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South Wales coalfield 2012

South Wales coalfield 2012


In addition, local stratigraphic differences affect joint density. Indurated competent sandstones in the hangingwall of the Ynysmaerdy fault at a distance of 100m from the fault plane show joint densities of 1j/m and 2j/m whilst thin beds show 5j/m. Other thick sandstone units and planar bedded sandstones with siltstone interbeds show only sporadic jointing.

Description of Joints & CBM


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Orientation and abundance of fractures, mainly joints, were measured along the whole south crop at sites such as Baglan and Mynydd y Gaer; Gelligaer and Crythan and in Ynysmaerdy. Other sections were measured in Brynna-Gnoll, Foel Fynyddau and Briton Ferry and these counts are expressed as the number of fractures per unit length of stratum (Miliorizos, 1994).

Cuttings at Ynysmaerdy of 4m stratigraphic thickness, illustrate the local effect of lithological competence on joint density. Four types of discontinuity contribute to the structural fabric: beds, joints, slip and cleat. Decimetre to metre cross bedded sandstone; decimetre bedded siltstone and two coals, 30 to 40cm in thickness show different joint densities: 9j/m in the sandstone, 12j/m in the siltstone and sub-centimetre spaced fractures in

Known cross faults mapped and named on BGS 1:50,000 series sheets of Baglan & the Afan Valley e.g. Ynysmaerdy, Gnoll and Ferry, dip steeply and strike N-S. They are either linked directly by NE relay faults in sandstone or by soft link folds within incompetent strata. Field measurements of slickenside lineations, veins and jogs point to oblique extensional displacements. BGS map evidence from Baglan & Britton Ferry, where a normal drag fold is observed, supports oblique slip. High fracture density is related here to the summative effects of normal faulting, linkage and drag (Miliorizos, 1994). Detailed examples are given below:

insitu coal-raft clasts. In addition, 15 to 20j/m occur in seat earth beneath the coals. Foel Fynyddau has indurated channelized Pennant Sandstone beds dipping gently northwards situated in the footwall and 100m east of the Gnoll fault. A related decametre drag fold extends 800m east of the fault and is caused by the 65m downthrow, recorded on abandonment plans of the Cwmmawr colliery (plan numbers: Cwmmawr 11015, 12767, 13580, 2680A, Po0). Joint densities range from 2j/m to 6j/m in localised areas. Despite the indurated sandstone, the high joint density is attributed to the drag fold plus background joint density due to the large displacement on the Gnoll fault. Briton Ferry has decimetre bedded sandstone between a major down to the east normal fault

Ynysmaerdy and Gnoll show joint densities of 2 joints per metre (i.e. 2j/m), also 4j/m, 5j/m, 6j/m and 8j/m. Steeply dipping joints strike N-S and lie between two major down to the west faults named Ynysmaerdy (west) and Gnoll (east). High joint density persists 1km away from the faults and its regularity indicates effects of up-throw on the Ynysmaerdy fault and downthrow on the Gnoll fault were equivalent during the fracture forming process. Joint densities in Pennant Sandstone are 3j/m, 5j/m, 6j/m and 10j/m. Bedding strikes WNW-ESE and steeply dipping joints strike N-S and NE-SW. NE joints are related to a similar NE-SW relay fault that links one N-S secondary cross fault to the Ynysmaerdy fault. Proximity to the faults is expressed as elevated joint densities between 5j/m and 10j/m. Counts of joints and their strike show the maximum joint density of 10j/m consists of two sets of background density 4j/m due to the N-S striking faults and one set of 2j/m due to the NE-SW relay fault.

and the Ferry fault. The Ferry fault delineates the western margin of the named Dyffryn graben. The stratigraphy and structure are detailed in BGS memoirs of the 1:50,000 series sheets (e.g. Archer, 1968). A NE-SW relay fault links the N-S graben boundaries and dissects Briton Ferry. A density of 5j/m and variable orientations are indicative of a composite joint set. Noteworthy is an exceptionally high bedding dip, 50o N. Persistently high joint density is attributed to the faults and indurated inclined bedding. Despite rheological competence, fault proximity is expressed as discrete joints even within thick metre bedded sandstone. In summary the nature of normal cross faults and their fractures, set upon the compressional and strike slip structure of the coal basin, point to a significant enhancement of effective porosity during a long fault history that involved tectonic inversion. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Marios N. Miliorizos University of Glamorgan 2012

Joint survey CBM

Joint survey CBM