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Write a note on the functions of management.


Functions of management Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling. According to Henry Fayol, To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword POSDCORB where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and ODONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing Controlling.

For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others. 1. Planning

It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, Planning is deciding in advance what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap

from where we are & where we want to be. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of predetermined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc. 2. Organizing

It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnels. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves: 3. Identification of activities. Classification of grouping of activities. Assignment of duties. Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships. Staffing

It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & ODonell, Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure. Staffing involves: Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place). Recruitment, selection & placement.


Training & development. Remuneration. Performance appraisal. Promotions & transfer. Directing

It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating subordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements: Supervision Motivation Leadership Communication

Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers. Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose. Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction. Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding. 5. Controlling

It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations

before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation. According to Koontz & ODonell Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished. Therefore controlling has following steps:

a. b.

Establishment of standard performance. Measurement of actual performance.

c. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any. d. Corrective action.


Discuss any two learning theories in detail.


Learning Theories: The Three Representational Modes All information that is perceived via the senses passes through three processors that encode it as linguistic,nonlinguistic, or affective representations (Marzano, 1998). This is how we learn. For example, if you go to a football game for the first time you encode information linguistically such as rules; retain mental images nonlinguistically, such as mental images of the players positioning themselves and then getting set (pose); and finally, you have various sensations that are encoded affectively, such as the excitement during a touchdown. Each representation can be thought of as a record that is encoded and then filed away.

The Linguistic Mode In the educational and training world, knowledge is most commonly presented linguistically (the study of language), so perhaps this mode receives the most

attention from a learning standpoint (Chomsky, 1988). The linguistic mode includes verbal communication, reading, watching (e.g. learn the rule of chess through observation), etc. Discussions and theories around the linguistic mode can get quite complex so I am keeping this fairly simple. Basically, the linguistic processor encodes our experiences as abstract propositions. Propositions are thought to perform a number of other functions in addition to being the primary bearers of truth and falsity and the things expressed by collections of declarative sentences in virtue of which all members of the collection say the same thing. Propositions represent the things we doubt and know. They are the bearers of modal properties, such as being necessary and possible. Some of them are the things that ought to be true. These propositions are organized into two networks: 1. The declarative network contains information about specific events and the information generalized from them. These are the what of human knowledge. 2. The procedural network contains information about how to perform specific mental or physical processes. Often thought of as IF and THEN statements. These two networks are the main channels for interacting with each other (communication). Communication is the main functions of language. Language symbols are used to represent things in the world. Indeed, we can even represent things that do not even exist. Communication does not imply a language, for example using hand signals. But a language does imply communication, that is, when we use language, we normally use it to communicate. Definitions The forming of language is done by syntax putting sounds together to form words, and the words, in turn, form sentences. For example, English words require at least one vowel sound. However, in Czechoslovakia there are words that are all consonants with no vowels. These sounds we put together are morphemes the smallest units of language that have meaning. A word is morpheme, as is a prefix or suffix, also the s we add onto the end of a word is a morpheme. Semantics is the study of meaning. With semantic knowledge we can often understand what people mean when they say things that are syntactically unusual or even incorrect. In transformational grammar, the meaning of a sentence is its deep structure, and that meaning is transformed into the surface structure, which is the actual sentence itself. The deep structure of language is the meaning, and the surface structure is the means by which that meaning is expressed. The rules that translate the meaning into

the deep structure are the phrase rules, and the rules that translate the deep structure into the surface structure are the transformational rules. The Nonlinguistic Mode This includes mental pictures, smell, kinesthetic, tactile, auditory, and taste. At first, we might believe that they are entirely different structures, however these representations are quite similar to each other in that these nonlinguistic sensations function in a similar fashion in permanent memory (Richardson, 1983). That is, although we sense things differently, such as smell and touch, they are stored in mental representations that are quite similar. They also lose a lot of their robustness once the experience is over and transferred to memory. For example, picturing the smell of a rose from memory is not as vivid as actually smelling a real rose. Although we can realistically study linguistics, taste, hearing, etc.; mental images are another matter. . . how do you study a picture in someones mind? Hence, there are several models for the nonlinguistic mode in the psychology world. However, there are a few things we know for certain: o Mental images can be generated from two sources the eyes (e.g., the after image of a light bulb) and from permanent memory (picturing a tiger that has squares instead of dots). o Mental images are an essential aspect of nonlinguistic thought and play an important part in creativity. o Due to the fragmented and constructed nature of mental images, they are not always accurate pictures of whole thought as compared to prepositionally-based linguistic information. However, they can have a powerful effect on our thoughts due to their intensive and vivid nature, e.g. the power of storytelling, the images we create in our mind when reading a powerful novel, metaphors, imagination, creativity, etc. The Affective Mode This is our feeling, emotions, and mood (Stuss & Benson, 1983): o Feeling is ones internal physiological state at any given point in time.

o Emotion is the coming together of feelings and thoughts (prepositionally-based linguistic data) that are associated with the feeling. o Mood is the long-term emotion or the most representative emotion over a period of time. The affective mode can be thought of as a continuum of feelings, emotions, and ultimately moods. The end points of the continuum are pleasure and pain and we normally strive to stay on the pleasure end of it.

The limbic system (pituitary gland, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus, etc.) is the physiological system that ties the affective mode together. Since the limbic affects virtually every part of our brain, it also has a very powerful affect on learning.

Q.4 What are the factors influencing perception? Factors Influencing Perception Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us; it allows us to act within our environment. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside: i) In the perceiver. ii) In the object or target being perceived or iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made. 1. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceivers attitudes affect perception. For example, suppose Mr. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers, most of whom are male. Mr X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. In addition, we remember information that is consistent with our

mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. When in a positive mood, we form more positive impressions of others. When in a negative mood, we tend to evaluate others unfavourably. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. For example, in an organizational context, a boss who is insecure perceives a subordinates efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to get my job, regardless of the intention of the subordinates. d) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. In contrast, a negative selfconcept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others. e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interests differ considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive. For example, the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. If you are preoccupied with a personal problem, you may find it hard to be attentive in class. f) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive structure, an individuals pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearance, more readily. Others tend to focus more on central traits, or personality dispositions. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. g) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately.

Ones own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favourable aspects of other people. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation. Characteristics of the Target: Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Physical appearance plays a big role in our perception of others. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. Motion, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it.The perceiver will notice the targets physical features like height, weight, estimated age, race and gender. Perceivers tend to notice physical appearance characteristics that contrast with the norm, that are intense, or that are new or unusual. Physical attractiveness often colours our entire impression of another person. Interviewers rate attractive candidates more favourably and attractive candidates are awarded higher starting salaries. Verbal communication from targets also affects our perception of them. We listen to the topics they speak about, their voice tone, and their accent and make judgements based on this input. Non-verbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture all in an attempt to form an impression of the target .As a result of physical or time proximity, we often put together objects or events that are unrelated. For example, employees in a particular department are seen as a group. If two employees of a department suddenly resign, we tend to assume their departures were related when in fact, they might be totally unrelated. People, objects or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together. The greater the similarity, the greater the probability we will tend to perceive them as a group. Characteristics of the Situation: The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place, has an influence on the perceivers

impression of the target. E.g. meeting a manager in his or her office affects your impression in a certain way that may contrast with the impression you would have formed, had you met the manager in a restaurant. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behaviour. In these situations, we assume that ie individuals behaviour can be accounted for by the situation, and that it may not reflect the individuals disposition. This is the discounting principle in social perception. For example, you may encounter an automobile salesperson who has a warm and personable manner, asks you about your work and hobbies, and seems genuinely interested in your taste in cars. Can you assume that this behaviour reflects the salespersons personality? You probably cannot, because of the influence of the situation. This person is trying to sell you a car, and in this particular situation, he probably treats all customers in this manner.

Q.5 Mr. Solanki is the VP- HR of a leading Financial services company. He is having a meeting with Ms. Ramani leading HR consultant. Mr. Solanki is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. Assume that you are Ms. Ramani, the HR consultant. What suggestions you will give to Mr. Solanki, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction. Measuring Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well. For an organization, satisfied work force ensures commitment to high quality performance and increased productivity Job satisfaction helps organizations to reduce complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination. Job

satisfaction is also linked to a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting the bottom line (Brown, 1996). The most important factors conductive to job satisfaction are: i) Mentally Challenging Work: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. Under conditions of moderate challenge, most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction. ii) Personality-Job Fit: People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs; and because of this success, they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. It is important, therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles. iii) Equitable Rewards: Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, and industry pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. Similarly, employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and increased social status. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction. iv) Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. Temperature, light, noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. Further, employees prefer working relatively close to home, in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. v) Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. Therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisors leads to increased job satisfaction. Most employees want their

immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly, those who offer praise for good performance, listen to employees opinions and show a personal interest in them. vi) Whistle blowing: Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings of their companies or co-workers. Whistle blowing is important because committed organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behaviour in an intense desire to succeed. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. Clearly delineating wrongful behaviour and the appropriate ways to respond are important organizational actions. vii) Social Responsibility: Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which it operates. Socially responsible actions are expected of organizations. Current concerns include protecting the environment, promoting worker safety, supporting social issues, investing in the community, etc. Managers must encourage both individual ethical behaviour and organizational social responsibility. Job enrichment: It is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in the work itself. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include, AT&T, IBM, and General Motors (Daft, 1997). Workers role in job satisfaction A worker should also take some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction. Everett (1995) proposed the following questions which employees ask themselves in regard to job satisfaction at the workplace: 1. When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation? 2. What did it look like? 3. What aspects of the workplace were most supportive? 4. What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying?

5. What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation? The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: 1. Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. 2. Develop communication skills. 3. Acquire job related skills and try to implement them. 4. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. 5. Improve team building and leadership skill. 6. Learn to de-stress.

Q.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of the VARK-LEARNING a learning and training solutions company 1. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know may be their friends, ex. Colleagues batch mates, relatives. 3. What all needs do it takes care off according to maslows need hierarchy 4. It recognizes good performances and give fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. What all aspects does it takes care of according to the Maslows Need Hierarchy ? The following needs are taken care of according to Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory: According to this theory, proposed by Maslow (1943), human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior, only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior, satisfied needs cannot. The needs are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further they progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show. The first point of rewarding the staff members with cash shows the physiological needs which is satisfied, the staff members will be satisfied to receive any form of monetary benefits which encourages him to perform better The second point is the promotion of referral for employees, this shows that the social need can be satisfied as with referrals the employee feels to be a part of the company being responsible for the referral given to the firm, an employee feels belongingness to his firm/company The fourth point of recognition and felicitation for the good performance shown by the employee satisfies the esteem and self-actualization, the esteem need will take care of the recognition of ones work which improves achievement realization and self respect for ones work which in turn gains him the status recognition and attention within the

company. The employees drive to become what he is capable of including ones growth is satisfied with the self-actualization needs, along with ones growth the employee gains the confidence to achieve to his fullest potential and this gives him the satisfaction of self-fulfillment These are among the few things which are satisfied by Maslows Need Hierarchy the hierarchy is clearly stated below which shows all the 5 basic needs required by an employee of the company/firm. Maslow was a contributor who influenced the human aspects of management in workplace

The above pictorial representation is the Maslows Hierarchy as explained below Maslows Need Hierarchy Pyramid. The five needs are: Physiological: Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm Social: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors, such as, self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors, such as, status, recognition, and attention Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving ones potential, and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Physiological and safety needs are described as lowerorder. Social, esteem, and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally, whereas, Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied, externally. Q.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon. [10]

Personality Types Personality type theory aims to classify people into distinct CATEGORIES. i.e. this type or that. Personality types are synonymous with personality styles. Types refer to categories that are distinct and discontinuous. e.g. you are one or the other. This is important to understand, because it helps to distinguish a personality type approach from a personality trait approach, which takes a continuous approach.

To clearly understand the difference between types and traits, consider the example of the personality dimension of introversion. We can view introversion as: A personality type approach says you are either an introvert or an extravert A personality trait approach says you can be anywhere on a continuum ranging from introversion to extraversion, with most people clustering in the middle, and fewer people towards the extremes Somatotypes William Sheldon, 1940s William Sheldon (1940, 1942, cited in Phares, 1991) classified personality according to body type. He called this a person? somatotype. s Sheldon identified three main somatotypes: Sheldons Somatotype Character Shape Picture Endomorph [viscerotonic] relaxed, sociable, tolerant, comfort-loving, peaceful plump, buxom, developed visceral structure Mesomorph [somatotonic] active, assertive, vigorous, combative muscular Ectomorph [cerebrotonic] quiet, fragile, restrained, non-assertive, sensitive lean, delicate, poor muscles To further categorize a persons somatotype, an individual is given a rating from 1 to 7 on each of the three body types. 1 = very low; 7 = very high. For example: a stereotypical basketballer 1-1-7 (ectomorph) Mohammed Ali 1-7-1 (mesomorph) a pear-shaped person 7-1-1 (endomorph) More typically, however, the person in the street could be something like: a slightly lanky person 5-2-3 (a bit ecomorphic) a person of average height who is moderately muscular 4-5-3 (a bit mesomorphic) a person who is slightly heavy-set 3-3-5 (a bit endomorphic) Sheldon measured the proportions of hundreds of juvenile delinquent boys and concluded that they were generally mesomorphs (Ornstein, 1993). Body types have been criticized for very weak empirical methodology and are not generally used in psychology. The use of somatotyping (using different taxonomies) is used more often in alternative therapies and Eastern

psychology and spirituality.

Q.1 Write a note on classical era for evolution for Organizational behavior. In the early twentieth century, early studies in the complexities of organizational activity got underway. Initial studies were mostly mechanical. Being treated like machines, the humans were subjected to close scrutiny and study. The aspects studied were how the human behaved during regular applied testing of a person's responses to stimuli. Another stream of ideas that were part of study organizations were divided according to their political preferences, and the various levels of management throughout the entire organizations. Unfortunately there was a limitation to both of these because they did not bear in mind the interaction between the two connected streams but treated each as a separate entity. Parts of the History of Organizational Behavior Studies can be seen during the 1890's. During this time scientific management was viewed as the best way to run an organization. An organization that in its' course of action adheres to a set of guidelines and guides itself on findings of time and motion studies, is bound to achieve greater levels of productivity - claimed the advocates of this system. It became clear that organizations were centered on interactive groups of their members, and a more humanistic view needed to be formulated as psychology and analysis as a means of understanding human behavior became more sophisticated. By understanding and using psychology productivity will improve tremendously. The Human Relations Movement, as it was called in the beginning of the 20th century, brought focus on collaboration, influence, and the aspect of particular persons understanding the intent of the organization. By the Second World War, a paradigm shift had occurred in the study of organizational behavior. The new buzzword was operations research, and more and more people became interested in sciences, systems theories, complexity theories and strategies. At the time, James March and Herbert Simon were leading experts in the field. Many theories were coming forth as the seventies came around. More often than not the basis for this was quantitative research and interconnected realms of psychology. By the 1980s how important the cultures of different organizations was emphasized instead of the amount and quality of the research. Anthropology was but one of many fields being added into studies about organizational behaviors. Presently any managerial course has organizational behavior studies as its integral part. As part of the curriculum many business schools now include this and related courses in fields such as industrial psychology. The name of the person who runs the History of Organizational Behavior Studies internet site is Patricia Jones.com. See more on Organizational Behaviors. This article may only be used if the author bio and links are included.

Q.2 what is groupthink. Explain. Groupthink is "a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from ingroup pressures". Thus, the overemphasis on consensus and agreement leads members to be unwilling to evaluate group members ideas critically. This hinders decision-making and becomes an obstacle to group productivity. Certain conditions favor the development of groupthink. i) The first condition is high cohesiveness. Cohesive groups tend to avoid conflicts and to demand conformity. ii) The second is other antecedents including directive leadership, high stress, insulation of the group and lack of methodical procedures for developing and evaluating alternatives. A group suffering from groupthink displays recognizable symptoms. Symptoms of Groupthink and how to Prevent It Illusions of invulnerability: Group members feel they are above criticism. This symptom leads to excessive optimism and risk taking. Illusions of group morality: Group members feel they are moral in their actions and therefore above

reproach. This symptom leads the group to ignore the ethical implications of their decisions. Illusions of unanimity: Group members believe there is unanimous agreement on the decisions. Silence is misconstrued as consent. Rationalization: Group members concoct explanations for their decisions to make them appear rational and correct. The results are that other alternatives are not considered, and there is an unwillingness to reconsider the groups assumptions. Stereotyping the enemy: Competitors are stereotyped as evil or stupid. This leads the group to underestimate its opposition. Self-censorship: Members do not express their doubts or concerns about the course of action. This prevents critical analysis of the decisions. Peer pressure: Any members who express doubts or concerns are pressured by other group members, who question their loyalty. Mind guards: Some members take it upon themselves to protect the group from negative feedback. Group members are thus shielded from information that might lead them to question their action. Guidelines for Preventing Groupthink Ask each group member to assume the role of a critical evaluator by actively voicing objections or doubts. Have the leader avoid stating his or her position on the issue prior to the group decision. Create several groups that work on the decision simultaneously. Bring in outside experts to evaluate the group process. Appoint a devils advocate to question the groups course of action consistently. Evaluate the competition carefully, posing as many different motivations and intentions as possible. Once consensus is reached, encourage the group to rethink its position by re-examining the alternatives. 1. Social Loafing: Social loafing occurs when one or more group members rely on the efforts of other group members and fail to contribute their own time, effort, thoughts or other resources to a group. This may create a real drag on the groups efforts and achievements. When a group carries out a task, it is harder to attribute the groups output to individual contributions. Some group members may engage in social loafing, or doing Less than their share of the work on the assumption that groups results will not indicate the individuals failure to contribute. A number of methods for countering social loafing exist, such as having identifiable individual contributions to the group product and member self-evaluation systems. For example, if each group member is responsible for a specific input to the group, a members failure to contribute will be noticed by everyone. If members must formally evaluate their contributions to the group, they are less likely to loaf. 2. Production Blocking: Production blocking is limiting another persons output by getting in his or her way. Production blocking occurs when too many employees are trying to work in a given amount of space or when the organization has poorly planned the use of its facilities. It can also occur when the organization assigns more than the optimal number of employees to carry out a task.

Q.3 Explain the process of negotiation. We can identify four basic steps in the negotiation process. They are: 1. Preparation: Preparation for negotiations should begin long before the formal negotiation begins. Each party gathers information about the other side its history, likely behavior, previous interactions and previous agreements reached by the parties. Each party polls its members to determine their wishes,

expectations, and preferences regarding a new agreement. 2. Evaluation of Alternatives: The two sides attempt to identify the bargaining range (i.e., the range in which both parties would find an agreement acceptable). The bargainers determine the alternatives acceptable to them and also identify their best alternative if a negotiated settlement is not reached. Identifying a set of alternatives, including the best one, helps individuals determine whether to continue the negotiation or seek another course of action. Both the parties Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA) needs to be determined. BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement for both the parties. 3. Identifying Interests: Negotiators act to satisfy their own interests, which may include substantive, relationship, personal or organizational ones. The person or group must assess the other partys interests and then decide how to respond to those interests in their offers. Effective negotiations call for satisfying interests by identifying and exploring a range of possible positions on specific issues. 4. Making Trade-offs and Creating Joint Gains: Bargainers use trade-offs to satisfy their own and others interests. Either position would meet the interests of maintaining a certain standard of living. One way to assess tradeoffs is Begin by identifying the best and worst possible outcomes. Next, specify what impact trade-offs will have on these outcomes. Finally, consider whether the changed outcomes will better meet the parties interest. Negotiators need to overcome the idea that a fixed pie of outcomes exists, avoid non-rational escalation of conflict, pay attention to others cognitions and avoid devaluating the others concessions while overvaluing their own. Issues in Negotiation Some of the most important issues have been discussed below. 1. The role of personality traits in negotiation Overall assessments of the personality-negotiation relationship finds that personality traits have no significant direct effect on either the bargaining process or negotiation outcomes (Wall & Blum, 1991). 2. Gender differences in negotiations Men and women do not negotiate differently. A popular stereotype is that women are more cooperative, pleasant, and relationship-oriented in negotiations than are men. The evidence does not support this. The belief that women are nicer is probably due to confusing gender and the lack of power typically held by women. (Stuhlmacher & Walters, 1999). 3. Cultural differences in negotiations Negotiating styles clearly vary across national cultures (Adler, 2002). The cultural context of the negotiation significantly influences the amount and type of preparation for bargaining, the emphasis on task versus interpersonal relationships, the tactics used, etc. Q.4 The environmental stressors have a great impact on work performance and adjustment of the individual in an organization. Discuss the different categories of environmental stressors. Environmental and internal conditions that lie beyond an individuals control are environmental stressors. Such stressors can have a considerable impact on work performance and adjustment. We can organize environmental stressors into the following categories: 1. Task Demands: Task demands are factors related to a persons job. They include the design of the individuals job, working conditions and the physical work layout. Changes and lack of control are two of the most stressful demands people face at work. Change leads to uncertainty, a lack of predictability in a persons daily tasks and activities and may be caused by job insecurity related to difficult economic times. Technology and technological innovation also create change and uncertainty for many employees, requiring

adjustments in training education and skill development. Lack of control is a second major source of stress, especially in work environments that are difficult and psychologically demanding. The lack of control may be caused by inability to influence the timing of tasks and activities, to select tools or methods for accomplishing the work to make decisions that influence work outcomes, or to exercise direct action to affect the work outcomes. 2. Role Demands: The social-psychological demands of the work environment may be every bit as stressful as task demands at work. Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role conflict results from inconsistent or incompatible expectations communicated to a person. The conflict may be an inter role, intra-role or person-role conflict. a. Inter role Conflict: is caused by conflicting expectations related to two separate roles, such as employee and parent. For example, the employee with major sales presentation on Monday and a sick child at home is likely to experience inter-role conflict. b. Intra-role conflict: is caused by conflicting expectations related to a single role, such as employee. For example, the manager who presses employees. c. Person-role Conflict: Ethics violations are likely to cause person-role conflicts. Employees expected to behave in ways that violate personal values, beliefs or principles experience conflict. The second major cause of role stress is role ambiguity. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood and the employee is not sure what he or she is to do. Role ambiguity is the confusion a person experiences related to the expectations of others. Role ambiguity may be caused by not understanding what is expected, not knowing how to do it, or not knowing the result of failure to do it. 3. Inter-personal Demands: are pressures created by other employees. Lack of social support from colleagues stress, especially among employees with a high social need. Abrasive personalities, sexual harassment and the leadership style in the organization are interpersonal demands for people at work. a. The abrasive Person: May be an able and talented employee, but one who creates emotional waves that others at work must accommodate. b. Sexual Harassment: The vast majority of sexual harassment is directed at women in the workplace, creating a stressful working environment for the person being harassed, as well as for others. c. Leadership Styles: Whether authoritarian or participative, create stress for different personality types. Employees who feel secure with firm, directive leadership may be anxious with an open, participative style. Those comfortable with participative leadership may feel restrained by a directive style. 4. Physical Demands: Non-work demands create stress for people, which carry over into work environment or vice versa. Workers subject to create role conflicts or overloads that are difficult to manage. In addition to family demands, people have personal demands related to non-work organizational commitments such as religious and public service organizations. These demands become more or less stressful, depending on their compatibility with the persons work and family life and their capacity to provide alternative satisfactions for the person.

Q.5 Given below are certain instances observed by a summer trainee Ritu, while making an

observational study at Global Green consultants. An organization dealing with recycling of plastic products waste etc. She makes the following observations about two key people in the organization. 1) Mr. Patnayak He is a very friendly person and encourages his team members by giving those recommendations and appreciation. This helps HR to decide about giving a bonus or promotion to employees. 2) Mr. Dutta- He is an aggressive person. He frequently loses his temper. Ritu observes that he frequently punishes the non-performers and also gives them warnings regarding suspension etc. Now explain what base of power Mr. Patnayak and Mr. Dutta belong to. Explain the type of power they use often Ten Types of Power 1. Position. Some measure of power is conferred on the basis of ones formal position in an organization. For example, a marketing manager can influence the decisions that affect the marketing department. However, the marketing manager has little power to influence the decisions that affect the finance department. 2. Knowledge or expertise. People who have knowledge or expertise can wield tremendous power. Of course, knowledge in itself is not powerful. It is the use of knowledge and expertise that confers power. Thus, you could be an incredibly bright person and still be powerless. 3. Character or ethics. The more trustworthy individuals are the more power they have in negotiations. The big issue here is whether they do what they say they are going to doeven when they no longer feel like doing it. 4. Rewards. People who are able to bestow rewards or perceived rewards hold power. Supervisors, with their ability to give raises, hold power over employees. Money can have power. But money, like anything else, holds very little power if it is not distributed. 5. Punishment. Those who have the ability to create a negative outcome for a counterpart have the power of punishment. Managers who have the authority to reprimand and fire employees hold this type of power. State troopers and highway patrol officers who have the ability to give out speeding tickets also have this power. 6. Gender. Dealing with someone of the opposite sex can confer power. We have videotaped many negotiation case studies in which the turning point came when a woman casually touched a mans hand or arm to make her point. 7. Powerlessness. In some instances, giving up all power can be very powerful. If a kidnapper threatens a hostage with death enough times, the hostage may just challenge the kidnapper to go ahead and kill him. At the point that the hostage gives up power, or control over his own death, the kidnapper actually loses power. 8. Charisma or personal power. When we ask participants in our seminars for examples of leaders who have had charisma or personal power, invariably the names of Mother Teresa, John F. Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan come up. When we ask, What do all three of these leaders have in common? participants usually respond, Passion and confidence in what they believe in. 9. Lack of interest or desire. In negotiations, as in many other areas of life, the side with the least interest in what is being negotiated holds the most power. If you are buying a house and you really do not care if you purchase the house you are currently negotiating for or the one down the street, you will most likely hold more power in the negotiationunless, of course, the sellers could care less if they sell the house today or live in it for another ten years! 10. Craziness. This may sound funny, but bizarre or irrational behavior can confer a tremendous amount of power. Every organization has someone who blows up or behaves irrationally when confronted with

problems. Those who have been exposed to this type of behavior tend to avoid such individuals. As a result, these individuals are not given many tasks to accomplish because others are afraid to ask them. Leadership style influence level of motivation. However, throughout a lifetime, mans motivation is influenced by changing ambitions and/or leadership style he works under or socializes with. Command-and-control leadership drains off ambition while worker responsibility increases ambition.

Leadership Style versus Motivation Leadership Style Motivation Type Motivation is Based on: Personality Type Efficiency Limited supervision Worker with decision making responsibility Self motivated Creativity Leader of ideas or people. Independent Achiever Thrives on change High Team motivated Mixed styles Goal motivated Opportunity Personality type and efficiency depends on leader's skill and/or the work environment he's created. Reward motivated Materialism Recognition motivated Social status High level of supervision Command-and-control Peer motivated To be like others Status quo Dependency Resist change Low Authority motivated Follows policy Threat, fear motivated Reacts to force Self-motivated or visionaries will not accept authority controlled environments. They will find a way to escape if trapped. In a team-motivated environment, dependency types will become inspired and strive to be acceptable with independent thinking coworkers. Associates influence the level of individual motivation. Reaction to Change Command-and-control leadership is the primary style in our society. It is accepted because efficiency is created by repetitive action, teaching people to resist change. Once acquiring a skill, they do not want to learn another. The worker adapts to level three with an occasional trip to level two. Worker responsibility is just the opposite; it motivates people to thrive on change by seeking challenges, finding ways to achieve goals. Level one is the leader of changing technology, finding ways to create efficiency.

Reaction to Efficiency

The efficiency of advancing technology is forcing change. It is up to the individual or business to decide which side of change they want to be on, the leading edge or trailing edge. The leading edge is exciting while the trailing edge is a drag. Playing catch-up drains motivation while leaders of change inspire motivation. With todays changing technology, an individual must be willing to abandoned old skills and learn new ones. The ability to adapt is achieved through self-development programs. Because level one thrives on change, they adapt to whatever methods gets things done with the least amount of effort. This brings us to work habits. In level one, management and front line workers, together, are searching for ways to solve and prevent problems. Decisions are made on the front line where alternative methods are analyzed. Being able to prevent problems is a motivating force. In level three management makes all decision, as a result, management must find ways to solve all problems and find alternative methods. Front line employees may be aware conflicts, but they dont have the authority to take action and have learned not to be concerned. Supervisors are only concerned with elements that management thinks are important. Under commandand-control leadership, management considers the opinions or concerns of people on the front line to be trivial. As a result, management takes action only when problems become too big to ignore. If workers have conflicts with their supervisors, they will find ways to increase the magnitude of problems, creating a combative environment. A downward spiral of management implementing more control and workers resisting control develop. Under worker responsibility, management and workers unite to prevent or solve problems.

Team Motivated Elementary problems are prevented or solved at the source. Getting the job done is the primary goal of management and workers. Dependency of Authority Elementary are dealt with by management when large enough to be recognized. Abused Workers Lack of leadership skills and the desire for power creates elementary problems. Managers focus on worker control. Getting the job done is down the list. Workers goal is to find ways to do little as possible. Command and Control Leadership - Problems are always out of control.

Reaction to Learning Habits In level two, young workers are establishing work habits, developing attitudes and learning a professional

skill. Out of training and on the job, motivation level will depend on the leadership style they work under. Under command-and-control leadership, ambitions will be associated with maintaining the status quo. Under worker responsibility, ambitions will be associated with opportunity. They will continually expand their skills as the need or as opportunity arises. Reaction to Goals Self-motivated people are goal motivated. Once they conquer one goal, they establish another. Every goal is a learning process that requires all the elements in level one. Companies that attract and keep this type of person stay on the leading edge of technology. The CEO is a visionary in customer service and employee leadership. The employees' goals are the same as the CEOs. If the CEO desires control, then he will lead in such a way that trains subordinates to lead by control. As a result, the employees' goals are quitting time and payday. Reaction to Recognition Recognition is important; it builds positive self-esteem. By itself, its benefits are short lived. Long-term benefits are achieved when the employee feels the job could not have been done without them. This means they were faced with a challenge, which means, they had the responsibility and authority to take action. This environment is found in level one. Self Motivated Projects Self-motivated projects' is the ability to start and finish what one has started. Most people, working alone, do not finish what they start. The ability to finish challenging projects is the secret to being a winner. First requirement is interest, then asking questions which inspires' the learning process. With information, a challenge is presented and a goal set. When action is taken, the barriers of persistence, risk, fear and failure become a challenge by itself. Self-motivated projects are difficult because no one cares if they succeed, which is another barrier. This is why most people quit before they get a good start. People, who find ways to overcome barriers and hang in there, are the winners. They develop skills and confidence, which are required steps to larger projects. Team Motivated Projects Everyone can be inspired to achievement in a team-motivated environment. With a common goal, team members support each other until success is achieved. In this environment, others do care and team members are needed for achieving the goal. For this reason, team motivation is extremely powerful. The exchange of ideas, information and testing the results, adds to the motivating force. As a result, each member seeks to be a leader of quality input. Q.6 Fashion4now is a famous and old magazine. The top management decides to start the e- edition of the magazine. They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of Fashion4now To start implementing this change, they frequently call meetings of employees. They have also formed groups at different levels to clarify doubts and explain the perspective of change. Analyze the situation in the context of organizational change and elaborate why the top management is following the discussed practices and what approach is most evident in the context. Ans. Typically, the concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change, as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person, modifying a program, etc. Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission, restructuring operations (e.g., restructuring to self-managed teams, layoffs, etc.), new technologies, mergers, major collaborations, "rightsizing", new programs such as Total Quality Management, re-engineering, etc. Some experts refer to organizational transformation. Often this term designates a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates. THE LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Perhaps the most difficult decision to make is at what "level" to start. There are four levels of organizational

change: First let's describe these levels, and then under what circumstances a business should use them. LEVEL 1- SHAPING AND ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE At this level, organizations start out with few assumptions about the business itself, what it is "good" at, and what the future will be like. Management generates alternate "scenarios" of the future, defines opportunities based on these possible futures, assesses its strengths and weaknesses in these scenarios changes its mission, measurement system etc. More information on this is in the next article, "Moving from the Future to your Strategy." LEVEL 2 - DEFINING WHAT BUSINESS (AS) TO BE IN AND THEIR "CORE COMPETENCIES Many attempts at strategic planning start at this level, either assuming that 1) the future will be like the past or at least predictable; 2) the future is embodied in the CEO's "vision for the future"; or 3) management doesn't know where else to start; 4) management is too afraid to start at level 1 because of the changes needed to really meet future requirements; or 5) the only mandate they have is to refine what mission already exists. After a mission has been defined and a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis is completed, an organization can then define its measures, goals, strategies, etc. More information on this is in the next article, "Moving from the Future to your Strategy." LEVEL 3 - REENGINEERING (STRUCTURALLY CHANGING) YOUR PROCESSES Either as an aftermath or consequence of level one or two work or as an independent action, level three works focuses on fundamentally changing how work is accomplished. Rather than focus on modest improvements, reengineering focuses on making major structural changes to everyday with the goal of substantially improving productivity, efficiency, quality or customer satisfaction. To read more about level 3 organizational changes, please see "A Tale of Three Villages." LEVEL 4 - INCREMENTALLY CHANGING YOUR PROCESSES Level 4 organizational changes are focusing in making many small changes to existing work processes. Oftentimes organizations put in considerable effort into getting every employee focused on making these small changes, often with considerable effect. Unfortunately, making improvements on how a buggy whip for horse-drawn carriages is made will rarely come up with the idea that buggy whips are no longer necessary because cars have been invented. To read more about level 4 organizational changes and how it compares to level 3, please see "A Tale of Three Villages." Some General Guidelines to Organization-Wide Change 1. Consider using a consultant. Ensure the consultant is highly experienced in organization-wide change. Ask to see references and check the references. 2. Widely communicate the potential need for change. Communicate what you're doing about it. Communicate what was done and how it worked out. 3. Get as much feedback as practical from employees, including what they think are the problems and what should be done to resolve them. If possible, work with a team of employees to manage the change. 4. Don't get wrapped up in doing change for the sake of change. Know why you're making the change. What goal(s) do you hope to accomplish? 5. Plan the change. How do you plan to reach the goals, what will you need to reach the goals, how long might it take and how will you know when you've reached your goals or not? Focus on the coordination of the departments/programs in your organization, not on each part by itself. Have someone in charge of the plan. 6. End up having every employee ultimately reporting to one person, if possible, and they should know who that person is. Job descriptions are often complained about, but they are useful in specifying who reports to

whom. 7. Delegate decisions to employees as much as possible. This includes granting them the authority and responsibility to get the job done. As much as possible, let them decide how to do the project. 8. The process won't be an "aha!" It will take longer than you think. 9. Keep perspective. Keep focused on meeting the needs of your customer or clients. 10. Take care of yourself first. Organization-wide change can be highly stressful. 11. Don't seek to control change, but rather to expect it, understand it and manage it. 12. Include closure in the plan. Acknowledge and celebrate your accomplishments. 13. Read some resources about organizational change, including new forms and structures