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CERTIFICATE FROM FACULTY GUIDE

This is to certify that the final research report entitled Impact of Advertisement On Consumer Behaviouris a bonafide record of work done by MOHIT KUMAR submitted in partial fulfillment of MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION from Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology, Ramnagar Banur, Patiala (Punjab).

DECLARTAION

I, Mohit Kumar student of Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering and Technology hereby certify that All the information given in the project are true and not copied from any where else.

I hereby declare that the project report I am presenting is the original piece of work prepared by me, under guidance of the experts of this topic in Grasim Ltd .this report has never been presented by any other student of any college or university. And I have done it with all sincerity& honesty.

(Mohit)

Acknowledgement

Behind every success there are thousands. I wish to pay my gratitude to each one of them. At the outset, I wish to express my gratitude towards my lovable faculty & thankful to all whom contributed the completion of this report.

I am grateful to Mrs.Pareenita malhotra H.O.D of my institute whose continuous encouragement & willing cooperation provided me a great help in the preparation of this report.

Last but not the least I thank all of those who are responsible for the success of this report.

(MOHIT)

PREFACE

With the globalization & liberalization, business management has become so difficult and environment so complex that nothing less than The Best can survive in this business world. So the business manager must not only be acquainted with the latest management tools and techniques, but he should also know how to implement them.

Theory without practice is sterile; practice without theory is blind. So no, doubt, class room is important but at the same time, project is also an integral part of a future managers curriculum .It gives him a chance to apply the concepts in real life situations.

The project given to me is Impact of Advertisement on Consumer Behavior. On the Basis of the survey conducted, I have concluded the findings and recommendations.

INDEX

1

INTRODUCTION

1-15

2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

16-24

3

INDUSTRY PROFILE

25-27

4

COMPANY PROFILE

28-38

5

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

39-42

(a)

Objective of study

(b) Type of Research

 

(c) Research Design

(d) Sample size

(e)

Limitations

6

DATA ANALYSIS & FINDINGS

43- 50

7

CONCLUSION

51

8

SUGGESTIONS

52

9

BIBLIOGRAPHY

53-56

Impact of Advertisement on Consumer Behaviour

Advertising is a big business & ranks among the top industries of the world along with oil, automobiles, information technology & agriculture. The growth of advertising industries in any country is in direct relation to the level of business activity & the health of theist economy. In fact, the size of advertising industries is looked upon as a perfect indicator of the living standard of people in a particular country & its economy development.

A wise man once said: the person who saves money by not advertising is like the man who stops the clock to save time. In todays fast paced, high-technology age, business must use some form of advertising to make prospects aware of their products & services.

Advertising is paid communication through a non-personal medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled. Variations include publicity, public relations, product placement, sponsorship, underwriting, and sales promotion. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages: television, radio, movies, magazines, newspapers, the internet, and billboards. Advertisements can also be seen on the seats of grocery carts, on the walls of an airport walkway, and the sides of buses, or heard in telephone hold messages or in-store PA systems nearly anywhere a visual or audible communication can be placed.

Advertising is the non personal communication of marketing related information to a target audience usually paid for by the advertiser and delivered through mass media in order to reach the specific objectives of the sponsor.

Any paid form:- the paid aspect the definition reflects the fact that the space or time for an advertising message generally must we bought.

Non personal presentation and promotion:- totally non personal, offering

no personal interaction delivering through media and often viewed as intrusion advertising is.

An identified sponsor:- These words clarify the difference between advertising & propaganda .Just like advertising propaganda attempts to present certain opinion & ideas which may influence the attitudes& action of people.

Controlled:- the advertiser controls the content of advertising message its time & direction. Advertiser says only what to say & by selecting the appropriate medium direct the message to the audience whom they want to receive it.

Mass communication media:- The broad group of audience can best be reached by mass media such as newspaper magazines, television radio& outdoor displays.

EVALUATION OF BROADCAST

Within the last decade, the media planning function has acquired much greater significance in developing advertising campaigns. The proliferation of media choices & their increased cost have made the task of media planner more difficult & risky. Mass media option includes television, radio newspaper, magazines, out- of home media & other. The choice may apparently seem to be straightforward but it is not. The selection of media has become quite intricate because of the nature of media themselves.

TYPES OF MEDIA

The media class refers to the general category of delivery system available to carry advertising message to a selected audience such as print media, or broadcast media.

TELEVISION

Television is believed to be most authoritative, influential & exciting medium. It is often said that television is the ideal medium for advertising because of its ability to combine visual image, sound, motion & color. These characteristics present the advertiser with maximum opportunity to develop the most creative & imaginative ad message than any other medium.

TV ADVERTISEMENT

A television commercial is a

form of advertising in which goods, services,

organizations, ideas, etc. are promoted via the

medium of

commercials are produced by an outside advertising agency and airtime is

purchased from a television channel or network.

The vast majority of television commercials today consist of brief advertising spots, ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes (as well as program- length infomercials).

TV

COMMERCIALS

AROUND

THE

WORLD

FREQUENCY

AND LENGTH

TV commercials appear between shows, but also interrupt the shows at intervals. This method of screening commercials is intended to capture or grab the attention of the audience, keeping the viewers focused on the television show so that they will not want to change the channel; instead, they will (hopefully) watch the commercials while waiting for the next segment of the show. This is a technique of adding suspense, especially if the break occurs at a cliffhanger moment in the show.

POPULARITY:

Because a single television commercial can broadcasts repeatedly over the course of weeks, months, and even years. Despite the popularity of some commercials, most are considered to be an annoyance for a number of reasons. The main reason may be that the volume of commercials tends to be higher (and in some cases much higher) than that of regular programming. The increasing number of commercials, as well as overplaying of the same commercial, are secondary annoyance factors. A third might be the increasing ability to advertise on television, prompting ad campaigns by everyone from cell-phone companies and fast food restaurants to local businesses and small businesses. The latter two have a smaller budget, so the quality is often lower and contains many advertising clichés. This last factor is fast being mitigated by budget advertising agencies devoted to creating custom commercials for small businesses, such as the popular service Cheap TV Spots

MUSIC

Prior to the 1980s music in television commercials was generally limited to jingles and incidental music; on some occasions lyrics to a popular song would be changed to create a theme song or a jingle for a particular product.

Sometimes a controversial reaction has followed the use of some particular song on a commercial. Often the trouble has been that people do not like the idea of using songs that promote values important for them in commercials.

TYPES OF TV COMMERCIALS

Network or local station promotional advertising

THE FUTURE OF TV COMMERCIALS

The introduction digital video recorders, and services like Sky Plus, which allow the recording of television programs onto a hard disk, also allow to essentially skip advertisements. Many speculate that television commercials will be eliminated altogether, replaced by advertising in the TV shows themselves

Another type of commercial that is being done more and more, mostly for advertising TV shows on the same channel, is where the ad overlays the bottom of the TV screen, blocking out some of the picture. A Banner or Logo Bug, as they are called, is referred to by media companies as Secondary Events (2E). This is done in much the same way as a severe weather warning is done; only these happen a lot more often. Sometimes these take up only 5-10% of the screen, but in the extreme, can take up as much as 25% of the viewing area. Some even make noise or move across the screen. One example of this is the 2 ads for Three Moons over Milford in the months before its premiere. A video taking up approximately 25% of the bottom-left portion of the screen would show a comet impacting into the moon with an accompanying explosion, during another television program.

ADVANTAGES

1. Creativity & Impact: - The greatest advantage of TV is its ability to present advertising massage in the most unique way. The integration of sight, sound, motion and colour offers extraordinary flexibility to make dramatic and life like portrayals of product and service.

2. Coverage and cost effectiveness: - advertising on television makes it possible to reach a large number of audiences. Doordarshan claims to have its terrestrial reach to 70 million households in India, including rural areas. it is estimated that over 191 million television audiences are urban and 171millions viewers are located in rural areas.

3. Attention: - television commercials are intrusive in nature as they are imposed on viewers while watching their favorite programmers and except for those viewers who make a deliberate effort to avoid them; they are exposed to thousands of commercials each year.

4.Selectivity and flexibility:- a frequent criticism of television as an advertising medium is that it lacks selectivity because it cannot reach a specific target audience. This criticism has only limited value.Television offers some selectivity through regional coverage, broadcast time and programmed content.

DISADVANTAGE

1. Cost: - Thought television offers unsurpassed creativity & reach large audiences. It is an expensive medium to advertise. Besides the high cost of medium time, the cost of producing good quality commercials is quite high.

2. Lack of selectivity: - advertisers, who are interested that TV leads to overexposure, reducing its cost effectiveness.in delivering heir message to a very specific, narrowly defined, often small, target audience, find 3. Short-lived message: - Most TV commercials last for 30 seconds or less & just about a single sale appeal can be presented in this duration. Beside, nothing tangible is left for the audience to examine. The commercial appears to be fleeting

moment in time. Commercials are becoming shorter & shorter because of the increasing demand for a limited amount of broadcast time.

4. Clutter: - A commercial may face trouble being noticed for number of reasons such as fleeting message, short commercials. Non-programme material presented during commercial break & because the advertisermessage is only one of many other spots. For any TV program me, the number of viewers decreases for the commercial breaks.

5. Limited attention by viewers: - Baying time on television does not guarantee exposure. It only offers the advertiser an opportunity to communicate the ad message to a large number of audiences. Zapping refer to changing channels to avoid commercials. intrusive & consumers are defenseless against the bombardment of ads.

Brand awareness

Brand

Awareness

The

likelihood

that consumers recognize

the

existence

Means:- and availability of

a

company's product or service. Creating brand awareness is one of the key steps in promoting a product.

Brand awareness is an important way of promoting commodity-related products. This is because for these products, there are very few factors that differentiate one product from its competitors. Therefore, the product that maintains the highest brand awareness compared to its competitors will usually get the most sales. For example, in the soft drink industry, very little separates a generic soda from a brand-name soda, in terms of taste. However, consumers are very aware of the brands Pepsi and Coca Cola, in terms of their images and names. This higher rate

of brand awareness equates to higher sales and also serves as an economic moat that prevents competitors from gaining more market share.

Brand awareness is a marketing concept that measures consumers' knowledge of a brand's existence. At the aggregate (brand) level, it refers to the proportion of consumers who know of the brand.

Measurement driven conceptualization

Brand awareness, In general, means the extent to which a brand associated with a particular product is documented by potential and existing customers either positively or negatively. Creation of brand awareness is the primary goal of advertising at the beginning of any product's life cycle in target markets. In fact,

brand awareness has influence on buying behaviour of a buyer. All of these calculations are, at best, approximations. A more complete understanding of the brand can occur if multiple measures are used. A brand equity is the positive effect of the brand on the difference between the prices that the consumer accepts to pay when the brand known compared to the value of the benefit received.

There are two schools of thought regarding the existence of negative brand equity. One perspective states brand equity cannot be negative, hypothesizing only positive brand equity is created by marketing activities such as advertising, PR, and promotion. A second perspective is that negative equity can exist, due to catastrophic events to the brand, such as a wide product recall or continued negative press attention (Blackwater or Halliburton, for example).

Colloquially, the term "negative brand equity" may be used to describe a product or service where a brand has a negligible effect on a product level when compared

to a no-name or private label product. The brand-related negative intangible assets are called brand liability, compared with brand equity.

Family branding vs. individual branding strategies

The greater a company's brand equity, the greater the probability that the company will use a family branding strategy rather than an individual branding strategy. This is because family branding allows them to leverage the equity accumulated in the core brand. Aspects of brand equity includes: brand loyalty, awareness, association, and perception of quality.

Brand awareness can be measured by showing a consumer the brand and asking whether or not they knew of it beforehand. However, in common market research practice a variety of recognition and recall measures of brand awareness are employed all of which test the brand name's association to a product category cue, this came about because most market research in the 20th Century was conducted by post or telephone, actually showing the brand to consumers usually required more expensive face-to-face interviews (until web-based interviews became possible). This has led many textbooks to conceptualise brand awareness simply as its measures, that is, knowledge that the brand is a member of a particular product category, e.g. soft-drinks. Examples of such measures include:

Brand recognition - Either the brand name or both the brand name and category name are presented to respondents.

Brand recall - the product category name is given to respondents who are asked to recall as many brands as possible that are members of the category.

Top of mind awareness - as above, but only the first brand recalled is recorded (also known as spontaneous brand recall).

Brand recall

Brand Recall is the extent to which a brand name is recalled as a member of a brand, product or service class, as distinct from brand recognition. Common market research usage is that pure brand recall requires "unaided recall". For example a respondent may be asked to recall the names of any cars he may know, or any whisky brands he may know.

Some researchers divide recall into both "unaided" and "aided" recall. "Aided recall" measures the extent to which a brand name is remembered when the actual brand name is prompted. An example of such a question is "Do you know of the "Honda" brand?"

In terms of brand exposure, companies want to look for high levels of unaided recall in relation to their competitors. The first recalled brand name (often called "top of mind") has a distinct competitive advantage in brand space, as it has the first chance of evaluation for purchase.

Brand Recognition

Brand Recognition is the extent to which a brand is recognized for stated brand attributes or communications. In some cases brand recognition is defined as aided recall - and as a subset of brand recall. In the case, brand recognition is the extent to which a brand name is recognized when prompted with the actual name.A broader view of brand recognition is the extent to which a brand is recognized within a product class for certain attributes. Logo and tagline testing can be seen as a form of brand recognition testing. For example, if a product name can be associated with a certain tagline, logo or attribute (safety and Volvo; "Just do it" - Nike) a certain level of brand recognition is present.

Stability of responses

While brand awareness scores tend to be quite stable at aggregate (level) level, individual consumers show considerable propensity to change their responses to recall based brand awareness measures. For top of mind recall measures, consumers give the same answer in two interviews typically only 50% the time Similar low levels of consistency in response have been recorded for other cues to elicit bran.

Seven strategies to build your business brand:-

1.Define the vision. Before moving ahead with the web site, create a brand positioning statement. This isnt just, What kind of web site do we want to be?This is Who are we?’” says Harley Manning, vice president at Forrester Research in Cambridge, Mass., a technology and market research firm that advises on the effects technology has on consumers and businesses. Good brand statements typically include the companys mission, vision and values. Its succinct. Its typically something that will fit on a page easily,he says.

2.Build a brand worth believing in. Do you so believe in what youre creating that you would trademark it?says Andrea Fitch, president and CEO of RedCarpet Creations, Inc., and national president of the Society for Marketing Professional Services, both based out of Alexandria, Va. Really consider what kind of brand could represent the business through the next decade. Dont have a logo that in five years youre going to be tired of and discard for another,she says.

3.Remember, the web site is the brand. A web site is not just a communication medium,Manning says. It is actually a channel that must deliver on the promise.Essentially, a web site should embody the promise that it makes to

customers. If, for instance, a business claims to be innovative, the web site should look fresh and modern.

4.Create a cohesive experience between all mediums. Before she launched her companys new web site, Fitch made sure it would be an event that her potential clients would never forget. RedCarpet Creations mailed 4,000 silver tubes containing scrolls that looked like rolled-up carpet. Inside the scrolls was an announcement about the web sites launch. Once online, the web site was an extension of the invitations because it followed through on the themes of red carpet imagery and references to visitors being treated like a VIP. Customers should easily be able to recognize the companys brand, whether it is print, online or some other form of media, Manning says.

5.Dont sacrifice creativity. Once the brands guidelines are established, creative choices must bring those attributes to life, Manning says. Dont let the companys brand become so dominating that there is no room for new thoughts and ideas. Brand should be the jumping-off point for interesting ideas, not the place where every new idea dead-ends. Fitch stresses that a sense of fun and whimsy will only enhance the likelihood that people will take an interest in the web site.

6.Dont communicate brand at the expense of delivering. While a web site can be a significant tool for building brand awareness, clarity and functionality are paramount. Just be careful not to let the communication about your brand get in the way of delivering your message,Manning says. People should be able to understand how to navigate the site without knowing a thing about the companys catch phrases. You cant frustrate and annoy people into liking your brand,he says.

7.Listen to the customers: They determine a brands true value. Pay attention to customer feedback about the site because, ultimately, its the customersopinion that counts. When it comes to building a brand, a company can incorporate everything from signature colors to catch phrases, but at the end of the day, its the consumer who decides what a brand is really worth. Its not what you say [about] yourself, its what others say of you,Fitch says.

Brand Measurement Approaches:-

There are many ways to measure a brand. Some measurements approaches are at the firm level, some at the product level, and still others are at the consumer level.

Firm Level: Firm level approaches measure the brand as a financial asset.

Short, a calculation is

made regarding how much the brand is worth as an

intangible asset. For example, if you were to take the value of the firm, as derived by its market capitalization - and then subtract tangible assets and "measurable" intangible assets- the residual would be the brand equity. One high profile firm level approach is by the consulting firm Interbrand. To do its calculation,

Interbrand estimates brand value on the basis of projected profits discounted to a present value. The discount rate is a subjective rate determined by Interbrand and Wall Street equity specialists and reflects the risk profile, market leadership, stability and global reach of the brand.

Product Level: The classic product level brand measurement example is to compare the price of a no-name or private label product to an "equivalent" branded product. The difference in price, assuming all things equal, is due to the brand. More recently a revenue premium approach has been advocated .

Consumer Level: This approach seeks to map the mind of the consumer to find out what associations with the brand the consumer has. This approach seeks to measure the awareness (recall and recognition) and brand image (the overall associations that the brand has). Free association tests and projective techniques are commonly used to uncover the tangible and intangible attributes, attitudes, and intentions about a brand. Brands with high levels of awareness and strong, favorable and unique associations are high equity brand.

All of these calculations are, at best, approximations. A more complete understanding of the brand can occur if multiple measures are used.

CONCEPTUALIZATION

It is important to know the effectiveness of advertising which is a joint responsibility of advertising & advertising agency.

Improvement in effectiveness of advertising can be brought by careful considered change introduce through the combined effort & guidelines for judging them effectively.

Attention: - It reveals that it should be attention seeking & interesting to observe.

Comprehensibility:- It should be easy to comprehended & communicated to the target audience.

Credibility: - It should show the credibility of the product service which are provided or offered & appropriate research provides basis for judgment.

Overall Impact: - It should reflect the reach& richness of message o consumer mind. Originality: - Advertisement should reveals its originality not copied from competiton.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1) Gupta Dinesh ( Jan 1, 2007) discussed that the study of individuals, groups or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use and dispose of product, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and impacts,that these

processes have on the

consumer
consumer

and society. And understanding the

consumer
consumer

behavior is the prime and toughest task in front of every marketer. There are a lot

of factors, which influence

consumer
consumer

buyer behavior. This study aimed at to

understand the "influence of celebrity endorsee on marketing.

consumer
consumer

buying behavior and

2. Mukherjee Debiprasad (Aug 6, 2009) discussed that celebrity endorsement has been established as one of the most popular tools of advertising in recent time. It has become a trend and perceived as a winning formula for product marketing and brand building. It is easy to choose a celebrity but it is tough to establish a strong association between the product and the endorser. While the magnitude of

the

impact
impact

of celebrity endorsement remains under the purview of gray spectacles,

this paper is an effort to analyze the

impact
impact

of celebrity endorsements on brands.

Objective of this article is to examine the relationship between celebrity

endorsements and brands, and the buying behavior as well as how

impact
impact
consumer
consumer

of celebrity endorsement on

makes brand preferences.

consumer
consumer

's

3. Batra Rajeev, Homer Pamela (feb 2008) examines some situational influences on the formation and consequences of two brand image/personality beliefs, pertaining to fun and sophistication (classiness). It experimentally tests

McCracken's (1986) meaning transfer mechanisms and establishes that non- verbalized personality associations of celebrity endorsers on these dimensions do

indeed reinforce equivalent

consumer
consumer

beliefs about a brand's fun and classiness

benefits, but only if a social consumption context is evoked, and only if the brand

image beliefs are appropriate to the

consumer
consumer

schema for the product category

involved. Moreover, under these facilitating conditions, such ad-created brand

image beliefs have an attitudes.

impact
impact

only on brand purchase intentions, and not on brand

4.Dr. Rajagopal (Jan 2006) the psychographic variables like emotions associated with the brand image constitute the personality of a brand. Although the experiences of the consumers with the brand cultivate such personality, advertising plays a dominant role in personality creation. Information inflow on brands and outflow through inter-personal communication may act as a device to coordinate

consumer
consumer

expectations of the purchasing decisions of other consumers in markets with consumption externalities. The belief that individual difference in brand preference or choice behavior are caused by personality differences has not always been supported by empirical research.

5. Halim Rizal Edy (1 jan 2006) brand that manages to bring a meaningful impression on consumers are more likely to win a special attention. Value-added brands are also more likely to win a distinctive spot in consumers' minds. In addition, brand could affect consumers' brand affection and brand trust. Consumers attempt to choose the brand they want with the consideration of the value of purpose and pleasure (Batra & Athola, 1990), availability, uniqueness, quality (Sheth, 2001), etc. This research is conducted to discover the effect of the relationship of brand trust and brand affect toward brand performance mediated by

purchase loyalty and attitudinal loyalty as units of

consumer
consumer

brand loyalty.

6. Loef Joost, Antonides Gerrit, Van Raaij W.Fred (11 Feb 2001),several authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands informational advertising is more effective than transformational advertising. Likewise, for hedonic brands transformational advertising is more effective than informational advertising. These recommendations were tested in an experiment with different products and different ads. Advertising effectiveness was measured by brand and ad evaluations.

7. Kenneth C. Wilbur ,(June 2, 2007) discussed that television remains the most important advertising medium. This paper proposes a two-sided model of the television industry. We estimate viewer demand for programs on one side, and advertiser demand for audiences on the other. The primary objective is to understand how each group's program usage influences the other group.

8. Wilbur Kenneth C., Ridder Geert (June 25,2008) discussed that digital video recorder proliferation and new commercial audience metrics are making television networks' revenues more sensitive to audience losses from advertising. There is currently limited understanding of how traditional advertising and product placement affect television audiences. We estimate a random coefficients logit model of viewing demand for television programs, wherein time given to traditional advertising and product placement plays a role akin to the "price" of consuming a program. Our data include audience,

advertising, and program characteristics from more than 10,000 network-hours of prime-time broadcast television from 2004 to 2007. We find that the median effect of a 10% rise in traditional advertising time is a 15% reduction in audience size.

We find evidence that creative strategy and product category factors are important determinants of viewer response to traditional advertising

9. Dahl Stephan(Jan 2004) ever since Levitt's(1983) article The Globalization of Markets, in which he claimed that marketing can be standardised across cultures, the debate whether or not marketing, and advertising in particular, can truly be standardised has divided both practitioners and researchers in the field. However, there is an increasing body of research which casts serious doubts over the claims made by Levitt and which suggests that advertising is strongly influenced by (local) culture.

10. Manchanda Puneet ,Pierre Jean,- Dube H. (Dec 2004) discussed that we estimate the demand system using an easy to implement partial maximum likelihood estimator. We then solve for dynamically optimal advertising under the estimated demand system. We allow for oligopolistic competition among firms,

using the Markov perfect equilibrium (MPE) concept to solve for the outcome of the repeated game.We apply our model to the case of advertising in the Frozen Entree product category. The demand estimates provide evidence for a threshold effect in the sales-response to advertising as well as advertising carry-over. The

threshold is robust to functional form assumptions on the

impact
impact

of advertising on

demand. The demand estimates imply that firms should pulse in equilibrium. On

average, the optimal advertising policies yield a moderate profit improvement over the profits under observed advertising ..

11.

Draganska Michaela, Clark C. Robert ( july 2007) we investigate the

dominant role of advertising - whether it provides information or changes consumers' brand perceptions - for a wide range of product categories. For the

empirical analysis, we assembled a panel data set that combines annual brand-level advertising expenditures for over three hundred brands with measures of brand

awareness and perceived quality from a large-scale

consumer
consumer

survey. Advertising

is modeled as a dynamic investment in a brand's stocks of awareness and perceived

quality and we ask how such an investment changes brand awareness and quality perceptions. Our panel data allow us to control for unobserved heterogeneity across brands and to identify the effect of advertising from the time-series variation within brands.

  • 12. Prihoanca Diana ( April 29, 2009) except the audience performances of the

television channels and the known advantages of this communication mean, the

transmission of the

advertisement
advertisement

spots thought television is done in a different

manner, also depending on the reception method, the number of the TV channels from a television network and depending on the coverage area of the respective

television network. Thus we distinguish: the

advertisement
advertisement

realized by the network

television, the

advertisement
advertisement

realized through the local television and the

advertisement
advertisement

realized by cable television.

  • 13. Keane Michael P. ,Sun Baohong ( june 2009) discussed that the use Nielsen

scanner panel data on four categories of

consumer
consumer

goods to examine how TV

advertising and other marketing activities affect the demand curve facing a brand.

Advertising can affect

consumer
consumer

demand in many different ways. Becker and

Murphy (1993) have argued that the "presumptive case" should be that advertising works by raising marginal consumers' willingness to pay for a brand. Our empirical

results support this conjecture on how advertising shifts the demand curve for 17 of the 18 brands we examine.

14. Allenby Greg M., Ban Masataka (oct 2009) discussed that nature of the effect of media advertising on brand choice is investigated in two product categories in analyses that combine household scanner panel data with media exposure information. Alternative model specifications are tested in which advertising is assumed to directly affect brand utility, model error variance, and brand consideration. We find strong support for advertising effects on choice through an indirect route of consideration set formation, and not directly affecting brand utility. Implications for media buying and advertising effects are explored.

15. Benedict E Jan.,Steenkamp B. M. (july 2007) discussed that how do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising actions? How do

these reactions influence the net sales

impact
impact

we observe? We answer these

questions by performing a large-scale empirical study of the short-run and long-run

reactions to promotion and advertising shocks in over 400

consumer
consumer

product

categories, over a four-year time span. Competitive reaction can be passive, accommodating or retaliatory. We first develop a series of expectations on the type

and intensity of reaction behavior, and on the moderators of this behavior. These expectations are assessed in two ways. First, vector-autoregressive models quantify the short-run and long-run effect of a promotion or advertising action on competitive sales and on competitive reactions.

16. K. Chintagunta Pradeep ,Yong Goh Khim (jan 2008) discussed that One of the major advances of the digital economy is the facilitation of building and managing individual customer relationships - a process usually referred to as "customer relationship management" or CRM. For a typical web site selling

frequently-purchased

consumer
consumer

items,

the

most

important stage of CRM is

customer retention. This is because the long-term viability of a website is based on its ability to retain a significant customer base. In this study, we focus on a hitherto

unexplored question - does banner advertising have a role to play in the customer retention phase of CRM.

17.Vriens Marco (feb 2007 ) using weekly data on advertising expenditures in various media and response data on awareness, consideration and choice, we test the hierarchy of effects hypothesis. Our empirical results, based on a simultaneous equations model with pooled parameters across brands, suggest that we can reject this hypothesis convincingly. Next, we consider a vector error correction model, again with pooled parameters, to see if there are dynamic effects of advertising. For the category under scrutiny, we find that most advertising effects exist for awareness, although at the same time there are effects for choice. Newspaper advertising turns out to be most influential.

18. Kalwani Manohar U. (july 2007) discussed that we study the optimal levels of advertising and promotion budgets in dynamic markets with brand equity as a mediating variable. To this end, we develop and estimate a state-space model

based on the Kalman filter that captures the dynamics of brand equity as influenced by its drivers that include a brand's advertising and sales promotion expenditures. By integrating the Kalman filter with the random coefficients logit demand model, our estimation allows us to capture the dynamics of brand equity as well as model

consumer

heterogeneity using store-level data. Using these demand model

estimates,

we

determine

the

Markov

Perfect

Equilibrium advertising and

promotion strategies.

19.

Draganska Michaela (Aug, 2006) investigate the dominant role of advertising

- whether it provides information or changes consumers' brand perceptions - for a wide range of product categories. For the empirical analysis, we assembled a panel

data set that combines annual brand-level advertising expenditures for over three

hundred brands with measures of brand awareness and perceived quality from a

large-scale

consumer
consumer

survey. Advertising is modeled as a dynamic investment in a

brand's stocks of awareness and perceived quality and we ask how such an

investment changes brand awareness and quality perceptions.

  • 20. Srinivasan Kannan (jan 2008) discussed that Logit choice models have been

used extensively to study

consumer
consumer

choice behavior and promotion response. A

common finding is that promotion has a strong effect on brand choice. This paper examines whether brand switching elasticities derived from these models may be

over-estimated due to rational

consumer
consumer

adjustment of purchase timing to coincide

with promotion schedules, and whether this bias can be addressed by a dynamic

structural model.

  • 21. Weiss Doyle ,Tellis Gerard (1995) traditional econometric models suggest

that advertising has a clear and significant positive effect on sales in the current

period. However, recent studies using scanner data indicate that the estimated effects of TV advertising on households' brand choices are weak and rarely significant. Do those findings mean that TV advertising does not really have an

impact
impact

on current brand choices and sales? Or are the discrepant findings due to

differences among the measures, models and aggregation levels used by different researchers? The authors address these issues. Their analysis indicates that aggregating data over time and households may create a false impression of advertising having a statistically significant effect on sales.

22. B.D. McCullough ,Robert L. Kieschnick ,Steven S. Wildman (Nov14), 2001

discussed that we provide a model of television advertising based on an explicit

characterization of an

advertisement
advertisement

's contribution to an advertiser's profits that

suggests that each program faces a downward sloping demand for its ad time. Hence Fournier and Martin's (1983) "law of one price" does not hold in our model.

We study these contrasting arguments about television advertising by examining the pricing of broadcast network advertising. In conducting this empirical examination we encounter and solve a severe multicollinearity problem. We conclude that the evidence supports the advertising model presented in this paper and demonstrates segmentation between cable and broadcast viewers in the national television advertising market.

TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA

The textile industry is one of the oldest, largely & most firmly established major industry of our country at present.At present India is the third biggest textile exporter in the world market. Textile industry plays an important role of country. In March 1992, there were 1117 textile (846 spinning mills and 271 mixed mills). The industry provides employment to 11.5 lacks of meet our demands but also produce sufficient clothes for export.The textile industry is facing a lot of problem and passing through deep crises. The main problem are mismanagement and old technology in many mills, shortage of raw material, outdated machines, number of sick units (123 in marks 1993), discontentment among the labour face, non cooperative attitude of the trade unions, serious challenges in the world market, irregularity in the power supply and tough competition form the decentralized areas. The textile industry has not overcome its difficulties in maintaining output at the desire level. In order to remove these difficulties the Govt. formulated New

Textile

Policy

In

1985.

THE INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

The textile industry occupies a unique place in our country. One of the earliest to come into existence in India, it accounts for 14% of the total Industrial production, contributes to nearly 30% of total exports and is the second largest employment generator after agriculture. Textile industry is providing one of the most basic needs of people and the holds importance; maintaining sustained growth for improving quality of life. It has a unique position as a self-reliant industry, from the production of raw materials to the delivery of finished products, with substantial value-addition at each stage of processing; it is a major contribution to the countrys economy.

Textiles are an important source of reference for the cultural studies because of their universality. Textile have always draped the body, whether human/deities/animal, floor and furniture. Unlike stone, clay, metal etc. Textiles were traditionally made from biodegradable materials. Cotton (natural cellulose fiber), silk, wool (natural protein fibers) were three main materials for textiles,

apart from best and leaf fibers. Initially very spinning technologies were used for making the textiles. The most basic skill involved spinning the fiber into yarn and then changes it to fabric by a process called weaving. The implements used for weaving and spinning were and in many parts of India still continue to be of biodegradable materials like wood. There does exist a very scant reference of the fabric making skills in the archaeological excavations. Along with the tools of their manufacture, fabric materials have long degraded in our tropical climate.

Textiles consist of fibers, yarns, fabrics and finishes. Each of these stages has a variety of processes involved to reach the next stage. Hand and feet have even today remained the tools for various processes supported by materials like wood, terracotta, metal, yarns, beads, semiprecious stones, colors etc. the concept of the Indian textile technologies is intricately related to both, the manufacture and decoration. This may therefore be researched in a chronological framework starting from archaeological past to the contemporary. Regional developments have been very typical to certain styles of manufacture and decorations in textiles.

Technology in textile industry

Textile technology, once considered a handicraft, has become a highly sophisticated, scientific and engineering activity of new types of fibers and technologies. The field encompasses different areas of engineering such as mechanical, electrical, computer, chemical, instrumentation, electronic and structural engineering. Apparel and fashion technology, a part of textile technology has become an important activity for the designing, fashioning and marketing of garments. All this requires knowledge of latest technology and the present day textile-design students are poised to take up the challenge. The knitwear and process sectors especially, are witnessing change in a big way.

The textile industry in India is one of the oldest industries. It provides direct employment to nearly thirty million people. Yarn exports in recent years have gone up from 485 thousand tones (valued at Rs.586 billion) in 1997-98, to 554 thousand tones (valued at Rs.667.4 billion) in 1999-2000. Textile fairs held every year showcase new technology and development that has taken place in the industry including weaving, knitting, testing, printing and dyeing ..

Technical textile offers an excellent opportunity not only for the revival of the Indian textile industry but also a new direction, new ways and means to sustain and thrive in the near future. An average of 4% growth in technical textile is expected during the period from 1995-2005. It is expected to reach US$6 million by year 2005 from US$42 million in1995.

Current scenario

Developing countries with both textile and clothing capacity may be able to prosper in the new competitive environment after the textile quota regime of quantitative import restrictions under the multi-fiber arrangement (MFA) came to an end on 1st January, 2005 under the world trade organization (WTO) agreement

on

textiles

and

clothing.

As a result, the textile industry in developed countries will face intensified competition in both their export and domestic markets. However, the migration of textile capacity will be influenced by objective competitive factors and will be hampered by the presence of distorting domestic measures and weak domestic infrastructure in several developing and least developed countries.

The textile industry is undergoing a major reorientation towards non-clothing applications of textiles, known as technical textiles, which are growing roughly at twice rate of textiles for clothing applications and now account for more than half of total textile production. Technical textiles have many applications including bed sheets, and blood-absorbing materials, seatbelts, adhesive tape, and multiple other specialized products and applications. India must take adequate measures for capturing its market by promoting research and development in this sector.

The mood in Indian textile industry given the phase-out of the quota regime of the multi-fiber arrangement (MFA) is upbeat with new investment flowing in and increased orders for the industry as a result of which capacities are fully booked up to April 2005. As a result of various initiatives taken by the government, there has been new investment of Rs.50, 000 crore in textile industry in the last five years. Nine textile majors invested .

GRASIM INDUSTRIES LIMITED

Established in 1947, Greaviera industries ltd. has displayed remarkable business acumen to grow both vertically and horizontally. Greaviera has tapped opportunities as a result of our dynamic approach to emerge as a leading industrial giant of our country. Today, Greaviera industries are more than industrial enterprises; they are a symbol of Indias search for economic and industrial liberalization.

The Aditya Birla group with a turnover of approximately US $715 million, the group enjoys a pioneer status in numerous industrial disciplines. It tries to faster a simple corporate philosophy that is to achieve perfection and excellence an all spheres. Its tradition is that of innovation, dynamism & experimentation.

Research and development plays a vital role in its vertical and horizontal integrating programs. Human research development is an integral part of the corporate policy. The programs the programs aim at motivating and enhancing efficiency at all levels. The search for excellence has made its diversifiers presence flat in various sectors right from clothing to infrastructure. Grasim has a strong presence in fabrics and synthetic yarns and is well known for its branded suiting, Grasim and Greaviera, mainly in the polyester cellulose branded menswear. Its textile plants are located at Bhiwani (Haryana) and Malanpur (Madhya Pradesh). Fabric operations are centralized at Bhiwani with a processing capacity of 17.0 million meters a year, while the Malanpur unit manufactures worsted dyed yarn spun from 100 % merino wool along with polyester and other blends.

Grasim has launched several new products ice touch, soffeel, Venetia under Grasim and cleanfab, easy wash, self-care under Greaviera. Grasims strong nationwide retail network includes 50 exclusive showrooms as well as 200 wholesalers and 25,000 multi-brand outlets through which it reaches its customers. Grasim caters to international fashion houses in the USA and UK supplying fabric to them for manufacturing of garments, which are available in some of the largest retail chain stores.

History of Grasim industries limited (Fabric & yarn division)

In 1964, when the Punjab cotton mills, now known as Grasim Bhiwani textile mill, was taken over by Greaviera industries, little was known that another success story was being written success at GBTL was not by chance, but by an attitude of accepting challenges. GBTL manufactures polyester viscose blended yarns and fabric. Marketed under the brand name Grasim suiting, the fabric is amongst the most popular name in the country.

The uncompromising quality consciousness has made GBTL was worthy of international quality recognition. In 1994, GBTL was awarded the prestigious ISO 9002 certification. Each process, from buying the fiber to the finished fabric, is monitored by computerized machines and highly qualified workers and technicians. Being a composite unit spinning, weaving and processing is done under one roof and there are stringent quality checks at every stages.

In efforts to have its presence felt in the consumers mind, GBTL frequently organize fabric shows dealers conferences and one-to-one contact with retailers. The annual prestigious "Greaviera- Mr. India" contest is a tribute the Indian male.

The winner-up at the Best

Male

Model

of

the

world

contest.

ADITYA BIRLA GROUP

Aditya Birla Group is among Indias largest business houses. Operating in the country for over five decades and globally for nearly thirty years, its revenues today are in excess of US $5.6 billion, with net earning of US $ 6 billion asset base and a market cap of US $ 5 billion and 700,000 shareholders.

Its 40 state-of-the-art manufacturing units and sectoral services, anchored by 72,000 employees, criss-cross 16 countries including Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Egypt, Canada, USA and Uk.

A premium conglomerate, the Aditya Birla group is a dominant player in all of the sectors in which it operates, such as aluminum, viscose staple fiber, copper, cement, viscose filament yarn, branded apparel, chemical, carbon black, fertilizer, sponge iron, insulators, power, telecom, financial services and more recently , insurance. It is the worlds largest producer of viscose staple fiber, amongst the worlds largest producer of white cement, the largest single location refiner of palm oil, the third largest producer of insulators, the fifth largest producer of carbon black, amongst the lowest cost producers of aluminum globally and the largest fully integrated aluminum producer in India.

In India the group is the single largest producer of viscose filament yarn, gray cement ( at a single location), white cement and rayon grade pulp, the only producer of linen and a leader in the ready-to-wear branded apparel.

Grasim, Hidalgo, Indian rayon, indo gulf and India from its stables- rank among Indias top 50 most respected and admired corporations.

The Group also has a significant presence in the financial services, power and telecommunication sectors with strategic joint ventures with giants such as - sun life (Canada), powered plc (UK), AT&T (USA), The Tata Group and BPL communications ltd. respectively. In the software sector, the Group is represented

through PSI Data system marking its entry into software development, system integration and software maintenance services.

On the social front a value-based, caring corporate citizen, the Aditya Birla Group inherently believes in the trusteeship concept of management. Part of the Groups profits is ploughed back into meaningful welfare-driven initiatives that make a qualitative difference to the lives of marginalized people. Carried out under the aegis of the Aditya Birla Center for community initiative and rural development, it is spearheaded by Smt. Rajashree Birla.

GRASIM BHIWANI TEXTILE LIMITED

The erstwhile Punjab cotton Mills at Bhiwani in Haryana was taken over by Grasim industries 1964. Subsequently, its product mix was changed from cotton to polyester/ viscose suiting. Today with a capacity of over 34,000 spindles and over 160 looms, GRASIM BHIWANI TEXTILE LIMITED (GBTL) caters to a large market in India. Its brand-Graviera suiting is well received in Middle East, south East Asia, Cyprus, Latin America and Mauritius as well. The first to introduce synthetic denims and polyester jute suiting, the unit intends to diversify into fancy yarn spinning and blended design suiting using fibers like silk, cotton, flax and jute. A leader in Yarn and fabric-right from its inception G.B.T.L. brands include Adonis, and Sumo Grasim Bhiwani Textiles Limited is equipped with World Class spindles.

Dornier Looms (Germany) and Sluzer Looms (Switzerland).Computerized matching systems and sophisticated jet-dyeing machines in its Processing Unit. Computer Aided Design packages in its Fabric Development Section

GBTL promotes the mega fashion event "Greaviera Mr. India"-the winner of this event participates in the publicized event, it has provided a boost to the image of

the

companys

products.

OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPANY

Objectives establish the goals and the aims of the business and determine the shape of future events. Objectives are the way of achieving motives for profit of social service.

Main objectives of GRASIM BHIWANI TEXTILE LIMITED as in its Memorandum of Association are: Increasing productivity of work force.

To introduce new products and create new market.

Customers service and customer satisfaction.

Improving work culture among the employees.

Capitalizing on company strength and use of corporate assets.

To provide a growth rate of about 10%p.a.

Improve the advertising effectiveness.

To ensure that a large proportion of its sales is directed towards the sectors and urban sectors.

SWOT ANALYSIS OF GBTL

Strengths of GBTL

GBTL is a composite firm in Haryana. GBTL is a financially sound firm. Working environment is peacefully (Union is strength principle is followed). Facilities given to employees & employers on time and up to date.

Product quality is given equally to all (Wholesaler, Retailers).

Weaknesses of GBTL

Basic salary structure is not up to date some manipulations are needed. Not sufficient facilities are given employers and employees.

Opportunities for GBTL

Given chance to Grasim to make and sale its product providing them manpower, machine, money, market, material.

In near future they will start readymade garments.

Threats to GBTL

GBTL face threats from its competitors like Vimal, ocm, Siyaram, Raymonds.

GBTL face in overseas market like Philippines, Malaysia, Canada, Mexico, and America

MAIN PRODUCT OF GRASIM

Viscose fiber Viscose fiber from bamboo & wood Rayon Caustic coda Cement Dress material of Greaviera & Gwalior suiting Sponge irons Chemical

Chemical fertilizers

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Bhiwani Textile Mills manufacturing product types yarn and fabric. The main operations involved in the production of yarn & fabric and called spinning and weaving respectively. We will discuss here in Brief, various sub processes carried out in the executing of these operations.Spinning:

This is the process of conversion of fiber (raw material) into yarn (output). Fabrics are two type natural and synthetic fibers. But B.T.M. makes use of the latter only. Polyester, viscose, Acrylic, Nylon, Orlon, Triolobale etc. are various sub-type of synthetic fiber, which are being used by B.T.M. The production system of yarn can be shown as:

Input

Transportation Process (Spg.)

(Fiber)

Output

(Yarn)

The various sub process of spinning is executed in the following sequence Mixing

and Blowing-------> Carding----- > Drawing >Ring------->Frame----- -->Winding-

-------->simplex--------

------->Doubling--------->Packaging

Mixing and blowing:

The two processes are executed on the same machine blender. The objective of mixing is to make a uniform and homogeneous blend- of different types of fibers in ratio. This ratio is fixed by the blend specification required in the desired final product i. e. yarn. The most demanded finer blend is polyester / viscose in the ration 65/35,48/52.35/65 etc. mixing results in loose turns of blended fiber, which then blowing process.

The main objective of blowing are cleaning; opening and lap formation form the tufts of fiber laps are nothing but long uniform sheets of fiber wound round iron rods. Weight and Length of laps are standardized. Fiber at this stage becomes free from any unwanted like dust stone, sand etc.

Carding

Laps from blow room are brought to the carding machines. The main objectives of carding and sliver formation of fiber. Hence, for the first time in the spinning process, the fibers are giving the form of a top. Silver in fact are thick rope like structures of the fiber kept in big plastic drums. Carding removes every impurity from fiber that had remained in it even after Blowing

Drawing:

Slivers are converted into more uniform slivers here. So both the input and output are slivers. The main objective of Drawing is parallalisation of fibers. It increases the uniformity and evenness of the fiber.

Simplex:

The sliver drums get converted into smaller `roving` here. The main objectives of this process are to increase the length and strength of the rope from of the fiber. This is the stage prior to the final stage of yarn formation. For first time in the process of spinning. Twist is introduced here and tinning of the rope begins.

Ring frame:

The roving is converted into smaller sized bobbins in this process. The main objectives of `ring frame` are to increase the twists and length of the roving from of fiber and thus convert it yarnthe final product. So ring frame is the final stage in yarn production. At this stage twists are given according to the customers specifications. Due to excessive thinning, the yarn can break here. In order to avoid such breakage and unevenness in the yarn, the relative humidity is kept at about 65%in this section.

Winding:

In this process yarn is wound on cones larger package in order to get a longer and continuous yarn length, suitable for the weaving process. It also removes weak places in the yarn .The main functions of winding machine therefore are to convert bobbins into cones and remove any slabs or fluffs from the yarn.Slub is a yarn defect of unevenness (Thinker at some places).Reeling:

Yarn can be wound in the form of hanks also in place of cones if the customer demands it so. The process of making hanks is called reeling. Bobbins from ring frame are fed to the reeling machine & we get hanks.

Doubling:

Some times we require doubled yarn. This is mostly required to give some fancy effect. We can multiply (2,3or more) yarn by the process of doubling. This involves two machines Cheese winding machine and doubling machine. Cones from winding machines are fed to the cheese winding and we get bobbins, on which 2 or more yarns are would in a parallel fashion. Then on doubling machines these parallel yarns are given twist according to the specification .Here the bobbins

again get converted into cones.Irrespective of the colours.These designs are called weaves & can be of various types mat twill, plains, double weave etc. In drawing in stage, yarn form weavers beam is drawn through healed eye and reed (two parts used on loom to produce design) in accordance with the predetermined design for a particular fabric. Without accurate drawing in process, it is impossible to have desired design on loom. After drawing in the beam is ready for weaving.

Loom Seed:

Looms are the actual weaving machines. Here yarn runs in two directions lengthwise and breadth wise. The yarn running lengthwise on the loom in called warp and the running breadth wise is called weft. The cloth produced at this stage is called grey cloth. This is produced by inserting weft yarn in warp sheet according to the predetermined design of reeds & picks Reed and pick are respectively the no of ends warp wise and weft wise in one square inch of fabric. Which are essential parts of loom? The types of looms in the loom shed of B.T.M.

Weaving:

Synthetic yarn is used as the input in weaving process (in B.T.M.)And the end product obtained is fabric .So Weaving is the process of converting yarn into fabric. The various operations involved in the process are sequentially followed is the following manner:-Warping --------Sizing--------Drawing-in------Loom

seed---mending----------Finishing----------Folding-----packaging.-------Warping:--

This is the first sub process in weaving .Here the yarn is used to form beams main objectives of warping are # to form a beam #to remove weal places which to remove slob and fluff etc.

Warping consists in arranging side by large, a large number of yarn ends to form a sheet of yarn wrapped round an iron rod. This on iron rod. This sheet on iron rod is calledBeam.

Sizing:

Sizing is a chemical treating of yarn beams. The objectives of sizing are

# to provide further strength to the yarn to withstand the tension while running on the loom and hence reduce breakage.

# to protect the yarn forms various types of insects.

Various material are used in sizing, to achieve the above mentioned objectives .These material include starch adhesives fitting materials and insecticide sets. The beams after sizing are called Weavers Beam.

Drawing In :

This is the stage where basic information takes place irrespective of the colours.These designs are called weaves & can be of various types mat twill, plains double weave etc. In drawing in stage, yarn form weavers beam is drawn through healed eye and reed two parts used on loom to produce design in accordance with the predetermined design for a particular fabric.

Without accurate drawing in- process, it is impossible to have desired design on loom. After drawing in the beam is ready for weaving.

Loom Shed

Looms are the actual weaving machines. Here yarn runs in two directions lengthwise and breadth wise .The yarn running lengthwise on the loom is called warp. And the running breadthways is called weft. The cloth produced at this stage is called Grey cloth. This is produced by inserting

weft yarn in warp sheet according to the predetermined design of reeds & picks. Reed and pick are respectively the number of ends warp wise and weft wise in

one square inch of fabric. Which are essential parts of looms? The types of looms in the loom shed of B.T.M. are:

Denier

66

Suzie

30

Seltzer is the advanced version of Denier. Types of faults generally found after weaving:

Chira

Design Cut

Jala

Jhirly

Mending:

The grey cloth form the loom shed is brought for mending. The full length of the cloth is manually checked here, and the defects are removed by hand scissors and other equipment .Most of the removable defects in fabric gets removed here.

Finishing:

Mended cloth id further processed in the finishing Section. Finishing is one of the most important processes, because the fall, luster and drape of the final product i.e. cloth depends largely upon it. Some other functions that this section can perform are making the cloth fireproof, shrink proof, wrinkle proof, water proof etc..Mainly three processes are carried out in this section processing, Dyeing and printing.

Processing:

In this subsection the long thread which remain loosely attached to the surface of the fabric are removed first of all .After that ,small hairy fibers projecting form the surface of the fabric and certain is impurities like dust and waxy material etc. are also removed. The fabric is then thoroughly washed to remove Mandy from it .It is dried then and passed on a Setter machine, where by the process of Heat set the shrinkage of cloth is removed, and by chemical processing Lustier & shine are produces.

Dyeing and printing:

Fabric

can

be

two

types

according

to

the

dyeing

processs:Top

Dyed:

Manufactured from already dyed yarn & Piece .dyed manufactured form untied

gray yarn & hence required dyeing. In the dyeing process, the polyester and Viscose parts of the cloth are dyed separately because there Chemical & condition, requirements vary. Polyester part is dyed by using the disperse dyes and at very high temperature .But viscose part requires wet dyes (i.e. the days which are easily soluble in water. The fabric is washed after dyeing both these parts.

Fabric printing is of two types screen printing & Roller printing.

But in the products of B.T.M printing is not usually required .After the processing for printing & or Dyeing the fabric of every type is properly washed and dried.

Folding

The finished fabric is brought to this section for checking and folding. It is also part of the quality control at B.T.M.The fabric is manually checked inch by inch. This inspection is done for finding any faults and removing them if removable .If faults cross a limit in certain quality, the fabric is rejected and sold under seconds.The checked cloth is folded in the form of than and pent length standard length of a than varies from 6 to 12 meters, pent length is a length is 1.20 meters of cloths length of Cloth lesser than P.L. are graded as:-

Superior

: 91 cm to 1.19 met.

Fents

: 45cm to 90 cm.

Rags

: 25 cm to 44 cm

Cindy

: Below 25 cm

Objectives of Study

Objectives established the goal and the aims of business and determine its shape of future events .Objectives are the way of achieving motives for profile or self service objectives represent a clear picture of activities which are sought to be achieved. Main objectives of my research is:-

To study the impact of advertisement on consumer behaviour.

To study about the brand awareness.

To study about the impact of advertisement on sales trends of Grasim Textile.

Research Methodology

A research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. In research methodology we study the various steps that are generally adopted by researcher in studying in his research problem along with the logic behind them.

Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Information is the life blood of managerial decision making. The purpose of methodology section is to describe the research procedure by which the relevant information is gathered.

This section comprises the research design, the data collection method, the sampling procedures and analysis procedures.

Research Design

A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure Research Design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. It is the overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which sources by which procedure. Depending upon the objective of the study, there are three research designs available: -

Exploratory Research.

Descriptive Research.

Experimental Research

1. Exploratory Research:-

To gain familiarity with a phenomena or to achieve new in sight into it. Studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulate research studies.

  • 2 Descriptive Research:

To Portray accurately the characteristics of particular individual, situation of a group. Studies with this object is view are known as descriptive research studies.

  • 3. Experimental Research:

To determine the frequently with which something occurs or with it is associate with sometime else. Studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies.Considering the importance of decision areas, it was decided to undertake an exploratory survey. Exploratory research is concerned with discovering the general nature of the problem and the variables that relates to it.

The research design of study is exploratory.

During training after studying the process of manufacturing of cloth by Chinar Suiting, the study was interested in knowing that how the product is transferred to final buyers. So the survey is conducted of Retail outlets. Retailers finally conveys the product to end users so they helped in to know the customer's like and dislikes for this purpose. The market research of Retail outlets in Rohtak and Bhiwani of about 30 Retails.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Biasness may be entered in the sampling or data collectionat some places.

There was no secondary data available so the researchers have to start from very beginning.

Information collected some distance from the actual information due to lack of some Respondents interest.

The time availability for the survey in big cities is difficult to get the suitable data.

1. The awareness level of Gravira suiting is?

High %

Low

65%

35%

1. The awareness level of Gravira suiting is? High % Low 65% 35% Figure no.1 Interpertation:-

Figure no.1

  • Interpertation:- Gravira brand awareness is high because company investing

good investment in advertisement. Brand recognition method is used for knowing the awareness level of brand.

2. How is advertising of GBTL?

Good

very good

Dont know

44%

24%

32%

2. How is advertising of GBTL? Good very good Don ’ t know 44% 24% 32%
  • good 44%

  • very good 24%

  • don’t know 32%

Figure no.2

  • Interpretation:- About the advertisement of GBTL 44% people say it is good and

24% people say it is very good, remaining 32% people do not know about the

advertisement of GBTL. Brand recognition method is used here for knowing brand awareness level of people.

2.Which media influence you most?

Newspaper

television

Hoarding

Others

25%

10%

40%

25%

2.Which media influence you most? Newspaper television Hoarding Others 25% 10% 40% 25% Figure no. 3

Figure no. 3

Interpretation:- Hoardings and newspaper are most effective media of advertisement because hoarding near cloth market search the attention of customer for a continuous time gap. Brand recognition method is used for recalling the customers about the GBTL brand.

4. What is the impact of advertisement on sales?

YEARS

SALES

Difference(cr)

(cr)

2008

206

-

2009

  • 229.8 23.8

 

2010

  • 251.3 21.7

 
300 250 200 150 sales 100 difference 50 0 2010 2008 2009
300
250
200
150
sales
100
difference
50
0
2010
2008
2009

Figure no.4

  • Interpretation:- Due to the increasement of new technology and large area of

market increase the need of advertise and increase the sale so GBTL also spending

on advertise expenses. Brand recognition method is used in advertisement for recalling or attract to the customers for GBTL brand. It helps in increasing the sales of GBTL.

5 .Comparison of sales of GBTL and S.KUMAR in lakhs tone.

Company name

2008

2009

2010

GBTL

  • 206 229

 

251

S.KUMAR

  • 210 225

 

235

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 GBTL S.KUMAR 2010 2008 2009
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
GBTL
S.KUMAR
2010
2008
2009

Figure no.5

Interpretation:- From last three years company is able to sustain higher sales than S.kumar company in last year 2010 company achieve the 251 crore in comparison of 235 of S.Kumar company.

6. How the presence of celebrity affected your purchasing behaviour towards Grasim Product?

Attractive Prompt to Drove to No effect visit action 20% 32% 38% 10%
Attractive
Prompt
to
Drove
to
No effect
visit
action
20%
32%
38%
10%

Figure no.6

Interpretation :- The presence of celebrity is effected most the behavior of buyer because celebrity is the role model of modern youth. Brand recognition method is used threw the celebrity in aids.

7. How frequently do you purchase GBTL product?

Frequently

Occasional

Once/twice in a year

Never

36%

34%

10%

20%

7. How frequently do you purchase GBTL product? Frequently Occasional Once/twice in a year Never 36%

Figure no.7

Interpretation:- The customer of GBTL coming frequently and occasionally because brand name of company is popular and regular advertising is the main reason. Brand recognition method is used for knowing the awareness level of respondents.

8. Are you satisfied with Grasim product?

Highly Satisified Never Dissatisfied Highly satisfied satisfied/nor dis- dis-satisfied satisfied 30% 28% 15% 10% 7%
Highly
Satisified
Never
Dissatisfied
Highly
satisfied
satisfied/nor
dis-
dis-satisfied
satisfied
30%
28%
15%
10%
7%

Figure no. 8

Interpretation:- Company focus on customer preference and satisfied the customer need so that customer preference level more than 70%. Brand recognition method is used for knowing the preference and satisfaction of customer.

CONCLUSION

A Graviera suiting is ranked forth after Raymond, Siya Ram, Donear, and Vimal & Gwalior. Competitors of Graviera are Gwalior, Siyaram, kumars and Mayur. Graviera products are available at 9 out of 140 retail outlets. So products availability is low.

Quality of Graviera Suiting is good. But company is spending very low on advertisement. Awareness level of Graviera is good and it can be improved by using Electronic and print Media.Customers most preferred buying range is 150- 200 per meter. Graviera products are bought mainly for Trousers and most of the customers are not satisfied with Graviera products.

SUGGESTIONS

 

Advertisement should be given in between the popular programs.

.

 

Poster should be attractive, impressive, and understandable.

Company should start attractive schemes for customer on special occasions (Dipawali, Holi).

R&D Department should take care about the launching of products in advance according to customers taste, because it effects the sales of GBTL.

Company must make higher investment in advertisement field.

BIBLOGRAPHY

1. Books:-

(a). Marketing Management, Author:- Philip Kotler

(b). Marketing Management, Author:- J.C.Gandhi

(c). Philip Kotler, Philip.; Kevin Lane Keller (2006). Marketing Management, 12th ed ..

(d).Clancy, Kevin J.; Peter C. Kriegafsd (2000). Counter intuitive Marketing.

(e).Research Methodology,

Author:- C.R.Kothari

3. Journals:-

(1) The Anatomy of Rebranding (R. Harish)

(2) Advertising Mastermind sep 2008(E.N. Murthy)

(3) Advertisement Express feb.2010 (E.N.Murthy)

(4). (a)

Dinesh

Kumar,

Impact
Impact

of Celebrity Endorsement on

Consumer

Buying

Behaviour

and Brand Building, (January 1, 2007 )

SSRN: http: //ssrn.

com / abstract=1203322

(b) Mukherjee Debiprasad ,

Impact
Impact

of Celebrity Endorsements on Brand Image ,

(August 6, 2009) SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1444814

© Batra Rajeev , Homer Pamela M.,impact of brand image and brand purchase intentions of concumer, ( feb 2008) http://ssrn.com/abstract=555837

  • (d) Dr. Rajagopal ,Influence of Advertising Variability, Brand Extension Effects,

Brand Name, Variety Seeking Behavior and Customer Value on Buying Decisions:

A Multi-Experiment Analysis,(January 2006) SSRN:

  • (e) Halim Rizal Edy ,The Effect of the Relationship of Brand Trust and Brand

Affect on Brand Performance: An Analysis from Brand Loyalty Perspective ,A

Case

of

Instant

Coffee

Product

in

Indonesia,

(1

jan

2006)

 

W. Fred,The Effectiveness of

Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation,(11 Feb 2001)ERIM Report Series

Reference

No.

ERS-2001-65-MKT.

Available

at

SSRN:

The Role of Measures, Models and Data Aggregation Journal of Advertising,

(1995) Research, Vol.24, No. 3, pp. 1-12, Fall 1995. Available at SSRN:

  • (h) Kenneth

C.

Wilbur

,

A

Two-Sided,

Empirical

Model

of

Television

Advertising

and

Viewing

Markets,

(June

2,

2007)SSRN:

Geert Ridder .Effects of Advertising and Product

Placement

on

Television

Audiences,

(June

25,

2008)

SSRN:

  • (j) Stephan Dahl ,Cross-Cultural Advertising Research: What Do We Know

About the Influence of Culture on Advertisement?,(Jan 2004) SSRN:

Dynamics,(Dec 2004) SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=478050 or

doi:10.2139/ssrn.478050

Effect of Advertising on Brand Awareness and Perceived Quality Using Panel,(July 2007 )Data SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1007571

  • (m) Prihoanca

Diana,TV Advertising -Factors of Influence,(April 29, 2009)

,impact of

TV advertising and other

marketing

activities

which

affect

the

demand,(june

2009)SSRN:

,The Effect of Media

Advertising

on

Brand

Consideration

and

Choice,

(oct

2009)

SSRN:

and the Cross-Sales Effects of Advertising and Promotion,(july 2007) SSRN:

  • (q) Sriram S.,Chintagunta Pradeep K. , Khim Yong Goh ,Effects of Brand

Preference, Product Attributes, and Marketing Mix Variables in Technology

Product Markets,(jan 2008) http://ssrn.com/abstract=834824

  • (r) Marco Vriens , Franses Philip Hans ,Advertising Effects on Awareness,

Consideration and Brand Choice Using Tracking Data,(feb 2007) SSRN:

  • (s) Manohar U. Kalwani S. Sriram ,Optimal Advertising and Promotion Budgets

in Dynamic Markets with Brand Equity as a Mediating Variable,(july 2007) SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=912321

Empirical Investigation of the Effect of Advertising on Brand Awareness and

Perceived Quality Using Panel Data,(aug 2006) Stanford University Graduate

School

of

Business

Research

Paper

No.

1971.

Available

at

SSRN:

  • (u) Doyle Weiss Gerard J. Tellis,Does TV Advertising Really Affect Sales? The

Role of Measures, Models and Data Aggregation Journal of Advertising Research,(1995) Vol.24, No. 3, pp. 1-12, Fall 1995. Available at SSRN:

Television Advertising Journal of Advertising, Forthcoming,(feb 2007)

Marshall School of Business Working Paper No. MKT 03-06. Available at SSRN:

  • (w) Gerard J. Tellis , Chandy Rajesh K., Pattana Thaivanich ,Which Ad Works,

When, Where, and How often? Modeling the Effects of Direct Television Advertising Modeling the Effects of Direct Television Advertising,(Feb2000) Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 37, No. 1, pg. 32, February 2000. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=906661

  • (x) B.D. McCullough ,Robert L. Kieschnick ,Steven S. Wildman,The Market

for Television Advertising: Model and Evidence,( Nov14 2001) SSRN:

http://ssrn.com/abstract=310891 or doi:10.2139/ssrn.310891

4. Web sites:-

Questionnaire

General Information

  • 1. Name of the respondent

  • 2. Designation of the respondent

  • 3. Name and address of the Organization

………………………………………

.………………………………………

……………………………………….

  • 4. Your education qualifications?

Under Graduate

Post Graduate

Graduate

Professional (if any) ……….

  • 5. Please indicate Your Gender:

  • 6. Your Marital Status:

  • 7. How old are you?

Male/ Female

Married/ Unmarried

a. below 25

c. 35-45

b. 25- 35

d. 45 & above

  • 8. Your total working experience

……………………………….

Please read the statement on the of work carefully. For each of the condition select one of the five alternative answers.

1. The awareness level of gravira suiting is?

  • high

  • low

  • 2. How is advertising of GBTL?

    • good

    • very good

    • Dont know

  • 3. Which media influence you most?

    • newspaper

    • television

    • hoarding

    • others

  • 4. What is the impact of advertisement on sales?

  • more

    less

    5.How the presence of celebrity affected your purchasing behaviour towards Grasim product?

    • attractive

    • prompt to visit

    • drove to action

    • no effect

    6. How frequently do you purchase GBTL product?

    • frequently

    • occasionally

    • once in a year

    never

    • 7. Are you satisfied with grasim product?

      • highly satisfied

      • satisfied

      • dissatisfied

    PROJECT REPORT ON

    IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOURPunjab Technical University, Jalandhar For the Partial fulfillment of Requirement for the Award of Degree of Master of Business Administration

    SUBMITTED TO:

    Ms. Parineeta Malhotra (H.O.D.)

    PROJECT REPORT ON “ IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ” Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar For

    SUBMITTED BY:

    Mohit Kumar Roll No. 90822265933 M.B.A. 4 th (semester)