography


Christian Monyk, 43, of the Austrian Research Centers (ARC), is head of the SECOQC project, whose other partners include Graz Technical University and Siemens. In this interview, Monyk talks about applications of quantum cryptography.
calibrated in a painstaking process. Wed love to turn it into an easy-to-manufacture product that costs under 10,000, but thats going to require two years and a development partner who can make the hardware more compact. We still havent found that partner. Who would be your customers? Monyk: The financial sector has expressed great interest; banks could use the system for secure data communication between branches and headquarters. Public agencies, hospitals and, of course, police and the military are also interested. And the average consumer? Monyk: At some point it will generate interest among private individuals, but only after many households have fiber-optic connections. Its easy to imagine inserting a quantum cryptography device into a computer like a USB stick. Computing power is not an issue here any PC could handle the device. Interview by Bernd Mller.

Code of Silence
No encryption code is secure unless its created in keeping with the laws of quantum physics. Siemens and partners in an EU project have shown that unbreakable quantum cryptography is ready for widespread use.
state of the twin. They can then take measures to make the bits and bytes incomprehensible to the hacker. Although commercial quantum cryptography systems have been in use for a number of years, their success has been held back by high costs and technical limitations more specifically by the fact that they have, until recently, only allowed point-to-point connections bena who is considered a pioneer of research into new quantum phenomena (see interview, p. 52). In fact, Zeilinger caused a sensation in the 1990s when he beamed specific properties from one photon to another. For his cryptography approach, Zeilinger actually uses the spooky action at a distance that occurs between twin particles, which his team generates in a crystal by means of a laser, before sending the particles out via two fiberoptic lines. Their oscillation direction, known as polarization, is initially uncertain. Its only when a photon has been measured that it possesses a specific polarization. At this point the information unit, the bit, takes on the value of either zero or one. As if it were telepathic, the second photon registers this and takes on exactly the same value.

If a hacker attempts to eavesdrop on either one of the glass fiber lines, the transmitter and receiver (designated Alice and Bob by cryptographers) notice this through a comparison of their measurements. The cryptographic device then repeatedly creates new keys until the hacker (Eve) gives up and exits the line. The comparison of measurement data can take place on unsecured lines like the Internet or a

50

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

51

Digital Watchmen | Quantum Cryptography

| Interview

phone line, and even the transmission of the data encoded using the quantum key can be intercepted without giving the eavesdropper any valuable information. Zeilingers team proved this in 2004, when they transferred 3,000 from Bank Austria to Vienna City Hall, a distance of 1.5 kilometers. The great accomplishment of the SECOQC project is that it has scaled down this simple physical effect, which nevertheless used to require a lot of machinery, into a system that fits into the housing of a conventional PC. The housing contains the optical components for generating the photons using a laser, the detectors that determine polarization direction,

extended period of time; changing keys frequently enhances security. Ideally, a cryptomachine should generate a new key of the same length for every 128-bit data package, because it is impossible to crack such a onetime pad even if one of the code keys is successfully broken, hackers would only have a snippet of data. Whats more, it would take them months to break each key. ARCs cryptochip moves cryptography into a new dimension in this regard. It generates a new quantum key five to ten times per second, and each key can be as long as 256 or 512 bits. Then, after sending out these keys, it immediately destroys its record of them. We could

Quantum physics is already a hundred years old, but it seems that its practical applications are only now becoming a reality. Zeilinger: Thats not true because all semiconductor technology is based on quantum physics, and lasers would also be unthinkable without it. Certain phenomena addressed by your work, such as entanglement of photons, werent even studied or applied until a few years ago. Why not? Zeilinger: Its true that studies concerning photon entanglement didnt begin to emerge until the 1970s, although Erwin Schrdinger had described the phenomenon as early as

on an unsecured line, and possibly used for years at a time. Are there drawbacks to your procedure? Zeilinger: Because you cant measure the photons without destroying the entanglement, you unfortunately cant reinforce them. Losses in the fiber-optic lines lead to a loss of photons, which is why the maximum bridging distance in the line has been limited so far to around 30 kilometers. During wireless transmission experiments between the islands of Tenerife and La Palma, however, we have achieved a distance of 144 kilometers. Thats more than enough for the purpose of secure data transfer between government offices or

initially didnt realize how many different things could be done with their inventions. But scientists seem to have a very firm idea of what can be achieved with quantum computers, although they understand it will take a long time to do this. Zeilinger: Theres a big race going on with quantum computers today. When a quantum computer is actually built and can function properly, it will be in a class by itself, truly unprecedented. The exceptional feature of such a computer is that it will be able to process several operations simultaneously rather than in succession, because it will exploit the quantum mechanical overlapping of atoms. (Editors note: see article, p. 54) What can be done with such tremendous computing power? Zeilinger: One application would be Shores algorithm for breaking down large prime numbers, which is a necessary component in the process of cracking an encrypted code. This would amount to the counterpart of quantum cryptography but it would be useful for breaking only todays conventional codes, not those generated by quantum cryptography. Another application could involve a search for a name in an unsorted database, for example. When you use conventional algorithms here, you might end up having to search the entire database if youre unlucky, which would mean a million computing steps for a million entries. A quantum computer with just eight quantum bits, by contrast, could do the job in less than 4,000 steps. Some of your colleagues doubt that there will ever be a quantum computer. They say that phenomena in the quantum world cannot simply be transferred to the macroscopic world. Zeilinger: Im absolutely certain we will eventually see quantum computers. There is no obstacle inherent to physics that would prevent this. According to Moores Law, the number of transistors that can be placed on a chip doubles every 18 months. So, you could also say that the number of electrons needed to store a bit is reduced by half every 18 months. If you project that, youll find that in 20 years only one atom will be required to store one bit and with that we have the quantum computer. We have a lot of work to do, of course, because we still arent able to control complex quantum systems. Nevertheless, its only a question of time until we will do this, and some day every cell phone will contain such a quantum computer. Interview by Bernd Mller.

A Quantum
Anton Zeilinger, 63, is a professor at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information. Considered a quantum physics pioneer, Zeilinger sparked the imagination of science fiction fans in the 1990s by teleporting photons. He has also taken part in philosophical talks with the Dalai Lama on quantum physics and the nature of time and space. Among other things, his work today focuses on applications for data encryption systems and random number generators.

Computer in Your Cell Phone


1935, a time when Albert Einstein also was examining the spooky action at a distance, as he referred to it. The phenomenon was then neglected for several decades because scientists considered it a question for philosophers rather than for physicists. I wasnt taken seriously when I began looking into the question with some colleagues in the 1970s, and only about 30 people attended the first conference we held on the topic. Today, theres a conference every month attended by hundreds of researchers, more than I can even go to because of time constraints. So we are experiencing a revival of interest in the fundamental questions of quantum physics, and several entirely new applications have been emerging since the 1990s, including quantum cryptography. What are the benefits of using quantum physics to help with data encryption? Zeilinger: It makes encryption completely secure because you notice immediately if someone is trying to eavesdrop on the fiber-optic line thats used to exchange the keys. This isnt some kind of technological trick; its a fundamental aspect of physics. In the project that we worked on with Austrian Research Centers, which Siemens was also involved in, we used entangled photons to transmit the keys. One photon always knows the state of the other, so if one is measured, say by a hacker, we can immediately see this in the measurement reading for the twin. We are now able to generate twin photons at a rate of ten million per second. We used around a dozen keys per second in the project with ARC, and that represents a completely new dimension compared to conventional procedures in which keys are exchanged banks in a given city. We also have to be careful to prevent side-channel attacks, which eavesdrop on the electromagnetic signals created in the transmitter and receiver when the keys are generated in the crypto-hardware system. But weve already taken appropriate measures to deal with that. Are there any other applications for quantum physics that are ready for the market? Zeilinger: Yes generation of random numbers, for example, which are needed for online gambling systems, certain types of optimization algorithms, and for calculation of integrals in mathematical problems. Today such random numbers are generated with computers by setting a starting value for the program and then letting it run for a certain period of time. If the circumstances are the same, though, youll end up with the same numbers, which is why these are called pseudo-random numbers. Someone working in a computer center who understands how a certain process works can use that knowledge to hit the jackpot at an online gambling site. We, on the other hand, generate true random numbers by shooting photons onto a semitransparent mirror and then measuring when the light particles either pass through or are reflected, which is a completely random process that cant be predicted. Weve developed a market-ready generator that creates billions of random numbers per second, and were already talking to companies that want to build and sell it. In general, however, quantum physics is currently in the same application stage that we saw with semiconductors and lasers when they were still in their infancy. By this I mean that the inventors

The SECOQC system changes its quantum keys several times per second. Each key can be as long as 512 bits.

and a cryptochip that uses light measurements to continually create new keys and exchange them via the fiber-optic line. The same housing also holds the computer that uses the quantum keys to encode the actual data with cryptographic algorithms. The data then races in encrypted form through the Internet at a speed of several gigabits per second. The keys are usually 128 bits long. Thats secure enough and is doable with limited resources, says Dr. Johannes Wolkerstorfer of Graz University of Technology. The university is collaborating with ARC and Siemens to develop the cryptographic machine hardware and software, including an easy-to-use interface, as part of the Quantum Cryptography on Chip project. A length of 128 bits corresponds to 1038 different possibilities that a hacker would have to work through. Thats the equivalent of searching through ten billion people for a specific, individual atom. Quantum Keys. Still, even 128-bit encryption can eventually be broken with the help of statistical analysis of the encrypted data. Thats why one and the same key should never be used to encrypt large amounts of data over an

also switch the keys more often by stockpiling them, says Christian Monyk of ARC, who coordinates the SECOQC project. We took part in the project in order to gain new knowledge about quantum cryptography applications, says Robert Jonas, head of Security Solutions at Siemens IT Solutions and Services in Vienna. As Jonas points out, Siemens sees itself as a systems provider that advises customers and creates solution packages encompassing hardware, software, and infrastructure. Development of quantum cryptography hardware was never part of this approach, however. As a result, Siemens is interested not only in the hardware developed by ARC, Anton Zeilingers research group, and Graz University of Technology; other components that are already commercially available, including those from idQuantique in Geneva and MagiQ in New York, are also suitable for such applications. So Jonas is optimistic. Once the system attracts greater interest, and customers such as banks and military organizations begin asking for it, the cost of hardware components will fall and our commercial solutions will become more attractive. Were ready for that day, says Jonas. Bernd Mller

52

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

53

Digital Watchmen | Neural Quantum Computers

Researchers Rodion Neigovzen (left) and Steffen Glaser from the Technical University of Munich are using sodium formate molecules (see model at right) to realize a neural quantum computer.

vidual connections, explains Dr. Rudolf Sollacher, of the Learning Systems center at CT. These networks can be used to recognize new patterns without having to be given specific rules, for example. Specialists call this adaptive learning. For instance, with regard to interpreting handwriting, Christof Strmann, who works closely with Sollacher, explains that, A neural network that is trained using the letter a written in many different ways will learn in time how an a is supposed to look and then will be able to recognize an a written in a style different from the ones it has already learned. It is

Regardless of the anomaly-identification methodology, however, both require amazing speed. In fact, conventional computers trying to do the same thing would quickly be hindered by their physical limitations. With this in mind, Sollachers team is planning to combine neural networks with a technology that is still in its infancy: quantum computing. For complex tasks like pattern recognition, a quantum computer really has what it takes, say Sollacher. Trained as a physicist, Sollacher (48) uses a special property of quantum systems for his work. As a rule quanta are not in a single, un-

Catching Worms with Quanta


The digital watchmen of the future will repel computer attacks, relying on a neural networks adaptability and a quantum computers lightning speed. Siemens is already developing a prototype.
54 Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

ts an eternal battle. Criminals conceive ways to hack into computer systems and send their creations through the Internet, while software developers at companies and public agencies scramble to block intrusions and protect users from damage. But as soon as one dangerous code is cracked, a new one springs up in the virtual world. Malicious software can trigger undesirable functions in an infected computer. Such programs usually operate in the background, unnoticed by computer users but they can cause considerable damage, in-

cluding manipulation or deletion of entire files, detrimental changes to a computers online security software, and unauthorized gathering of data for marketing purposes or for spying on the user. In 2005 the FBI conducted a study that included a survey of security experts at American companies, government agencies, and universities. The survey respondents reported an average loss of approximately $200,000 as a result of online crime. The most commonly cited causes of the financial damages were viruses and worms. A particularly nasty form of attack is the computer worm. Unlike a virus, which attaches itself to a file that must be opened by the user in order to do its damage, a worm autonomously spreads through networks and attempts to burrow into other computers. To date, roughly 2,000 computer worms have been uncovered. Their codes are known, so

their bit sequences can be sniffed out and barred by suitable security software, known as sniffers. But new worms, different from those already known, can emerge every day. Thats why we all need digital watchmen electronic systems that can automatically identify these new threats. With this in mind, specialists at the Learning Systems department of Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) are working on far-sighted solutions designed to permanently put worms out of business. Their weapon: development of a combination of neural networks with a quantum computer. Less Wiggle Room for Worms. When it comes to neural networks, Siemens experts rely on processes that work in a way similar to those in the human brain. In neural networks, all nodes are connected with one another. The information is found in the strength of the indi-

this nearly magical ability of neural networks that the Siemens researchers are now taking advantage of in their efforts to hunt down new worms. They can use it to recognize potentially dangerous signatures, much like the way fingerprints are used to recognize criminals. However, if a worm is based on an entirely new process, a neural network will not catch it anymore than an FBI database will catch a firsttime criminal. This is why Strmann recommends taking the opposite approach. A sniffer that rapidly recognize patterns reads entire data transfer processes. It allows everything to pass through that corresponds to normal business transactions. But the instant it detects something new and unexpected, it sounds an alarm. Then the task is to determine if the anomaly represents a threat, he says. This method is particularly suited for use in companies where the data being transferred internally is very well known.

ambiguous state but rather are simultaneously in all possible states, superposed on one another. A conventional computer calculates with bits, which have a value of 0 or 1, but a bit in a quantum computer can be 0 and 1 at the same time due to superpositioning. In the quantum world this kind of bit has even been assigned its own official name: qubit. Exploiting a Universe of Possibilities. A system composed of two qubits can assume the following states: 00, 01, 10, and 11 and all simultaneously. And the number of possible combinations rises rapidly. For instance, with 32 qubits there are four billion possibilities. The idea in quantum computing is therefore to exploit this multiplicity, with each calculation proceeding in all states at the same time. It is therefore easy to see why the achievement of such technology could result in a super-powerful parallel computer capable of working many

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

55

Digital Watchmen | Neural Quantum Computers

| Digital Parking Lots

A car is allowed to leave the parking lot only if the number on a ticket agrees with its previouslyphotographed license plate. Cameras record the driver and the vehicles condition.

times faster than conventional computers when recognizing patterns. And such a feature is a must if a sniffer is expected to check for malicious codes in real time in an avalanche of data that can easily amount to many gigabits per second. Theres one big problem with all of this, however: The kinds of quantum computers that would be needed to perform such operations dont exist. Whats more, those quantum

tion under the supervision of Prof. Wilhelm Zwerger, the chair of Munich Technical Universitys Theoretical Physics department. This simulation works with as many network nodes as you like, says Neigovzen, but only if the computer has the required capacity. Neigovzens simulation of a neural quantum network functions beautifully in the virtual world. In fact, Sollacher's team at CT has already used the algorithm to predict how a real

exciting breakthrough. In December 2007, in the basement of the Chemistry building, the two teams completed the worlds first experiment creating a neural network which consisted of two bits running on a simple quantum computer. Reality Check. The researchers who conducted the experiment, Neigovzen and the universitys Dr. Jorge Neves, used a solution of water and sodium formate, whose molecules each have one carbon and one hydrogen atom. They poured the solution into a test tube, which they placed in a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. NMR spectrometry is often used by chemists to perform structural analysis of biomolecules. However, the method can also be used to manipulate qubits. The NMR principle is based on the fact that most atomic nuclei and particularly hydrogen nuclei behave like tiny bar magnets, spinning and tilting in a magnetic field. Thus, when the test solution is placed in a powerful magnetic field, its atomic nuclei arrange themselves along the lines of the field, as a result of their spin and magnetic moment. Then, using appropriate high-frequency pulses, the atomic nuclei are perturbed the equivalent of entering information into the quantum computer. The nuclei start to rotate like tops around the lines of the magnetic field, giving off characteristic radiation, which can be measured. This step corresponds to reading out the desired data. In the case of the researchers neural quantum computer, the measured signals agreed exactly with the values predicted by the simulation, confirming that Neigovzens simulation of a quantum computer delivers correct results in practice.

Driving out the Crooks


Services at airports should be secure, efficient, and convenient. And parking is no exception. Thats why Siemens is using overlapping imaging systems to help manage parking lots around Moscows booming Domodedovo Airport and make them safer.

Rodion Neigovzen puts a solution of sodium formate and water into a spectrometer to manipulate qubits.

computers that have been developed to date can handle only a few qubits, and these prototypes are too complex and cumbersome for everyday use. Thats why Sollacher and his colleagues decided to assess the advantages of running a neural network on a quantum computer by simulating how such a system would work. Simulating a Quantum Network. The man who was given this complex simulation assignment is 29-year-old quantum computing specialist Rodion Neigovzen. I started by transferring the spatial and chronological development of a neural network into the quantum world and developing the associated mathematical formulas, he reports. Neigovzen used a conventional computer to simulate this process, an original development for his doctoral disserta-

Researchers have succeeded in creating the worlds first neural network using a quantum computer.
quantum computer running on a neural network would behave in detecting patterns. But do the results reflect reality? To determine the answer, Sollachers team looked for a way to observe the results in an experiment. Their search led them to Prof. Steffen Glaser and his colleagues at Munich Technical Universitys Chemistry department, where researchers had been working for years toward the realization of quantum computers and the ability to control qubits in theory and practice. This encounter quickly led to the the establishment of a partnership between Siemens Corporate Technology and the Technical University a partnership that soon produced an As far as Prof. Glaser was concerned, the experiment constituted something like a contact with another world the world of neural networks. Its exciting to combine Siemens expertise in this area with our know-how in quantum computing, says Glaser. And for Siemens, this collaboration could be the seed that grows into a neural quantum computer, one that can detect computer worms faster and more effectively than any system available today. A prototype of such a computer is expected to be ready in one to two years. But it will still be a few years before it all results in a product, says Sollacher. Brigitte Rthlein

he Russian capital of Moscow and its surrounding area can be reached by air via five airports. One of them Domodedovo International Airport has become the largest and most rapidly expanding airport in Russia over the past few years. Between 2001 and 2007, passenger volume at the airport, which is located in the south of the city, rose from 3.8 million to around 18 million per year. This increasing volume poses new challenges for the airports parking lot management system. To tackle this challenge, airport management turned to Siemens. We opted for a parking lot solution from Siemens because, in addition to enabling the expansion of the existing system, it provided parking lot users with a high level of security and convenience, says Dmitrij Ognev, project manager for Domodedovo Airport. Since November 2005, Siemens

Mobility Division has gradually installed stateof-the-art technology at three of the airports large parking lots with space for a total of 2,400 cars. As a result, the airport now has the most modern and secure parking lot system in Russia. One of the principal features of the Siemens solution is a license plate reading system. This is one of the projects most innovative components, says Kirill Golovinski, who manages the project for Siemens in Russia. It is without parallel in Russia and very few comparable systems can be found anywhere in Europe. The system is equipped with three cameras. The first of these is an infrared camera that records the license plate numbers of entering vehicles. The camera can even read license plates when its dark or when weather conditions are bad. Meanwhile, a second camera

takes a picture of the driver, while a third films the entire vehicle, documenting its color, brand, and condition. The data is transmitted via a broadband connection to a database, where it is stored. When a vehicle is about to leave the parking lot, the system compares the sets of data, allowing the driver to leave only if the cars license plate number and the number on the parking ticket match. The images from the other two cameras are also compared. In this way, we were able to combat the previously frequent car thefts and manipulations of vehicle damage, which have since become more difficult and less common, says Ognev. The new system is especially good at defeating the parking lot defrauders who secretly sold short-term parking passes to longterm parkers.

56

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

57

Digital Watchmen

| Facts and Forecasts

To make arrivals and departures more comfortable for those who use the parking lots frequently, Siemens incorporated a Hughes Identification Device (HID) a contactless permanent parking pass system. Unlike normal parking lot users, airport employees and selected customers do not receive the usual paper ticket, but instead a credit-card-size permanent parking pass equipped with a transponder containing a ten- to 12-digit code number. On the basis of this ID, the airport assigns parking rights for particular spaces. Contactless reading devices for permanent parking passes have been set up at all parking lot entrances and exits. If a driver shows a pass in the vicinity of one of these devices, the data for example, the number of the parking pass and the cars license plate number are read and evaluated. If all of the data matches, the driver is allowed to proceed. Secure Payments. By requiring the input of a PIN code, the solution for processing a credit card at an automatic payment machine also increases security. Here, the data is coded twice and sent from the airport to an associated bank. Third party interference is thus virtually impossible. Unlike the offline processes used by other providers, this system does not put the data into intermediate storage during payment, but instead processes the information, which it records with the help of fiscal printers. Incorporated into the payment machines, these printers contain a roll of paper for printing out receipts as well as a memory chip for recording all transactions. Such printers are needed so that the Russian internal revenue service can check all of the payment processes. In the future, transactions will increasingly be handled in such online cash flows, says Svetlana Sabirova from the Siemens sales organization in Moscow. Siemens know-how and expertise will continue to be in demand at Domodedovo Airport. Its very likely that Siemens next order from Domodedovo will be for the parking lot for the buses and vans used in local public transport, says Andreas Schneider of Siemens Mobility in Berlin, who manages the project from Germany. And the way things are looking at the moment, it probably wont be the last order either. Thats because news of the parking lot systems success has spread throughout Moscow and beyond. In addition to two additional airports near Moscow, the city of Sochi, the venue of the 2014 Winter Olympics, has also expressed interest in high-tech access solutions from Siemens, which could also meet increased demands for security and help to fight crime. Julia Wetjen

Growing Boom in IT
D
emand for security technologies has increased tremendously in recent years. This is a result, in part, Post-crisis, IDC forecasts that growth rates will decrease from their 2008 level of 13.2 percent to 9.8 percent in 2009, before slowly rebounding to about 10.3 percent in 2010. IDC analyst Brian E. Burke expects demand for security products will continue to be stronger than that for other IT technologies in 2009. This is because companies will have to comply with legal requirements imposed by European and international guidelines, Burke explains. For 2010 and beyond, for instance, Burke predicts that additional requirements in the field of data protection and

Security Technologies
the user into transferring funds to such sites. In December

Phishing Victims in Germany


4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,609 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500
Source: BITKOM

4,135

3,309

Worldwide RFID Demand


Sales in billions of euros
16 14 12 10 8

2007 an anti-phishing initiative, APWG, recorded more than 25,000 attacks per month. And in a series of studies from 2008 titled Banking IT in 2023, U.S. market researcher Forrester forecasts that convenient use of new types of mobile terminals will become the standard means

of our awareness of the risks related to public safety issues. Security standards have been upgraded at railway stations and airports, and for commercial buildings. This has been confirmed in recent years by the booming business in biometric solutions including systems that recognize fingerprints, speech, and faces and in access control systems (Pictures of the Future, Spring 2008, p. 99). Also showing strong growth are security technologies

Average growth +25% p.a.

of conducting banking processes and transactions. In this series, Forrester Vice President Jost Hoppermann sees a two-fold authentication process, for example using fingerprints and passwords, as indispensable.
Source: Deutsche Bank Research, 2008

2005

2006*

2007*

* Extrapolation, basis: approx. 90% of the population

Global Market for Security Services


Source: Calculations by Berenberg Bank on the basis of current market data

6 4 2 0

Projected Increases in Mobile and Internet Banking


Users aged 16 years or older (in %) Germany
50 40 30 20 20
Source: Celent Europe

Billions of U.S. dollars


250

2005
200 Worldwide U.S. Germany Japan China

2010

2015

France

Great Britain

Italy
Internet banking users 2007 Internet banking users 2010 Mobile banking users 2007 Mobile banking users 2010

2006

2008

2011

2016

150

100

RFID Applications
Percentage of the projects covered by the survey

25

25

25

50

10 4 0

Transport Production control Product information Access control Customer cards/ payment Leisure/ household Health care

related to video surveillance systems used in subways (Pictures of the Future, Fall 2006, p. 93). Whats more, the increasing digitalization of everyday life and stronger measures for protecting sensitive corporate data have generated an enormous demand for solutions that can prevent identity theft. Security technologies are used with authentication and transaction processes for online and telephone banking, and to provide protection against counterfeit medications. Given this broad spectrum of security- and safety-related concerns in todays information society, analysts of the Hamburg Institute of International Economics and the Berenberg Bank collaborated on a study titled Security Industry Strategy 2030. The study forecasts that the worldwide market for security services will reach $231 billion by 2015, doubling its 2005 level. IDC, a U.S.-based market research institute, is also predicting high rates of growth in the security products field in coming years, a prediction that has been adjusted downward only slightly since the emergence of the financial crisis. In a market analysis titled Worldwide Security Products 2008 2012:

more stringent regulations for financial reporting will lead to a robust increase in companies expenditures for security solutions. Analysts at Celent, an international market research firm, expect a big increase in online and mobile phone banking by customers in Western Europe. Today only six percent of bank customers in the region use mobile banking, a figure expected to rise to 25 percent by 2010. This development could also result in damages and losses for a growing number of users. For 2007 in Germany alone, the German Association for Information Technology, Telecommunications, and New Media (Bitkom) recorded a 25-percent increase in unauthorized use of PIN numbers compared to 2006, and monetary damages of 19 million. Another important factor in online banking is phishing. Criminals who engage in phishing send an e-mail containing malware (malicious software) that installs itself on a users computer, where it works undetected, gathering PIN numbers and passing them on to unauthorized users. malware can also direct an online banking user to a counterfeit web site designed to appear legitimate, thus tricking

Another area of application for digital watchmen is protection against counterfeit products by means of radio frequency identification chips (RFIDs). Between 2006 and 2016 in Germany, sales generated with RFID components are expected to rise by an average of 19 percent annually, from more than 1.1 billion today to 16 billion. And according to an assessment by Deutsche Bank Research in a current study titled RFID chips: Enabling the efficient exchange of information, annual growth rates worldwide may be as high as 25 percent. Transport of goods and related logistics are the largest areas of application, and use of the chips with costly medications and lifestyle drugs is increasing, says Stefan Heng, an analyst at Deutsche Bank Research. Pharmaceutical companies are attaching RFID tags and electronic certificates of authenticity to bulk
Source: IIG Freiburg, 2008

to more than $400 million by 2018. This is due to the number of counterfeit medications being produced, which has been rising sharply for years. Statistics released by EU customs authorities indicate they found 2.7 million counterfeit medications in 2006. And the number of such medications seized in 2007 increased by 51 percent compared to the previous years total. In 2008 alone, customs personnel taking part in an EU-wide operation found 34 million counterfeit medications in only two months. The market for security technologies overall has grown from what initially were only loosely linked niche markets into a vibrant new sector shaped by its high-tech applications and dynamic growth, concludes Wolfgang Pflger, chief economist at Berenberg Bank. And there are still areas of potential to be opened up in this market. Use of new materials and security mechanisms, as well as development of innovative application scenarios for modern high-security technologies, must guarantee improved protection against identity theft, says Ulrich Hamann, CEO of Bundesdruckerei GmbH, in assessing this growth market. Nikola Wohllaib

Public services

packages of medications. Using a reading device, a pharmacist can quickly check a medications authenticity. This market is expected to develop strongly. Market researchers at IDTechEx, for example, predict the market for RFID equipment used in the health care and pharmaceutical sectors will grow from its 2008 level of about $20 million

10

15

20

25

30

35

n = 493 companies in Germany

58

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

59

Digital Watchmen | IT Security

ts seven oclock on a Wednesday morning, and things are still quiet at the Siemens Uptime Service Center (USC) in Erlangen, Germany. But that can change in a second. All of the fault reports and queries from customers throughout Germany who have Siemens medical equipment are processed and collated here, and there are around 41,000 such systems. Worldwide, Siemens monitors roughly 200,000 medical systems ranging from CT scanners to MR and PET diagnostic systems.

providing prompt processing of customer queries, preventive maintenance, and rapid resolution of fault reports. If a customer experiences problems or simply has a query, he or she can contact the Uptime Service Center around the clock. An expert at the center will go online (frequently even during the same telephone call), log into the customers network, and initiate a diagnostic process. This functionality requires the system to be connected to the Siemens Remote

24/7 Solution. In up to 50 percent of the faults reported worldwide, the problem can be fixed by the USC and therefore eliminated remotely. If this is not possible, Siemens experts have access to a spare parts catalogue and can order any part that may be required without delay. In 97 percent of all cases, the customer has the part on the very next day worldwide. In particularly urgent situations, for example in the event of a total failure, the required components can be sent immediately by

Indefatigable Guardians
When it comes to medical technology, equipment reliability and availability are indispensable. To guarantee uninterrupted service, Siemens offers an innovative remote-maintenance concept that makes it possible to detect and eliminate faults often before they cause any problems.

Today, the diagnosis and ordering of spare parts by the remote service team takes place within about 30 minutes. Should on-site service be required, most of the engineering callouts for the next day can be planned online, and in around three quarters of all cases the fault can be eliminated during an engineers first visit. The platform for this online access and remote maintenance service is provided by SRS (Pictures of the Future, Spring 2005). Siemens specialists from the USC use a reliable IT infrastructure based on a securely-encrypted VPN (Virtual Private Network) connection to connect directly to the system and the customer. It is like a central forum where service engineers and customers exchange information with each other, says Head of Product Support Dr. Stefan Henkel. Certified Data Protection. At Siemens Remote Service, data security is considered to be of supreme importance as it should be, given the fact that we are dealing with highly

services, including virus protection a particularly important feature since more and more clinical equipment is integrated into network systems. This integration has considerable advantages. For instance, using a panel at the patients bedside, the attending physician can call up patient-related data stored in a central database (Pictures of the Future, Spring 2008, p. 70) or transmit images from a computer tomograph to a digital patient file at the press of a button, immediately after they have been taken.

Virus Hunt. Damage inflicted by viruses can severely compromise a hospitals operations for instance by causing a system crash with significant associated delays, by putting emergency patients at risk, or by losing vital data. This is why the radiology department at Switzerlands University Hospital Basel chose a comprehensive VP solution in 2007. The hospital records more than 10,000 digital patient images a day, a figure that requires some 18 gigabytes and is nevertheless steadily increasing. Whats more, the facilitys imaging

With its remote maintenance centers and software updates, Siemens can eliminate up to 50 percent of the faults in large-scale medical equipment worldwide via data networks.

As is so often the case, there are peak hours with particularly intense bursts of activity. In Germany alone, we processed more than 100,000 reports in 2008, recalls Arne Westphal, who heads the USC. In most countries where it is represented, Siemens has established Uptime Service Centers to support international customers in their own national languages. Together with its Regional Support Center and Headquarters Support Center, which specializes in unusual and complex problems, the Uptime Service Centers form the Siemens customer support network that is responsible for

Service (SRS). After entering the customers system ID, the Siemens expert will be looking at the same screen content that a service engineer would see. Without interrupting the operation of the device, the Siemens expert first looks at the log files and the entries that provide any information about the location of the fault. In the case of a magnetic resonance scanner, for example, he may look for problems that occur when sliding the table in, or coils that may have been incorrectly connected by the customer that would cause signal interference and thus image degradation.

taxi and in areas that are difficult to access, for instance the mountains of Canada, even helicopters can be chartered. At the same time, the USC will inform a local engineer and simultaneously dispatch him with the spare part to the customer. Things werent always this easy. Only a few years ago, around two hours after a report was received, an engineer would arrive at the customer site and it would take another hour for the diagnosis to be completed. Only then were spare parts ordered. Yet another visit was required for the actual repair. As a result, extensive down time were often experienced.

sensitive patient information, says Michael Pschel, head of the System Management Center for Siemens Healthcare Sector, which provides the infrastructure. It is precisely at this critical point where sensitive data and networked systems come together that Siemens offers maximum security, he adds. This is confirmed by TV Sd, a certification organization, which has certified that the centers information security management system is in compliance with the ISO 27001 international standard. The possibilities that SRS offers have enabled Siemens to develop further innovative

These functions certainly boost the effectiveness of a hospitals workflows in terms of time and labor requirements. But they also bring with them a spectrum of risks that every computer user is familiar with risks that range from USB sticks containing data downloaded from the Internet, and growing numbers of viruses, worms and Trojans that can penetrate and damage systems. To combat this problem, Siemens has developed Virus Protection (VP), a scanning program that prevents hostile attacks by detecting bit sequences that are typical of viruses and blocking them before they can be activated.

systems operate at full capacity, which is why all systems must be available for use at all times in order for workflows to proceed smoothly. To ensure the highest level of data security, as well as seamless operation, the Siemens Service Center not only monitors hospital systems, but works closely with the customer. Every hospital employee is required to report any irregularities. Siemens uses an extensively tested and proven virus scanner from Trend Micro. The product can continuously monitor electronic systems without interfering with the hospitals processes. The product is also pre-

60

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

61

Digital Watchmen | IT Security

| Bacteria Detection

Siemens Microscan systems (below) identify bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Research is moving forward rapidly in developing lab-on-a-chip technology (right) that will accelerate diagnostics.

ventively and constantly updated with information regarding the latest virus signatures, which are tested in advance for relevance and compatibility with the imaging system in question. This makes it possible to minimize risks with little effort on the part of the hospital, says Christian Kluth, head of Medicine and Operational Technology at University Hospital Basel. Built-in Brains. For particularly important equipment that requires the highest possible level of system availability for instance in the context of interventional cardiology or emergency computer tomography Siemens offers an additional level of proactive service: the Guardian Program. Around the clock and in real time, this system monitors key device parameters including the functionality of X-ray tubes in angiography systems, the temperature and flow speed of coolant in magnetic resonance tomographs, and the rotation speed and vibration of computer tomographs. The number of parameters to be monitored varies tremendously depending on the system being monitored. It is not unusual for 100 or even 200 threshold values to be monitored individually or in correlation with one another. Such values are pre-defined by Siemens device engineers during the devices pilot phase, and are constantly checked. As soon as one of these values exceeds or falls short of its set limits, this is registered online. The systems have their own intelligence, explains Pschel, who is an expert in machine pattern analysis. They automatically tell us if there are indications of a possible fault. Employees at the Siemens Service Center can then respond promptly and, under ideal circumstances, eliminate the fault directly in the system before device users have noticed any sign of a problem. In a recent development, this has also become possible for X-ray tubes in computed tomography scanners from the Somatom Definition family. TubeGuard, an additional option to the Guardian Program, provides problem-free patient images around the clock. More than ten sensors monitor tube functions, ensuring that deviations can be spotted and reported via data transfer through SRS before problems actually occur. And TubeGuard is just one of many recent service innovations from Siemens. According to SRS Product Support head Henkel, further innovative services are already in the pipeline, because, as he says, the service development process never stops. Stephanie Lackerschmid

hen Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, he achieved a medical milestone. The antibiotic gave mankind its first effective weapon for combating bacterial pathogens. Unfortunately, this success did not last. By 1961, the first bacteria resistant to all active ingredients of the penicillin group appeared: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), or MRSA for short. Since then, MRSA has spread rapidly, particularly in hospitals. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MRSAs share of total infections at intensive care units in the U.S. rose from two percent in 1974 to 64 percent in 2004. Of the estimated 292,000 infections caused yearly in hospitals by S. aureus, around 126,000 are due to MRSA, and 19,000 of these are fatal.

Closing in on Deadly Enemies


More and more bacteria are developing resistance to antibiotics a deadly trend for weakened patients in hospitals. Siemens offers processes that can be used to quickly identify highly resistant bacteria and provide fast results regarding the effectiveness of antibiotics. Researchers are also developing and testing promising new methods based on genetic and protein targets.

Because these bacteria multiply exponentially, effective antibiotics have to be administered as quickly as possible. If it is suspected that a patient is suffering from an infection, for example due to a deterioration of his or her overall condition, hospital staff take a sample, which is then analyzed in a diagnostics lab to determine which antibiotics would be most effective in combatting it, and in what concentration. Traditionally, microbiology labs run a series of biochemical identification procedures along with disk diffusion tests to determine a bacterias antimicrobic susceptibility profile. These procedures are extremely personnel-intensive, however, which is why new, sometimes fully automatic, processes for identifying

primary isolates and determining their antimicrobial susceptibility are so popular. Siemens MicroScan Systems combine such methodologies for isolate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on one test panel. The MicroScan Systems use direct growth-based susceptibility testing that allows for the true expression of resistance. The test panels contain multiple wells for holding culture media, biochemicals, and antibiotics in various concentrations. Once the panels have been prepared with a previously isolated culture of the organism at a determined concentration, they are placed inside a MicroScan WalkAway instrument for processing. There, the bacterial isolate is incubated with identification substrates and other materials. The systems software interprets the measured bacterial concentrations and analyzes the test to detect any atypical or unknown reactions. The results are then transferred to the physician to verify if the patients current therapy is appropriate and, if not, to immediately administer effective antibiotics as determined by the test. We offer a range of different microtiter plates, including several for use in the rapid identification of the isolate with key antimicrobial results in as little as four and one-half hours, reports Laura Jackson, Global Product Manager at MicroScan. The susceptibility incubation period can be automatically extended to 16 hours when absolutely accurate resistance information is needed. In this case, the system offers the same degree of precision as manual tests. This degree of accuracy has been proved by direct comparisons of clinical isolates such as S. aureus. Until 1997, doctors faced with cases of MRSA infection were able to fall back on vancomycin. However, in that year, the first strain of S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to this powerful antibiotic appeared in Tokyo. The MicroScan system is the first fully automatic system to be approved by the FDA that can identify this vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Breaking Bacterial Resistance. To ensure that mutated pathogens like these can be quickly and reliably recognized and diagnosed, scientists at Siemens Corporate Research (SCR) in Princeton, New Jersey, are now focusing their research on new identification methods that target the bacterias genetic material and proteins. Gayle Wittenberg and her colleagues at SCR are working together with the Power and Sensor Systems department of Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) in Erlangen, Germany, to develop such a process. Unlike the MicroScan system, which directly uses a sample to deter-

mine what antibiotic concentrations are effective, the SCR approach relies on a rapid method for analyzing the genetic material. Once this has been done, researchers look for an effective antibiotic, using the genetic data stored in a computer. The advantage of our approach is that we can not only develop rapid tests, providing results in one hour, but we have also developed a framework that will allow us to develop new diagnostic tests rapidly based on the genetic sequence of the pathogen, Wittenberg explains. The system is still in the development stage. Wittenberg wants to conduct the rapid tests with lab-on-a-chip technology (Pictures of the Future, Fall 2004, p. 74). With this technology, a drop of saliva or blood, for example, is placed on a mobile examination plate equipped with a microscopic diagnostics lab. Here, the bacteria are automatically opened, and the genetic material is deciphered using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. This method multiplies the DNA in vitro (outside of a living organism). Finally, the individual DNA building blocks are detected using a special biochip. To this end, the individual building blocks are marked with special molecules and measured on the basis of a voltage change. It will take at least another year until the first prototype becomes available. Because its design will make it so easy to handle and operate, the lab-on-a-chip system is not intended for use in laboratories, but in treatment rooms themselves. The technology will allow doctors and nursing staff to take blood from a patient, analyze it, and receive a result from an associated computer within a few minutes no external labs required. Besides being suitable for hospitals, the system is also a solution for applications in the food industry, where products have to be tested for microbial contamination. Thanks to the speed of the analysis and the mobile nature of the lab-on-a-chip, the system could also be used to regularly check sterile areas such as operating rooms or even to provide early warning of epidemics, and defend against bio-terrorism. Wittenberg and her team are already planning the next step, which will include identifying bacteria not on the basis of their genetic material alone, but also on their proteins. However, they still have to develop the marker molecules that will be needed for this process. Success here would allow faster and simpler identification of bacteria. Focusing on proteins in addition to genes will help us identify biomarkers linked directly to the mechanisms of drug resistance. These should be less sensitive to the organisms ongoing evolution, explains Wittenberg. Michael Lang

62

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

63

Digital Watchmen | Smoke Detectors

Regardless of whether the source of danger is welding, a smoldering fire, or an open blaze (below) Siemens detectors know when to sound an alarm. Markus Spni monitors signals at the Fire Lab (right).

he pieces of wood on the hot metal plate are beginning to smoke, first in thin plumes, which become thicker and thicker. After three or four minutes, a column of white smoke has formed directly above the glowing wood chips. The air in the rest of the room is clear, however and this is how dangerous smoldering fires generally begin. The moment of truth is therefore at hand for a test involving eight different kinds of smoke detectors installed on the ceiling of the room. When will each sound an alarm? Most major blazes begin as smoldering fires, says Markus Spni, head of Siemens Building Technologies (BT) Fire Lab, which is located in Zug, Switzerland. Such fires initially produce little smoke. Whats more, temperatures dont rise much either. The Fire Lab is where the fire detection systems developed and tested by BT researchers and engineers are actually demonstrated. While the wood chips continue to smoke away on the 500-degree Celsius hot plate,

curves depicted on a monitor reveal which of the detectors have recognized the danger. Several of the optical detectors from Siemens have already sounded an alarm. But an ionization smoke detector for many years the detector of choice has yet to notice anything. Ionization detectors use a weak radiation source to ionize the air, thus making it conduc-

completely absorbed. If, however, the light rays encounter smoke particles, the light will be scattered and some of the rays will hit photoelectric cells integrated into the unit. Smoldering fires produce light-colored smoke containing large particles that can be better detected through a forward scatter than a back scatter system. The exact opposite is

Unlike ionization detectors, optical devices can detect smoldering fires at a very early stage.
tive. Air conductivity decreases if the ions collide with smoke particles, causing the detector to sound an alarm if it measures the lower current. This system works great when theres a blazing fire but when a substance is simply smoldering, the number of smoke particles is so low that the detector wont notice them until some time after an optical unit does, Spni explains. true of open fires, which generate smaller dark particles. Here, back scatter produces a stronger signal than forward scatter. A processor in the detector analyzes all this data, calculates what type of fire is most likely occurring, and then sounds an applicable alarm. Recognizing Harmless Smoke. The detectors ability to distinguish between types of

Where theres Smoke theres


Smoke detectors that automatically distinguish between false alarms and dangerous blazes, cameras that transmit real-time images from the scene of a fire, and extinguishers that smother flames in seconds Siemens Building Technologies Fire Lab in Zug, Switzerland is the place where the companys hottest fire-fighting innovations are demonstrated.
64 Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

On the other hand, the signals produced by the optical detectors that appear on the monitor clearly indicate the danger posed by the thin smoke at a very early stage. Detectors utilized in Siemens new Sinteso S-Line fire protection system are particularly fast and reliable, as they are equipped with two optical sensors rather than one, as was previously the case and because they have two temperature sensors. There are no other detectors like these at the moment, says Spni. The units operate according to the principle of optical forward and back scatter. Inside each units housing is a kind of labyrinth with many plastic walls. The labyrinth steers the scattered light onto precise pathways. If no smoke is present, the light will hit the walls of the labyrinth, where it will be

smoke is made possible by advanced signal analysis (ASA) technology developed by Siemens. ASA software enables the processor in the detector to convert the signals recorded by the photoelectric cell and temperature sensors into mathematical values. Specially-developed algorithms then compare the signal values with predefined value levels, and the resulting analysis allows the system to differentiate between a real fire for which an alarm needs to be triggered, and harmless steam from cooking or even smoke from welding. Every detector equipped with ASA technology can be precisely calibrated for the environment in which it is to be used, Spni explains. A good example of the importance of such a feature is offered by industrial applications,

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

65

Digital Watchmen | Smoke Detectors

where harmless smoke or steam is frequently formed, and generally causes conventional detectors to trigger an alarm. Thats not the case with multi-sensor detectors equipped with ASA software, says Spni. They recognize that smoke from welding can not be a blaze because the typical intervals of the welding process mean that the resulting smoke doesnt form continually. To ensure such functionality, the parameter sets in the detector must be precisely aligned with the types of fires expected at a given facil-

tels, skyscrapers, and shopping malls. In fact, such facilities can no longer be safely operated without such state-of-the-art technology. As a consequence, new smoke detectors have to be integrated into high-performance safety systems. To this end, Siemens developed its Sinteso fire detection center systems, which are modularly designed and equipped with standard interfaces. These systems can be expanded at any time to accommodate new building wings or the modernization of older equipment.

another. Put simply, this has meant that cameras have not been programmed to automatically record images from the area where an alarm has been sounded. With this in mind, Siemens has developed a combined system that automatically transmits live images from the areas affected by a fire, so that such images can be analyzed both immediately and later. Such images can provide valuable information on the causes of a fire as well as the real-time situation that firemen and rescue services personnel will confront at the scene.

flash point for objects in the room. Both extinguishing agents flow through the same pipe network and nozzles, whereby the nitrogen propels the water in a manner that ensures a consistent and moderate flow. It takes only a small amount of water to substantially cool down overheated devices or surfaces, thereby offering further protection in addition to the gas flame-retardant effect. In addition, the mist reduces the danger of re-ignition. If the greatest possible extinguishing effectiveness is to be achieved, the nitrogen-water

In Brief
In the age of globalization and IT technology, criminality has taken on a completely new face. Counterfeit products cause up to 300 billion of damage each year, while online scammers score large sums of money with a single mouse click. However, help is PEOPLE: RFID Against Counterfeits: Dr. Michael Braun, CT mic.braun@siemens.com RFID for Abdominal Pads: Thomas Jell, SIS thomas.jell@siemens.com RFID for Blood Bags: Harald Speletz, Industry harald.speletz@siemens.com Internet users can take some simple measures to make life more difficult for online scammers, such as using encryption. Siemens and its partners in an EU project recently demonstrated that unbreakable quantum cryptography is now ready for a market launch. (p. 50, 51) Quantum physics can be used to forge high-tech solutions. For example, Siemens Secure Banking Transactions: Olaf Badstbner, SIS olaf.badstuebner@siemens.com Quantum Cryptography: Robert Jonas, PSE robert.jonas@siemens.com Quantum Computers: Dr. Rudolf Sollacher, CT rudolf.sollacher@siemens.com Parking Lot Monitoring: Andreas Schneider, Industry andreasschneider@siemens.com Siemens Uptime Service: Arne Westphal, Germany Region arne.westphal@siemens.com Siemens Remote Services: Siemens has also specialized in security solutions that have nothing to do with the Internet. Examples include smoke detectors that automatically detect a false alarm and even odorless, toxic carbon monoxide. The company has also developed parking lot solutions that use intelligent camera technology and only permit a vehicle to leave the lot if the previously photographed license plate matches the number on the parking ticket. (p. 56, 64) In the field of medical technology, reliability and availability are two of the most important factors for example, when it comes to systems for rapidly identifying highly resistant bacteria. Such systems can provide important information about the effectiveness of anti- biotics. Siemens also offers a remote-maintenance concept that makes it possible to detect and eliminate faults in medical devices long before they can cause any problems. (p. 60, 62) LINKS: German Federal Office for Information Security: www.bsi.de Austrian Research Centers: www.arcs.ac.at Dr. Stefan Henkel, Healthcare stefan.henkel@siemens.com Bacteria Detection: Laura Jackson, Healthcare laura.f.jackson@siemens.com Gayle Wittenberg, SCR gayle.wittenberg@siemens.com Smoke Detectors: Markus Spni, Industry markus.spaeni@siemens.com Dr. Thomas Mann, Industry thomas.m.mann@siemens.com Prof. Anton Zeilinger anton.zeilinger@univie.ac.at Prof. Steffen Glaser steffen.glaser@ch.tum.de

1 2 1 6

Two infrared light sources (forward and back scatter) In the absence of smoke, light will be completely absorbed by the walls. Smoke particles, on the other hand, scatter light rays, which then hit a photoelectric cell. The positioning of light sources and the forward or back scattering of light helps the system distinguish between light and dark smoke particles. A precise, sophisticated, and patented labyrinth steers light onto special pathways in order to prevent false alarms being sounded due to coincidental reflections. Two temperature measurement sensors CO sensor for measuring carbon monoxide concentrations.

now on the way in the form of a novel Internet ID card and a copy-protected RFID chip from Siemens. (p. 42, 45, 48)

2 1 4

5 5 6

Siemens Sinteso detectors distinguish between light and fire and measure CO concentrations.

Sinteso can be adapted to location-specific needs.

Historical books stayed dry after Sinorix put out a fire.

has developed a prototype of a neural quantum computer that in the future could perform several billion calculations

ity, as well as with data on the activities that could trigger a false alarm. A unique feature here is the devices ability to issue alarms in stages. If the measured sensor signals do not allow for a definitive conclusion, the system nevertheless reports to the control center that a dangerous situation may be in the process of developing. In the case of a full-fledged alarm, the system automatically contacts the fire department, says Spni.

The systems independently monitor all detection devices and evaluate their data. Several systems can be networked and operated either locally or via a control center. The systems also have a unique emergency backup feature, which, even in the event of a complete failure of the main processor, enable them to register and trigger any alarms initiated by a detector, notify the fire department, and take measures to ensure the evacuation of a building. This

Electrochemical cells enable detectors to register even odorless, toxic carbon monoxide.
Safer Skyscrapers. Multi-sensor detectors can do even more, however, as they are equipped with an electrochemical cell that enables them to register the presence of carbon monoxide (CO), which is invisible and odorless, and therefore especially dangerous. Just a few lung fulls of CO can kill, and carbon monoxide poisoning is the number one cause of death in fires. Thanks to CO multi-sensor detectors and other technical features, Siemens is moving into a new dimension in fire protection for homakes it possible to utilize Sinteso even in large areas such as airports and shopping centers. Europes largest shopping mall Westfield London is monitored by a Sinteso system, for example. Sintesos modular design enables control centers to be continually updated with the latest technology, including a combination of video and fire detection systems. Video images can be very helpful in a fire but up until recently video surveillance and smoke detection system functions were not aligned with one

Nitrogen-Water Mixture. Fires are usually extinguished by sprinkler systems. The idea is to cool flammable objects and prevent a blaze from spreading quickly. This technique is not, however, suitable for facilities such as archives, museums, and libraries because water damages or destroys their valuable papers, books, and paintings, says Dr. Thomas Mann, head of the Extinguisher Competence Center at Siemens BT in Zug. In order to avoid such consequences, an alternative method is to smother a blaze by filling the area in question with a non-flammable gas, which displaces the oxygen in the room. When the oxygen component in the air falls below a certain level, the flames automatically die out. A number of fire extinguishing systems based on natural gases function along these lines. Siemens has come up with a solution that combines gas and water while keeping each at a minimum. And thanks to its natural constituents, the system is environmentally friendly and safe for humans. Known as the Sinorix H2O Gas extinguishing system, it uses nitrogen to lower oxygen concentrations, while at the same time emitting a mist that reduces the ambient temperature to below the

mixture must be precisely aligned with the specific properties of, and the expected fire risks in, the area in question. Siemens has therefore developed a program that precisely calculates the dimensions required for the pipes and spray nozzles for diverse application areas, as well as the distances involved and the time it will take to spray specific rooms. Both the extinguishing device and the calculation program have been evaluated by the German Property Insurance Association (VdS). The result: Sinorix H2O Gas is the only combined gas-water indoor extinguishing system to be approved to date. Sinorix H2O Gas was also presented with the Security Innovation Award at the 2008 Security trade fair in Essen, Germany. Such outstanding references played a key role in convincing safety officials at the Danish Royal Library in Copenhagen to choose Sinorix for its fire protection needs and the protection of its valuable books and documents. They brought some valuable historical books with them and we demonstrated how a Sinorix extinguishing procedure causes no permanent damage to them, Mann reports. In fact, the dampness of the books was so minimal that they didnt even have to be dried off. Katrin Nikolaus

simultaneously. In addition, it will be capable of working together with other neural networks in order to ward off cyber attacks. (p. 54)

66

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

67

Pictures of the Future | Economic Crisis and Opportunities

Investments in clean technologies from efficient and renewable power generation and transmission to green buildings and CO2 capture and sequestration can help overcome the economic crisis.

| Interview

Were currently struggling with two crises at once the economic crisis and the climate crisis. Is that just a coincidence, or do you see parallels? Edenhofer: There definitely is a parallel. Both are crises of sustainability. Sustainability can be formulated as an imperative: Act in such a way that you dont destroy the foundations that enable you to act in the long run! In the financial crisis, the banking sector destroyed the foundation of its own business. Were people too greedy? Edenhofer: Maybe, but a more important factor was that the banking sector worldwide was improperly regulated, so that it wasnt possible

Engines of Tomorrows Growth


As times get tougher, temptation is mounting to cut costs and relax standards in the fight against global warming. Yet investments in greater sustainability benefit not only environmental protection but also the health of economies.

Why Climate Protection Isnt Optional


Professor Ottmar Edenhofer, 47, studied economics and philosophy and is deputy director and chief economist of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. He is also professor for the Economics of Climate Change at Berlin Technical University. Since September 2008, he has been one of the chairmen of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For the next seven years, he will lead Working Group III of the IPCC, which deals with measures to stem climate change. Professor Edenhofer is particularly interested in the influence of technological change on the costs and strategies of climate protection, and on the political instruments that are used to shape climate-protection and energy policy.
to stop the greed. The emphasis on shareholder value made investors focus on shortterm results. For the U.S., in particular, there was the added problem that the Federal Reserve Bank through its cheap-money policy essentially transferred the dot-com bubble to the mortgage bubble. All of that destroyed the foundations of the economy. And in the climate crisis, were in the midst of destroying the foundations of our existence. Is human short-sightedness the source of both crises? Edenhofer: I think it would be more correct to call it institutional short-sightedness. The system doesnt permit any longer-term horizons thats the crucial point. Every manager has to satisfy the demands of the capital market and his or her shareholders. I think its naive to believe the problem can be cured just by appealing to peoples sense of ethics. Policy-makers want a new regulatory framework for the global financial market. What regulations would they have to establish to ensure better treatment of the climate? Edenhofer: More than anything else, we need a global emissions cap and trade system with two basic prerequisites. First, an agreement among nations that emissions of greenhouse gases must be cut by 50 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. That way, theres an 80 percent probability that global warming will be limited to two degrees Celsius. Emissions trading limits CO2 where prevention is most cost-effec-

hese are difficult times for the climate. The economic crisis is dominating the political agenda and crowding out discussion of greenhouse gases and energy efficiency. In Germany, newspapers are running headlines like Climate Protection on Hold and Climate Protection at Risk. Some politicians share this view and would like to suspend those climateprotection programs that are already agreed on, at least until the economy rebounds. Is climate protection a luxury for better times? No, says Prof. Ottmar Edenhofer, chief economist of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) in an interview with Pictures of the Future. Anyone who claims it is doesnt understand the fundamentals of economics, he says. The global recession demands government intervention, and this can be directed in part toward climate protection.

In the short term, climate protection programs stimulate the economy. In the long term, they promote the spread of new technologies, he says. That view is shared by Nobuo Tanaka, who heads the International Energy Agency (IEA) in Paris, France. If governments are spending money on economic stimulus packages, why not promote renewable energies? he asked at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Such investments support the economy in the short term and are also sustainable, Tanaka pointed out. At the moment, however, the falling prices of raw materials and emissions rights are reducing the pressure on nations and companies to find sustainable alternatives for their supply of energy. Low prices are encouraging waste, says environmental expert Prof. Ernst Ulrich

von Weizscker in an interview with Pictures of the Future. He believes that some countries are now approaching the matter with reduced urgency. However, he adds, the Chinese are on their toes, and theyve made energy efficiency a national objective. In the U.S., too, the new Administration is rethinking environmental issues. President Barack Obama wants to become a global leader in the reduction of greenhouse gases. His New Energy for America plan intends to put a million hybrid cars on American roads by 2015 and ensure that the United States gets one fourth of its electricity from renewable sources by 2025. A good ten percent of the U.S. governments stimulus package in other words, around $83 billion will be invested in the expansion and modernization of the countrys energy infrastructure. In addition, a national

emissions trading system will help cut the U.S.s greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent by 2050 (for more, see page 102). In terms of private investment, in the first three quarters of 2008 alone, American venture capital firms invested $4.3 billion in clean technology companies. And with investments in the fields of renewable energy and energy efficiency expected to reach $150 billion over the next ten years, at least five million green collar jobs are expected to be created in these and other areas. All of this makes a great deal of economic sense because these measures will reduce dependence on energy imports and cut associated costs by several billion dollars per year steps that will pay ever-increasing dividends as the world economy regains momentum and oil prices resume their ascent. Christian Buck

68

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

69

Pictures of the Future | Economic Crisis and Opportunities

| Interview

tive. Second, we also need a concept of fairness. We have to distribute emissions rights among countries in an evenhanded way. In my view, a fair proposal has been made in this regard. By 2050, the rights should be redistributed in such a way that every person on earth has the same right to emissions for example, two tons per person per year. Will developing countries accept that? After all, up to this point, pollution has been caused mostly by the rich countries at the rate of 19 tons per person per year in the U.S. and eight tons in the EU. China is at two to three tons already, and India is at 1.5 tons per person. Edenhofer: There will continue to be considerable conflict and disagreement about the allocation, because the developing countries also want to take historical emissions into account. What is more important, though, is that we agree that we have only a limited amount of capacity in the atmosphere for more CO2, and it has to be allocated reasonably fairly. After that, we have to achieve a carbon-free global economy. If we develop the innovations needed for that, we can also resolve the allocation conflict much more easily. Does that mean that we will have to start living more modestly? Edenhofer: Only if economic growth cannot be decoupled from emissions. For decoupling to occur, however, pricing mechanisms will have to set the right incentives which is what emissions trading is designed to do. No new moderation, in other words? Edenhofer: No one should be prevented from exercising more moderation. But I think that the global economy can continue to grow at a rate of two to three percent per year, because there is no reason why economies should be dependent on increased energy use to grow. In the last 150 years, labor productivity has risen faster than energy productivity. Now we have to reverse that relationship. What sort of technological progress do we need to achieve a CO2-free economy? Edenhofer: More energy efficiency, the capture and storage of CO2, the promotion of renewable energies, a moderate expansion of nuclear energy, and the development of more advanced nuclear power plants. That sounds like a huge economic stimulus plan. Do you think we can extricate ourselves from the economic crisis through climate protection investments?

by the EU in January 2009. The prospects for this are good. This would be a signal to India, China, and others. We need to involve these large emerging economies because they can limit CO2 emissions much more cost-effectively than the West can, where most power plants already meet a high standard of efficiency. How can the BRIC nations be persuaded to take part in this? After all, they still have a lot of catching up to do economically. Edenhofer: China and India are well aware that, in the future, they will not only be the largest sources of emissions, but will also be the ones who suffer most from climate change. Many of their largest cities are located on the coasts, where a rise in sea levels could be very dangerous. In addition, these countries need new technologies to cope with their heavy dependence on coal. In this connection, were right in the midst of a global renaissance of coal. In light of that, it should be possible to put together a good package with power plants that capture CO2, which is then stored, for example. As a member of the IPCC, you have first hand experience with global climate protection politics. Is it realistic to think that the community of nations will agree on an effective plan? Edenhofer: We cannot afford a catastrophe. If it becomes possible to see and feel climate change, it will be too late. In the next ten years, we must create an agreement that comprises at least the six countries that produce the most greenhouse gas emissions. Maybe the chances of developing a sensible response arent very high. But when we are confronted by historic challenges, we should ask not about probabilities, but about necessities. In short, climate protection isnt optional... Edenhofer: Exactly. Anyone who claims it is doesnt understand the fundamentals of economics. That would be like saying we want to have a market economy, but prices will be allowed to express the scarcity of goods only when its convenient. That kind of thinking led to the collapse of the Soviet economy, where there was always a reason to continue with subsidies. Because of the long-term distortion of prices, the system was doomed to fail. The ability of our atmosphere to store CO2 is also a limited asset. Environmental protection is therefore not optional; its about implementing price systems that express a very real scarcity. Interview by Christian Buck.

Siemens believes that investing in climate protection could promote growth. Others disagree. Is this something we can afford only when the economy is strong? Weizscker: Thats the impression being given now by some. This thinking has its roots in the regulation of pollutant emissions, where only the rich countries could afford environmental protection. But in the case of climate protection, the problems are mostly caused by the rich. They use more energy, eat more meat and fly more. The economic crisis offers a great opportunity to reverse this course and create jobs at the same time. In Europe and Japan, thats already understood. Now it seems that this idea is being accepted in the U.S. as well.

times more energy efficient with simple measures. But as long as energy is cheap, that doesnt happen. We could make energy more expensive in small steps through taxes or emissions certificates, in parallel with increasing energy efficiency. Thats fair in social terms and makes efficiency more profitable. Investors could make long-term plans. Habits will change, possibly even our relationship to the automobile. There might be more car-sharing instead of ownership, for example. Raw materials prices are falling because of the crisis. Couldnt that cause countries such as China to become less concerned with energy efficiency?

Chinas Yuhuan power plant has achieved record efficiency using Siemens turbines.

Why Increased Efficiency Will Lead to a More Advanced Civilization


Professor Ernst Ulrich von Weizscker, 69, is a physicist and biologist. He has served as a professor at German universities, as director of the UN Center for Science and Technology in New York, as president of the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, and as a member of the German Bundestag for the SPD. Most recently, Professor von Weizscker was dean of the Donald Bren School for Environmental Science and Management at the University of California in Santa Barbara. He is considered a leading force behind the concept of sustainable development.
Do you expect the U.S. to take a leading role in climate protection? Weizscker: Obama cant change the U.S. overnight. But the country is more receptive to climate protection than commonly thought. Some states have been involved for years, and many companies are far ahead of the politicians, too. Now the federal government is following suit. Obamas rescue plan for the auto industry puts a lot of emphasis on the environment. Thats a big step in the right direction. Why does Europe have an edge here? Weizscker: In Europe, people earn a good living from environmental protection and energy efficiency. Thats where the future lies, in my view; thats becoming the rhythm of technological progress. Energy and water are scarce. We should learn to use both three times, five times, ten times more efficiently, and especially the end user. Then its fine if energy and water get more expensive. Japan showed how to do this in the 80s, when electricity and gasoline were very expensive. After its modernization programs, the country was twice as efficient as Australia or the U.S. at the time of the Kyoto Conference in 1997, providing twice as much prosperity per kilowatt-hour. Is higher energy efficiency the key in the fight against climate change? Weizscker: Yes. Today, we can conjure up ten times more light from a kilowatt-hour than just a few years ago. Buildings can be kept warm with a tenth of the heating energy used back then. The whole country could become five Weizscker: Yes, low prices are encouraging waste again. But the Chinese are on their toes, and theyve made energy efficiency a national objective in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. How do you rate the economic stimulus programs as they relate to climate protection? Weizscker: The German government and the U.S. are acting pretty sensibly. The focus is on rescuing the credit institutions. At the same time, Obama is pushing the auto industry toward more efficiency, and he wants to spend billions on renewable energies. Environmental considerations can help overcome the disorientation of the economy. Are you optimistic about the future? Weizscker: Well manage, assuming that key countries, such as the U.S. and China, have the courage to adopt a climate-friendly course. I believe that were moving toward a new, longterm Kondratiev wave with a paradigm shift toward more energy efficiency and the associated innovations and investments. I like to compare our current infrastructure and products with the dinosaurs. Our cars, houses and appliances are wasteful and outdated. The coming society will be more efficient and more elegant than todays. In that society, for example, people will use computers that dont waste energy and are as efficient as the human brain. That wont entail a drop in the quality of life. On the contrary, I see us entering a new epoch of advanced civilization. Interview by Christian Buck.

Edenhofer: We could indeed, yes. What is important is that we now boost the economy with investments that also make sense for the long term. Thats why we need an emissions trading system that sends a clear price signal for CO2 a signal for every sector that produces greenhouse gases; not just the electricity sector and energy-intensive industries, but above all buildings and cars. There are many options here that dont cost anything and actually generate revenue through energy savings. Is emissions trading working in the areas where it is already established? Edenhofer: Were not in bad shape in that regard. Emissions will surely fall in the electrical power sector. But there is a sustainability problem here too. Investors need a signal that emissions have to continue to fall after 2020. That, in my view, is the responsibility of the climate conference in Copenhagen (Denmark) in December 2009. The climate protection discussion involves concepts similar to those in the financial sector, such as certificates, for example. Are these systems similar in structure? Edenhofer: Yes. At some point, we will also need a central bank for climate protection. Such an institution would regulate the market for CO2 certificates and prevent speculative bubbles. Thats similar to what a central bank does in the financial sector. In terms of global emissions trading, the U.S., together with Europe, could take the lead in creating a transAtlantic carbon market of the kind proposed

70

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

71

Innovations for New Markets | Scenario 2025

Highlights
78 Innovations Tailored for China Siemens is developing innovations in China that are simple, affordable, reliable and tailored to local needs. They range from traffic monitoring via mobile radio to combinations of traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Affordable Vision Intelligent vision systems from Siemens provide economical, automated quality control in the production and processing of cookies, cigarettes, grains of rice and auto parts. They are also helping to reduce the cost of medical imaging systems. Reflecting on Simple Things An interview with Rajendra K. Pachauri, holder of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize and Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, on Indias path to environmental protection. Sweet Savings Millions of cars in Brazil run on alcohol from sugar cane. Intelligent innovations from Siemens help to save energy during its production. Light for Lake Victoria Osram is offering fishermen energy-saving lamps as an alternative to dirty and dangerous kerosene lamps. The new lamps can be recharged cheaply at solar-powered Energy Hubs.

83

84

88

92

2025
energy efficient. 72

Within a decade, many of todays poorest villages will be on the road to a higher standard of living. The reason: Affordable, carbon-neutral technologies for local energy generation, water purification, lighting and communications. Such services will extend productive hours and improve health. Here, a group of students use new software to simulate ways of making their village more

Goddess of Wisdom

2025. In a small, energy-independent village in rural southern India, high school students get a chance to test a new interactive program that allows them to discover how even minor changes affect their villages energy economy thus helping it to earn carbon credits.

guess I got bitten by the energy efficiency bug when I was just a little girl of seven. I still remember the day. It was November and the rain had finally stopped. A big truck rolled down the dirt road to our village. It backed into a small clearing in our palm forest and unloaded a huge, box-like machine. Before he drove away, the driver shouted playfully at all the kids that the machine would turn coconut shells into electricity and make us rich. It sounded like magic. I couldnt wait to find out how it could do that. Until then, we had quite literally lived in the dark at least

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

73

Innovations for New Markets | Scenario 2025

| Trends

In India, Siemens subsidiary Osram and the Energy and Resources Institute provide battery-powered lamps for less than the cost of kerosene. The lamps are recharged at solar charging stations.

after the sun went down. My father was one of the men who volunteered to be trained to operate and maintain the machine, which, as I quickly learned, did indeed turn coconut shells into electricity, but by very unmagically incinerating them into a gas that could be burned by an engine. Often, after school, I would think about what my teachers were saying about the machine that thanks to the power it generated for lights and tools, people were using the evening hours to study or to make things. That fewer babies would be born. That fewer people would move away to the cities. That well, that was 10 years ago. Today, everything is different. In fact, to give you an idea of just how much things have changed, a few weeks ago our village got another kind of generator. But instead of arriving on the back of a truck, this one came in as a free download; and instead of producing electricity, the new one may generate ideas that help us to save electricity and manage our resources more efficiently. Yes! Imagine, it allows us to see how a change in one part of our energy and resources ecosystem might affect other parts of the system. Our village leader, Dr. Advani, calls it our Saraswathi the Hindu Goddess of wisdom and learning. He says the new software will probably help make our village more successful in terms of selling carbon credits. The software takes a high-definition 3D satellite image of our village and augments it with real-time, geographically-registered information from hundreds of tiny, inexpensive SIM card-equipped power consumption sensors that all machines are equipped with something the government mandated years ago to help everyone track and reduce the amount of energy they use. This morning, Dr. Advani joined our class to find out what people my age Im 17 would do to make our village more efficient. We have a large display pulpit in our classroom and for a while everyone squinted at the little red bubbles showing energy inputs and outputs next to different systems. We watched with fascination as the stream of dried waste represented in grams per minute on the display actually clean-burning coconut shells from our warehouse was fed into the generator by an electrically-powered conveyor belt. The generator produces a maximum of 500 kW more than enough for the couple of hundred households in our village. In fact, Dr. Advani says that a lot of our power is sold to the smart grid and that thousands of villages like ours, each contributing what it can, have replaced several coal-power plants.

As we watched the big display, we could see the power levels and locations of several small robotic collector vehicles as they scoured the floor of our palm forest for coconuts, as well as the locations of a dozen Bonnet macaque monkeys equipped with GPS neck collars. The monkeys are trained to shake the big nuts out of the trees, break them open, and separate the shells for processing. As the vehicles batteries reached given levels, we could see them returning toward the warehouse where they would unload and recharge. The big display also showed the status and output of dozens of other efficiency-enhancing systems in our small village everything from the power demand of an electric pump that supplies fresh, charcoal-filtered water from our rainwater-collection cistern to the flow in our water pressure-powered sewage treatment plant that uses specially-engineered bacteria to eliminate 99 percent of organic substances. I guess I must have looked pretty impressed by all of this, because after a few moments Dr. Advani turned his deep black eyes on me like a spotlight and said, Well, Ms Agamya, you seem to be taking this very seriously. Do you have any thoughts on how we might improve our energy efficiency? Sir, our street lights burn all night even though most of us are asleep, I said as I touched the representation of a solar-powered street lamp on the screen, causing a red bubble to appear beside it showing 100 W. But in the mornings, when the street lights would be very helpful, they are out of power. As a result, people charge batteries for flashlights several times per week. I touched a few houses on the screen, and in each case a short list of Appliances in use appeared. Most included Electric Torch Charging with an indication of the power being drawn. If most of these could be switched off, I continued as I marked the menu item and opened a navigation command that said Switch off All then our generator would save something in the neighborhood of, I looked up at the image of the generator, where a red bubble had appeared and pointed to the number, 2.5 kilowatt-hours, which of course could be sold to the grid. Very elegant, Ms. Agamya, answered Advani, but what would get people to turn off most of those chargers? Simple, I said, just add movement sensors to the streetlights. That way they would be off most of the time and would still have plenty of power on dark mornings. And by the way, I added, if we can store three hours of unused energy from each of our 60 or so street lights, that should save even more 18 kWh per night to be exact. Arthur F. Pease

Siemens is testing new technologies that will help developing economies and their poorest citizens bootstrap themselves into a more productive future. On tap are generators that will turn coconut shells into electricity, self-powered sewage treatment plants that will turn effluent into fresh water, and a vision of tomorrow that will turn reliable and affordable products into stepping stones to a better life.

Tapping New Sources of Hope


an you hear the heartbeat of an unborn child in a village that has no electricity? Can a family light a room even if the cost of diesel fuel for a lamp becomes unaffordable? Or filter its water to ensure that it is free of arsenic? Is it possible to develop cameras so sophisticated and inexpensive that even small companies in developing countries can afford to automate quality control? Or to develop medical diagnostic equipment that almost any hospital can afford? Absolutely. These, and dozens of other solutions that broadly fit Siemens simple, maintenancefriendly, affordable, reliable, and timely-tomarket (SMART) definition, are now in the companys innovation pipeline. They range from an image processing module for an X-ray system that will be 75 percent cheaper than its predecessor (page 87) to solar-powered energy hubs for charging lanterns and cell

phones in Kenya (page 92), and from software developed in China that can analyze an entire citys traffic status (page 78) to a turbine designed specifically for the combustion of gas produced by a Brazilian sugarcane biomass facility (page 88). Whats more, by providing technologies that help developing economies and low-income people around the world to bootstrap themselves into a more productive future, Siemens is tapping what groundbreaking author C. K. Prahalad called The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid. Every major company is developing strategies for satisfying the needs of those at the bottom of the pyramid, says Dr. B. Bowonder, Dean of the Tata Management Training Center in Pune, India and a worldrenowned expert on technology and innovation management. These people are not to be dismissed because they are poor. On the con-

trary, our research shows that between now and 2025, the annual purchasing power of the 650 million poorest people in India will triple to over one trillion dollars. Lanterns that Change Lives. It is a tragic situation that in this day and age people are living literally in darkness, says Dr. Rajendra K. Pachauri (page 84), Chairman of the U.N. intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Director-General of The Energy and Resources Institute in New Delhi. In view of this, my institute has launched a program called Lighting a Billion Lives in which Siemens is involved through its Osram subsidiary. Here, we are addressing the problem of the 1.6 billion people around the world who have no access to grid electricity. The program, he explains, has developed a solar lantern and solar-powered village charging station where people can drop

off their lamps for charging during the day and rent them for a few pennies per night. The lanterns offer enormous benefits because they allow people to work or study after dark, thus contributing to the economic welfare of their villages, says Pachauri. Not only is light coming to many of the worlds off-grid villages. Power is on the way as well. Engineers at Siemens Corporate Technologys (CT) Renewable Energy Innovation Center in Bangalore, India are developing what amounts to a portable power plant. Already operating so efficiently that it meets U.S. emission requirements, the plant needs about 35 kg of coconut shells per hour to generate enough electricity for a typical Indian village of 50 to 100 families. Our partial oxidation combustion process produces a hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas that is fed into a reciprocating internal combustion engine that generates 25

74

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

75

Innovations for New Markets | Trends

Siemens researchers in Bangalore have developed an algae-based sewage treatment system that can remove up to 99% of nutrients from effluent without any outside power source.

A power plant small enough to fit on the back of a truck produces enough electricity from coconut shells to power an entire village. The resulting ash can be used for water purification.

to 300 kW of electricity, explains Peeush Kumar, who is responsible for energy systems development at CT India. What is unique about our solution is that, thanks to new electrostatic precipitator technology now being developed in Munich, it will require very little cooling water. Whats more, it produces carbon ash that can be converted into activated charcoal for local water purification and can even become a significant source of revenue if sold externally. A Corkscrew that Purifies Waste Water. If theres one thing that is even more essential than light and power, it is clean, safe water. Here too, Siemens is developing solutions that will transform the lives of people rich and poor. In Singapore, for instance, where the company established its global headquarters for water technology R&D in 2007 and is a key player in

1000 liters for less than half a cent, he says. Once captured, the arsenic can be precipitated from the filter and bound to cement, thus permanently removing it from the environment. The technology will be tested in the U.S. in early 2009. Meanwhile, back in Bangalore, CT researchers are developing a sewage treatment system that can already remove 95% of organic substances and up to 99% of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphates from effluent without any outside power source. Most sewage treatment facilities have very high energy requirements because they rely on powerful aerators to support the bacteria that metabolize organic matter, explains Senior Research Engineer Dr. Anal Chavan. But with our unique system, specially-adapted microorganisms produce the oxygen themselves.

worlds poorest people are now taking shape. But theres more. In India, where almost 85 percent of the population has no access to medical care, the government is about to more than double its healthcare budget to almost two percent ($20 billion) of GDP. And technologies designed to improve basic healthcare services are in the pipeline. For instance, with a view to ensuring a safe delivery for the 30 million babies born each year in India, thirty percent of whom about 27,000 per day are at risk, Siemens is developing a Fetal Heart Rate Monitor (FHRM) that vastly simplifies the diagnosis and potentially accelerates the treatment of problem pregnancies. This will be an exciting product because there is nothing else like it on the market, comments D. Ragavan, head of Siemens Healthcare Sector for India, which grew by 25 percent in 2008.

thats when the device will trigger an alarm to call a doctor to the mothers bedside, Power Lines that Cut Carbon Emissions. Whether its consumers, manufacturers, or the public and private organizations that build and manage infrastructures, demand is growing throughout the developing world for solutions that are robust and provide long-term operational savings. And across this entire spectrum, Siemens is providing solutions that meet these needs. There is tremendous demand for systems that can improve energy efficiency, says V. V. Paranjape, who heads Siemens Industry Sector for India. He points out, for instance, that his organization, which employs nearly 3,500 people, is supplying the complete electrical systems for the new trains ordered by Mumbais public transit network. Thanks to

the city states Water Hub, a center dedicated to developing affordable water treatment solutions (Pictures of the Future Fall 2008, p.39), Siemens Water Technologies (WT) is working with CT to develop new materials that can selectively adsorb (bind) dangerous contaminants such as arsenic. Arsenic occurs naturally in toxic concentrations in wide areas of northern India, eastern Bangladesh and the southwestern United States. In view of the danger of arsenic poisoning in many parts of the world, we have developed and tested an arsenic adsorbing particle as well as a filtration system that can capture it, says Richard Woodling, PhD, who is in charge of technology development at WTs global R&D center in Singapore. The system can be downsized to the needs of an individual farmer and can process

Shaped something like a corkscrew, the treatment system can be powered by the force of effluent as it cascades downward, thus turning the corkscrew and exposing the water to its surface area, which is colonized with bacteria.

lot facility. This is a perfect example of a SMART technology, says Varghese. It can be scaled up to any desired size, trucked into a village, and can, with only minimal additional treatment possibly based on the activated

A new filter system can purify up to 1,000 liters of water for less than half a cent.
Whats more, adds Dr. Zubin Varghese, department head for smart innovations at CT India, the same technology but with different organisms can be adapted to treating water contaminated with chemical or petroleum wastes. CT India is now working with Siemens Water Technologies to identify a village for a picharcoal from our coconut gasification system turn sewage water into potable water. A Stethoscope that Recognizes Hearts. Light, energy, clean water the technological building blocks for affordably offering these indispensables to hundreds of millions of the

Something like a digital stethoscope, the monitor now a functional prototype is outfitted with sophisticated electronics and algorithms developed by CT India that result in an inexpensive device capable of distinguishing the sound of the fetal heart from the sound of the mothers heart. Combined with a waist belt, a wireless module, an acoustic sensor and an accelerometerbased muscle-contraction sensor that is now under development, the device will offer the potential of continuous monitoring in maternity wards. As a contraction comes to an end, the fetal heart rate needs to return to normal, explains Senior Research Engineer Archana Kalyansundar, who is responsible for Siemens rural healthcare technologies for India. If it fails to do so, that is a sign of trouble. And

our regenerative breaking technology and the efficiency of our motors and control system, trains not only use as little power as possible, but can run closer to each other, thereby maximizing passenger-carrying capacity, he says. Similarly, in the electrical distribution sector, Siemens technology has made it possible to increase the transmission capacity of existing power lines by up to 25 percent, thus cutting transmission losses and associated CO2 emissions. Thanks to R&D in control systems and the intelligent devices that continuously monitor power lines, we now hold a 100 percent share of the Indian market for so-called flexible alternating current transmission systems, says Ajay Kumar Dixit, Vice President for Siemens Energy Sector for South Asia and Head of Product Innovation for India.

From basic services to major infrastructures, demand for improved quality and reduced prices will continue to grow. But how can even greater efficiencies be realized? One possibility is called The City of the Future, a scenario generator developed by Siemens and Singapore University. This is the first solution anywhere in which Siemens is interactively showcasing its answers for cities, says Klaus Heidinger, Senior Vice President for City Management at Siemens IT Solutions and Services in Singapore. The system lets users see how services such as transportation and energy generation are linked. Its a great way of understanding complexity and it could be the next step in discovering the synergies that can further improve services while cutting costs. Arthur F. Pease

76

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

77

Innovations for New Markets | China

hen Xing Jianhui recently read that China plans to increase its wind energy capacity ten-fold to 100 gigawatts by 2020, his thoughts turned not only to the many thousands of wind turbines that would soon be spinning on the North China steppe, but also to the extensive maintenance efforts the machines would one day require. Thinking like that is part of my job, says Xing, who has a PhD in engineering and works as a developer for the Automation and Switching Division at Siemens Corporate Technology China in Beijing. After all, even the best systems eventually suffer from wear and tear. And in the case of wind turbines, which are continuously exposed to the elements, strain on materials and the resulting need for maintenance work is particularly great. If a turbine suddenly breaks down, the cost of deploying a

pensive mix of manpower and sophisticated technology. To monitor the turbines, critical components are equipped with motion sensors, e.g. vibration sensors, that register irregularities and immediately notify a control center should they occur. In addition to accounting for several percentage points of the total cost of building a wind turbine, such technology requires that a team of highly skilled engineers evaluate operating data. On top of that, the sensors themselves need to be maintained. Turbine manufacturers are very concerned about this problem, says Xing. Wind park operators are not only demanding very reliable systems with long warranty periods; they also want their wind parks to cost less in terms of maintenance, and they expect to be able to manage with personnel who have far less training than their Western counterparts. As Xing

ently from the way in which they are supposed to, the currents will show different patterns, explains Xing. The measurements are so precise that we can create algorithms that target the wear and tear of individual components and make it recognizable. Doing so has made expensive motion sensors superfluous while at the same time improving functionality. Thats because changes in currents allow wear and tear to be detected earlier than was previously the case, and the software provides operators with specific information regarding which part has to be replaced, and when. As a result, maintenance and personnel costs can be substantially reduced, while capacity utilization and profitability can be markedly increased. The manufacturers were surprised to see how simple the solution is, says Xing. Siemens signed a letter of intent with Goldwind, a major

Siemens Chinese research team concentrates

Innovations Tailored to Chinas Needs


China is increasingly becoming a center of research and development. As it does so, it is coming up with entirely new solutions that reflect its specific needs. Siemens is systematically harvesting this tremendous potential for innovation.
repair crane alone can easily amount to 10,000, explains Xing. Thats why the turbines must be continuously monitored. But how is that possible, given the size of Chinese wind parks, which consist of hundreds or even thousands of turbines at remote locations in the countryside? Minimizing Maintenance. The Chinese arent the first people in the world to have tackled this problem, of course. Since the early days of wind turbines, maintenance has always been among the biggest challenges faced by operators. Thats because it is essential to ensuring that wind energy can be used cost-effectively. Until recently, however, maintenance involved an exand his colleagues became aware of this situation, they began to look for a technology that would be better adapted to Chinas needs. They eventually found the solution right next to the parts that are subject to wear and tear in the motor of the pitch system, which controls the angle of the rotor blades. Siemens wind turbines do not use conventional motion sensors to monitor these critical components. Instead, highly sensitive sensors from the Simotion series are used. The electric voltages that these measure as a matter of course actually contain all of the information that the engineers require. The system measures the electric currents flowing into the motors. If parts of the pitch system move differ-

on low-maintenance technologies that are optimally conceived for the Chinese market. Remote condition diagnostics for wind power systems (photos) is an example.

Chinese turbine manufacturer, for a trial use project in the Xinjiang province, where the first wind turbines to be equipped with the new technology will be put into operation this year. In view of the pace of development in China, it wont take long before the system is employed on a large scale. SMART Researchers. Achieving this feat will not only be a breakthrough for the wind energy sector, but also for Siemens, because the new condition monitoring technology is one of the first innovations the company has developed in China for China. This did not happen by chance, however. Instead, it is part of Siemens new development strategy, which is summarized by

78

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

79

Innovations for New Markets | China

the acronym SMART, which stands for simple, maintenance-friendly, affordable, reliable, and timely to market. Although this development maxim does not apply exclusively to China, there arent many other countries where high-tech companies like Siemens have a better opportunity to rethink tried-and-tested solutions. Necessity is the mother of invention and in China this necessity is enormous, says Dr. Arding Hsu, Head of Siemens Corporate Technology in China. As a result, Chinas potential is no longer extraordi-

regions are still deeply mired in the pre-industrial age. You only need to take your car and drive for one hour out of Beijing to see how different the needs are within this country, says Hsu. Our company wants to help Chinas development, so we have to adapt ourselves as best as possible to the countrys wide range of needs.

learn how to navigate through programs by keyboard, says Hsu, who has a PhD in computer science and was among the industrys pioneers in Silicon Valley. But Steve Jobs had an idea, and the rest is history. Because it is very likely that some of the chapters in the history of technology will be written in China in the future, Siemens Corpo-

Traditional Chinese Medicine Meets Western Technology


Doctors intend to combine the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with those of Western science. To do so, new approaches to medical technology are needed. A special research team assembled by Siemens in Beijing is taking on the challenge. Doctors have indecipherable handwriting, says Han Bin. And he knows what hes talking about. As a professor at the Beijing Academy for Chinese Medicine and one of the citys leading acupuncture specialists, us the opportunity to determine if this is the case and to combine the best features of both traditions. Wu and her colleagues have enhanced the features of Siemens magnetic resonance scanners, for example, so that they can be used to visualize acupotomy procedures in a targeted manner. A treatment developed recently from acupuncture, acupotomy is used to treat illnesses of the locomotory system, for example, including chronic pain, slipped discs, and arthrosis. The technique involves the use of needle scalpels to make small incisions in muscles and tendons in order to restore a patients bio-mechanical balance. In Western medicine such cases are generally treated with painkillers and surgical procedures, some of which call for removing parts of a disc. Acupotomy, on the other hand, is only a minor, micro-surgical procedure with clinically proven effectiveness. Until now, doctors practicing this technique have relied on their experience and their feel for the treatment at hand. In some cases this has un-

China has embarked on what might be the largest modernization project in human history.
Despite being so obvious, this approach is still completely new to most multinational corporations, which until now have primarily focused on supplying China with products that have been successful in other markets and are much better than anything new competitors inside China can produce. Such a strategy works very well in many cases, says Hsu. But developments in China do not always follow the rate Technology has assembled a team of around 200 developers in Beijing and Shanghai. But instead of searching for the next big thing in laboratories, the researchers are taking a more down-to-earth route and are focusing on how to accelerate progress in areas where it is already under way. For instance, says Hsu, we are working closely with Siemens business units to develop customized products for every-

Hans expertise is constantly in demand not only at the university hospital, but at other health centers as well. But no matter where he goes, Han encounters patient files that are impossible to understand. Chinese medicine is thousands of years old and requires doctors to make very detailed examinations of clinical pictures and use complex recipes and formulas, he explains. The work involved in documenting all of this is immense. The fact that many of his colleagues hardly take the time to do so not only makes

treatment more difficult; it also obstructs research. Many valuable insights are lost as a result, says Han. Help may soon be on the way, however. For a year now, Han has been testing the first fully-integrated Instead of using expensive roadside tracking systems to measure traffic in Chinas megacities, Qiu Wei (left) intends to use millions of cell phone signals. hospital information system (HIS) for TCM. The program, which was developed by Siemens in Beijing, provides TCM doctors with the same kind of com-

our medicine on a more sound scientific footing; it will also allow us to precisely study how Chinese and Western treatment methods interact. It is exactly in this interaction that many medical experts see great potential for gaining new insights. Even though TCM and Western medicine have little common ground, scientists from all over the world are increasingly coming to the conclusion that both approaches can benefit considerably from each other. As a result, the development of the TCM hospital software is only one of many projects Siemens is using to help promote progress in this area. Doctors can only create links between the two approaches if medical technology does the same, says Xu Xiaodong, who heads a six-person team at Siemens Corporate Technology in Beijing that coordinates projects for merging Western and Chinese medicine. The team consists of engineers, computer scientists, and medical practitioners. You often hear claims that Chinese medicine is unscientific, says Wu Changsheng, a doctor who earned her M.D. at the Beijing Academy for Chinese Medicine and now works on Xus team. Modern technology is giving

fortunately resulted in severed or damaged blood vessels and nerves. But using an MR scanner in such instances can provide doctors with valuable navigational assistance. State-of-the-art imaging systems like these are thus making traditional Chinese medicine safer, and also increasing the likelihood that such techniques can be successful in Western countries. High-resolution MR images will enable us to better investigate and improve acupotomy, says Wu. It will also have a big impact on how doctors are trained. A number of other developments are already in the pipeline. Chinas government has declared the linking of Western and traditional medicine to be one of the countrys key areas of research, says Xu. This gives us an opportunity to collaborate with leading Chinese research institutes. Such institutes have high expectations when it comes to working with Siemens. We are now in the midst of one of the most exciting periods in medical history, says Professor Han Bin. So it is only natural for leading organizations in this field to pool their resources. Bernhard Bartsch

nary just as a sales market, but also as a development location. The modernization project currently under way in China where approximately 40,000 employees of the Siemens business units generated sales of approximately 5 billion in 2008 is probably the biggest in history. Everywhere you look, from the energy sector to the transport infrastructure and the healthcare system, the country is trying to create the basis for catching up with the industrialized nations of the West. And even though its successes have long been visible, the challenges are just as obvious. While Chinas major cities have long since arrived in the 21st century, most of the countrys

same path as elsewhere; instead they can move in completely new directions. This is good, given that real progress cant be achieved by just copying known approaches. Although Hsu estimates that distinctly Chinese products and solutions make up barely more than 20 percent of the total market, he believes, unlike representatives of many Western companies, that niches for locally-developed solutions have great potential. After all, many innovations have been born because developers looked for solutions beyond mainstream areas. In the 1970s, hardly anyone in the computer industry thought computers would one day be found in every household. Back then, you had to study for years at a university to

day use by customers, because the market provides you with the best sense of where developments are headed. Counting Cars with Cell Phones. An example of a product designed to fit a distinctively Chinese situation is being pursued by Qiu Wei, manager of a SMART project in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong. The projects title, Recording Traffic Information for Megacities, may sound mundane and it is until you find out how the project achieves its goal, which is anything but mundane. China has dozens of cities with a million or more inhabitants, and handling the huge volume of traffic is one of the biggest challenges in

puter-based support for their work that has long been enjoyed by doctors practicing Western medicine. The system comes with a database that enables a quick description of symptoms. At the click of a mouse, users can enter acupuncture points on a three-dimensional depiction of the human body or put together herb mixtures. The system automatically produces an alarm if the doctors choices could lead to unwanted interactions. This is a big advance for TCM, says Han. Although many Chinese doctors are not yet used to working with computers, the program is very easy to use. The TCM module will soon be integrated into the Chinese version of Siemens hospital information system. I expect it to be a big help for researchers, says Han. Not only will it put

80

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

81

Innovations for New Markets | China

Smart Cameras

In India, Siemens is developing low-cost vision systems and associated software that can be customized for applications ranging from medical diagnostics to quality control in production.

Making Imaging More Affordable

Offering a complete spectrum of diagnostics for a small budget thats exactly the approach Siemens researcher Wang Jianmin adopted together with colleagues in Germany, England and China in order to help achieve a breakthrough for one of todays key diagnostic technologies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In a field where innovation mostly consists of developing ever more sophisticated diagnostic features, Wang and his colleagues chose an alternative approach: simplifying existing technology without compromising Siemens key qualities and standards, in order to make MR affordable for institutions with very limited budgets. Today, progress in medical technology not only means steadily improving the devices, but also making them available to more and more patients, says Wang. That is not only correct from an ethical point of view, but also from an economic one. Wangs words are based on his own experience. In his native country China, few hospitals can afford state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging equipment. And it is not only developing countries and emerging markets where the cost pressure on the medical sector is high. Thats why Wang, who studied in Germany and lived there for 17 years before returning to China in 2002, was happy to join a team with an ambitious objective: to dramatically cut MR production costs. One of his goals was to make Siemens cutting-edge MR technology, the so called Total imaging matrix (Tim), also available for customers with budget constraints. Tim makes it possible to flexibly combine up to four different coils, which enables the user to image almost any part of the body without the need to move the patient to a different bed, or to enter new settings on the machine. Tim also makes parallel imaging possible, which leads to greatly reduced acquisition times. All of these benefits translate into workflow improvements as well as increased patient throughput, not to mention associated savings. As an example, a complete examination of the central nervous system using Tim technology can be performed in less than ten minutes. To achieve a significant reduction in production costs, it was necessary to find new ways of integrating components into the system. One of the most complex components in MR systems is the control system for the matrix coils. The control of these coils is a very complicated procedure, which results in high manufacturing costs, says Wang. That motivated me to try to see if it might be possible to develop a simpler switching system for Tim systems. With this in mind, he worked with multiple teams in Oxford, England, Shenzhen, China, and Erlangen, Germany, to develop a streamlined version of the switching system for the Tim coils. For this achievement, he received Siemens Inventor of the Year 2007 Award. Other innovations that have contributed to the success of Siemens MR scanner, the MAGNETOM ESSENZA, help cut installation space, power requirements and associated construction costs. In part, this is due to its light weight, 3.5 ton magnet, which makes it possible for the system to be installed above the basement and first floor. Whats more, if an ESSENZA replaces an existing MR system, it can reduce energy consumption by up to 50 percent thanks to its high-performance electronics. And since the systems state-of-the-art magnet has zero helium boil-off, there is no need to regularly refill the unit with this expensive substance, meaning that the system is always ready for operation. The ESSENZA is now in service in a number of clinical settings worldwide ranging from small hospitals to large academic institutions. Bernhard Bartsch

terms of making those cities truly livable, says Qiu. Techniques for measuring the volume of traffic were introduced a long time ago to ensure, for example, that traffic light times could be optimally set. To make such measurements, researchers insert sensors into road surfaces or install cameras to record traffic flow. While such techniques are effective, the infrastructure they require makes them very expensive. In the future it will be much easier to chart traffic volume using small auxiliary devices that hadnt even been thought of when the sensor plates and camera systems were initially developed. Those devices are cell phones. Today almost every car has a cell phone that is continuously in contact with transmission masts, explains Qiu. The positioning information provided by all those phones gives us all the data we need to make traffic measurements dynamically. And of course, the cell phone owners remain anonymous in this process. Undreamed of Possibilities. The principle is very simple, but it takes sophisticated software to turn the location data from hundreds of thousands of cell phones into usable information that can be employed for a practical application in real time. To conduct the project, Qiu has teamed up with a Siemens business unit to work together with cell phone service provider China Mobile. The telephone companies are very interested in this information because it would allow them to offer new types of services, Qiu says. For example, it may prove possible to optimize directions given by automotive navigation systems through mobile phone networks or to allow cell phones to serve as GPS devices. Such developments are also of interest to the advertising industry, which could use them in the future to transmit location-specific shopping or restaurant tips. Due to the rapidly-growing number of vehicles on Chinese streets, the project was put on a fast track and has developed rapidly since its inception in 2007. Indeed, the first marketable version of the application is scheduled to be completed this year. But that is expected to be just the beginning of a far-reaching series of innovations. Development is a process that never ends, says Hsu. A product is good if it has the potential to be continuously improved. Siemens developments in China are not makeshift solutions for an emerging market. They are technological innovations that will eventually be used in the most highly developed countries as well. Thats true of wind turbines and traffic measurement systems alike. If thats not SMART, nothing is! Bernhard Bartsch

Affordable Vision
With roughly 1.1 billion people and an average hourly wage including benefits of only $1, India is not only one of the worlds biggest markets, but also one of the most price-sensitive locations to do business. Microprocessor-equipped cameras that are simple, maintenance free, affordable, reliable, and timely to market (SMART) have a good chance of breaking into the Indian subcontinents rapidly-expanding industrial markets.

hroughout India, rows of cookies are marching from baking ovens at ever-increasing speeds. Cigarettes are zipping by at a rate of 150 per second, and production lines originally designed to stamp, squeeze or extrude 500 widgets per minute are routinely being upgraded to achieve new throughput records. Whether its grains of rice, bakery products, or engine parts, nearly everything Indians buy or export starts out on a production or processing line. And to an ever-increasing extent,

82

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

83

Innovations for New Markets | Interview

| Smart Cameras

What are the most significant environmental threats faced by India? Pachauri: We are confronted by a range of environmental threats, from soil degradation and water and air pollution to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. All of these are being affected by climate change on an increasing scale. This set of impacts will affect every segment of our economy and of our population. What is India doing about these threats? Pachauri: We have very strong legislation, a strong NGO movement, and a very active press. So it is not easy to pollute without attracting a lot of attention. But unfortunately, when coordinated action is required, we have

in such a way that they can be applied on a large scale. The corporate sector should also work with our government on a set of policies that contribute to energy-efficient solutions. What technologies should be emphasized? Pachauri: Renewable energy technologies have enormous potential in this country. In Delhi, my institute is working with a group of investors to develop a large-scale solar-thermal generation facility. We are talking about 3,000 to 5,000 MW. This is the kind of thing where Siemens can do a great deal. My institute has also launched a program called Lighting a Billion Lives in which Siemens is involved

major training complex, uses no power from the grid at all. A network of tunnels beneath the building ensures a constant temperature, and a solar chimney allows hot air from the south-side rooms to escape. We need a shift in direction in this country that has to translate into incentives and disincentives and, most important, much greater public awareness. For instance, it should be clear to people that there is an economic benefit to them when they build an energy-efficient building. So I think we need to reorient our fiscal instruments such that they carry us to a state of environmental sustainability. Whats the role of the Internet in this?

What can individuals do to help the environment? Pachauri: One area where I think many consumers can make a difference is by simply eating less meat. The meat cycle is very intensive in terms of energy consumption. The Food & Agriculture Organization did a study on this. They found that the entire livestock cycle accounts for 18% of all greenhouse gases produced on this planet. So Ive been telling people to eat less meat. This goes hand in hand with other lifestyle changes. We need to start reflecting on the simple things things like using lights at home. When I step out of my office, as a matter of habit, I switch off the lights, even if its for five minutes. We should

Reflecting on theMit enormen Investitionen baut Chongqing Simple Things eine konkurrenzfhige Industrie auf.
Dr. Rajendra K. Pachauri, 68, is the Chairman of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Represented by Dr. Pachauri and former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, the IPCC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the year 2007. Since 1981, Dr. Pachauri has been Director-General of The Energy & Resources Institute (TERI), a global organization focused on environmental sustainability. Pachauri holds PhDs in Industrial Engineering and Economics. He has been a member of the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India, the Advisory Board on Energy, which reported directly to the Prime Minister, and a Senior Advisor to the Administrator of the United Nations Development Program.
not been very successful. And to be quite honest, some of our enforcement mechanisms are weak, and not as effective as they should be. Many countries want to cut their CO2 emissions below 1990 levels. Should India be working along these lines as well? Pachauri: As far as CO2 is concerned, India does not have any goals. And legitimately, there cant be any at this point because our per capita emissions are about 1.1 tons per person per year, compared to over 20 for the U.S. Developed countries are the big polluters and the ones who have caused the problem. If they dont move, I dont think there is any basis at all for a developing country like India, where 400 million people do not have access to electricity, to reduce its emissions. It would be unethical and totally inequitable. It is up to the developed countries to make the first move. The emphasis in India is on reducing local pollution. Nevertheless, energy efficiency is in Indias best interest Pachauri: Certainly. We have a serious problem of energy shortages. And if we can use energy more efficiently, then more of it becomes available for others to use. Are there ways in which a company like Siemens can help? Pachauri: Being a technology leader, Siemens can certainly make a major difference. One of the most important things such companies can do is to work with partners to ensure that technologies are customized for Indian conditions through its Osram subsidiary. Here, we are trying to address the problem of the 1.6 billion people worldwide who have no access to electricity. To help them we have developed a solar lantern and solar-powered village charging station where people can drop off their lamps for charging during the day. Where will India be in 20 years? What is your vision? Pachauri: I would like to see much greater use of renewable energy in this country because we have wind, solar, and biomass in abundance. I would also like to see much more R&D with a view to using agricultural residues on a large scale, perhaps converting these to liquid fuels. For instance, my institute is engaged in a large-scale project for growing jatropha for biodiesel. This plant grows under degraded land conditions, requires little moisture, and does not in any way affect food prices or displace food production. So my vision is to see India move rapidly toward large-scale exploitation of renewable energy sources, while ensuring that these resources are accessible to the poorest of the poor. What policies are needed to accomplish this? Pachauri: We will need fiscal incentives and disincentives. For instance, we have done a study for the Ministry of Finance on taxation of automobiles, and to an extent the government has implemented its recommendations. We now have differential taxes on small cars as opposed to big cars. In the area of energy-efficient buildings, my institute has been in the lead. In fact, one of our buildings, which is a Pachauri: Fortunately, the government is working to make the Internet accessible to more and more people in India. But there are many associated problems. For instance, in rural areas with no electricity, how can you run a computer? So we need a package of solutions that provide electricity, which is a precondition for the Internet. And this is again an area where a company like Siemens can get involved to come up with renewable energy technologies that can be used on a decentralized, distributed basis, thus making it possible to access the benefits of the Internet. also encourage people to walk and use bicycles more. What recommendations would you give the Obama Administration? Pachauri: All I would ask President Obama to do is to live up to the promises he has made. It is not going to be easy. But if he just does what he has stated, I think the U.S. will be pretty much on its way to bringing about improvements at the global level and certainly for its own citizens. Interview conducted by Arthur F. Pease

those lines run faster than any human eye can see. Nevertheless, even as processing revs into a high-speed blur, quality levels continue to climb and prices remain steady or actually decline. How? Welcome to the world of the affordable thinking camera. Thanks to faster, cheaper, more powerful processors and ever-improving, locally-produced, tailor-made algorithms, cameras used on an increasing number of Indian production lines to catch product imperfections are becoming affordable and increasingly reliable. Dr. Mukul Saxena, who heads Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) in India, explains: It is important that such products be built here in India in order to be price-competitive with products from local companies. For example, we are working with Siemens Industry Automation Division and a local academic institute to develop a low-cost camera application that will look at the size and polish of each grain of rice as it cascades in a processing center to automatically quantify the quality of the product. Adds Dr. Zubin Varghese, department head for SMART innovations at CT India, The algorithms that allow camera capabilities to be tailored to a customers unique needs are also the key to keeping the price of service and upgrades as low as possible. For instance, he explains, with regard to a major Indian cigarette manufacturer that needed to improve product quality, all that was needed was a minor modification in the cameras firmware, along with a new image processing algorithm. We performed these adaptations, which immediately eliminated the quality problems and salvaged our relationship with the customer. Smart Cookies. Camera technology can also help to save energy. For instance, a major Indian biscuit manufacturer recently switched a range of its automation activities to Siemens thanks to a new algorithm from Corporate Technology that allows a camera to see each biscuit in terms of color and thickness two key indicators of baking process accuracy, says Sameer Prakash, who is in charge of marketing for Siemens Automation and Drives Food and Beverage business in India. Not only have quality and production throughput increased substantially as a result of this, but the camera information is fed back to the baking oven to optimize its operations the first solution of its kind anywhere. This has resulted in a five percent cut in energy use. In addition, he points out that by being able to customize our intelligent cameras capabilities to the customers needs, we were able to differentiate our offer from those of competitors. This opened up the rest of the

Researcher Swaminathan with a new medical vision system that draws on experience in surveillance systems.

84

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

85

Innovations for New Markets | Interview

| Smart Cameras

How have information technologies changed India? Nilekani: Thirty to 40 years back, IT was seen as a job killer. Today it is seen as empowering and transformational. Mobile phones are an example. Ninety percent of them in India are prepaid, and most are used by people who earn less than $2000 per year. Information technology has transformed many key parts of our economy. For example, our stock markets are today among the most modern because we have used technology effectively. And India is the only large country in which all votes over 400 million in a general election are cast electronically.

Nilekani: Yes. But we will need a new ecosystem batteries that can be replaced at a moments notice, charging stations, electric cars, and a de-carbonized electricity grid, which means getting the grid to be smart, and then creating thousands of renewable generators. Once your electricity is de-carbonized, you can start introducing electric or hybrid vehicles; and added power can be generated from second-generation biofuels based on non-food, agricultural wastes. If you build a smart grid and de-carbonize energy production, you are solving multiple problems. You reduce carbon dioxide emissions, you create a whole new economy where

now. Our new campuses are now under construction, and they will all be green. Can you make money with such a vision? Nilekani: Oh you can make tons of money with it! You may want to sell an energy management system to a city. You could manage a network of IP-enabled streetlights. Today, cities are paying to light their streets all night long at full intensity, regardless of whether anyone is around. Tomorrow, they could dim their lights selectively, ensuring substantial savings. Your book suggests that a large population can be an advantage.

Split-second inspection: In India, a camera system from Siemens monitors the production of engines for the Tata Nano, whose price of $2,500 makes it the world's most affordable car. But it has to be high-quality too.

Mit enormen Investitionen baut Chongqing Imagining Indias Future eine konkurrenzfhige Industrie auf.
As co-chairman and cofounder of Infosys Technologies Limited, which had $4 billion in information technology sales and over 100,000 employees in 2008, Dr. Nandan Nilekani, 54, has been a key player in Indias economic rebirth. Named by Time magazine in 2006 as one of the 100 most influential people in the world and by Forbes Asia in 2006 as Businessman of the Year, Dr. Nilekani, is a member of the World Economic Forum Foundation Board, a member of the Board of Directors of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, and a member of the Board of Governors of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). He is also the author of a new book, Imagining India, Ideas for the New Century.
What are the major areas in which information technology will play a role in Indias future? Nilekani: Healthcare and energy distribution two areas in which Siemens is in a strategic position to provide solutions. In healthcare, I believe there will be a new paradigm characterized by a hub-and-spoke configuration. Through advanced information technology we can bring excellent diagnostics out to the tip of the spoke the point of care. Non-specialized workers can deliver much better service by being able to access an information hub a system, for instance, such as ReMeDe or Remote Medical Diagnostics now being piloted in parts of India. The system combines low-bandwidth video/audio conferencing with a network of clinics and pharmacies and could be combined with portable medical records. In the energy generation and distribution sector, the paradigm will be just the opposite. For instance, instead of building, say, one 500 MW coal plant, it might be better to invest in 500 one-MW solar, biomass, biogas, or wind plants. But the moment the grid starts to depend on generators whose energy production is based on natural phenomena, it has to be smart enough to cope with uncertainty. Information technology is the key to this. What is happening today in power generation is just like what happened in computing when we evolved from the mainframe to the PC. I think that paradigm sums up our energy future. Do you also see IT playing a role in the relationship between mobility and smart grids? every village has its own micro grid with its own biofuels plant, its own solar plant, and its own turbines. And all of this creates jobs and spreads economic wealth. What is your company doing for the environment? Nilekani: Here at Infosys, we are in the process of making our new buildings as green and sustainable as possible. We are looking at dramatically reducing energy consumption. We are working on passive buildings, systems for piping lighting through buildings, and using more natural lighting. We are also investing in biodiversity. We are planting a wide range of species on our campuses essentially giving a new meaning to the term business park! And we are investing in rain water harvesting, and water reuse and recycling with a view to deriving much of our water from rain rather than having to tap into water systems. Another energy-saving concept that we are now implementing at one of our campuses is to network the street lights by giving each light its own IP address. This allows them to respond appropriately to local lighting needs, yet in a coordinated fashion. Imagine, for instance, that the lights would brighten and then dim as you drive or walk down a street. Thats the idea. There is no reason to have all the lights go on or off at a specific time, regardless of ambient lighting conditions. Thats dumb. The point Im making is that the smarter we get, the more we can fine tune the granularity of our efficiency. And the time frame for this is Nilekani: My point is that Indias strength comes from its people. And to that extent, we now think of people as human capital. But the other factor is that India is now enjoying a demographic dividend. It is the only country that has more people in its working-age population than in either its very young- or very old-age segments. The bulk of our population is between 15 and 65, which means that the ratio of those working to those who need to be supported is very positive. For us, the next 30 years should be a demographic golden era, and we will be the only major country to have that the only young country in an aging world. So I am not saying that it is good to have a huge population per se. I am just saying that the current demographic contours of India are strategically good. A demographic golden era? You sound bullish on India. Nilekani: Bullish may be too strong a term. But I am cautiously optimistic. Global factors are to our advantage. One such factor, as I mentioned, is demographics. Second, India has a very strongly entrepreneurial culture and one of the highest populations of entrepreneurs anywhere. Third, it has technologies that are now seen as empowering. It has the English language, which is the language of global business. And finally, because India is a democratic society, it has no obstacles to information flow. Therefore its easier for us to get things right. No other country has all these things. Interview conducted by Arthur F. Pease

customers business for us, including ovens, sensors, oxygen analyzers, controllers and human-machine interfaces. Siemens investments in microprocessorbased SMART camera technologies are paying some surprising dividends in the context of the world economic downturn. Keeping in mind the new financial realities, one possible outcome is that businesses may not want to invest in new plants, observes J. K. Verma, Vice President for Business Development and Sales at Siemens Industry Automation & Drive Tech-

Here, a thorough analysis of ways to improve the C-arms camera and image processing module has not only led to improving the systems resolution, but also to a dramatic reduction in price. We expect to soon transition from an OEM-produced platform that costs around $2,000 to a superior device developed by CT India that we will produce locally for around $500, says Siemens India Healthcare Sector Executive Vice President D. Ragavan. Adds Dr. Vishnu Swaminathan, head of CT Indias Embedded Hardware Systems Program,

The new cameras can even look at the size and polish of an individual grain of rice.
nologies Division near Mumbai. But they are likely to invest in technologies that will improve the efficiency of their existing plants. Our innovative smart camera project in the biscuit business is an example of that. We can help our customers gain competitive advantage through improved productivity and also create pull for our other products. Sharper Medical Images. Another area in which Siemens is on the road to delivering significant technological innovation through image processing is its C-arm interventional fluoroscopic X-ray system, which is produced in Goa, India to meet the extremely tight price demands and basic needs of developing markets. which is developing the C-arm camera, The new camera is not a cheap copy of a Western model. We redesigned everything from scratch with a view to cutting costs while meeting the specific needs of local doctors. Drawing on experience in Indias extremelyprice sensitive market for surveillance cameras, Swaminathans team came up with a hardware-software co-design. This included outfitting the new camera with the same inexpensive light conversion technology used in most digital cameras, but bolstering it with additional image processing technology. Meanwhile, to achieve improved resolution, the researchers opted for a digital video interface instead of an analog one. The result is

86

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

87

Innovations for New Markets

| Brazil

Sugar cane is converted into ethanol in Brazils distilleries. To increase the energy efficiency of the process, the residues of crushed stalks are used to generate power using Siemens turbines (above).

that the image you capture and the image that appears on the monitor are identical and that there is no loss of resolution. No competing device in India has this, says Swaminathan. The researchers also plan to outfit the image processing module with DICOM (a standard for digital communication in medicine) and other software that will allow radiologists to flip images or invert colors to get improved contrast or perspective. A prototype of the new C-arm device is expected late in 2009. Nano Vision. SPM India Ltd in Bangalore, a machine manufacturer that specializes in conveyer systems, is developing the assembly line for the Tata Nanos two cylinder, fuel injection engine. With an expected price tag of about $2,500, the Nano, which will hit the market this year, will be the worlds least expensive four-wheel private vehicle. Yet the Nano is not only designed to tap a huge new consumer market, but to deliver outstanding quality. With this in mind, SPM has asked Siemens to develop an extremely affordable camera-based engine inspection, quality control and documentation system. The system is designed to inspect the automated insertion of the split (snap-in) rings used to hold the engine valves in place, explains CT Senior Research Engineer Thirumalai Kumar. With algorithms designed to catch inaccuracies in ring placement, and the presence of dirt and other anomalies, the camera is crucial to Tatas goal of accelerating conveyor belt speed from 3 to 4 meters per minute to 6 to 12 in the near future. Although still in its pilot stage, the camera already offers a number of advantages. We chose it because its programmable, accurate and supports documentation, says SPM co-owner and director Dr. G.D.R. Krishna. He explains that the camera, which uses optical character recognition to read each motors serial number and then combines it with an image documenting correct placement of the rings, transmits its images via a wireless local area network to a storage system. This supports the warranty for as long as the customer requires, he adds. Having proven the viability of its prototype, Siemens Corporate Technology in India is using its detailed knowledge of the customers needs to develop a lighting system designed to accelerate the cameras processing time from around 300 milliseconds per image to 200. This will help meet the customers conveyor belt automation requirements, says Kumar. We are working out how to accomplish this while bringing the price down even further. Arthur F. Pease

Sweet Savings
Around 40 percent of motor vehicles in Brazil now run on alcohol made from sugar cane. And this figure could rise to 60 percent over the next five years, which would reduce oil dependence and the burden on the environment. Siemens is doing its part by providing technology that saves energy when converting sugar into fuel.
ost people in the southern Brazilian metropolis of So Paulo hardly even notice the smog that covers their city every day. The haze seems to belong to So Paulo the way samba belongs to Brazil. But Paulo Costa, who works in Jundiai, some 60 km north of So Paulo, as a sales and marketing manager for Siemens Industrial Steam Turbines, isnt willing to get used to the pollution. When Costa travels to the city, he helps to ensure that the smog doesnt increase by driving a flex-fuel vehicle, which he switched to several years ago. Numerous studies suggest that such cars emit fewer pollutants than conventional gasolinepowered vehicles. If the millions of cars creeping along the citys highways every day were all burning gasoline, the air quality in So Paulo would likely be far worse, says Costa. More and more Brazilians are now switching to highly efficient flex-fuel vehicles that run on a mixture of alcohol and gasoline. Some of these cars can even be driven on pure ethanol, which costs less than gasoline. The CO2 balance of flexible engines is especially favorable in Brazil, where ethanol bio-

fuel is made from sugar cane and the amount of CO2 released when it is burned is equivalent to the amount absorbed through photosynthesis before harvesting. Ethanol already accounts for 50 percent of the fuel burned in motor vehicles in Brazil, says Costa, and this proportion is about to increase further. One factor that makes the fuel attractive is the fact that the energy stored in ethanol ultimately comes from the sun. Still, people sometimes forget that the production of ethanol also requires energy, but that much of this energy can eventually be gained from the sugar cane as well. Use of more efficient processes can minimize the amount of energy needed here, however, and technology from Siemens is helping to do just that. When Brazil launched its ethanol program in 1975, the sugar mills that produced the alcohol would just burn the fibrous residue of the crushed sugar cane stalks behind their plants, Costa recalls. But this material the bagasse also contains a lot of energy. Thats why biomass power plants with outputs ranging between 25 and 70 MW now use bagasse to gen-

erate electricity and steam for other industrial processes. As a result, the absolute energy yield per sugar mill has risen about tenfold over the last ten years. Brazilian companies are very specific about what they want from the turbines they use in their biomass plants. Our customers are generally price-sensitive, Costa explains. That means that the trade-off between the cost of the initial investment and efficiency gains over the lifetime of the equipment is slightly different in this particular market. In response, Siemens has adapted one of its successful European turbine models to the requirements of the Brazilian market, creating a new version of the SST300 steam pressure turbine. A team of Siemens engineers working in Germany and Brazil spent months altering the model to ensure that the specific demands of Brazilian customers could be met more effectively, and that the unit could be manufactured using materials and facilities available in Brazil, Costa explains. No compromises were made in terms of quality and safety, of course. But the price tag for the modified turbine is

around 30 percent lower than the original model, making it more affordable for sugar mills throughout Brazil. For example, the design of the extraction valve was modified in order to reach higher pressures of up to 32 bar. And the units compact size substantially reduces costs.

ciency a key consideration because competition in the industry has become much more intense over the last few years. Whats more, the precipitous drop in crude oil prices in recent months has made it all the more difficult to produce competitively-priced ethanol made from sugar cane. But, says

Electricity and steam for the refining processes are provided by sugar cane-fired biomass power plants.
Such benefits appeal to Marcos Monaco, industrial director of the Usina Santa Cruz sugar mill. Our decision to buy the turbines from Siemens was based on the performance and availability of the equipment, which met our project specifications and conditions to the extent that we ordered three units, he says. Usina Santa Cruz is one of 25 major sugar mills that operate in Brazil. Usinas high production volume (some four million tons of sugar cane are processed after each harvest) ensures a considerable competitive edge in terms of effiCosta, by improving our efficiency, Siemens turbines are helping us survive in this challenging environment. Word has gotten around about the advantages offered by the turbines, which is why they are now being installed in other Latin American countries, including Peru, Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico. This new development ensures that even more energy from the sun will now find its way into automobile fuel tanks. Andreas Kleinschmidt

88

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

89

Innovations for New Markets | Interview

| Facts and Forecasts

How did you come up with the idea of studying ethanol fuel in the 1970s, when it was still an obscure topic? Goldemberg: I was working as a professor at the Institute of Physics of the University of So Paulo at the time, and a colleague from the agricultural economics department who was studying alcohol fuels asked me to help him. Even back then everyone knew replacing gasoline with ethanol was technically feasible. The problem was that until that point no one had calculated the precise energy balance. The fact is that it takes energy to produce ethanol, because you need energy for seeds, fertilizer, harvesting, transport, and distillation. The key question therefore was whether or not it made

How big is the Brazilian ethanol fuel market today? Goldemberg: We produce around 22 billion liters of ethanol a year over a total area of approximately 9.9 million acres. Around a quarter of all cars in Brazil, including all new ones, can run on ethanol. The Brazilian market for ethanol could triple in volume by 2020. Other countries, such as India, South Africa, Colombia, and many Caribbean nations, also have the conditions needed to achieve similarly good results. Will ethanol one day be able to completely replace gasoline made from crude oil? Goldemberg: Ethanol can help to make our oil reserves last longer, and also to slow down

Objective: Affordable Products


I
n emerging economies such as those of India and China, product requirements are different from those in will liberate themselves from poverty in the next 20 years. During the same period, the middle class will grow more than tenfold, from 50 to 583 million people. And by 2025 more than 23 million Indians will belong to the nations wealthy upper class. According to the trade journal Electronics For You, the Indian market for automation technology which was valued at nearly $2 billion in 2007 is expected to grow by approximately 7 percent per year through 2012. However, the high capital costs for such technology are forcing small and medium-sized businesses to choose low-cost automation solutions that can be amortized within one year. In most cases, existing manufacturing facilities are retrofitted. Maintenance costs can also be reduced through the use of condition monitoring systems, which enable experts at remote locations to identify impending damage by analyzing machine data. Market research company Frost & Sullivan estimates that the global market volume for such condition monitoring systems will grow by approximately 60 percent to $2.3 billion by 2014. Intelligent cameras with digital signal processors and sensors (p. 83) are one cost-effective solution for automatic product inspection. Their components cost up to 80 percent less than previous systems. According to the Automated Imaging Association, a U.S. trade association, the world market volume for image processing systems and their components totaled roughly 7.4 billion in 2005 and is expected to grow to 16 billion by 2015. Demand for healthcare and medical systems is also increasing sharply in fast-growing and populous countries such as China and India. According to the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, the market volume for medical technology systems in India totaled approximately $2.4 billion in 2007, and this amount is expected to double to nearly $5 billion by 2012. In addition to hospital equipment, there is a particu-

highly-industrialized nations. What is needed are so-called S.M.A.R.T innovations (p. 74). The price of such robust, easy-to-use, and easy-to-maintain products must be oriented according to local consumers purchasing power. The objective is the development of high-tech, low-cost products that may cost as little as one-tenth of what they

Brazilian Ethanol: Liquid Solar Energy


Brazil launched its ethanol program in 1975. Since then, alcohol has increasingly served as a substitute for costly imported oil. Three years after the countrys ethanol program was launched, physicist Prof. Jos Goldemberg, 80, began calculating its economic and ecological value added. His findings attracted a great deal of interest worldwide and helped to achieve a breakthrough for ethanol fuel in Brazil and other countries. Goldemberg, who has also worked with U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu, was recently named one of Time magazines Heroes of the Environment and in 2008 he received the Blue Planet Prize from the Asahi Glass Foundation of Japan.
sense to produce ethanol at all. My studies clearly showed that every unit of fossil fuel energy used to produce ethanol from sugar cane ultimately yields ten times the energy originally expended. The reason for this is simple: sugar cane captures and stores solar energy and converts it into the sugar from which ethanol can be obtained. So in a way, Brazilian fuel made from alcohol is a type of solar energy. So people who fill up with Brazilian ethanol instead of gasoline dont produce any additional CO2 emissions? Goldemberg: Yes, thats almost the case. Producing ethanol from sugar cane needs a certain amount of energy, which in turn leads to extra CO2 emissions. However, using ethanol instead of fossil fuels can result in an overall emission reduction of up to 90 percent per unit of energy. Does this also apply to ethanol produced elsewhere, or from different plants? Goldemberg: Unfortunately it only applies to a limited extent. Most of the ethanol produced in the U.S., for example, comes from corn. The overall energy balance here is much less positive. Thats because the plants themselves contain less energy than sugar cane but it also has to do with the fact that more machines are used in the U.S. for farming and harvesting, and you need energy from fossil fuels to operate all that equipment. This affects the CO2 balance, of course. It also costs twice as much to produce ethanol in the U.S. as it does in Brazil, and production costs in Europe are actually four times as high. Here in Brazil, we have the benefit of a climate with enough rainfall and a lot of sunshine.

Mit enormen Investitionen baut Chongqing eine konkurrenzfhige Industrie auf.


climate change. According to my calculations, ethanol could replace 10 percent of global gasoline consumption by 2020. Doesnt producing ethanol from sugar lead to sugar cane monoculture and deforestation? Goldemberg: Sugar cane in Brazil is grown far from the Amazonian rain forest, so the idea that sugar cane cultivation destroys a great number of trees is a myth. The monoculture aspect does pose some concerns, however. Having served as environmental minister, I am aware of these problems. Nevertheless, our active environmental protection policy is producing very good results today. Among other things, monoculture has been banned in certain corridors, which has led to increased biodiversity and not just locally. The authorities know very well that environmentally-friendly ethanol must not be allowed to negatively impact biodiversity. Sugar cane yields other liquids, such as cachaa, the Brazilian sugar cane spirit used to make caipirinhas. Be honest with us: as a connoisseur, doesnt it seem a terrible waste to burn ethanol made of sugar cane in cars? Goldemberg: Let me just say that one tenth of a liter of cachaa a day is more than enough for most people. Cars, on the other hand, are really heavy drinkers. My car consumes an average of ten liters of pure alcohol daily. Still, until now demand for fuel hasnt been putting distilleries producing cachaa out of business. Thats not going to happen either, because we Brazilians love our national drink too much. Interview by Andreas Kleinschmidt.

cost in North America. Although McKinsey estimates that the per capita income of Indian consumers will triple by 2025, it is currently still at only US $793 per year. Some 28 percent of the population of India still lives below the poverty line of $1 per person per day, and more than 50 percent of the population lives on less than $2 per day. India is, however, on the way to becoming the worlds fifth-largest consumer market. According to analyses by McKinsey Global Institutes, more than 291 million Indians

Indian Medical Technology Market


Device type Sales (in millions of euros) Ultrasound machines 79.5 Magnetic resonance imaging machines 70.1 Computed tomography machines 54.8 Cardiac catheter labs 35.3 Dialysis machines 34.4 Patient monitoring systems 24.7 Positron emission tomography machines 23.0 Annual growth rate (20082012, in %) 15 15 to 20 12 to 15 25 10 to 15 25 to 30
Source: Medical Buyer 2008, figures for 2007

larly high demand in rural areas for medical technology products that allow rapid diagnosis, independent data collection, and communication with the closest hospital. Devices will soon be available in which complex and costly ultrasound technology is replaced with tiny microphones (p. 74), which make the devices significantly smaller, more compact, and more robust. While imports are still generally used to meet the demand for complex products such as ultrasound machines or even LED and xenon lamps for operating rooms, local products are also making inroads here. Sylvia Trage

Worldwide Distribution of Per Capita Income*

Average Per Capita Income Levels


US$ per capita and per year
6,000

more than $20,000 $3,260 to $20,000

0.5 billion 2 billion Developing markets

Developed markets

5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000


Source: World Resources Institute

Worldwide average income Asia (not including Middle East) India


Source: World Resources Institute

< $3,260

4 billion people Underdeveloped markets

1,000 0

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005 2007

* 2005 annual income, adjusted for purchasing power

Although real per capita income in India roughly doubled between 1985 and 2000, it is still 10 percent of the worldwide level.

90

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

91

Innovations for Developing Markets | Energy Hubs in Africa

For generations, fishermen on Lake Victoria have been attracting omena sardines with lanterns but these days theyre using energy-saving lamps from Osram.

Equipped with their new electric lamps, Aboy and his three colleagues are pioneers among the approximately 175,000 fishermen who fish in the waters of Lake Victoria. While its true that native fishermen have been using light as bait for generations, the light source has been kerosene lamps. According to the Global Nature Fund (GNF), a development aid organization, this tradition has had fatal consequences: The highly flammable kerosene has resulted in many fishermen being seriously burned. The kerosene also leaks, further polluting what is already not the cleanest water. Greenhouse gases are an issue as well. The kerosene burned in lamps used around the lake produces around 50,000 tons of CO2 per year, reports the GNF. Nevertheless, it has been very difficult for people in the region to break with their tradition, especially in view of the fact that most of the approximately 30 million people who live around Lake Victoria have no access to electricity. So they are left with no choice but to use the toxic kerosene fuel not just for fishing, but also to light their homes. Things changed in April 2008, though, when Osram and the GNF began to offer an alternative to provide clean and safe lighting sources to the people in the region, within the framework of a project known as Umeme Kwa Wote (Energy for Everyone). Self-Sufficient Charging Stations. This alternative is made possible by Energy Hubs small electrical charging stations powered by roof-mounted solar cells that make the hubs completely independent of power grids. The people in the region can lease our energy-saving lamps from an Energy Hub, as well as batteries that they can recharge at the same location, explains Jochen Berner, Osrams manager for the project. Along with the lamps, we also provide purified drinking water and a mobile phone recharging service. Osram has already built four Energy Hubs three in Kenya and one in neighboring Uganda. The hubs, which are operated by partner company Thames Electrical of Kenya, and by Dembe Trading in Uganda, have a bright future. Says Osrams Chief Sustainability Officer, Wolfgang Gregor, At the moment, were negotiating with the World Bank and industrial partners on expanding the project, whereby our goal is to build a further 100 or so Energy Hubs in Africa, and 20 in Asia. One Energy Hub is located in the town of Mbita (population 15,000) on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria. The orange-white brick building that houses the hub is surrounded by corrugated iron shacks. Between the structures

Inexhaustible Light for Lake Victoria


On the shores of Lake Victoria, people have been using kerosene lamps to catch fish and light their homes for generations. But this dirty fuel poses a serious threat to health and the environment. Thats why Siemens subsidiary Osram is conducting a pilot project that offers local residents energy-saving lamps that provide a clean, safe lighting source far from power grids without straining household budgets.
92 Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

hen night falls on Lake Victoria and the waters grow dark, thats when the working day begins for Pottas Aboy and his three coworkers. The four Kenyan fishermen paddle their boat out onto Africas largest lake and keep going until the shore is visible as only a thin sliver in the distance. The men then carefully place a small raft into the water. The raft contains a blue battery; above it an Osram energy-saving lamp dangles from a support made of branches. The water shimmers dark green in

the light of the lamp. The light mainly attracts omena, a type of sardine, Aboy explains, and then gives his home-made raft a gentle shove and watches it slowly disappear in the darkness on the lake. Now we wait until enough fish have gathered around the light of the raft, says Aboy. After that, well toss a net around the raft and pull it back in quickly. Aboy stares into the night, where the only thing still visible is a small shimmering light bobbing on a lake as big as Ireland.

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

93

Innovations for Developing Markets | Energy Hubs in Africa

People who do not have access to grid electricity can lease energy-saving lamps at Osram Energy Hubs and obtain clean drinking water. Electricity is provided by roof-mounted solar cells.

While this economic model may sound convincing, in the beginning it didnt generate much interest, as is true of many development projects. People here tend to cling very strongly to their traditions, and the social and decision-making structures are completely different from those in industrialized countries, Berner explains. For example, if a man is interested in one of our lamps, its possible that his wife might veto the decision because women are often responsible for the family budget in Africa. The Osram team therefore had to do a lot of persuading and patiently establish new relationships. Nevertheless, as Berner reports, they succeeded. We now have about 600 customers using the lamps from our three Kenyan hubs, and 150 of them are fishermen, he says. Light at Mama Austins. Although the clean, bright lamps were originally developed for use by fishermen, they are now increasingly being used in local households. In the village of Nyandiwa, around 50 kilometers south of Mbita, for example, the lamps can be found in a store operated by Mama Austin. Her corrugated shack is packed with all kinds of merchandise, and one wall is adorned with a poster of U.S. President Barack Obama, whose grandmother lives nearby. A lone Osram lamp hangs

once burned down in just one month, he recalls. When that happens, the people are left with literally nothing. This is why Otieno believes the success of the project hinges on making people aware of the health benefits offered by the Osram lamps. Extremely Pure Drinking Water. The Energy Hubs also provide drinking water thanks in part to the efforts of Otieno and his two colleagues, who have succeeded in convincing lo-

After that, the units attention turns to any remaining bacteria or viruses, which are exposed to an 11-watt ultraviolet sterilization lamp that disinfects the water. Rain permitting, we can process up to 3,000 liters of water per day with the unit, reports Otieno, and the quality of the water is superior to that offered by our public wells. Otieno is convinced that the self-sufficient Energy Hubs with their integrated water purification service have a bright future in Kenya,

One recharging at a solar hub is good for 12 hours of light and costs 30 percent less than kerosene.
cal people of the health benefits of pure water. More and more people are now coming to the small faucet at the front of the hub to fill their canisters with water, paying two shillings per liter. Thats an investment in good health, Otieno believes, because many of the villagers draw their water from Lake Victoria and drink it without boiling it although they wash their clothes in the lake and use it as a toilet. Thats why we are hit with a cholera epidemic here every year, and the lack of adequate medical care makes that an enormous and that they can successfully compete against kerosene use. However, a new competitor will soon be trying to lure away Energy Hub customers: High-voltage power lines have now reached some villages, posing a potential threat to the energy pioneers prospects. Berner doesnt seem concerned, though. The electrical connection alone costs 32,000 shillings, and then you have to pay the bills for the power you use, he says. Hardly anyone can afford that, Berner believes, adding that even people who have electrical connections will use the re-

a few chickens peck at the dust. Here, the world seems to be taking a siesta in the oppressive midday heat. But theres plenty of activity taking place behind the walls of the local hub, with its 42 solar panels constantly pumping the energy from tropical sunlight into batteries for energy-saving lamps, at outputs of up to ten kilowatts. It takes approximately three hours to charge the batteries, each of which weighs five kilos. When completely recharged, the batteries can light up the 11-watt energy-saving lamps from Osram for up to 12 hours. Thats more than

enough for a night of fishing, says Berner. But the main benefit offered by our lamps is their low price. He explains that those who would like to rent a lamp must leave a deposit of around 2,000 Kenyan shillings, or approximately 20. Thats a lot of money for people whose average monthly income is only 35. On the other hand, battery recharging or exchange at the hub costs only 100 shillings, or about 1. We work with local institutions that specialize in micro loans to help ensure that people who need the lamps can afford to use them, Berner says. You have to keep in mind

that the deposit costs about as much as a new kerosene lantern, with the difference being that our customers get their money back when they no longer need the lamp. Berner also points out that the recharging fee at the Energy Hub is relatively inexpensive when you consider that a fisherman uses around 1.5 liters of kerosene each night, which costs approximately 150 shillings. With us, the customer only pays 100 shillings a night, so they save 30 percent. In addition, customers can use the batteries to power other devices such as mobile phones and radios.

from the stores ceiling. I used to have to close the store at sundown, says Mama Austin. Now I just turn on the lamp and keep the store open until nine and business is better as a result. The bright light appeals not only to customers but to children. They can come in the evening to study without ruining their eyes or having to breathe in smoke from kerosene lamps, she adds. The kerosene lamps are responsible for lung disease and most of the fires that the village has suffered, says Ben Otieno, who manages the Energy Hub in Nyandiwa. Three houses

problem, says Otieno. Osram water, on the other hand, is completely safe and word of that has spread throughout the village. The water is safe thanks to a sophisticated treatment unit that transforms rainwater collected in a tank next to the hub into very pure drinking water. The unit, which is powered by rooftop solar cells, filters out large particles, then passes the water through an activated carbon filter that binds all chemical substances and neutralizes odors. The water is then channeled through a micro filter to remove the tiniest substances.

liable Osram lamps as backups. The grid fails for a couple of hours every day, he points out. For Pottas Aboy and his three fellow fishermen, its time to go into action on the lake again. They row to the small light they see dancing on the waves in the distance. Mosquitoes appear as they reach the raft, but the men pay no attention as they toss out their net and begin to pull it back. The water under the net begins to bubble as the light of the lamp illuminates a dense school of fish, making them look like pieces of silver treasure. Aboys working day has begun. Florian Martini

94

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

95

Innovations for New Markets | Mobility

Technicians convert a Porsche into an electric car with the help of Siemens technology. Styrofoam fills the space that will later be occupied by the engine and battery block (right).

A vision of mobility is emerging in which vehicles not only deliver clean transportation, but also store excess energy from renewable sources. New drive systems, battery, billing, and smart grid technologies are setting the stage for tomorrows energy and transportation ecosystem.

power outlet or return electricity to the grid. If, for example, a surplus of electricity is available, as is often the case at night or during periods of windy weather, prices could be lowered, making it attractive to fill up at such times. Conversely, if winds were calm, or a lot of electricity was being used during the day, the price might rise accordingly, which would lead many vehicle owners to sell their electricity back to the grid at a profit. In fact, an intelligent management system installed in each car could even make the decision itself, provided it knew how far its driver planned to travel that day, and how much elec-

in electric cars. Achieving a range of 100 kilometers for a mid-sized vehicle today requires a battery with approximately 15 kilowatt-hours of energy content. Such a battery currently costs more than 10,000. However, there are other options for such mobile power plants besides having them financed through income from electricity. For one thing, vehicle owners wouldnt necessarily have to buy the battery. Instead, it could be leased from an energy supplier. In other words, an energy company would decentralize its energy storage capacity and finance the battery through the latters secondary use.

various research institutes. My goal is to utilize electric mobility to help achieve a breakthrough for a new culture of mobility and a new system of urban planning, said German Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee at the conference. Environmental Minister Sigmar Gabriel added that electric cars acting as buffer storage units would establish an important link to renewable energy sources. Such a development will become important in Germany, Gabriel said, because the country plans to increase the share of renewable energy sources in its electricity mix from around 15 percent today to as much as 40 percent by

Electric Ecosystem
magine millions of electric vehicles in parking lots and garages, each drawing power from the grid. Now take the thought one step further and imagine each vehicle returning some of its stored energy to the grid during periods of peak power demand. Thats the vision that is set to transform the automotive industry over the next few years. Its a vision that is not possible with the internal combustion engine. However, it can be achieved with a bidirectional battery that can be charged up or used as an energy source. This vision of electric mobility has come about as the result of the convergence of a number of factors. An increasing number of people want to be mobile, while energy consumption is rising dramatically, especially in emerging markets such as India and China. In the past, these demands were met mainly by using fossil fuels. And indeed, for over 100 years cars have been powered by combustion engines while electrical power has essentially been produced by burning coal or natural gas. Time is running out, however, because fossil resources are being depleted, and the CO2 emissions they produce are accelerating climate change. More and more energy suppliers are therefore utilizing renewable and CO2-free energy sources, such as wind and solar power. The problem here, however, is that their yield depends on the weather. As the share of electricity from such sources increases, so too does the need to develop interim storage facilities whose energy can be tapped at a moments notice. One idea is to use batteries in electric cars, which, depending on demand for electricity and price, can either be recharged from any

tricity the battery would require for that distance. In any case, most cars sit idly for most of the day, which means they could be continually connected to the grid from their office parking spaces, parking lots or home garages. Flexibly determining electricity prices in accordance with supply and demand would also eliminate any problem associated with many vehicles trying to recharge at once, which of course would cause prices to skyrocket. Cars that Generate Income. The rule of thumb is that there should be some 300 electric vehicles as potential energy storage units for every wind turbine with a peak output of three megawatts. The existence of cars as mobile storage units would kill two birds with one stone. Assuming vehicle batteries could handle numerous charging and discharging cycles, energy supply companies would be provided with a buffer against surplus energy from renewable sources, while vehicle owners would have a source of income to help them finance their relatively expensive batteries. In the foreseeable future, batteries will remain one of the most expensive components

Regardless of what form electric cars may take, and what role they will play in the electricity mix, any future concept will need to incorporate the most important stakeholders: electricity producers, automakers, suppliers, and governments, whose policies should pave the way for the necessary paradigm change. In Germany, a first step was taken in November 2008, when the Ministry of Economics

2020. Secretary for Economics and Technology Dagmar Whrl added that it is essential for utilities to work closely with automakers, as extensive R&D investment will be required particularly in the fields of energy storage, vehicle engineering, and power-grid integration. In fact, such alliances are already in place. For instance, BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen are working with major German power suppli-

By storing energy that can be returned to the grid, electric cars can act as buffers for wind and solar power.
and Technology (BMWi); the Ministry of Transport, Building, and Urban Affairs (BMVBS); the Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU); and the Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) held a National Strategy Conference on Electric Mobility. The conference brought together energy suppliers such as E.ON, RWE, and Evonik; automakers and suppliers such as Volkswagen, Daimler, Continental, and Bosch; electrical and electronics companies such as Siemens; and ers such as Vattenfall, RWE, and Evonik. VW also recently began working with Toshiba on the development of battery technology. Powerful batteries are indeed the key to the entire vision, which is why their development has to be supported, said Thomas Rachel from the BMBF. A total of 500 million could be spent on mobility research over the next three years within the framework of the German governments stimulus programs. Activities here could include the development of an appropriate in-

96

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

97

Innovations for New Markets | Mobility

A Porsche is transformed as (from left) an electric motor is bolted onto the battery blocks, after which the resulting module is integrated into the body and the batteries are mounted on the rear.

frastructure and all aspects of electric vehicle technology. Regardless of how the details turn out, conference participants emphasized that the overall goal is to make Germany the leading market for electric mobility. Battery Alliance. Germany is already leading the way when it comes to electric mobility components for supplying energy or manufacturing electric automobiles. The country designs the most efficient power plants, whether conventional, wind powered, or solar-thermal and has also developed systems for low-loss power transmission over great distances. As far as automobiles are concerned, Germany remains a leader in electric motors and vehicle electronic systems. However, the situation is different with regard to battery technology. Here, most new developments are taking place in China and Korea; only around one percent of all lithium-ion batteries are manufactured in Germany. Still, Germany has produced some new developments, as evidenced by the

fact that a team of three scientists from Evoniks LiTec subsidiary was nominated for the German Future Prize two years ago. The team developed a separator for lithium-ion batteries that prevents short circuits, thereby making the high-performance units much more reliable. This is important because lithium-ion cells are regarded as being the only batteries capable of powering electric cars. Basically, they are the only batteries that can deliver the power density required for automotive transportation. The BMBF has thus established a Lithium-ion Battery alliance that will allow Germany to catch up in this field. At the same time, the BMWi has launched a Mobility and Transport Technology research program to develop state-of-the-art drive systems. Here, in addition to hybrids, the focus is on new power electronics systems for automobiles. A good electric vehicle requires a battery with an energy content of 42 kilowatt-hours to achieve a range of around 300 kilometers in other words an energy consumption level of 15

kilowatt-hours per 100 kilometers. Assuming a normal voltage of 230 volts and a current of 16 amps, it would take around 12 hours to completely charge such a battery. But at 400 volts and 25 amps, a driver could recharge in just two hours, says Professor Gernot Spiegelberg, who heads an electric mobility team at Siemens Corporate Technology. Every German household has 400-volt potential because

The Electric Mobility Value Chain Takes Shape

thats the voltage used by a normal threephase current connection. The only thing missing up until now has been a suitable interface between vehicles and the grid, he adds. Spiegelbergs team, which works closely with Siemens Energy and Industry Sectors, is the hub for the companys electric mobility research and development effort. The teams focus is on electric vehicle system requirements and the design of a mobility power grid infrastructure. Among other things, Siemens engineers are examining power generation and distribution options, transport and energy management systems, smart metering, power electronics, software, sensors and, of course, electric drives and the recovery and storage of energy. In addition to serving as energy storage units, electric drives could also become an important part of Siemens Environmental Portfolio. Thats because they utilize energy more efficiently than combustion engines. I believe that in Germany alone, there is potential for 4.5 million electric vehicles on the road by 2020, says Spiegelberg. All of these vehicles could get their power from the existing grid. And thats just a conservative estimate, because these vehicles would only add up to about half of the second cars owned by families, most of which never travel over 70 kilometers a day. As a consequence, one out of every ten vehicles in Germany would no longer use gasoline. Selling Miles instead of Cars. Germany is not the only country pursuing new electric mobility concepts; ideas are also being generated and implemented in the U.S., Australia, Israel, and Denmark, as well as in other nations. In California, a start-up called Better Place is addressing the entire value chain for a modern mobility system based on renewable energy sources. Launched two years ago, Better Place is working on the creation of a comprehensive infrastructure for the operation of electric vehicles. Following the concept used to attract mobile phone customers, Better Place plans to

provide its customers with cars at discount prices or even for free. Customers would then pay for the distances traveled, with their invoices based solely on the actual number of kilometers driven. Better Place believes it can provide customers with a better kilometerbased leasing deal for electric vehicles than can be obtained for a vehicle with a combustion engine. Here, battery stations designed like gas

automotive companies there. At the 2008 Geneva Motor Show, for example, a Chinese plug-in hybrid electric vehicle known as the F3DM was unveiled by a company called Build Your Dream (BYD). The car is equipped with a small-volume combustion engine (1.0 liters displacement), a complete electric drive system, and a battery/storage unit that can be charged both internally via a generator and/or

By 2020 there could easily be 4.5 million electric vehicles in Germany alone.
stations would enable batteries low on energy to be quickly exchanged for fully-charged ones. Better Place has entered a partnership with Renault-Nissan and plans to work with local energy utilities to establish energy infrastructures in various countries. The first electric car-based systems are expected to be up and running by 2011. German companies have also recognized the market potential offered by electric vehicles and are working hard to develop appropriate solutions. Daimler, for example, is looking to establish an alliance with energy provider RWE that would standardize battery charging stations. The fact that Abu Dhabi recently decided to become a major Daimler shareholder appears to confirm that the automaker is on the right track. Through Daimler, Abu Dhabi is banking on an accelerated transition from combustion engines to alternative drive systems, thus preparing itself for the post-oil era. Similarly, BMW and Volkswagen are working with energy companies among other things in order to determine which types of infrastructure are necessary for different mobility requirements. Their ultimate goal is to establish a foundation for the widespread introduction of electric vehicles. The electric automobile revolution could end up taking place in Asia, however, as completely new players are now joining traditional by exploiting braking energy recovery, or externally at a conventional 230-volt outlet. The vehicles range in the pure electric mode is 110 kilometers, which is more than the average one-day requirement of most commuters. BYD, which is headquartered in Shenzhen in the Chinese province of Guangdong, was established in 1995. It now has 120,000 employees and is one of the top 20 companies in China. For six years now, its 6,000 engineers have been intensively studying and developing hybrid and electric vehicles. Thanks to Chinese expertise in the field of Li-ion batteries, which comes from decades of experience with cell phones and PCs, BYD is one of the few automakers anywhere that can independently develop and produce the battery technology required for modern electric vehicles. F3DM production for the Chinese market is already under way, and preparations are being made for the production of export models. BYD has also announced that at the end of 2009, it will launch the BYD e6, a pure electric car that will have a range of 290 kilometers. Outstanding Well-to-Wheel Efficiency. In addition to energy storage technology, developers are also focusing on the drive train as a key electric mobility technology. In principle, drive trains for electric cars can be designed much more simply than is the case with gaso-

5 3

1 Energy suppliers integrate all forms of energy, from fossil to renewable, which is why intelligent power grids must be flexible and resilient. 2 An infrastructure consisting of charging stations and invoicing devices is established at public buildings and major parking lots. 3 Batteries in electric cars not only store electricity but return it to the grid if necessary. Internet-enabled cell phones are used to display all the key parameters regarding smart metering. 4 Electricity is traded like stocks, with each electric vehicle driver freely choosing to buy or sell, depending on the current price. 5 The electric car makes it possible to realize new vehicle concepts that include new electronic driver assistance systems that provide added comfort, entertainment, and safety. Service providers can utilize overarching standards to put together and market electric mobility packages. In such a setup, drivers dont purchase a car, but instead pay for the number of kilometers they travel.

98

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

99

Innovations for New Markets | Mobility

Specialty manufacturer Ruf unveiled its eCar and integrated motor, generator, and power electronics system from Siemens at the Geneva Motor Show. The motor for the iChange (right) is also from Siemens.

line or diesel engines because no transmission, differential, or drive shaft are required a situation that is similar to that of 100 years ago when electric automobile pioneers built wheel hub motor vehicles. A wheel hub motor is a machine directly installed in the wheel, which means part of the motor turns with the wheel. But unlike the mechanical systems of the past, the drive systems of the future will have brains. Intelligent electronic systems will manage components, charging and discharging procedures, as well as the brake energy recovery processes. And all of this will be designed to ensure that the energy efficiency, and thus the environmental soundness, of electric cars is much higher than the values achievable by combustion engines. The well-to-wheel efficiency (from energy source to operation) of a good electric vehicle today is over 70 percent based on renewable energy sources , whereas the efficiency rating of most combustion engines is only around 20 percent.

prototype vehicles with electric drive trains from Siemens. At the Geneva Motor Show in March 2009, we presented our drive systems in the iChange concept car, which was built by Rinspeed, and in the eRuf Greenster, a vehicle produced by Alois Ruf, he says. Rinspeed, a Swiss firm headed by visionary Frank Rinderknecht, is well-known for its forward-looking concept cars. Measuring around one meter in height and 4.28 meters in length, the iChange is equipped with a 150-kilowatthour electric motor from Siemens Drive Technologies that allows it to accelerate from 0 to 100 kilometers per hour in only 4.2 seconds. The cars top speed is 220 kilometers per hour. However, when completely charged and operating at full output, the vehicle has a range of only 90 kilometers. The cars lithiumion batteries, which are produced by Gaia, a company located in Nordhausen, Germany, can be recharged in about three hours at a conventional electrical outlet.

Electric motors are roughly four times as efficient as combustion engines.


Even if the power for electric cars isnt generated from renewable sources such as wind and sun, the level of CO2 emissions from such vehicles is still much lower than that of any combustion engine. Thats because power plants in the global electricity mix emit some 600 grams of CO2 per kilowatt-hour, which corresponds to 90 grams for every kilometer driven by an electric car. Thats a lot less than the 120 to 160 grams of CO2 emitted per kilometer by a typical mid-range automobile with a combustion engine. High-Speed Electric. Spiegelberg, who is a recognized expert in the field of electric drive systems, was instrumental in equipping two In October 2008, Alois Ruf, a German company that specializes in modifying Porsches, presented an electric Porsche that it now plans to further develop with Spiegelberg. For the prototype in Geneva, we used an integrated system consisting of a motor and generator, power electronics, and an interface with a battery connection, Spiegelberg explains. The electric Porsche presented in Geneva by RUF Automobile GmbH contains a preliminary version of the innovative eDrive system from Siemens Corporate Technology. The prototype has a central motor with an output of 270 kilowatt-hours and torque of 950 newton meters. When driven in a moderate manner, it has a range of around 200 kilometers. Ruf plans to

Tomorrows Vehicle Alphabet


The term electric mobility is generally used to refer to personal transport in vehicles that are driven by an electric motor and/or are equipped with batteries that store a relevant amount of energy. These vehicles are classified as follows: HEV = Hybrid Vehicle: Combination of an electric drive and a combustion engine PHEV = Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Hybrid vehicle with power-grid connectability BEV = Battery-Electric Vehicle: Purely electric vehicle FCV = Fuel Cell Vehicle: A vehicle that produces its own electricity through a chemical process. Many hybrid vehicles are already available on the market, and scaled-up production of all-electric vehicles will soon be launched.

manufacture a small lot of successor models that will employ a dual-motor concept. This socalled eRuf will be the first electric car in the world with a bidirectional power connection, which will allow it to be recharged within an hour at a 380-volt electrical outlet without the extra electrical circuitry typically required for recharging. The bidirectional system will also permit it to feed energy back into the power grid via the same socket. A small group of the cars is expected to hit the road in 2010. As wonderful and powerful as these electric cars are, we mustnt forget that the vehicles themselves are just one link in an electric mobility chain, says Manfried Kruska, whose work in Siemens Energy Sector focuses on electric mobility from an infrastructural perspective. Much still needs to be done here. For instance: Power grids have to be able to react correctly and quickly to fluctuations in the supply of electricity from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar facilities. Standards must be defined regarding the charging voltage of the power electronics, and a decision needs to be made as to whether the recharging processes should be controlled by a system within the vehicle or one installed at the charging station. Components for bidirectional operations and flexible billing for electricity still need to be developed if passenger cars are to be used as electricity storage media. And all these things must be part of the smart grid of the future. Cars Join the Grid. Siemens has years of experience and tremendous expertise in all aspects of the energy supply chain. The company is thus ideally suited to help design tomorrows electric mobility system from vehicle parts to power grid components. With this in mind, when Tobias Wittmann from Siemens Energy Sector attended the National Strategy Conference on Electric Mobility in Berlin in 2008, he presented a software program known as the Vehicle-to-Grid Scenario. The software, which simulates the interaction

between centralized and distributed energy systems, demonstrates the role electric cars will play as both energy consumers and energy sources. It illustrates how vehicles will be able to draw and store cheap electricity at night, and then sell the power back to the grid at a profit during the day. Siemens Energy Sector established a research alliance for such a system in February 2009, when it signed an agreement to join an international consortium in Denmark known as the EDISON project. EDISON stands for Electric vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open Networks. The goal of the project is to standardize electrical energy-storage equipment and charging and discharging technologies for electric and plug-in electric hybrid vehicles, says Sven Holthusen, head of Siemens activities in the consortium. Our job is to study the potential for connecting electric vehicles to the public grid. As a partner in the EDISON project, Siemens is responsible for coordinating and delivering key technologies, such as those needed for charging stations and associated control systems that ensure optimal utilization of battery capacities. At the heart of the overall setup are the power electronics and communication systems for managing battery charging and feedin to the grid. All of this plugs in smartly with Denmarks plans, which call for 50 percent of its electricity to be generated by wind by 2020. As a result, the country sees the development of solutions for storing excess electricity as crucial. If you dont utilize a storage option with wind, you need to install six times the normal output in order to ensure a sufficient and constant supply of power, explains Spiegelberg. Mobile Power Plants. Connecting electric vehicles to the power grid poses a particular challenge, as large amounts of energy will need to flow quickly and in both directions if the electrical energy from batteries is to be used as so-

called regulating energy during peak times. Regulating energy refers to the energy a power network operator must provide in order to offset frequency fluctuations in the network, which arise when more energy is being used than the base-load power plants are capable of supplying. Regulating energy then has to be supplied at short notice from natural gas plants, pumped storage hydropower stations, thermal plants, or energy storage units. This is a challenge we are well equipped for, says Kruska. We already have most of the components, systems, and solutions needed to establish an infrastructure to connect electric vehicles to the power grid. Our know-how covers switchgear, inverters, and control technology but we also have network design expertise, SIPLINK for network coupling, and local grid transformers.

As new as some of this sounds, the associated Siemens innovations go back many years. In fact, the electric car is older than the combustion engine vehicle invented by Carl Benz in 1885/86. The pioneering determination of our engineers to establish electric mobility has a tradition extending back more than 100 years, said Siemens CEO Peter Lscher at the companys Annual Meeting in January 2009. After all, it was in 1882 that Werner Siemens presented the first electric vehicle, which he called the Elektromote. Today, electric vehicles have a much greater chance of becoming widespread than they did back then at least in terms of urban transportation. What hasnt changed, however, is the pioneering spirit with which Siemens researchers and developers are working to achieve a major breakthrough for electric vehicles. Klaudia Kunze

Back to the Future


On April 29, 1882, Werner Siemens drove the Elektromote an electrically powered carriage along a 540-meter test track in Halensee near Berlin. Siemens invention was not only the first electric vehicle, but also the worlds first trolley bus. The Elektromote was followed in 1905 by the Electric Victoria, which rolled through Berlin as a taxi and delivery vehicle at a top speed of 24 kilometers per hour. Although these vehicles were well ahead of their time, their low battery capacities, speeds, and range couldnt compete with internal combustion engines. This state of affairs has lasted more than 100 years, and the rule of thumb even today remains that one liter of gasoline equates to nine kilowatthours. A lithium-ion battery with that sort of content weighs around 100 kilograms. Still, an electric car can travel around 60 kilometers on that energy, while a gasoline-powered vehicle will only manage 10 to 20 kilometers. This range superiority is due to the fact that electric motors are roughly four times as efficient as combustion engines. Lithium-ion batteries are familiar as high-performance energy storage devices in cell phones, PDAs, and laptops. They can store two to three times as much energy as conventional nickel-cadmium batteries of the same weight. However, a 10,000 Li-ion battery would be required to power a passenger car that uses 15 kilowatt-hours per 100 kilometers. Mass production will thus be required to bring prices down to affordable levels.

100

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

101

Innovations for New Markets | Interview

| Saving Energy in the U.S.

To what extent can the U.S. realistically reduce its greenhouse gas emissions? Claussen: The U.S. Climate Action Partnership USCAP a coalition of corporations and NGOs that includes, among others, both the Pew Center and Siemens, issued a blueprint in January 2009 that includes targets for greenhouse gas emissions reduction that are ambitious yet realistic. It calls for achieving at least 1990 levels by 2020. This is tougher than it sounds because the U.S. is now about 14 percent above its 1990 levels, which makes it nearly impossible for us to achieve Europes goal of reducing total greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020. However, I think that by 2030 we will probably be able to catch

to find a substitute for it for some time. So it is imperative that we develop affordable technologies that allow us to separate and sequester CO2. By the same token, we must also develop carbon-free ways of generating electricity. Then there is transportation, which accounts for 30 percent of U.S. emissions. Here, we will have to come up with a low carbon fuel standard and move in the direction of hybrids and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. So we have to find some way of decarbonizing our transportation system. Finally, in terms of buildings, one of the major problems in the U.S. is our patchwork of local codes. But if there is a price on carbon, owners will start to pay attention. People will want more efficient

much better idea than does government as to what is possible from a technological point of view, and what will spur innovation. So it is important for Siemens to continue to make the case for reduced CO2 legislation with those lawmakers who think this will ruin the economy. I think Siemens has a pretty good idea of how to move forward in this area, and I think this strategy will probably be quite effective. Is this a win-win strategy? Claussen: Well, obviously, there is a lot of money to be made in terms of offering efficient solutions that cut CO2 emissions and protect the environment. But governments need to hear these arguments. They dont necessar-

Bright Future for Wind Power

ind power generation is a relatively new technology. It was only 30 years ago, in 1979, that the first wind turbine with an output of 22 kilowatts entered service in Denmark. Today, these zero-emission generation units can produce well over 100 times that output, in addition to also achieving a maximum efficiency of 45 percent. So no one should be surprised that the wind turbine business is booming, especially with the looming threat of climate change and the general depletion of resources that the world is experiencing. Energy from the wind is also rapidly be-

ness year 2008 alone, the company was awarded contracts for the installation of 1,500 MW of output. Orders here include 130 units, each with an output of 2.3 MW, to be delivered to two wind parks in Washington State, and 141 units of the same size that will be set up at Biglow Canyon Wind Farm in Oregon. The combined total output of these units is enough to provide 180,000 American households with environmentally-friendly electricity. In September 2007, Siemens put into operation its first U.S. rotor blade factory in Fort Madison, Iowa, in order to more effectively

Strategies for a More Energy-Efficient U.S.


Eileen Claussen, 63, is the President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and Strategies for the Global Environment (www. pewclimate.org), a non-profit, non-partisan organization that produces reports and analyses for policy makers. She is a former Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. Prior to joining the Department of State, Ms. Claussen served as a Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Global Environmental Affairs at the National Security Council. She has also served as Chairman of the United Nations Multilateral Montreal Protocol Fund. Ms. Claussen was Director of Atmospheric Programs at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, where she was responsible for energy efficiency programs, including the Green Lights and Energy Star programs.
up with Europe. By then, we are talking about a reduction of about 28 percent as compared with 1990 levels, and a reduction of 66 percent by 2050. How can the U.S. achieve these goals? Claussen: The most important thing is to put a price on carbon, and the best way to do so is by implementing a cap and trade regime a system that caps total emissions and allows companies that pollute less to sell credits to those that pollute more. That, more than anything else, will spur innovation. It will get us to deal with energy efficiency issues and it will spur us to move into new technologies and create incentives for investing in the cleanest forms of energy meaning renewables. In addition, we will have to implement tough efficiency standards for vehicles, appliances and industrial machines. We are already on the right track. Twenty-four U.S. states are involved in a patchwork of cap and trade systems, and I anticipate that we will have a national policy in this area within two years. In terms of setting stricter standards, Californias mileage proposal is likely to be enacted on a national basis. If approved, it would require cars and trucks to get an average of 43 miles per gallon by 2020 as compared with 25 today. Which technologies offer the greatest promise of reducing CO2 emissions? Claussen: I think the most important technology issue today is the burning of coal for electricity. Coal accounts for about 50 percent of U.S. electricity and 80 percent of Chinas. It is the largest single source of carbon dioxide emissions and it is unlikely that we will be able heating and cooling systems, better windows, and much more, including passive buildings, which are energy self sufficient. Steve Chu, the new Secretary of Energy, will help us get there. Can the U.S. ratify the Kyoto Protocol? Claussen: The problem is that we are now so far behind the emissions reduction targets that we cant ratify it. As a result, I believe that the approach of the Obama Administration will be to see how much real progress we make on domestic legislation, and then see what we can realistically agree to with regard to Kyoto. Thats why the idea of having a ratifiable agreement by December 2009 the upcoming Copenhagen summit may not be practical for the U.S. Nevertheless, getting a global agreement here is very important. This could be a strong interim agreement that puts a full, final and ratifiable treaty within reach. Other countries are looking to us to make the first move. We have to put something on the table. On the other hand, India and China must get on a cleaner path. So I think that everybody has to play a part. Everybody will have to make changes. Some like the U.S. will have to make major changes. Others like India and China will need more time. But no one can afford to stand on the sidelines. What can Siemens do to help make the U.S. economy greener? Claussen: I think the fact that Siemens is part of USCAP is very important. USCAP is a combination of NGOs and industry, and because of that, I believe that it will have a disproportionate effect on what our ultimate CO2 legislation will look like. You see, the private sector has a ily know these things themselves. This is one of the reasons that we formed the Pew Center and work with 44 companies on our Business Environmental Leadership Council. Will the Clean Air Act eventually cover greenhouse gas emissions as pollutants? Claussen: I think that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will have to do an endangerment finding indicating that CO2 emissions are a danger to the environment. They have actually done all the work on that already, but it was disregarded by the previous Administration. So, yes, I think EPA will start to move and I believe this Congress will enact cap and trade legislation as its enforcement vehicle for cutting greenhouse gas emissions. Cutting CO2 emissions is expensive. But what about the costs of not cutting them? Claussen: The fundamental debate is between those who see investing in avoiding climate change as a cost, and those who view it as a benefit. I think we also need to look at the cost of not doing something. The Stern report was a first step in this direction. It found that the cost of not acting was much higher than that of acting. Now, I dont know if I believe all its numbers. But I think in terms of direction, it is correct. The cost of weather extremes, famines, droughts, and biodiversity impacts are enormous. They far exceed the cost of doing something. So not dealing with climate change is not an option. Furthermore, the more we wait, the more emissions will grow and the more we will have to reduce later on. We have waited much too long already. Interview by Arthur F. Pease

In the U.S., Siemens manufactures rotor blades and has installed turbines with a total output of over 2,700 MW.

coming more popular in the U.S. not least because the countrys new administration has set itself the goal of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the U.S. electricity mix to 25 percent by 2025. By comparison, the share of electricity from such sources was only 2.5 percent in 2007, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Nevertheless, the conditions required for this tremendous shift are in place. The U.S. is already the worlds largest wind energy market and Siemens is one of that markets leading suppliers. Siemens has installed wind power facilities with a combined output of more than 2,700 megawatts (MW) in the U.S. to date; in busi-

meet the countrys growing demand for wind power. Since then, the facility has been producing around 600 rotor blades per year for the U.S. market. Each of these blades is 45 meters long and weighs 12 tons. The plant has already reached the limits of its manufacturing capacity, which it is now planned to double. Siemens also recently commissioned the construction of a new research and development center in Boulder, Colorado. Work at the center will be focused on improving the aerodynamics, static properties, and reliability of Siemens wind turbines, thereby further consolidating the companys leadership in the U.S. wind energy sector. sw

102

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

103

Innovations for New Markets | Saving Energy in the U.S.

Green Buildings Save Big Bucks


uildings are real energy hogs. They account for roughly 40 percent of all energy consumption worldwide, and their electricity and heat consumption are responsible for about 21 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions. But modern technology can change that gloomy picture, reducing building energy consumption by around 30 percent without sacrificing comfort. Siemens is among the worlds leading companies specializing in this field. To date, Siemens has used its energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly solutions to optimize more than 6,500 buildings worldwide, realizing total energy savings of more than 2 billion and annual CO2 emission reductions of 1.2 million tons. The majority of these buildings are in the U.S. At one location St. Elizabeth Health Center in Youngstown, Ohio efficient ventilation and lighting systems have been providing an atmosphere conducive to well-being since 2002. And the hospital also covers most of its energy needs by means of a special waste-incineration plant. In the first four years alone, the hospitals operators saved more than

$5 million on energy costs and were honored together with Siemens in 2006, receiving the Governors Award for Excellence in Energy, an honor presented by the State of Ohio. And in Las Vegas, Nevada, Siemens is currently equipping a gigantic construction project with environmentally-friendly technology. Here, the MGM Mirage hotel chain is building its CityCenter facility, a complex with about 5,500 rooms, a theater, conference center, shopping mall, and even its own power plant. When this city within a city opens, a multitude of Siemens lighting systems, combined heat and power facilities, water treatment systems, automation systems and motors for example compressors for the air conditioning systems will ensure a comfortable stay for guests. Siemens solutions for the project will also satisfy the demanding efficiency requirements of the U.S. Green Building Council, an organization dedicated to sustainability. Using efficient solutions like these pays off. For example, most of the motors provided by Siemens are so efficient that they will be amortized within one to two years.

Clean Water for Growing Cities

In Brief
Siemens develops products and technologies that are cost-effective, reliable and easy to operate. These S.M.A.R.T. technologies (Simple, Maintenance-friendly, Affordable, Reliable, Timely to market) are customized to the needs of developing and emerging nations and cost much less than conventional solutions. (p. 74) Siemens is developing the kinds of regionally customized solutions that are in particularly high demand in India, including mobile water treatment systems and small power plants that generate environment-friendly electricity from coconuts. The company is also developing intelligent camera systems that can even recognize the size and polish of a grain of rice, yet remain affordable. (p. 83) PEOPLE: S.M.A.R.T. Innovations for China: Dr. Arding Hsu, CT arding.hsu@siemens.com Jian Hui Xing, CT jianhui.xing@siemens.com Qiu Wei, CT wei.qiu@siemens.com S.M.A.R.T. Solutions for India: Dr. Mukul Saxena, CT mukul.saxena@siemens.com Dr. Zubin Varghese, CT zubin.varghese@siemens.com Dr. Vishnu Swaminathan, CT vishnu.swaminathan@siemens.com Sameer Prakash, Industry sameer.prakash@siemens.com Fuel from Sugar Cane: Paulo Costa, Industry Siemens is developing customized innovacosta.paulo@siemens.com Osram Energy Hubs: Wolfgang Gregor, Osram w.gregor@osram.com Jochen Berner, Osram j.berner@osram.com Electric Mobility: In an interview, Rajendra K. Pachauri, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, says he hopes India will make comprehensive use of renewable energies and provide the poorest of its citizens with access to these energy source. (p. 84) Dr. Richard Woodling, Around 40 percent of cars in Brazil run on alcohol made from sugar cane, and this figure is expected to rise significantly in the future. Siemens is doing its part by providing technology that saves energy when transforming sugar into fuel. (p. 88) For generations, people living around Lake Victoria in Kenya have been using kerosene lamps to catch fish and light their homes. However, these lamps pose a threat to both health and the environment. Osram is conducting a pilot project that offers people in the area an alternative: batterypowered lamps that provide clean, safe lighting and can be recharged at solar-powered hubs. (p. 92) LINKS: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: www.ipcc.ch Global Nature Fund: www.globalnature.org Energy Research Institute New Delhi: www.teriin.org Lighting a Billion Lives Initiative: http://.labl.teriin.org Infosys Technologies India: www.infosys.com Siemens Water Technologies: www.water.siemens.com Siemens Water Technologies Singapore richard.woodling@siemens.com Klaus Heidinger, City of Tomorrow, Singapore. klaus.heidinger@siemens.com Prof. Dr. Gernot Spiegelberg, CT T P gernot.spiegelberg@siemens.com Manfried Kruska, Energy manfried.kruska@siemens.com Sven Holthusen, Energy sven.holthusen@siemens.com tions in China. These range from a system that autonomously monitors wind parks, and thus substantially cuts maintenance costs, to combinations of traditional Chinese and Western medicine. (p. 78)

St. Elizabeths saves over one million dollars per year.

Siemens is playing a key role in an equally exciting project in Houston, Texas, where the city government intends to modernize its public buildings. The planning for this multi-phase project calls for Siemens to initially analyze the optimization potential of the 271 structures in question and then determine which solutions can be used to upgrade them. The project also could deliver enormous savings. Experts are expecting not only environmental benefits, but also annual cost reductions totaling several million dollars. sw

ater treatment plants need to filter out a variety of substances from dirty water, including germs, agriculture-related toxins, and heavy metals such as lead. One of the most effective water treatment procedures involves the use of membrane filters that are being developed by Siemens in the United States. The filters fine hairline fibers hold back viruses, bacteria, and tiny particles when polluted water is pressed through them at high pressure. Whats more, this process does not require the use of chemical additives.

Membrane filters: very clean water, no chemicals.

Melding Public Transport and Traffic Guidance

One of every three trams and light-rail systems in North America is built by Siemens. The systems help to reduce traffic jams and carbon dioxide emissions.

ransportation accounts for approximately 14 percent of the worlds total annual greenhouse gas emissions and a considerable amount of vehicle emissions is caused by traffic congestion. Traffic jams in the U.S. alone, for example, generate approximately 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year. Advanced transportation solutions can provide relief and Siemens Mobility Division is one of the market leaders for such solutions in the United States.

Over the past few years, the company has repeatedly demonstrated the benefits offered by efficient, local public-transport networks and today, one out of every three trams and light-rail systems in North America is built by Siemens. Cities including Los Angeles, San Diego, Houston, and Denver use light-rail systems from Siemens, which helps to get cars off the streets while also reducing the burden on the environment. Such systems, however, represent only one of several options available for significantly re-

ducing road traffic. The Mobility Divisions long-term goal in the U.S. is therefore to pool and effectively utilize all traffic-related information. The first step here has already been taken, with one of every six cities in the U.S. already using a traffic guidance system from Siemens. In the future, transport by car and train will be more effectively aligned with one another through the use of additional solutions, such as public transportation information systems, all of which will help to further sw reduce CO2 emissions.

Siemens, the number one company in North America for water and wastewater treatment facilities, has installed more than 1,650 membrane systems to date in the U.S. alone. One of the systems can be found in Waxahachie, Texas. Faced with a rapidly growing population, in the spring of 2009 the city put into operation a new water treatment plant containing four filter units from Siemens. The facility processes 77.6 million liters of water daily, and plans call for its capacity to be increased to more than 300 million liters per day over the next few decades. Another city that is preparing for projected population growth with Siemens technology is Scottsdale, Arizona. There, Siemens has expanded the water treatment facility and equipped it with membrane technology. The plant now purifies 190 million liters of water a day, compared to its previous daily capacity of 76.5 million liters. Because of their modular design, Siemens water filters can be used on a very small scale as well. One example is offered by the portable water treatment solution known as SkyHydrant, which can purify 10,000 liters of drinking water per day. The system is used mainly in areas where people have no access to clean drinking water in parts of Kenya, for example, as well as in regions of China and Bangladesh that have been devastated by natural disasters. sw

104

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

105

Pictures of the Future | Feedback

| Preview Fall 2009

Would you like to know more about Siemens and our latest developments?
We will be glad to send you additional information. Please check the box next to the publication and language edition you need, and fax the page to +49 (0)9131 9192-591 or mail it to: Publicis Publishing Susan S Postfach 3240, 91050 Erlangen, Germany, or send an e-mail to publishing-address@ publicis-erlangen.de Please use Pictures of the Future, Spring 2009 as the subject heading.

Preview
Smart Grids
According to the International Energy Agency, by 2030 we will be consuming 50 percent more energy; yet, an ever-growing proportion of of that energy will come from renewable sources. But because renewable energy is unpredictable, smart grids are necessary. Such grids will maintain a balance between energy production from renewable sources, conventional sources, and new storage media such as millions of cars outfitted with electric batteries not to mention consumers linked through wide-ranging networks.

Modernizing Infrastructures
Efficiency is indispensable not only to protect the environment, but also to reduce operating costs. That applies equally to power plants, industrial facilities, traffic networks, and water supply systems. But what happens when the infrastructure is outdated or demand has already been satisfied and large investments must be avoided if possible? In these cases, sophisticated modernization programs can help. Even simple measures can significantly boost the performance and service life of older facilities.

Brochure: Corporate Technology Network of Competencies Partner for Innovations Study: Sustainable Urban Infrastructures Munich: Paths to a CO2-free Future Book: Innovative Minds A Look Inside Siemens Idea Machine Order from: www.siemens.com/innovation/book Available issues of Pictures of the Future: Pictures of the Future, Fall 2008 (German, English) Pictures of the Future, Spring 2008 (German, English) Pictures of the Future, Fall 2007 (German, English) Pictures of the Future, Spring 2007 (German, English) Pictures of the Future, Fall 2006 (German, English) Additional information about Siemens innovations is available on the Internet at: www.siemens.com/innovation (Siemens R&D website) www.siemens.com/innovationnews (weekly media service) www.siemens.com/pof (Pictures of the Future on the Internet, with downloads also available in Chinese, French, Russian, and Turkish)

Roads to New Realities


The ability to merge different sources of information offers the potential of making complex objects transparent. Whether a surgeon is attempting to place a needle in exactly the right spot, or engineers are planning modifications to a plant while avoiding damage to structures embedded in floors or walls, the ability to see through surfaces offers fundamental advantages and enormous economic value. In medical and industrial areas, Siemens is helping customers to visualize and optimize processes before they happen.

I would like a free sample issue of Pictures of the Future I would like to cancel my Pictures of the Future subscription My new address is shown below Please also send the magazine to (Please check the respective box(es) and fill in the address):

Train to Tomorrow
From April to the end of November 2009, a Science Express will be touring Germany and presenting basic research results from various institutes as well as innovations from Siemens and other companies in 60 cities. Pictures of the Future will provide extensive reports on this expedition into the world of tomorrow.

Title, first name, last name Company Street, number ZIP, City Country Telephone number, fax or e-mail Department

106

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009

107

www.siemens.com/pof

Publisher: Siemens AG Corporate Communications (CC) and Corporate Technology (CT) Wittelsbacherplatz 2, 80333 Munich For the publisher: Dr. Ulrich Eberl (CC), Arthur F. Pease (CT) ulrich.eberl@siemens.com (Tel. +49 89 636 33246) arthur.pease@siemens.com (Tel. +49 89 636 48824) Editorial Office: Dr. Ulrich Eberl (ue) (Editor-in-Chief) Arthur F. Pease (afp) (Executive Editor, English Edition) Florian Martini (fm) (Managing Editor) Sebastian Webel (sw) Additional Authors in this Issue: Dr. Norbert Aschenbrenner (na), Bernhard Bartsch, Christian Buck, Anette Freise, Andrea Hoferichter, Ute Kehse, Andreas Kleinschmidt, Friederike von der Kuhlen (fk), Klaudia Kunze, Stephanie Lackerschmid, Dr. Michael Lang, Katrin Nikolaus, Bernd Mller, Dr. Brigitte Rthlein, Dr. Jeanne Rubner, Kirstin Schliekau, Tim Schrder, Rolf Sterbak, Dr. Sylvia Trage, Dr. Evdoxia Tsakiridou, Thomas Veser, Julia Wetjen, Nikola Wohllaib Picture Editing: Judith Egelhof, Irene Kern, Jrgen Winzeck, Publicis Publishing, Munich Photography: Patrick Barth, Kurt Bauer, Daniel Gebhart, Jan Greune, Simon Katzer, Thomas Klink, George Moore, Uwe Mhlhusser, Bernd Mller, Volker Steger, Jrgen Winzeck Internet (www.siemens.com/pof): Volkmar Dimpfl Hist. Information: Dr. Frank Wittendorfer, Siemens Corporate Archives Address Databank: Susan S, Publicis Erlangen Graphic Design / Lithography: Rigobert Ratschke, Bro Seufferle, Stuttgart Illustrations: Natascha Rmer, Weinstadt Graphics: Jochen Haller, Bro Seufferle, Stuttgart Translations German English: Transform GmbH, Kln Translations English German: Karin Hofmann, Publicis Munich Printing: Bechtle Druck&Service, Esslingen Photo Credits: Look (6 a.r.), Bosch Siemens Hausgerte (12, 13 l.), Remondis (13 r.), Osram (cover t.l., 4 b., 16, 17, 69 t.l.), Prof. Braungart (18 r.), Prof. Olsen (22), courtesy of Wright Group (36 / 37), Visum (38, 39 l.), Transit (43 l.), Picture alliance / dpa (43 t.r., b.), Volker Steger (52 r.), courtesy of New York Times (68 t.r.), Ulrich Dahl / Press Office TU Berlin (69 r.), Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (71), courtesy of TERI Institute (75), Dr. Pachauri (84), Dr. Nilekani (86), Franco Turcati (87), O. Ellingvag / D.Naringsliv / Corbis (88), P. Whitaker / Reuters / Corbis (89 b.l., b.r.), S. Maze / Corbis (89 b.m.), Paulo Fridman / Corbis (90), Rinspeed (101), Eileen Claussen (102), Courtesy of Cannon Power Group (103 t.l., b.), Courtesy of Prof. Nassir Navab, TU Munich (107 m.l.). All other images: Copyright Siemens AG Pictures of the Future, Acuson, MicroScan Walkaway, LabPro, Dulux and other names are registered trademarks of Siemens AG or affiliated companies. Other product and company names mentioned in this publication may be registered trademarks of their respective companies. Not all of the healthcare products mentioned in this issue are commercially available in the U.S. Some are investigational devices or are under development and must be approved or reviewed by the FDA and their future availability in the U.S. cannot be assured. The editorial content of the reports in this publication does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the publisher. This magazine contains forward-looking statements, the accuracy of which Siemens is not able to guarantee in any way. Pictures of the Future appears twice a year. Printed in Germany. Reproduction of articles in whole or in part requires the permission of the Editorial Office. This also applies to storage in electronic databases or on the Internet.

2009 by Siemens AG. All rights reserved. Siemens Aktiengesellschaft

Order number: A19100-F-P132-X-7600 ISSN 1618-5498