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# This chapter develops a strategy for determining the appropriate number of observations in the sample. I.

Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals for a Mean Point Estimate: A point estimate is a single value (point) derived from a sample and used to estimate a population value Confidence interval: A range of values constructed from sample data so that the population parameter is likely to occur within that range at a specified probability. The specified probability is called the level of confidence Measures how close the point estimate is to the population

The standard deviation discussed here is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean. It is usually called the standard error 95% confidence interval: of the sample means selected from a population will be within 1.96 standard deviations of the population mean 99% confidence interval: of the sample means will lie within 2.58 standard deviations of the population mean A. Population Standard Deviation, Unknown a. Characteristics of the t distribution i. Continuous distribution ii. Bell-shaped and symmetrical iii. Not on t distribution, but a family, all have a mean of 0, standard deviations differ according to sample size

iv. More spread out and flatter at the center than the standard normal distribution, as the
sample size increases the t distribution approaches the standard normal distribution b. When n is small: 95% confidence level B. Develop a confidence interval for the population mean with an unknown standard deviation: a. Use the Z distribution: if the population standard deviation is known, OR the sample is at least 30 b. Use the T distribution: If the standard deviation is unknown and the sample is less than 30 II. A Confidence Interval for a Proportion Proportion: The fraction, ratio, or percent indicating the part of the sample of the population having a particular trait of interest.

A. To develop a confidence interval for a population proportion we need to meet the following
assumptions: a. The binomial conditions are met: i. Sample is a result of counts

## ii. Two possible outcomes

iii. Probability remains the same from one trial to the next iv. The trials are independent

b. The values n and n(1-) should both be greater than or equal to 5. This condition allows us
to invoke the central limit theorem and employ the standard normal distribution. III. Finite-Population Correction Factor

A. The standard error requires adjustment a. A population with a fixed upper bound is finite IV. Choosing an Appropriate Sample Size A. The necessary sample size depends on 3 factors a. The level of confidence desired b. The margin of error the researcher will tolerate c. The variability in the population being studied i. Use a comparable study ii. Use a range-based approach iii. Conduct a pilot study (common) 1. Round Up ANY fractional result