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CHIRU ALINA-ELENA STIT, AN 3 ENGLEZ-GERMAN

Horseback riding.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction . III The Human-Horse Encounter XI Contactul omului cu calul .............................................................XIII What It's All About XV Despre ce este vorba? ,.XVII Riding Horses Bareback to Become a Better Horseman ..XIX What is Horsemanship? .XXII Riding Horses Bareback ..XXIV Clritul fr a ..........................................................................XXVI Ghidul practic al clreului n exterior XXVIII Riders practical guide for an outside walking XXX Istoria echitaiei XXXII History of horseback riding ...XXXIV Dresajul .. XXXVI Andurana XXXVII

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Galopul .XXXVI II Firea calului .XL Horses nature .XLII Glossary XLIII Bibliography LXXIV

Introduction:
III

Horses.Horseba ck riding. Horsemanship.

In order to learn riding, we must at first know the history of the


horses. We must know their ancestors and how they changed over the last centuries. And of course, the most important thing is to learn the horses body language, so that we can realize if they are mad, scared or happy. Bellow, you will read a summary of the horses history and some texts quoted from the internet. The reduction of the horse to a domesticated state is the greatest acquisition from the animal IV

world ever madeby the art and industry of man. The history of this noble quadruped, as regards his origin, or natural locality, and the period of his first subjugation, is involved in obscurity. We learn from the Sacred Writings that he is of Eastern origin ; and they render the inference very probable, that the Egyptians were the first who reduced him to servitude. The earliest notice of the horse, as I read in a book, occurs six hundred and fifty years after the Deluge, when the Egyptians " brought their cattle to Joseph, who gave them bread in exchange for horses and for their flocks. The primitive habits, contour, and color of the horse, in a purely natural condition, cannot be said to be known with certainty ; for it is highly probable that he has long ceased existing in such form. Horses differ in intelligence, disposition, and temper.Those who profess to know anything about them pay much attention to the size, position, and motion of the ears. Horses with rather small than large ears, placed not too far apart, quick in motion, indicate both breeding and spirit ; and if a horse is in the frequent habit of carrying one ear forward and the other backward, especially if he does so on a journey, he will generally possess both spirit and endurance. The stretching of the ears in contrary directions shows that he is attentive to everything that is passing around him ; and while he is doing this, he cannot be much fatigued, nor likely soon to become so. And so I underline here again, pay attention to his body language, try not to misunderstand the signs hes giving to you. The temper is more surely indicated by a motion of the ear than of the eye ; and an experienced observer of horses can tell by the motion of their ears all that they think and mean. When the horse lays his ears flat back upon his neck, and keeps them so, he is most assuredly meditating mischief, and the bystander should beware of his heels or his teeth. In play, the ears will likewise be laid back, but not so decidedly, nor so long; a quick change in their position, togetlier with the expression of the eye at the time, will distinguish between playfulness and vice. The hearing of the horse is remarkably acute ; a thousand vibrations of the air, too slight to make any impression on the human ear, are readily perceived by him. The eye of the horse is also a pretty accurate index of his temper ; and experience has shown that, if much of the white of the eye is seen, he is a dangerous one, watching for opportunities to do mischief; and the frequent backward direction of the eye, when the white is most perceptible, is only to give sure effect to the blow which he is about to aim. But, though bold and intrepid, he knows how to govern and how to check the natural vivacity and fire of his temper. He not only yields to the hand, but seems to consult the inclination of his rider. Uniformly obedient to the impressions he receives, he flies or stops, and regulates his motions entirely, by his master's will. In a measure, he renounces his V

very existence to the pleasures of man. He delivers up his whole powers ; he reserves nothing, and often dies rather than disobey. These are features in the character of the horse, the natural qualities of which have been perfected by art, and trained with care to the service of man. His education commences with the loss of liberty, completed by restraint. You must treat the horse kindly ; you must obtain his confidence, and then never abuse it; deal honestly with him; never lie to him. He judges you by your acts. Your horse can become your best friend, only if you treat him like one. The horse should be treated with kindness and consideration; you have a right to curb and restrain his spirit, but not to subdue it ; he has no more natural spirit than it is proper he should have, and -the great difficulty with all theories of horsemanship that have been revealed to the world is, that they have been founded upon one idea of subjugation alone. Subjugation is not teaching ; you have a right to restrain, to make him conform to your will. Riding is one of the most wholesome of recreations, both for mind and body. It does, however, necessitate a certain special and natural aptitude. Anybody, reasonably well conformed morally and physically, can practice the ordinary equitation as a health-giving exercise, easy to acquire. But riding practiced as an art or as a science offers serious and multiplied difficulties. Equitation is divided into several branches: that of the promenade, that of the army, of the races, of polo, of the circus. The equestrian art consists in the practice of these different sorts of equitation, in teaching the principles accepted for their practice, and in training the horse for these different uses. At the beginning of the art of horsemanship, men taught themselves to ride by instinct and habit. Later, this instinctive horsemanship had still further progressed, and there had been invented saddle, bridle, stirrups, and spurs, the experience of riders and teachers developed the principles which govern the use of these instruments. The early masters of equitation were ignorant of many facts of animal motion now known to science, and they had no clear idea of the animal mechanism involved. A learner makes faster progress and is in less danger of accident when he puts himself under a riding-master. The riding-master or the riding-school will provide a horse already trained, with all the needed apparatus. It is then not necessary for the pupil to train the animal; but only to learn to mount and dismount; to sit properly on the horse when standing, walking, trotting, or galloping, in a word, to make his seat. When the pupil has acquired a sufficiently firm seat, he may practice jumping. This will test his progress, and will also show him what he has still to learn.

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In the beginning, I will give you some tips to become a better rider, simple things that I learned at first, important things that one should know in order to have a secure and relaxing ride. Nothing about riding is so important as making up your mind to control your horse. A horse knows whether its rider is afraid of him or not. Thiis fear is conveyed to the horse by nervous use of the reins, by stiffness of seat, by the way the feet are moved in the stirrups, by speech and by other acts that actually disturb or frighten the animal. When a rider gets on his horse he must be sure that he intends to manage his horse and not let the horse manage him. If you lack this confidence, select another horse that you positively know you can control. In a surprisingly short time the rider will acquire ease and confidence and both will be conveyed to the horse. After this lesson is learned, riding will take a natural course and will be done with safety. In riding there are two essentials that must never be forgotten: (1) to secure and keep a firm seat; and (2) to use a 'lighthand." Without a combination of the two no one can become a good horseman. Almost equally important is the know^ledge of the proper action in emergencies. If a horse runs away, do not exhaust yourself by vain pulling, but guide him out of danger, and let him run until he is tired. If a horse rears, loosen the reins and lean forward. In case of kicking, keep his head up as much as possible and sit firm in the saddle. If he stumbles, quickly draw in the reins to help him recover. A good rule never to be forgotten is always to approach a horse from the front. Beginners are not the only persons who often foolishly walk up to a horse from behind. Riders of long experience frequently commit this fault; they become careless at times and make the approach from wherever they happen to be. Some of them remember their forgetfulness with regret. The experienced horseman knows that horses of temperament and mettle are easily surprised. Even an old trusty horse is apt to strike out a leg in defense, when he fancies something is happening behind him. His natural weapon is his foot and he uses it with a kick. When you approach a horse from the front you go up to him with outstretched hand and a friendly word. There is no surprise;the horse is put at ease and you feel on safer ground with the animal. This rule applies for all occasions-when the horse is in the open, whether equipped for riding, or is running loose in paddock or box stall. Where the horse stands in his stall, tied with halter, the approach naturally must be made in a different manner. You come to the stall and stand at the rear of the animal. By speaking a few words, calling the animal by name, all surprise is cleared away and the horse, recognizing the voice, realizes a friend, not a foe, is near him. VII

In learning to ride much depends on making the right kind of start. If there is fear of a horse, overcome this fear. Next get astride of the horse, even though riding is not to be done at the first trial. Learn how it feels to be on a horse. Choose for the first lessons a horse that is quiet, and for the first lessons do not be ashamed of using one that is really aged. One may ride bareback for the first lesson or tw^o; or if preferred, a saddle may be used with the stirrups crossed. This helps in two ways: it gets rid of the tendency to support the weight on the stirrups instead of the saddle, a fault that many beginners easily fall into; it trains the rider to grip with knees and thighs and so hold on, a lesson that should be learned so thoroughly that it .will never be forgotten. After a few lessons the novelty of riding will be over, confidence will come and each ride will improve in pleasure and enjoyment. "Will I fall off ?" How many beginners have this as a more or less continuous fear! I have to admit that even now, after 3 years of riding, I still have this fear. But what if you do fall off? There is an old saying that no one becomes a good rider until thrown at least three times. So forget about falling off, and concentrate, try to make your horse do what you want him to do. Its very, very important, as I said before, your horse knows whos the boss. One should learn to mount from either side of the horse. I prefer the left side, but it is said that one's education is not complete until he is able to mount from the right side as well as from the left side. Regarding the feet, there are three rules that one should never forget: First, the feet must always be carried nearly parallel to the horse's body, with the toe turned out very little, and the heel pressed downward. Secondly, the ball of the foot must rest firmly on the stirrup. Third, the feet must not be flapped in and out, or backwards and forwards. As you will read in the following texts, there are 3 ways in which you can ride a horse. First and the simplest of all gaits is the Walk. The walk is the gait that should first be attempted on starting a ride, either by beginner or experienced horseman. This insures the rider's conjfidence in the horse and allows him time to study the animal's disposition. The rider can help the horse even in walking. It is advisable always to have a fairly firm grasp upon the reins and if the horse should happen to stumble, the rider can assist in the recovery by quickly drawing them in. The second gait an in my case the one that I prefer and love is the Trot. Its not as easy as the walk, of course. Both horse and rider need practice before the gait can be performed gracefully. It is in the trot that posture so frequently takes on an unsightly appearance; the rider should sit up straight, head held high, chin in, as if the world belongs to him. Thats why I love the trot. One looks so elegant in the saddle. And if you VIII

are dressed in the right way, youll look so fashionable, a delight for those who are watching you. How to realize a trot? Well, now for me its simple. The theory says that when the horse's right foreleg goes forward, rise up, pressing the stirrup with the ball of the foot and then come down on the saddle when the left foreleg goes forward. My advice is to feel the horses move. By practice this posting will become very natural and the rider will wonder why he never did it before. Once you get it the trick will never leave you. Always go with the horse; go up with him; then down; up-down, up-down. Simple, isnt it? Do not work too hard, for body tenseness greatly diminishes the pleasure that comes from riding. Let the move be natural. The third gait is the Gallop. Like the trot, the gallop or canter is a popular gait. A beginner should not attempt the gallop until he feels safe with the trot, and has gained perfect confidence in his ability to keep his seat. If one desires to gallop and canter, he should go on a long, open road, preferably a dirt road, and one where there is but little traffic. On such roads, wth a little experience, the rider will enjoy the fast gaits to the utmost. It is wonderful exercise. Every horseback rider is interested in two things: hovv to ride with safety and how to ride well. The hints and exercises heretofore suggested have been presented to accomplish both of these results. A few additional words remain yet to be said about the seat, for the reason that in it are centered not only security on the horse but also the appearance of the rider. The rider's posture on his horse when in action tell the story. It is in the seat, in the rider's poise, in his posture when sitting in the saddle on the horse, in the carriage of his body and in his manner of riding that personality and charm are reflected and the skill and the mastery of the mount most clearly portrayed. Don Quixote understood the meaning of this kind of good riding. In one of his lectures to Sancho he said '*the seat on a horse's back makes some people look like gentlemen and others like grooms." These words convey an unquestioned meaning as to what one ought to do and how to do it when riding a horse. When a rider becomes thoroughly at home on a horse he will to a large degree ride independently of his hold on the reins. This will come about from right use of his whole body, not of the hands and legs only, but also of the trunk above the waist. Every rider should so school himself in training the upper portion of his body that he can lean far to the right or the left, lie forward on the horse's neck or backwards on his croup, restoring his position without pulling on the reins or interfering with his seat in the saddle. Equally important when riding is keeping the spine straight. 'Don't slouch" is so obvious as hardly to be necessary to say. Were it not a fact that many riders do slouch, this fault would not be mentioned. The right way is to sit straight, with the head up and the chin in, and maintain the IX

body with a suppleness that suggests grace, ease and experience. The rider will then feel at home on his horse bcause he is at home on him. It is bad manners to cluck at a horse, to shake the reins with the hands, or to flap the stirrups in and out or back and forth, with the feet in them. Many terms are used by different riders in starting and stopping the horse. The terms one should use naturally depend upon those to which the horse is most accustomed. To cluck at a horse involves many dangers. If several people are riding together and a person in the rear should cluck to his horse, the horses in the lead would hear the clucking and immediately start up in a more rapid gait. A person in the lead may be fixing a stirrup, or not paying particular attention to his horse, and when his mount suddenly begins to trot, canter or run, if he is not a skilled rider, he may be thrown. Always think of the other person and how he might be harmed by your unthinking cluck to your horse. Of course the ideal way is to signal by pressure on reins or with the legs, but this is generally impossible where the same horse is used by many riders and no two riders use the same manner of communication. The same is true with respect to gaits. A horse under ordinary circumstances starts out in a walk. If the horse does not know the signal or the word for taking another gait, naturally he cannot respond to what the rider wants done. Touching up with the whip will increase the pace, but what pace the horse will take is dependent upon the mood or previous teaching of the horse. Do not shake the reins in order to start up your horse but use the crop, or touch up with the spurs. That is what these are made for and the sooner one learns to use them the better. To flap the stirrups is undoubtedly one of the most unpardonable faults. Keep the leg stiff from knee downward and avoid letting it sway to and fro. In order to learn riding, we must at first know the history of the horses. We must know their ancestors and how they changed over the last centuries. And of course, the most important thing is to learn the horses body language, so that we can realize if they are mad, scared or happy. Bellow, you will read a summary of the horses history and some texts quoted from the internet. The reduction of the horse to a domesticated state is the greatest acquisition from the animal world ever madeby the art and industry of man. The history of this noble quadruped, as regards his origin, or natural locality, and the period of his first subjugation, is involved in obscurity. We learn from the Sacred Writings that he is of Eastern origin ; and they render the inference very probable, that the Egyptians were the first who reduced him to servitude. The earliest notice of the horse, as I read in a book, occurs six hundred and fifty years after the Deluge, when the Egyptians " brought their cattle to Joseph, who gave them bread in exchange for horses and for their flocks. X

The primitive habits, contour, and color of the horse, in a purely natural condition, cannot be said to be known with certainty ; for it is highly probable that he has long ceased existing in such form. Horses differ in intelligence, disposition, and temper.Those who profess to know anything about them pay much attention to the size, position, and motion of the ears. Horses with rather small than large ears, placed not too far apart, quick in motion, indicate both breeding and spirit ; and if a horse is in the frequent habit of carrying one ear forward and the other backward, especially if he does so on a journey, he will generally possess both spirit and endurance. The stretching of the ears in contrary directions shows that he is attentive to everything that is passing around him ; and while he is doing this, he cannot be much fatigued, nor likely soon to become so. And so I underline here again, pay attention to his body language, try not to misunderstand the signs hes giving to you. The temper is more surely indicated by a motion of the ear than of the eye ; and an experienced observer of horses can tell by the motion of their ears all that they think and mean. When the horse lays his ears flat back upon his neck, and keeps them so, he is most assuredly meditating mischief, and the bystander should beware of his heels or his teeth. In play, the ears will likewise be laid back, but not so decidedly, nor so long; a quick change in their position, togetlier with the expression of the eye at the time, will distinguish between playfulness and vice. The hearing of the horse is remarkably acute ; a thousand vibrations of the air, too slight to make any impression on the human ear, are readily perceived by him. The eye of the horse is also a pretty accurate index of his temper ; and experience has shown that, if much of the white of the eye is seen, he is a dangerous one, watching for opportunities to do mischief; and the frequent backward direction of the eye, when the white is most perceptible, is only to give sure effect to the blow which he is about to aim. But, though bold and intrepid, he knows how to govern and how to check the natural vivacity and fire of his temper. He not only yields to the hand, but seems to consult the inclination of his rider. Uniformly obedient to the impressions he receives, he flies or stops, and regulates his motions entirely, by his master's will. In a measure, he renounces his very existence to the pleasures of man. He delivers up his whole powers ; he reserves nothing, and often dies rather than disobey. These are features in the character of the horse, the natural qualities of which have been perfected by art, and trained with care to the service of man. His education commences with the loss of liberty, completed by restraint. You must treat the horse kindly ; you must obtain his confidence, and then never abuse it; deal honestly with him; never lie to him. He

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judges you by your acts. Your horse can become your best friend, only if you treat him like one. The horse should be treated with kindness and consideration; you have a right to curb and restrain his spirit, but not to subdue it ; he has no more natural spirit than it is proper he should have, and -the great difficulty with all theories of horsemanship that have been revealed to the world is, that they have been founded upon one idea of subjugation alone. Subjugation is not teaching ; you have a right to restrain, to make him conform to your will.

The Human-Horse Encounter


XII

Archeological and paleontological evidence indicates that the horse was domesticated about 5,000 years ago, substantially later than other farm animals. By that time (approximately 3,000 B.C.E.), the dog had been our companion for 9,000 years and we had herded goats, sheep and cattle for upwards of 5,000 years. The horse came late into our lives but lost no time in transforming us. Meat and Milk. Cave paintings in France leave no doubt that the horse was a prime food source for Stone-Age hunters. When the Stone Age ended and the Bronze Age began, human beings in Europe and Asia had had generations of experience working with animals, having mastered the skills of herding sheep, cattle and goats. They had also learned to herd horses, which they kept mainly for meat, possibly also for milk (as nomads in Central Asia still do today). People also had learned to cultivate grain and had abandoned hunting in roving bands in favor of settling in permanent communities. By 3,000 B.C.E., therefore, humans were assured of regular food supplies and then had the time to appreciate the horse for qualities other than its ability to feed a family of four for a week or so. The earliest evidence of horse domestication has been found in the steppes of the eastern Ukraine, northern Caucasus, central Russia and Kazakhstan. Hunting horses had never been easy and taming them was even less so. Cattle and sheep are much slower than horses and easier to control in herds. The horse posed a greater challenge. Not only was he fast, he was no doubt as skittish then as he is today. Gaining the trust of the first horse must have been a difficult task, yet (fortunately) humans persisted. The Cart Before the Horse? The prevailing view among paleohistorians is that the first horses to be tamed were hitched to carts before being mounted. They base their conclusions on early depictions of horses that appear to be too small to carry an adult human. From studying skeletons, it does appear that Bronze Age horses were only about the size of large ponies, about 14 hands (56") at the shoulder. Bronze Age horses were small, but so were Bronze Age people. Children today find it hard to resist the urge to climb on a pony's back; and it is XIII

not likely that human nature was much different in the Bronze Age. And size doesnt really count -- even a pony can carry an adult a fair distance. It also seems to me that Bronze-Age people would have found it much simpler to climb on the back of a horse and ride off than to spend the days and weeks required to build a complicated rig like a chariot or a cart. New evidence is emerging to support the view that humans were riding earlier than previously supposed. In Ladakh Zanskar, a region in the Himalaya 3,000-year-old rock carvings from an early Tibetan culture clearly show mounted humans, possibly hunting game. Riding horses in the mountains is far more practical than inventing a cart for them to pull. Even today, carts are not found in Ladakh. Their absence is not because the people were too primitive to invent the wheel-- far from it. Clearly, on the wide steppes, in mountainous regions and in other areas of similarly challenging terrain, the domestication and use of the horse for transport during the Bronze Age (whether for people or possessions) was a major step in promoting population movement. In other parts of the ancient world, it probably was the case that horses were first hitched to wagons and chariots before being ridden. Mounting a horse, however irresistible, is far easier than staying on! The horse's instinct is to panic and run away when someone tries to climb on its back. Domestication and training of horses had a profound impact on the people of Eurasia. Suddenly, the horizon expanded. Beckoned by unknown lands, forced by climate change or drought, people began to migrate, to explore and to conquer. http://mysite.verizon.net/mmaidens/prehistory.html

XIV

Contactul omului cu calul


(traducere The Human-Horse Encounter)
Dovezile arheologice i paleontologice arat faptul c domesticirea calului a avut loc cu 5000 de ani n urm, mult mai trziu dect domesticirea altor animale. La aceea vreme (cu aproximativ 3000 de ani naintea erei noastre), cinele era deja domesticit de 9000 de ani i aveam deja de 5000 de ani turme de capre, oi i vite. Dei calul a ajuns mai trziu n vieile noastre, acesta a recuperat repede timpul pierdut. Carne i lapte. Picturile din cteva peteri din Frana ne arat faptul c vntorii din Epoca de Piatr au avut calul ca surs principal de mncare. Cnd Epoca de Piatr s-a terminat i a nceput Epoca de Bronz, oamenii din Europa i Asia experimentaser deja lucrul cu calul i nvaser s mne la pscut oi, vite i capre, dar i caii , pe care i tineau pentru carne i uneori lapte( nomazii din Asia Central folosesc i azi caii pentru lapte). Oamenii au nvat deasemenea s cultive cereale i au renunat la vntoare n favoarea stabilirii n comuniti permanente. Aadar, cu 3000 de ani naintea erei noastre, oamenii aveau deja surse sigure de mncare, deci au putut sa aprecieze calul i pentru alte caliti nafar de cea de a hrnii o familie cu 4 membrii mai mult de o sptmn. Primele dovezi ale domesticirii calului au aprut n stepele din nordul Ucrainei, nordul Caucazilor, centrul Rusiei i Kazakhstan. Vnarea i mblnzirea cailor nu au fost niciodat uoare. Mult mai uor era s se descurce cu vitele i cu oile dect cu caii. Calul era o provocare mai mare. Era mai rapid, nu pe att de fnet pe ct e astzi. Ctigarea ncrederii calului trebuie s fi fost o sarcin foarte greu de indeplinit i totui (din fericire) oamenii au persistat. Crua naintea calului? Prerea paleontologilor c primii cai care au fost mblnzii, au fost prini la cru nainte s fie nclecai. Acetia se bazeaz pe nite reprezentaii ale unor cai, care par prea mici pentru a putea fi nclecai de oameni. ntr-adevr, la un studiu mai aprofundat al scheletului, s-a ajuns la concluzia c n Epoca Bronzului, caii erau de mrimea unor ponei, aproximativ 140 de cm la umr. Caii din Epoca Bronzului erau mici, dar la fel de mici erau i oamenii. Copiii din ziua de azi rezist cu greu tentaiei de a se urca n spatele unui ponei i este foarte probabil i n Epoca Bronzului s fi fost la fel. i msura chiar nu XV

conteaz- chiar i un ponei ar putea duce n spate un om pe o distan destul de mare. Se pare c oamenii din Epoca Bronzului gseau s fi fost mai simplu s ncalece un cal dect s stea zile ntregi s construiasc dispozitiv ca o cru sau trsur. Noile dovezi arat c oamenii ar fi nclecat mai devreme dect se presupunea. n Ladakh Zanskar, o regiune din Himalaya, o piatr cioplit, veche de 3000 de ani, arat oameni clare pe cai, probabil vnnd. Inclecarea cailor n muni este mult mai la ndemn dect s construiasc trsuri. Nici azi nu au fost gsite crue in Ladakh. Absena acestora nu se datoreaz faptului c oamenii erau primitivi. Este clar c domesticirea i folosirea cailor n transport in Epoca Bronzului, n regiunile de step i n muni, a fost un pas important n mutarea oamenilor dintr-o regiune n alta. n alte pri ale lumii antice, este probabil ca aceste animale s fi fost prima dat nhmate la cru nainte s fie nclecai. nclecarea, dei pare irezistibil, nseamn mult mai mult dect s stai n a. Instinctul unui cal, atunci cnd cineva ncearc s se suie n a, este s intre n panic i s fug. Domesticarea i antrenarea cailor a avut un mare impact asupra oamenilor din Eurasia. Orizonturile s-au lrgit deodat. Atrai de trmuri necunoscute, forai de schimbarea climei, oamenii au nceput s exploreze, s cucereasc i s migreze.

XVI

What It's All About


Horsemen say, "Theres something about the outside of a horse thats good for the inside of a man." Good things indeed come from working with horses: a companionship based on mutual dependency, trust, and a common goal, and a unique intimacy with another species. The companionship comes only after months (maybe years) of work. The merging of a human and a horse into a team doesnt happen at once. As in a marriage, both individuals must learn each others ways and adjust to each others behaviors. The rider, being (supposedly) of the more intelligent species, must make the stronger effort to adjust. The horse, conditioned by eons of evolution, cannot change its instincts. The rider must learn how the horse perceives reality and how he reacts to the environment. By understanding the horses "point of view," the rider can then modify her commands so that the horse responds in the desired way. For its part, the horse learns to trust the rider and give the correct responses to her commands. A herd animal, the horse is accustomed to a "pecking order." He may dominate other horses in his group but in turn is dominated by others. With a rider, he soon learns whether hell have to cooperate or whether he can get his own way (as many a beginning rider knows!). The reward for patient training is the moment when the rider knows her horse is sharing her focus.

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The effort of understanding the horse gives us the rare privilege of communicating with a non-human psychology. Interacting with horses is probably the closest physical and psychological contact we have with another species. Beginning with the physical contact of riding, the intimacy of horse and rider extends to the psychological as both creatures come to understand each other. This is unlike any contact with other animals. Dogs may be our closest companions and they may also assist us in work, but they aren't ridden. Other animals that are ridden -- camels, donkeys, elephants and buffalo are not as versatile as the horse and therefore have limited physical contact with their human handlers. When the bond between a horse and rider is complete, the two work as one. Homo sapiens and equus caballus fuse into a new animal. Training horses teaches us much, not only about ourselves but also about our potential for changing nature. Over the centuries, human beings and horses often have brought out the best in each other. Weve made the horse become all he is capable of becoming. Compare the Przewalski horses, the closest example of true wild horses, with the Thoroughbreds. Centuries of selective breeding have produced a beautiful animal: taller, faster, and sleeker than his ancestor. Watch a mustang buck and then watch a Lippizzaner capriole. The Lippizzaner performs the same natural movement, but with what style and grace after years of patient training! In drawing out the dormant potential of the horse, we discover our own talents. To master Nature, we master our own natures, and in that process we bring out the best that is in both Nature and us. http://mysite.verizon.net/mmaidens/essay.htm

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Despre ce este vorba? (traducere What it's all about)


Clreul spune: Este ceva la exteriorul unui cal, care e benefic interorului omului. ntr-adevr, apar multe lucruri bune din lucrul cu un cal: o prietenie bazat pe dependen mutual, ncredere, un el comun si o intimidate intim cu alte specii. Prietenia dintre un cal i un om apare mai trziu, chiar i dup un an de lucru. Crearea unei echipe ntre un cal i un om nu are loc deodat. Este ca ntr-o cstorie, n care partenerii trebuie s i accepte unul altuia felul de a fi i s ncerce s i modifice comportamentul astfel nct s se completeze unul pe cellalt. Clreul, care se presupune c face parte din cea mai inteligent specie, trebuie s fac eforturi mari s se muleze pe comportamentul calului. Calul nu i poate schimba comportamentul, fiind condiionat de eonii evoluiei. Clreul trebuie s nvee cum percepe realitatea i reacioneaz n mediul nconjurtor. nelegnd punctual de vedere al calului, clreul i poate modifica astfel comenzile, astfel nct calul s poat rspunde n modul n care i dorete clreul s o fac. n ceea ce privete calul, acesta poate nva s aib ncredere n clre i s i rspund corect la comenzi. Ca animal de turm, calul este obinuit cu sistem ierarhic. El poate domina ali cai n turm dar poate fi la rndul su dominat. Un clre l poate face s neleag c ori se supune, ori o ia pe drumul su. Premiul pentru un antrenament fcut cu rbdare este momentul n care clreul i d seam c primete i din partea calului aceeai druire.

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Eforturile pe care le facem s nelegem calul ne ofer privilegiul rar de a avea de-a face cu psihologia non-uman. Interacionarea cu calul este poate cel mai apropiat contact fizic i psihic pe care l putem avea cu un animal. ncepnd cu contactul fizic dintre cal i clre, se ajunge i la contact psihic, pe msur ce ambii ncep s se neleag reciproc. Asta nu seaman deloc cu niciun alt contact cu alt animal. Cinii poate ne sunt cei mai apropiai companioni, ns nu i putem clri. Celelalte animale care pot fi nclecate cmilele, mgarii, elefanii i bivolii- nu sunt att de versatile precum calul, aadar ntre ei i clre exista un contact fizic limitat. Homo sapiens i Equus caballus se contopesc i formeaz un nou animal. Antrenarea unui cal ne poate nv multe despre noi i puterea noastr de a schimba unele lucruri i comportamente. De-a lungul secolelor, de cele mai multe ori caii i clreii au scos la iveal unii din alii tot ce e mai bun din ei. Am reuit s aducem calul n cea mai bun form a lui. Comparai de exemplu caii Przewalski, poate cei mai apropiai de caii slbatici, cu cei de ras. Secolele de reproducere selectiv au scos la iveal un animal mult mai frumos: mai nalt, mai iute i chiar mai elegant dect strmoul su. Comparai sritura de pe loc a unui mascul mustang cu cea a unui Lipian. Este aceeai micare natural, doar c Lipianul o execut cu mai mult graie, asta dupa mai muli ani de antrenament. Prin scoatere la suprafa a potenialului unui cal, ne descoperim propriile talente. Pentru a putea cunoate temperamentul calului, trebuie s ne cunoatem propria fire, i prin asta scoate la iveal tot ce e mai bun n noi, dar i n calul nostru.

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Riding Horses Bareback to Become a Better Horseman


For centuries, people across the globe have created relationships with horses for various reasons. In ancient times, horses provided valuable means for transportation, farming, and labor, and in modern times, people have began to appreciate horses for more recreational purposes. Still, one thing has remained constant throughout the ages, a good horseman is a person who understands both the psychology and physiology of their equine partner, and bareback riding is one of the best ways to achieve this understanding.

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My first introduction to bareback riding came when I was just eight years old. I had been riding for almost two years, but had been taught primarily by my father on a small pony that I had gotten for my sixth birthday. From the beginning, I was a naturally good rider, but as I got older, I became interested in riding as a sport, and thus began taking riding lessons. My first instructor was an older lady of American Indian descent, who had more wisdom and knowledge about horses than I could ever hope to learn. I was fascinated by learning everything she had to teach from the very first lesson. When I arrived for my second riding lesson and headed for the tack room to retrieve my saddle, she informed me that we would be riding bareback. It was the same week after week, and even though I fumbled in the beginning I eventually learned some priceless skills. The first thing that was improved was my balance. I learned to ride with a more centered body that was actually connected to the horse instead of simply sitting on top of it. Through subtle movements and changes in the muscles beneath my seat and legs, I began to learn when my horse was anxious, excited, frustrated, or comfortable. I also learned to actually feel whether or not my horse was on the correct lead at the canter, instead of having to look down. I learned to sit the trot and to post the trot, and even how to jump properly without a saddle. As I grew and got more involved in equine sports, I would often draw upon the things that I learned from the bareback lessons. When I started to show Arabian Reining horses when I was 13 years old, I can remember learning how to properly sit when my horse was sliding. It was quite difficult in the beginning, but I started to practice bareback, and once I got in sync with my horses movement everything else seemed to come naturally. Some years later I moved on to riding Dressage, where the focus is on proper communication through body language, and having a foundation that was built around really feeling my horses movement made it quite easy for me to relate to the techniques necessary to perform many of the high school maneuvers. So, from Western to English, from extreme to extreme, bareback riding gave me and edge. Now I am the horse trainer, with 15 years of experience under my belt. All of my young students and novice riders, and even some experienced riders who are looking to gain more insight in to how to become better in the saddle, go through at least a month of bareback riding instruction. The first thing that I stress to my students is the necessity of proper communication between horse and rider, which doesnt come from the hands or other aids, but from the riders body. A good rider should be able to communicate with his horse without anyone being able to see

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what he is askingthe basis of this is best learned through bareback instruction. The best way to begin learning through bareback riding is with the help of another responsible horseman or a trainer. You should start out with a horse that has easy and comfortable gaits, so that you can gain your confidence without having to worry about a horse that is too forward or too bouncy. I like to start students off on the lunge-line so that they can focus the majority of their concentration on feeling the rhythm of the horse and learning to control their own bodies without having to worry about directing the horse. No matter how experienced of a rider you are when using a saddle, you must start from the beginningthat means with the walk. Balance is gained through muscle memory, and once your body is accustomed to being on a horse without a saddle your balance will improve. Move forward slowly with all of the gaits, until you can comfortably walk, trot and canter your horse without using your reins or gripping your legs for stability. Your body should be relaxed, and you should concentrate on the movement and rhythm of your horse. When you are able to do this comfortably, you can move on to some more advanced techniques, including riding without reins, working over obstacles (poles and cavaletti), etc. One of my favorite exercises when riding bareback involves riding without reins as well. Students are put on a lunge-line and reins are tied in a knot, so that they can be grabbed by the rider if necessary for safety, but so that they wont get in the way. The rider then puts his or her arms out to the sides as though they are wings. This can be done at each gait, and is the best way to teach a rider to balance without using hands (the worst mistake that a rider can make is to balance off of the reins, which is essentially off of their horses mouth). Once you have mastered riding with wings, you can move on to exercises that require you to move your body while maintaining your balance. I often ask my more advanced students to start with their wings and move to dips. Riders bend at the waist, maintaining proper leg position, and attempt to touch their toes. In addition to being beneficial to balance, this will also strengthen the core muscles of the body, which will aid in maintaining proper body position. You must be careful when doing this exercise, as you can easily lose your balance. Its best to begin slowly at the walk and to do all movements slowly and in a controlled fashion.

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Perhaps the best feeling in the world is going back to riding in a saddle after spending time learning to balance without one. No matter what equine sport you are in to, or whether you are simply interested in riding for pleasure, riding bareback will improve your posture and positioning. Additionally, it is a tool that can be used frequently to maintain your balance and skill level. Ideally, I like my students to ride bareback for at least one hour per week in order to make the most out of what they have learned. Mastering the art of riding bareback will make you a better rider. You will become a rider who can feel what your horse is trying to tell you instead of having to figure it out from his actions or behaviors. You will have better balance and you will be more fit. Best of all, you will be learning things about your horse that will give you insight many people dont have. http://www.horsemanmagazine.com/2008/08/riding-bareback-tobecome-a-better-horseman/

What is Horsemanship?

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According to the dictionary, horsemanship is the riding, training, or management of horses. In the most basic sense of the word, the dictionary is correct; however, horsemanship is much, much more. True horsemanship is a precise skill, an art form that involves subtle communication between human and horse. A skillful horseman should know his animal well, both inside and out. He should be able to read the animals body language, to understand when the horse is fearful, angry, or confused, and be able to rectify improper behavior humanely. Another important aspect of horsemanship is trust. This is often a difficult process, due to the horses inherent distrust and fear of man. By understanding, patience, and consistency, however, trust can be achieved. The main objective of horsemanship is to achieve desired results by using balance, hands, legs, and seat gently and effectively. The rider should interfere as little as possible with the horses natural movement, while at the same time, encouraging the animal to obey commands. Gentle persuasion, and not force, is the key to proper horsemanship. Horses have a distinct center of gravity that shifts as the equine moves. The rider should have a secure seat yet be able to shift his weight when needed to complement the horses natural movements and to ensure their fluidity. A riders hands should be sensitive and light, moving as the horses head moves, as it does with the walk and gallop. The riders hands should always maintain contact with the horses mouth. The horseman must use his legs effectively, also. For example, in the trot, posting is employed to reduce bouncing for both the rider and the mount. The legs may also be used to convey cues to the horse through pressure or other subtle signals. In the last decade, a new style of horsemanship, referred to as natural horsemanship, has become popular. This philosophy involves XXV

methods that appeal to the horses natural herd mentality and encourages horsemen to communicate with and relate to their steeds as another horse would. Those who know their horse history, however, understand that there is nothing particularly new about this type of horsemanship. Many successful horsemen throughout history have employed these very methods. As early as 800 BC, the Scythians of Central Asia understood the importance of the riders balance and invented the stirrup. The Sarmatians, another ancient people, rode bareback and used leg cues to guide their mounts. Roman archers often rode without reins, as did many Native Americans, in order to free their hands for using their bows. There is evidence that all these early horsemen used gentle training methods and endeavored to gain the animals trust. Of all ancient horsemen, however, Xenophons Treatise on Horsemanship suggests that the ancient Greeks views on horse training are even more similar to those supported by natural horsemanship. With natural horsemanship, horses are encouraged to bond with their handlers, much as they would bond with another horse, and horses are taught through reward and reinforcement instead of fear and pain. The horse learns to view its handler as a partner and not as an enemy to work with its trainer instead of against him. When this type of close bond can be formed between a horse and a human, training possibilities are practically endless. Horse and rider develop a deep respect for one another, and the animals natural fear of man dissipates. Hopefully, the days of the Old West, when many cowboys broke horses quickly by relying on somewhat cruel methods and fear tactics, are gone forever. This process was, at the least, inconsistent, and at the worst, dangerous for both man and beast. Horses are among the most magnificent creatures on earth. Theyre intelligent, sensitive, and dependable when handled properly. True horsemanship methods might take a little more time and effort, but in the end, the rewards will prove their efficacy. A properly handled horse will bring its rider years of satisfaction and enjoyment. http://www.horsemanship.org/

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Riding Horses Bareback Improve your riding skills


Have you ever wondered how the horsemen of the Plains Indians managed to stay on their ponies while riding bareback? Especially since they often achieved this without even using reins, leaving their hands free to fire an arrow at a stampeding bison. Many Western historians report that the Cheyenne and their horses seemed more like centaurs than humans one being that was half man and half horse. Believe it or not, with some practice and work, you can achieve this lofty status, too! Riding bareback is a wonderful way to improve your riding skills. In fact, some experts agree that it might be the best way! By removing the saddle, there is no barrier between you and your mount. Youll be able to learn more about how your animal moves and how your movements affect the horse. Best of all, youll see a marked improvement in your balance and seat. Riding your horse without a saddle is the most natural form of riding. Since you dont have a thick slab of leather and a pad between you and your mounts back, you can feel the horses muscles working beneath you. You become much more aware of its gaits and lead changes. By leaving the saddle behind, youll also become acutely aware of your own movements and learn not to move in ways that interfere with your horses progression. The most important skill bareback riding offers is balance, the key to riding properly. Youll learn to keep your center of gravity low, with your legs in proper position.

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GETTING STARTED: THE DOs If youre a novice, dont just hop on your horse bareback and take off. A good way to prepare for bareback riding is to ride in a saddle without using the stirrups. This will help you learn not to rely on them for balance. The first time you ride bareback, have someone lead you at a walk until you feel secure, then advance to the trot, retaining your lead person. You should be able to post while bareback riding before advancing to the canter. Once youre secure at the trot, have someone longe the horse in a large circle, at the canter, while youre aboard bareback. This will leave your hands free to hold onto the mane, if needed. Also, someone else will be in control of the horses movements, so you can concentrate on your balance. While youre riding bareback, remember to keep your heels down and your legs and body in proper position. Have your companion make sure that your ear, shoulder, hip, and heel are aligned properly. They should form a vertical line. Your heel should be just slightly lower than the rest of your foot. THE DONTs Its important to remember not to use the reins for balance. Jerking on the horses mouth could injure the animal. Dont squeeze too tightly with your legs, either. This could confuse your horse, making it think youre giving leg cues when in reality, youre just trying to stay on. Keep as still as possible. Dont flail your feet and legs. Dont sit too far back on the horse. You should be near the base of the withers. Check your horse for any soreness. A saddle helps distribute the riders weight, so some animals might get a sore back from too much bareback riding. Once you master the skill of riding bareback, it will beicome second nature. Youll feel that you and your horse are one. Your confidence will improve, too, and afterwards, youll begin to feel that if you can ride well bareback, you can do practically anything in a saddle! http://www.horsemanship.org/Riding-Horses-Bareback.html

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Clritul fr a Cum s i mbunteti abilitile n echitaie.


(traducere Riding Horses Bareback Improve your riding skills)
i-ai pus vreodat ntrebarea cum reueau indienii s clreasc fr a? Mai ales c acetia reueau s nu se foloseasc nici de huri, lsnd minile libere astfel nct s poat trage cu arcurile n bizoni. Mai muli istorici din Vest susineau c poporul Cheyenne artau mai mult a centauri-jumate om, jumate cal- dect a oameni. E greu de crezut, dar cu puin antrenament, si tu poi ajunge la performana asta. Clritul fr a este un mod excelent de a face progrese n echitaie. Unii experi susin c aa e cel mai bun mod s creti performana. Dac dai jos aua, nu mai exist nicio piedic n a te urca pe cal. Vei putea s nvei mai multe despre modul n care te miti i felul n care acesta afecteaz calul. i cel mai mult, vei vedea o mbuntire a echilibrului tu pe cal. Clritul fr a este cel mai natural mod de nclecare. Din moment ce nu exist ntre tine i cal nicio barier de piele, i poi simi muchii lucrnd sub tine. O s-i nelegi mai bine micrile i schimbrile de ritm. Renunnd la a, vei putea s i analizezi micrile i cum s faci s nu i deranjezi calul. Cel mai mare avantaj al clritului fr a este faptul c i poi mbunti balansul. Vei nva s i ii centrul de gravitate ct mai jos i s i ii picioarele ntr-o poziie corect.

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NCEPUTUL: Ce s faci: Dac eti nceptor, nu sri direct pe cal, fr a. ncearc mai nti s clreti cu a, dar fr ajutorul drlogilor. Asta te va nva s nu te bazezi pe huri ca s i menii echilibrul. Prima dat cnd te sui pe cal i nu ai a, roag pe cineva s te ghideze un pic, pn te simi sigur pe tine, apoi ncepe cu un trap usor, renunnd la ajutorul persoanei de lng tine. Trebuie nti s poi s stai pe cal fr a, nainte s treci la un galop uor. Odat ce stpneti trapul, roag pe cineva s i conduc ntr-un cerc mai larg calul, ntr-un galop uor. Asta i va da libertatea s te ii cu minile de coama calului, dac vrei. Deasemenea, calul va fi n controlul altcuiva, astfel nct tu s i poi controla micrile i s te concentrezi asupra balansului. Cnd clreti fr a, adu-i aminte s ii clcile n jos i s ai corpul i picioarele n poziia corect. Roag pe cineva s se uite dac urechea, umrul, oldul i clciul sunt n linie dreapt. Clciul trebuie s fie puin mai jos dect restul piciorului. Ce s nu faci: Este important s tii c nu trebuie s foloseti hurile pentru a-i menine balansul. Ai putea s i rneti calul n gur. Nici nu te prinde prea tare cu picioarele de cal. Ai putea s induci calul n eroare, s cread c i dai pinteni, cnd defapt tu doar ncerci s stai n a. Stai pe ct posibil nemicat. Nu mica prea mult picioarele. Nu sta prea n spate pe cal. Trebuie s stai mai n fa, aproape de baza greabnului. Verific-i calul nainte, s nu simt vreo durere. a ajut la distribuirea greutii clreului, aa c animalul ar putea avea dureri de spate de la clritul fr a. Odat ce vei stpni acest gen de clrie, i va intra n reflex. Tu i calul tu vei fi una i aceeai persoan. i va crete i ncrederea n tine i vei simi c dac poi s clreti fr a, poi practic s faci orice lucru dac ai aua pus.

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Ghidul practic al clreului n exterior


Iesirile in exterior, sub forma de plimbari de cateva ore sau circuite de cateva zile, in grupuri calare, presupun cunostinte de care sa se tina seama atat in pregatirea cat si in desfasurarea lor. PREGATIREA FIZICA Organismul trebuie pregatit sa faca fata fara efort mersului calare in cele trei aluri de baza, respectiv 3 pana la 4 minute in trap saltat si in jur de 10 tururi de manej la galop. Dupa 2 zile de parcurs corpul se adapteaza treptat ritmului impus. Conditia fizica o puteti obtine cu cateva saptamani inainte prin 1-2 ore de calarie pe

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saptamana, mers pe bicicleta dar si mers pe jos in jur de 3-4 km pe saptamana. INSUSIREA REFLEXELOR BUNE Controlul si securitatea pentru voi, pentru ceilalti si pentru cal trebuie sa fie preocuparea permanenta pe cal in exterior. Incepeti printr-o pozitie corecta in sa - fata sa atingeti cu piciorul crupa calului si cu darlogii ajustati. Pentru dobandirea rapida a echilibrului faceti urmatoarele exercitii: Trap saltat fara scarite timp de 3-4 minute Cateva exercitii de incalzire in sa La trap saltat in scarite caderea in sa se face usor abia atingand saua Pas si trap in echilibru in scarite fara sa va tineti Revizuiti miscarile de baza: Mersul inainte, intoarceri, opriri si mers inapoi la comanda Controlul directiei si vitezei Pastrarea distantei fata de calul din fata Adaptati-va exercitiile stilului de calarie in exterior: Exersati intoarcerile, opriri in pozitia in suspensie Priviti in directia in care mergeti In caz de urgenta (cand calul accelereaza) nu va aruncati inainte, agatandu-va de gatul calului: coborati mainile, retrageti umerii spre spate, strangeti gambele si luati o curba lunga pentru a incetini; http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=revista&v1=2&v2=enciclopedie&v3=ghidul_practic_a l_calaretului_in_exterior&v4=68 Echipamentul Securitate nainte de toate! - Saua de tip mixt, de agrement sau englezeasca, fraul si lonja trebuie sa fie curate, n prealabil sterse cu un burete umed nmuiat n sapun de glicerina si apoi unse pentru a le ntretine supletea. - Zabaluta si chinga de asemenea pentru a evita orice iritare si ranire a calului. - Pentru calaret: pantaloni de calarie, cizme sau botine cu chapsuri si de preferinta o casca de protectie (!), cascheta sau palarie. Perspectiva de a ncaleca un cal necunoscut este ntotdeauna nsotita de o teama care poate fi diminuata sau nlaturata prin cateva masuri si gesturi de apropiere si cunoastere reciproca. - mangaierea nsotita de cateva cuvinte soptite la botul calului. - efectuarea pansajului, periatul corpului, curatatul copitelor, ajustarea cu grija a harnasamentelor sunt preliminarii care ne familiarizeaza cu comportamentul si temperamentul calului. E bine de XXXII

stiut ca multi cai care par agitati si de temut nainte de ncalecare se pot dovedi cuminti si docili odata ncalecati. - n orice situatie fiti vigilenti la copitele si dintii calului cu care el se poate apara n situatii care i se par neplacute. Daca veti ncaleca propriul cal lucrurile sunt mai simple si puteti da o mana de ajutor celorlalti din grup ce par sa aiba nevoie. Atentie la punerea harnasamentului Pentru a pune saua si fraul corect nu uitati sa: - controlati largimea capastrului (sa se poata trece 2 degete ntre el si bot). -fraul e bine ajustat cand zabaluta la fel http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=revista&v1=3&v2=enciclopedie&v3=ghidul_practic_a l_calaretului_in_exterior&v4=104

Riders practical guide for an outside walking


Outside walking for some hours or group trips for a couple of days require knowledge which is important for the rider both in preparing the walking and during the trips. Physical training: Your body must be prepared to deal effortlessly with the three basic riding gaits, which means 3-4 minutes trotting and about 10 laps galloping in the lunge. After 2 days of doing what I said above, your body will adapt to the rhythm. You can be in a good shape after a couple

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of weeks only if you ride 1-2 hours per week, if you ride a bike or simply if you just walk 3-4 kilometers a week. Achieving good reflexes. The control and security, for you as for the others and of course, for your horse, should be a permanent concern when you ride you horse outside. Start with a good position of your body in the saddle without touching the horses rump with your foot and with your reins adjusted. For achieving rapidly balance do the following exercises: -Trotting for 3-4 minutes without stirrups -Some warm-up exercises -In trotting, when falling back in the saddle, one should barely touch it -Keep your balance in short walking and trot, without holding the reins and without the stirrups -Take a look over the basic moves -Moving forward, going back, turn, and ordered back moving -Control the direction and speed -Keep distance towards the horse in front of you -Adapt your exercises to the riding style from outside -You should practice turning around and stopping in suspension position -Look in front of you, in the direction youre going -In case of an emergency, if your horse accelerates, dont lay yourself on the horses neck, try pull your shoulders back, hold your calves tight on the horse, and take a large curve to slow down your horse; The equipment Your safety is the most important The saddle, pleasure or English type, and reins- these must be cleaned, preferably cleaned with soap and glycerin to maintain their look. The bit and girth should also be cleaned in order to avoid hurting your horse For the rider: special pants for riding, boots with chaps and a helmet for protection The thought of mounting an unknown horse comes always alongside with fear, which you can lay to rest by taking right measures, and by coming closer to the horse and trying to know him -try to caress your horse an whisper him gentle words -clean the hooves, comb the hair, adjust carefully the harness; its good to know that nervous horses can become really docile when they are mounted -in all the situations, be vigilant to your horses teeth and hooves, because with these things your horse defend himself If you ride your own horse things are simpler and you can give a helping hand to others in the group that seem to need. XXXIV

Beware of putting harness To put the saddle and rein correctly remember to: -control the bridles width (you should be able to put two fingers between the bridle and horses mouth) -the reins are right adjusted and so is the bit

Istoria echitatiei
Echitatia adevarata este o forma de arta care implica comunicarea subtila intre om si cal. Un calaret iscusit ar trebui sa isi cunoasca foarte bine animalul, atat in interiorul sau, cat si in afara lui. El ar trebui sa fie capabil sa citeasca limbajul corpului animalului, pentru a intelege atunci cand calul este fricos, furios, sau confuz, si sa fie capabil sa rectifice comportamentul necorespunzator. Un alt aspect important al echitatiei este dat de incredere. Acest lucru este adesea un proces dificil, datorita XXXV

neincrederii si temerii calului fata de om. Prin intelegere, rabdare si coerenta increderea calului poate fi castigata. Principalul obiectiv al echitatiei este acela de a otine rezultatele dorite prin utilizarea echilibrului, mainilor si picioarelor. Calaretul ar trebui sa interfereze cat mai putin posibil, cu miscarile naturale ale calului, dar in acelasi timp trebuie sa isi incurajeze animalul sa asculte comenzile. Caii au un centru de greutate care se schimba odata cu miscarile sale. Calaretul ar trebui sa aiba un loc sigur, insa ar trebui sa fie capabil sa isi transfere greutatea lui atunci cand este necesar pentru a completa miscarile naturale ale calului si pentru a asigura fluiditatea lor. Mainile calaretului ar trebui sa fie sensibile si usoare, care se deplaseaza dupa cum isi misca calul capul, asa cum se intampla cu plimbarea si galopul. Mainile calaretului ar trebui sa mentina mereu contactul cu gura calului. Calaretul ar trebui sa isi utilizeze picioarele in mod eficient. Picioarele pot fi, de asemenea, folosite pentru a transmite indiciile calului prin presiune sau prin alte semnale subtile. Echitatie naturala In ultimul deceniu, un "nou" stil de echitatie, denumit ca "echitatie naturala," a devenit popular. Aceasta filozofie implica metode care apeleaza la instinctele naturale ale calului si ii incurajeaza pe calareti sa comunice cu armasarii lor ca de la cal, la cal. Cei care cunosc istoria calului lor inteleg ca nu este nimic special in acest tip de echitatie. Multi calareti de succes de-a lungul istoriei au recurs la aceste metode. In cazul echitatiei naturale, cai sunt incurajati sa intre in contact cu calaretii lor, la fel cum ar intra in contact cu un alt cal si sunt invatati prin recompense si consolidare, in loc de teama si durere. Calul invata sa isi vada calaretul ca pe un partener si nu ca pe un dusman sa lucreze cu el, nu impotriva lui. Calul si calaretul dezvolta un respect profund unul pentru altul, si teama naturala a animalului pentru om dispare.

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Din fericire, zilele Vechiului Vest, atunci cand multi cowboy isi dominau caii rapid bazandu-se pe metode oarecum crude si tactici bazate pe teama, au disparut pentru totdeauna. Acest proces a fost, cel putin, inconsecvent, precum si periculos - atat pentru om cat si pentru animal. Caii sunt printre cele mai magnifice creaturi de pe pamant. Sunt fiinte inteligente, sensibile si de incredere atunci cand sunt indrumate corect. Metodele de echitatie adevarate dureaza mai mult timp si necesita mai mult efort, dar in cele din urma, recompensele vor dovedi eficacitatea lor. Istoria dresarii calului Caballas Equus, prima versiune moderna a calului asa cum o stim astazi, a aparut in America de Nord in urma cu peste doua milioane de ani. Prima relatie dintre om si cal a fost acea de vanator si vanat. Carnea de cal a constituit o mare parte din dieta omului la inceputul anilor. Cand primul om curajos a incercat sa domesticeasca un cal, el a schimbat soarta umanitatii si a cailor pentru totdeauna. Omul a realizat ce putere si viteza are calul si a realizat ca, daca el ar avea haturi si ar controla acele puteri, caii s-ar dovedi de nepretuit in lupta lui pentru supravietuire. Calul putea fi utilizat pentru transport, era de ajutor la razboi si imbunatatea sansele calaretului in urmarirea prazii rapide. Primele seminte ale echitatiei au fost astfel aruncate. http://www.luxesports.ro/index.php/stire/139/Istoria-echitatiei.html

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History of horseback riding


The real horseback riding is a form of art which involves subtle communication between the rider and the horse. A great rider should know well his animal, psychical and physical. He should be able to read body language of his horse in order to see when he is afraid of something, furious, confused so that he can change inappropriate behavior. Another important point of horseback riding is given by the trust. This could be often a very difficult process, because of the horses mistrust and fear towards the humans. One can win horses trust by being patient and try to understand him. The main target of the horseback riding is to obtain desired results by using your balance, hands and feet. The rider should interfere as little as possible with the horses moves but in the same time he should be able to make his animal to listen his commands and to obey. Horses gravity centre changes at the same time with his moves. The rider should have a safe place but he should also be capable to transfer his weight when necessary to complete the natural movements of the horse and to ensure the fluidity of the movements. The riders hands should be easy and sensitive, and move simultaneous with the horses head. Riders hands should also keep the contact with horses mouth. He should use his feet efficiently. The feet can also be used to send indications to the horse by pressure or other subtle signs. Natural horseback riding. Over the last decade, a new style of horseback riding, natural riding became popular. This philosophy uses methods which involve horses natural instinct and which encourages riders to communicate with their animals, from one horse to another. Those who know the history of the horse, know that theres nothing special about this type of riding. Many of the successful riders used this method. In natural riding, horses are encouraged to make contact with their riders, like they would get in contact with other horses and they are taught with rewards and not with fear. The horse is learned to see his rider as a friend and not as an enemy- to work with him and not against him. The horse and his rider will have a profound respect for each other and the natural fear of the horse for the human disappears. Luckily, the days of the Old West, when many cowboys dominate their horses rapidly by using cruel methods and tactics based on fear,

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are gone. This process was inconsequent and dangerous for the horse and for the rider. Horses are the most magnificent creatures on the earth. They are intelligent, fiduciary and sensible when they are precise guided. The methods or real equitation last for many time and greater effort is needed but, at last, rewards will be worthy. The history of the dressage Caballas Equus, the first version of the modern horse, as you know it from nowadays, appeared over 2 millions years ago, in North America. The first human-horse encounter was that of hunter-meat. Horses meat was a great part of the humans diet at the beginning of the times. When the first brave man tried to tame a horse, he change the whole humans destiny and horses as well. Humans realized how strong and fast are the horses and realized that if he would have reins, he could control the horse and they would be priceless for their work for surviving. Horses could be useful for transportation, he was helpful in the war and he would also increase riders chances in chasing a fast catch. Also, the first seeds of equitation were then thrown.

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Dresajul
Dresajul - cuvant francez ce include un antrenament destinat tuturor cailor indiferent daca au pus vreodata "copita" ntr-un teren de concurs. Acest antrenament are ca obiectiv obtinerea unui cal usor de calarit, bine dezvoltat, activ, ascultator la cea mai discreta comanda a calaretului. De multe ori capacitatea si ndemanarea unui cal de a executa anumite miscari sau de a sari obstacole nu se poate utiliza la maximum daca nu este ajutat si antrenat pentru a-si dezvolta echilibrul si ndemanarea. Astfel, orice cal de calarie trebuie sau ar trebui sa nvete bazele dresajului n cadrul educatiei sale timpurii. Xenofon - generalul grec - a fost primul care a privit calaria ca pe o stiinta dar si ca pe o arta. nvataturile sale au stat la baza "echitatiei moderne" nceputa n Europa renascentista. Perceptele clasice au fost pastrate, transmise si mbunatatite de calaretii militari - cavaleristi - care de altfel au fost si initiatorii primelor competitii "pentru cel mai instruit cal al unui ofiter" n secolul al XIX-lea. Odata instituite, primele concursuri hipice au dus la dezvoltarea si rafinarea miscarilor efectuate de cuplul cal-calaret. Cuvintele de baza ale dresajului n prezent sunt: usurinta angajarii membrelor posterioare, supunerea, echilibrul, usurinta de miscare a membrelor anterioare. Chiar daca n anumite zone geografice caii sunt utilizati n mod primitiv, exemplul dat de "Scoala Spaniola de Dresaj" de la Viena sau de "Cadre Noir" de la Paris alaturi de evolutiile unor mari calareti de dresaj au facut ca dresajul de baza sau competitiv sa aiba din ce n ce mai multi adepti. Dresajul este o disciplina olimpica facand parte din F.E.I. cu tari membre afiliate, printre care si Romania, care n 1980 a castigat medalia de bronz la Jocurile Olimpice de la Moscova. Miscarile de dresaj sunt cuprinse n teste pe diferite niveluri n functie de gradul de pregatire al calului. Ele se desfasoara pe un teren bine delimitat si marcat n exterior cu litere standard (succesiunea lor este internationala). Competitiile de dresaj au loc la nivel international pe teste dinainte cunoscute si pe diferite nivele. - Sf. Gheorghe - Internadior I - Internadior II - Marele Premiu - Marele Premiu special

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- Testul pe muzica - unde miscarile au nivelul cerut, dar succesiunea lor este la dorinta calaretului pe muzica. Este o proba foarte apreciata de spectatori. Daca pentru concursurile internationale testele sunt aprobate de F.E.I. si sunt aceleasi pentru toti concurentii de acelasi nivel, pe plan intern fiecare Federatie Nationala are libertatea de a-si stabili fiecare test n functie de cerintele si nivelul de pregatire al cailor si calaretilor. Indiferent de nivel, calul va fi punctat de un arbitru aflat n afara terenului de concurs pentru regularitatea si usurinta pasilor, pentru echilibru, cadenta si pentru supunerea si atentia fata de cerintele calaretului. Dresajul este o disciplina ecvestra care uneori poate parea "plictisitoare", dar - dupa multi specialisti - sta la baza performantelor din sportul hipic. http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=articole&v1=discipline&v2=dresajul&v3=99

Anduranta
Dintre toate sporturile ecvestre, poate anduranta are cele mai vechi radacini. Deplasarile pe distante mari, de-a lungul secolelor, a fost imposibila fara cai nseuati sau trasuri. Anduranta, ca si competitie, exista totusi ncepand cu secolul al XI-lea cand ofiterii de cavalerie organizau ntreceri de calarie pe distante de zeci sau chiar sute de kilometri. Din 1980 Federatia Ecvestra Internationala a conceput regulamentul oficial al probelor de anduranta si tot din acest an anduranta a devenit sport oficial. In Romania, se organizau concursuri din anul 2000, iar din 2005 acestea au devenit oficiale. Din 2006 se organizeaza si Campionatul national cu 3 etape. Concurentii participa cu cai crescuti si pregatiti special pentru acest sport, pe distante variabile (40 - 120 km). Terenul cu dificultate variabila este masurat si marcat iar concurentii se prezinta la start dupa o recunoastere prealabila a traseului. Ce trebuie sa stim despre anduranta? Faptul ca este o ramura noua din cadrul sporturilor ecvestre, simplitatea regulamentului care face sportul accesibil tuturor calaretilor de hobby, existenta n tara a unui efectiv deosebit de valoros de cai potriviti pentru acest sport (Hergheliile de Shagya Arab si Pur Sange Arab) si atmosfera pana la nivelul romanticului al acestor concursuri ne fac sa credem ca sportul este predestinat la o dezvoltare chiar fantastica n urmatorul

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deceniu. Concursurile de anduranta sub sea sau n atelaje fac din participanti, cai si oameni, echipe unde toti concurentii sunt pusi la ncercare, atat din punctul de vedere al rezistentei cat si al modului de colaborare, al pregatirii si al seriozitatii. Traseul se compune din faze cu distante strict stabilite. Intre faze are loc un control sanitar-veterinar foarte serios unde se constata daca caii pot continua sau nu proba. Pe langa etapele oficiale de campionat, se organizeaza si concursuri de amatori pe distante de 20, 30, 40 sau 60 km. Punctajul competitiei se compune din punctajul de baza n functie de distanta si punctajul relativ obtinut n concurs care poate sa fie variabil, pana si dupa numarul de participanti. Traseul trebuie sa fie bine marcat, pe teren potrivit, cu pana la 10% din distanta cu drum de asfalt. De asemenea, poate sa contina si obstacole, acestea nu ntotdeauna sunt obligatorii. Obstacolele pot avea alternativa pe un drum mai lung. Concurentul poate sa si descalece si sa alerge langa cal pentru a-l odihni, dar pe linia de sosire se trece totdeauna n sa sau pe trasura. Concursul este castigat de cuplul sau echipa care executa traseul n cel mai scurt timp. Este interzisa cu desavarsire pedepsirea sau maltratarea cailor. In concursuri nu se folosesc cravase sau pinteni. Rezultatul este definitiv dupa ce pulsul si respiratia cailor dupa efort revin la normal. Folosirea seilor este obligatorie, iar n cazul atelajelor de anduranta cu doi cai acestea trebuie sa aiba 4 roti si minim 200 kg, n cazul atelajului de anduranta cu un un cal - 2 sau 4 roti si minim 70 kg, cu ecartament minim de 125 cm. Concurentilor li se cere n mod obligatoriu folosirea castilor si a echipamentelor de protectie. http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=articole&v1=discipline&v2=anduranta&v3=183

Galopul
Pentru a struni calul e nevoie de cateva cunostinte obligatorii. Va prezentam aici cateva principii ale galopului. Mentinerea unei aluri regulate. Schimbari involuntare Calul are tendinta de a accelera daca te apleci inainte. Se intampla insa si ca anumiti cai sa- si incetineasca alura. Si daca nu reactionati nu veti avea impulsie pentru a continua exercitiul. Alti cai, in schimb, isi

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precipita cadenta dezechilibrandu-se spre inainte. Si in acest caz riscati sa nu va stapaniti companionul. Aceste schimbari de alura imperceptibile pot avea mai multe cauze. in curbe sau in deplasarile laterale caii au in mod natural tendinta de a incetini. De asemenea, si in cazul in care actionati continuu cu pulpa, calul se va blaza si va deveni pasiv. Pentru a avea o alura regulata, acordat i-i ajutorul pentru a intretine impulsia si incercati sa mobilizati atentia companionului prin varietatea exercitiilor. Cum va ajutati calul Oricare ar fi alura calului, trebuie sa fiti oricand gata sa interveniti cu ajutorul vostru. Bazinul dvs. insoteste miscarile spatelui, iar spatele dvs. ramane drept pentru a stabiliza echilibrul calului. Moletii dvs. sunt in contact in spatele chingii fara presiune inutila. La pas sau la galop, mainile insotesc in ritm miscarea balansata a ancolurii fara sa lasati fraul sa se destinda. Trebuie sa respirati profund pentru a ramane suplu si decontractat. Daca simtiti o schimbare de alura, interveniti prompt, dar punctual. O incurajare verbala poate sa ajute calul. Cedati in momentul in care calul devine ascultator. Un galop regulat Calul dvs. trebuie sa-si conserve cadenta la galop, ceea ce se traduce prin regularitatea prin care revine cu acelasi picior la fiecare fuleu. Oricum, la galop, pierderile de echilibru laterale si longitudinale sunt mai frecvente ducand la accelerari sau incetiniri nedorite. Chiar la plecarea la galop, supravegheati echilibrul calului. Nu bruscati plecarea plasand cu precizie punctele de ajutor. Pastrati bustul stabil privind departe in fata. Bazinul insoteste alura in ritm. Pulpele raman in contact, vigilente. Ramaneti pe faza cu miscarea de basculare a galopului cu bratele si cu mainile fara sa amplificati nici sa rezistati fara voie. inchideti ochii, respirati profund, ascultati cu atentie regularitatea fuleelor. Trebuie sa eliminati orice contractie parazita care ar putea perturba pretioasa cadenta. Pentru inceput lucrati regularitatea galopului intr-un cerc cu un diametru de 20 metri. Incercati apoi aceasta cadenta pe linia dreapta, in abordarea obstacolelor sau la plimbare. Intretinerea impulsiei Pentru a pastra calul activ si atent, variati alurile prin tranzitii nete. Realizati tranzitii curate, dar fara bruschete. Trebuie sa va folositi contactul cu precizie, in pregatirea actiunilor. Daca totusi calul este putin reactiv la tranzitiile crescatoare, solicitati-l cu pulpa, chiar si cu o lovitura de cravasa scurta si ferma in spatele moletilor. Puteti lucra astfel pe cercuri. Reduceti progresiv diametrul fiind atent la miscarea inainte. Asta va va ajuta sa va ameliorati XLIII

conduita la obstacol, pentru ca atunci calul va sari mai bine daca-l abordati in echilibru, cu o cadenta buna si o viteza constanta. http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=articole&v1=discipline&v2=galopul&v3=20

Firea calului
Comportamentul instinctiv al calului, care implica mecanismul hiperdezvoltat al autoapararii, dobandit de-a lungul procesului evolutiv si influentat de mediul inconjurator, in schimbare pe parcursul milioanelor de ani, precede domesticirea acestuia. Instinctele lui, adanc inradacinate, au ramas neschimbate la trecerea timpului altfel, cum ar putea calul sa aiba abilitatea de a se adapta la dorintele omului, fara acele instincte care sa-i permita sa se lase subjugat ori, cu ajutorul unui antrenament inteligent, sa devina chiar obedient? Stapan sau supus? Fundamentala pentru instuirea calului este cunoasterea factorului stapan-supus. In general, majoritatea cailor sunt situati intre cele doua extreme si fiecare cal este tentat, la un moment dat, sa-si testeze antrenorul. La caii cu un puternic caracter dominat, fara discutie, se intalneste, din timp in timp, o razvratire. De fapt, acesti indivizi curajosi devin de multe ori performeri straluciti daca incap pe maini potrivite.

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Revenind, aceste animale dominante cer nu numai cunoasterea psihologiei lor dar si simpatie si talent, care sa le insufle disciplina. Mai presus de toate, tentatia de a reactiona la fel de agresiv ca animalul, trebuie evitata. Calul supus, neincrezator in el si-n om, are alte probleme dar e la fel de doritor de intelegere si afectiune. El are nevoie, si cauta, un conducator puternic, dominant care sa-l conduca, fara ezitare, spre ceea ce se vrea de la el. Un calaret curajos face si calul curajos dar si inversul situatiei ar putea avea un sambure de adevar. Siguranta este nevoia elementara a cailor, dar si a oamenilor si, pentru a le-o asigura, animalele domestice au nevoie de grajd, de locuri familiare si, ideal, de companie. Asa de important este un grajd familiar incat, deseori, caii arata un mai mare entuziastm atunci cand se intorc acasa decat atunci cand ies pe teren, pentru antrenament. Caii, ca animale ierbivore, sunt, in salbaticie, o prada naturala pentru carnivorele agresive, pradatoare. Apararea calului consta in abilitatea de a fugi instantaneu din fata amenintarii unui pericol, chiar daca acesta este real sau imaginar. Un fosnet neasteptat in preajma-i activeaza sistemul de aparare si-l pune pe fuga imediat. Mai importante chiar decat instinctul fugii sunt simturile, extrem de dezvoltate la cal, cu mult mai acute decat la om. Comunicarea tactila si un anume limbaj al trupului sunt evidente printre cai, care se complac, de obicei, in tesalari reciproce. Simtul mirosului este la fel de acut iar feromonii, mesaje olfactive, sunt constant produsi de galandele pielii si au rolul de a deosebi indivizii si grupurile. Caii sunt, de asemenea, capabili sa detecteze nervozitatea si frica dupa mirosul degajat de corpul uman si reactioneza in concordanta cu aceste stari, devenind ei insisi nervosi si incordati. Aparatul auditiv al cabalinelor este deosebit. Urechile, remarcabil de mobile, au capacitatea de a se intoarce aproape 360 si pot fi directionate ca o antena de radar. Caii sunt exceptional de receptivi la vocea umana ori, mai bine spus, la tonul acesteia. Vazul cailor este neobisnuit si oarecum diferit de vederea umana, ochii mari marindu-i acuitatea si campul vizual. Pozitionarea ochilor si a capului dau calului o viziune rotunda, completa. In sfarsit, caii mai poseda si o perceptie deosebita, suma tuturor simturilor, pe care am numi-o un al saselea simt, care este si mai putin evidenta la om. http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=articole&v1=cunoastere&v2=firea_calului&v3=317

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Horses nature
Horses instinctive behavior, which involves a high-developed selfdefense mechanism acquired through the evolutionary process and influenced by the environment, which has changed over the millions of years, precedes the horses domestication. His instincts, deep rooted, remained the same over the years- otherwise, how would the horse be able to adapt to humans desires, without those instincts that allowed him to let himself subjugated or, with the help of an intelligent training, to become obedient? Master or subdued? Knowing the factor master-subject is fundamental in training a horse. Generally, most horses stand between these two extremes and each horse is tempted, at a time, to test his coach. Strong and dominating horses, often become rebels. In fact, these courageous individuals are often brilliant performers if they are trained by the right person.

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Back to our things, these dominant animals require not only knowledge of their psychology but also sympathy and talent to instill them discipline. Above all, the temptation to react as aggressively as the animal should be avoided. The subdued horse, which doesnt trust in himself, has other issues but also wants the same understanding and affection. He needs a loving master, which can lead him without hesitating towards what the coach wants from a horse. A brave rider makes his horse as brave as he is, but the vice-versa is also true. Safety is the basic need of a horse and his coach, and to secure this, a horse needs a stable, a familiar place and of course, a company. A familiar stable is so important, that a horse looks happier when he returns home than when he gets out on the field. As herbivorous animal, into the wild, a horse is a natural prey for an aggressive carnivore predator. Horses defense is about running away instantaneously from a real or imaginary danger. A sudden rustling around him, actives natural defense system and puts it on the run immediately. More important even than the instinct of running away are senses, highly developed in the horse, much more acute than humans. Some tactile communication and body language are obvious among the horses, which they indulge, usually in mutual grooming. The horses are also able to detect nervousness and fear after the odor emitted by the body and react according to these states, becoming themselves nervous and tense. Horses deaf aid is wonderful. Ears, remarkably mobile, have the ability to turn almost 360 and can look like radar antenna. Horses are exceptionally sensitive to the human voice or, rather, to its tone. Sight tract is unusual and somehow different to human eyes, big eyes increasing acuity and visual field. Eye and head position give the horse a round and complete vision. Finally the horses also have a special perception, the sum of all senses, we call it a sixth sense, which is even less evident in humans.

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GLOSSARY

Nr. 1 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH CAP A usually soft and close-fitting head covering, either having no brim or with a visor http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cap Noun, countable, caps Hat, beret, bonet

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ROMN Termen Beret Definitie Sapc moale, fr cozoroc; basc Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/beret Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, berete Sinonime Bonet Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 2 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH CHAPS (Clothing & Fashion) leather overalls without a seat, worn by cowboys Also called chaparejos chaparajos http://www.thefreedictionary.com/chaps Noun, countable, chaps Gaiters

ROMN Termen Jambiere Definitie nvelitoare de piele, de ln sau de postav, care acoper i protejeaz piciorul de la glezn pn aproape de genunchi. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/jambier Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, jambiere Sinonime Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 3 Term Definition

ENGLISH GLOVES A fitted covering for the hand with a separate sheath for each finger and the thumb.

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Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/gloves Noun, countable, gloves Gauntlet

Treat her with kid gloves, she's very sensitive. ROMN Termen Jambiere Definitie Obiect de mbrcminte confecionat din ln, tricot, piele, cauciuc etc., care acoper minile, protejndu-le. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/manusi Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, manusi Sinonime Fofeaz Antonime Colocatii A arunca cuiva mnua, A umbla cu cineva cu mnui, A ridica cuiva mnua

Nr. 4 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH TROUSERS (Clothing & Fashion) a garment shaped to cover the body from the waist to the ankles or knees with separate tube-shaped sections for both legs. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/trousers Noun, countable, trousers Breeches, knickers

E.g. I was still in short trousers at the time. ROMN Termen PANTALONI Definitie mbrcminte exterioar care acoper, de la mijloc n jos, corpul i fiecare picior n parte; Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/pantaloni Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, masculin, pantaloni Sinonime Ndragi Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 5 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH BOOTS Protective footgear, as of leather or rubber, covering the foot and part or all of the leg. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/boots Noun, countable, boots Footwear, shoes

as tough as old boots ROMN Termen GHETE Definitie nclminte confecionat din piele sau din materiale sintetice care imit pielea, acoperind piciorul pn deasupra gleznei Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/ghete Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, ghete Sinonime Antonime Colocatii Ciubote

Nr. 5 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations Termen Definitie

ENGLISH REIN Reins are items of horse tack, used to direct a horse or other animal used for riding or driving. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rein Noun, countable, reins Bridle the reins of government/office/power ROMN H Parte a hamului alctuit din curele (sau frnghii) lungi, prinse de LI

inelele cpeelei, cu ajutorul crora se conduc caii nhmai Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/haturi Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, neutru, haturi Sinonime Antonime Colocatii Drlogi A ine n huri pe cineva, a lua hurile n mn, a scpa hurile din mn

Nr. 6 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH BRIDLE A harness, consisting of a headstall, bit, and reins, fitted about a horse's head and used to restrain or guide the animal. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bridle Noun, countable, bridles Halter

ROMN Termen Cpstru Definitie Parte de harnaament care se mbrac pe capul calului pentru a-l lega sau a-l duce undeva Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/capastru Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, capestre Sinonime Antonime Colocatii Cpan

Nr. 7 Term Definition

ENGLISH Stirrups a pair of metal loops hanging on straps from a horse's saddle, to

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Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

support a rider's feet. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/stirrups Noun, countable, stirrups

ROMN Termen Scarite Definitie Conceput pentru a favoriza, mpreun cu trgtoarele, echilibrul clreului i a limita oboseala gambelor. Sursa definitiei http://www.decathlon.ro/RO/scarite-reflex-173460758/ Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, scrie Sinonime Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 8 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH SADDLE A leather seat for a rider, secured on an animal's back by a girth. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/saddle Noun, countable, saddles Rig

ROMN Termen A Definitie Pies de harnaament confecionat din piele, care se fixeaz pe spinarea calului (sau a altor animale), servind pentru ederea comod a clreului. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/sa Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, sai Sinonime

LIII

Antonime Colocatii

A pune aua pe cineva, a se ine tare n a

Nr. 9 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH SADDLE BLANKET A blanket placed between a saddle and a horse's back to prevent galling. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/saddle+blanket Nouns, countable, saddle blankets Saddlecloth

ROMN Termen VALTRAP Definitie Ptur, mpodobit cu diferite custuri, care se pune pe spinarea calului, sub a Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/valtrap Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, neutru, valtrapuri Sinonime Antonime Colocatii Cioltar, ghetr

Nr. 10 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations Termen

ENGLISH TROT The gait of a horse or other four-footed animal, between a walk and a canter in speed, in which diagonal pairs of legs move forward together. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/trot Nouns, uncountable

ROMN TRAP LIV

Mers n fug al calului, cu vitez mijlocie (ntre pas i galop), animalul pind n acelai timp cu un picior din fa i cu piciorul de dinapoi opus acestuia. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/trap Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, neutru, trapuri Definitie Sinonime Antonime Colocatii Treapd

Nr. 11 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH GALLOP A natural three-beat gait of a horse, faster than a canter, in which all four feet are off the ground at the same time during each stride. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/gallop Nouns, uncountable

ROMN Termen GALOP Definitie Mersul cel mai rapid al calului, alctuit dintr-o succesiune de salturi. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/galop Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, neutru, galopuri Sinonime Antonime Colocatii Scopc.

Nr. 12 Term Definition Source of definition

ENGLISH GIRTH A strap encircling an animal's body in order to secure a load or saddle on its back. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/girth

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Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

Nouns, countable, girths Cinch

ROMN Termen CHINGA Definitie Fie de piele sau de estur de cnep, cu care se fixeaz aua pe cal Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/chinga Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, chingi Sinonime Antonime Colocatii

A strange (pe cine) in chingi, a slabi(pe cineva) din chingi

Nr. 13 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH MARTINGALE The strap of a horse's harness that connects the girth to the noseband and is designed to prevent the horse from throwing back its head. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/martingale Nouns, countable, martingales

ROMN Termen MARTINGALA Definitie Curea de la ham n form de furc, ce nu permite calului s se ridice n dou picioare. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/martingala Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, martingale Sinonime Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 14

ENGLISH LVI

Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

MARTINGALE The strap of a horse's harness that connects the girth to the noseband and is designed to prevent the horse from throwing back its head. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/martingale Nouns, countable, martingales

ROMN Termen MARTINGAL Definitie Curea de la ham n form de furc, ce nu permite calului s se ridice n dou picioare. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/martingala Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, martingale Sinonime Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 15 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH BIT The metal mouthpiece of a bridle, serving to control, curb, and direct an animal. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bit Nouns, countable, bits

ROMN Termen ZBAL Definitie Parte a cpstrului constnd dintr-o bar subire de metal cu dou brae, prevzute cu cte un inel mare, care se introduce n gura calului napoia ultimilor incisivi pentru a-l struni i a-l conduce. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/zabala Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, zbale Sinonime Mutiuc.

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Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 16 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH PADDOCK An enclosure at a racetrack where the horses are assembled, saddled, and paraded before each race http://www.thefreedictionary.com/paddock Nouns, countable, paddocks

ROMN Termen PADOC Definitie Loc ngrdit lng boxa unui cal de curse sau lng un hipodrom, unde sunt lsai n libertate sau plimbai caii, nainte de alergri. Sursa definitiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/padoc Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, neutru, padocuri Sinonime Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 17 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations Termen Definitie Sursa definitiei

ENGLISH STALL A compartment for one domestic animal in a barn or shed. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/stall Nouns, countable, stalls

ROMN BOX Despritur ntr-un grajd, fcut pentru un singur animal. http://dexonline.ro/definitie/boxa

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Informatii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, boxe Sinonime Antonime Colocatii

Nr. 18 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH COLT A young male horse. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/colt Nouns, countable, colts Foal

ROMN Termen MNZ Definiie Puiul (de sex masculin al) iepei. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/manz Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, masculin, mnji Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

A umbla ca mnzul dup iap, a avea mnz

Nr. 19 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH DRESSAGE The guiding of a horse through a series of complex maneuvers by slight movements of the rider's hands, legs, and weight. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/dressage Nouns, countable, dressages Training

ROMN

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Termen Definiie Sursa definiiei Informaii gramaticale Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

DRESAJ Dresare a unui animal http://dexonline.ro/definitie/dresaj Substantiv, neutru, dresaje

Nr. 20 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH EQUITATION The art and practice of riding a horse http://www.thefreedictionary.com/equitation Nouns, uncountable Horseback riding

ROMN Termen ECHITAIE Definiie Clrie Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/echitatie Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, defectiv de plural Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Clrie

Nr. 22 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH FARRIER One who shoes horses. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/farrier Nouns, countable, farriers Smith

ROMN LX

Termen Definiie Sursa definiiei Informaii gramaticale Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Nr. 22 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

POTCOVAR Meseria care face potcoave i potcovete animalele de traciune http://dexonline.ro/definitie/potcovar Substantiv, masculin, potcovari Nalbant

ENGLISH GAIT Any of the ways, such as a canter, trot, or walk, by which a horse can move by lifting the feet in different order or rhythm. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/gait Nouns, countable, gaits

ROMN Termen LA PAS, TRAP, GALOP, etc Definiie A nva calul s mearg la pas, la trap sau galop Sursa definiiei (traducere proprie) Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, masculin, potcovari Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Nr. 23 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations Termen Definiie ENGLISH PUREBRED A pedigreed animal of unmixed lineage; used especially of horses http://www.thefreedictionary.com/purebred Noun, countable, purebreds Pureblood, thoroughbred

ROMN PUR-SNGE (Despre animale, mai ales despre cai; adesea substantivat) De ras pur, aleas. LXI

Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/pursnge Informaii gramaticale Adjectiv, invariabil Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

Nr. 23 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH RACE A competition of speed, as in running or riding. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/race Noun, countable, races Competition

ROMN Termen CURS Definiie ntrecere n cadrul creia sunt programate mai multe alergri de cai. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/cursa Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, curse Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Competiie A ntinde o curs, a atrage n curs

Nr. 24 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH HORSESHOE A flat U-shaped metal plate fitted and nailed to the bottom of a horse's hoof for protection. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/horseshoe Noun, countable, horseshoes Heelplate

ROMN

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Termen Definiie

POTCOAV Pies din oel, aproximativ n form de semicerc, care se fixeaz cu caiele pe copitele animalelor de traciune, pentru protejarea lor la mers Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/potcoava Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, potcoave Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

A cuta potcoave de cai mori, a-i lepda potcoava

Nr. 25 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH MANE The mane of a horse is used to describe the line of hair along the spine of the neck, starting behind the ears and ending just above the withers. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mane Noun, countable, manes Crest

ROMN Termen COAM Definiie Pr lung (i stufos) care crete pe grumazul sau de-a lungul spinrii unor animale. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/coama Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, coame Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

Nr. 26

ENGLISH

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Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations Termen Definiie

HORSEWHIP A tool used as an artificial riding aid http://www.thefreedictionary.com/horsewhip Noun, countable, horsewhips Crop

ROMN CRVA Varg elastic din piele sau mbrcat n piele, folosit la clrie pentru ndemnarea calului la mers, alergat etc. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/cravasa Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, crvae Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Biciuc

Nr. 27 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH LEVADE High-level classical dressage movement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dressage Noun, uncountable

ROMN Termen LEVAD Definiie Micare de dresaj constnd n aceea c animalul ridic n sus bipedul anterior, sprijinindu-se pe cel posterior, cu jaretele apropiate de sol. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/levada Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, levade Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

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Nr. 28 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH CAPRIOLE High-level classical dressage movement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dressage Noun, uncountable

ROMN Termen CAPRIOL Definiie Sritur n sus i nainte a unui cal dresat, cu membrele anterioare ndoite de la genunchi, iar cele posterioare complet ntinse napoi. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/capriola Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, capriole Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

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Nr. 29 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH COURBETTE High-level classical dressage movement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dressage Noun, uncountable

ROMN Termen CURBET Definiie Sritur a calului cu picioarele din fa ridicate. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/curbeta Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, curbete Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

Nr. 29 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH CROUPADE High-level classical dressage movement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dressage Noun, uncountable

ROMN Termen CRUPAD Definiie Sritur a calului cu picioarele dinainte sub burt. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/crupada Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, crupade Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

LXVI

Nr. 30 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH TACK The harness for a horse, including the bridle and saddle. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/tack Noun, countable, tacks Gear, harness

ROMN Termen HARNAAMENT Definiie Totalitatea obiectelor necesare la nhmarea, neuarea i conducerea calului. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/harnasament Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, neutru, harnasamente Sinonime elmnt, srsam, tacm Antonime Colocaii

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Nr. 31 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH TACK The harness for a horse, including the bridle and saddle. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/tack Noun, countable, tacks Gear, harness

ROMN Termen HARNAAMENT Definiie Totalitatea obiectelor necesare la nhmarea, neuarea i conducerea calului. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/harnasament Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, neutru, harnasamente Sinonime elmnt, srsam, tacm Antonime Colocaii

Nr. 33 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH LUNGE A sudden forward movement or plunge. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/lunge Noun, countable, lunges

ROMN Termen SALT Definiie Micare brusc prin care corpul se desprinde de la pmnt, srind pe loc sau deplasndu-se; micare de deplasare brusc n zbor. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/salt Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, neutru, salturi Sinonime Sritur Antonime Colocaii A slta inima de bucurie

LXVIII

Nr. 34 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH PONY Any of various breeds of small gentle horses usually less than five feet high at the shoulder http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pony Noun, countable, ponies Galloway Stallion

ROMN Termen PONEI Definiie Ras de cai caracterizat printr-o greutate mic a corpului i o talie redus, originar din regiunile cu climat rece i cu vegetaie srac ale Angliei i ale Peninsulei Scandinave; Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/ponei Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, masculin, ponei Sinonime Antonime Armsar Colocaii

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Nr. 35 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH STALLION An adult male horse that has not been castrated, especially one kept for breeding. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/stallion Noun, countable, stallions Steed, stud

ROMN Termen ARMSAR Definiie Cal mascul necastrat; Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/armasar Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, masculin, armsari Sinonime Armig Antonime Colocaii A face din nar armsar

Nr. 36 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH PIAFFE High-level classical dressage movement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaffe Noun, uncountable

ROMN Termen PIAFE Definiie Figur de dresaj constnd din trap ngrmdit pe loc, calul tropind cu picioarele din fa. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/piafe Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, masculin, piafeuri Sinonime Antonime Colocaii LXX

Nr. 37 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH FLAT RACING The racing of horses on racecourses without jumps http://www.thefreedictionary.com/flat+racing Noun, countable, racings Adjective, flat

Termen Definiie Sursa definiiei Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, curse Substantiv, neutru, obstacole Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

ROMN CURS FR OBSTACOLE

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Nr. 38 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH SHOWJUMPING (Individual Sports & Recreations / Horse Training, Riding & Mange) the riding of horses in competitions to demonstrate skill in jumping over or between various obstacles http://www.thefreedictionary.com/showjumping Noun, countable, showjumpings Steeplechase

Termen Definiie Sursa definiiei Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, srituri Substantiv, neutru, obstacole Substantiv, neutru, concursuri Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

ROMN CONCURS SRITURI PESTE OBSTACOLE

LXXII

Nr. 40 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH PLATER A mediocre horse entered chiefly for minor races http://www.thefreedictionary.com/plater Noun, countable, platers

Termen Definiie Sursa definiiei http://hallo.ro/search.do?l=ro&d=en&query=plater Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, performan Substantiv, masculin, cal Adjectiv, variabil, slab, slab, slabi, slabe Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

ROMN CAL DE CURSE DE SLAB PERFORMAN

LXXIII

Nr. 41 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations Termen Definiie

ENGLISH BLINDS Blind consisting of a leather eyepatch sewn to the side of the halter that prevents a horse from seeing something on either side http://www.thefreedictionary.com/blind Noun, countable, blinds Winkers, blinders

ROMN OCHELARI DE CAL Buci de piele puse pe exteriorul ochilor cailor, pentru a i mpiedica s vad n pri. (traducere proprie)

Sursa definiiei Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, defectiv de singular, ochelari Substantiv, masculin, cal Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

A avea ochelari de cal

LXXIV

Nr. 42 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations Termen Definiie

ENGLISH BLINDS Blind consisting of a leather eyepatch sewn to the side of the halter that prevents a horse from seeing something on either side http://www.thefreedictionary.com/blind Noun, countable, blinds Winkers, blinders

ROMN OCHELARI DE CAL Buci de piele puse pe exteriorul ochilor cailor, pentru a i mpiedica s vad n pri. (traducere proprie)

Sursa definiiei Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, defectiv de singular, ochelari Substantiv, masculin, cal Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

A avea ochelari de cal

LXXV

Nr. 43 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH TO MOUNT To set on a horse http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mount Verb, tranz. To back, to straddle To dismount

ROMN Termen A NCLECA Definiie A (se) sui pe cal Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/ncleca Informaii gramaticale Verb, tranzitiv, intranzitiv Sinonime Antonime Colocaii A se sui A descleca A ncleca pe nevoie

Nr. 44 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH STUD Etablishment for breeding horses http://www.thefreedictionary.com/stud Noun, countable, studs Herd, stud farm

ROMN Termen HERGHELIE Definiie Cresctorie de cai, alctuit din animale de reproducie i din exemplare de diferite vrste, care cresc sau pasc laolalt Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/herghelie Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, herghelii Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Stav, arghel

LXXVI

Nr. 45 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH RIDING MASTER Someone who teaches horsemanship http://www.thefreedictionary.com/riding+master Noun, uncountable, riding Noun, countable, masters Instructor

ROMN Termen INSTRUCTOR DE CLRIE Definiie Persoan care te introduce n tainele clriei Sursa definiiei Traducere proprie Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, clrii Substantiv, masculin, instructor Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Profesor

LXXVII

Nr. 46 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH REDINGOTE A man's or woman's full-skirted outer coat of the 18th and 19th centuries http://www.thefreedictionary.com/redingote Noun, countable, redingotes

ROMN Termen REDINGOT Definiie Hain brbteasc de ceremonie (de culoare neagr), cu poalele lungi pn la genunchi, ncheiat cu dou rnduri de nasturi. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/redingot Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, redingote Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Gheroc

LXXVIII

Nr. 47 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH ENDURANCE The power to withstand hardship or stress; "the marathon tests a runner's endurance http://www.thefreedictionary.com/endurance Noun, uncountable Strenght

ROMN Termen ANDURAN Definiie Capacitatea de a rezista la eforturi fizice; Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/anduranta Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, andurane Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Rbdare, putere, rezisten

LXXIX

Nr. 48 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH VAULTING Alight leap by a horse in which both hind legs leave the ground before the forelegs come down http://www.thefreedictionary.com/vaulting Noun, uncountable

ROMN Termen VOLTIJ Definiie Serie de exerciii de suplee din nclecarea din fug a calului, fr ajutorul scrilor. Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/voltija Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, voltije Sinonime Antonime Colocaii

LXXX

Nr. 49 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH CURRYCOMB A square comb consisting of rows of small teeth, used for grooming horses http://www.thefreedictionary.com/currycomb Noun, countable, currycombs Comb

ROMN Termen ESAL Definiie Unealt de metal dinat, cu care se cur pielea i prul vitelor, ndeosebi al cailor Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/tesala Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, feminin, esale Sinonime Antonime Colocaii Pieptene

LXXXI

Nr. 50 Term Definition Source of definition Grammatical information Synonyms Antonyms Collocations

ENGLISH SPUR A short spike or spiked wheel that attaches to the heel of a rider's boot and is used to urge a horse forward http://www.thefreedictionary.com/spur Noun, countable, spurs Spine

ROMN Termen PINTEN Definiie Obiect de metal n form de potcoav, prevzut cu o roti dinat, cu un vrf etc., pe care clreii l prind la clciul cizmelor i care le servete pentru a mboldi calul la mers Sursa definiiei http://dexonline.ro/definitie/pinten Informaii gramaticale Substantiv, masculin, pinteni Sinonime Antonime Colocaii por

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:
http://mysite.verizon.net/mmaidens/prehistory.html http://mysite.verizon.net/mmaidens/essay.htm http://www.horsemanmagazine.com/2008/08/riding-bareback-tobecome-a-better-horseman/ http://www.horsemanship.org/ http://www.horsemanship.org/Riding-Horses-Bareback.html http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=revista&v1=2&v2=enciclopedie&v3=ghidul_practic_a l_calaretului_in_exterior&v4=68 http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=revista&v1=3&v2=enciclopedie&v3=ghidul_practic_a l_calaretului_in_exterior&v4=104 http://www.luxesports.ro/index.php/stire/139/Istoria-echitatiei.html http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=articole&v1=discipline&v2=dresajul&v3=99 http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=articole&v1=discipline&v2=anduranta&v3=183 http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=articole&v1=discipline&v2=galopul&v3=20 http://www.calulmagazin.com/index.php? limba=ro&pagina=articole&v1=cunoastere&v2=firea_calului&v3=317 http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cap http://www.thefreedictionary.com/chaps http://www.thefreedictionary.com/gloves http://dexonline.ro/definitie/manusi http://www.thefreedictionary.com/trousers http://dexonline.ro/definitie/pantaloni http://www.thefreedictionary.com/boots http://dexonline.ro/definitie/ghete http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rein http://dexonline.ro/definitie/haturi http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bridle http://dexonline.ro/definitie/capastru http://www.thefreedictionary.com/stirrups http://www.decathlon.ro/RO/scarite-reflex-173460758/ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/saddle http://dexonline.ro/definitie/sa http://www.thefreedictionary.com/saddle+blanket http://www.thefreedictionary.com/trot http://www.thefreedictionary.com/girth http://dexonline.ro/definitie/chinga http://dexonline.ro/definitie/martingala http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bit

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http://dexonline.ro/definitie/zabala http://www.thefreedictionary.com/paddock http://dexonline.ro/definitie/padoc http://www.thefreedictionary.com/stall http://dexonline.ro/definitie/boxa http://www.thefreedictionary.com/colt http://dexonline.ro/definitie/manz http://www.thefreedictionary.com/dressage http://dexonline.ro/definitie/dresaj http://www.thefreedictionary.com/farrier http://dexonline.ro/definitie/potcovar http://www.thefreedictionary.com/purebred http://dexonline.ro/definitie/pursnge http://www.thefreedictionary.com/race http://dexonline.ro/definitie/cursa http://www.thefreedictionary.com/horsewhip http://dexonline.ro/definitie/cravasa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dressage http://dexonline.ro/definitie/levada http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dressage http://dexonline.ro/definitie/capriola http://www.thefreedictionary.com/tack http://dexonline.ro/definitie/harnasament http://www.thefreedictionary.com/lunge http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pony http://dexonline.ro/definitie/ponei http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaffe http://dexonline.ro/definitie/piafe http://www.thefreedictionary.com/flat+racing http://www.thefreedictionary.com/showjumping http://www.thefreedictionary.com/plater http://hallo.ro/search.do?l=ro&d=en&query=plater http://www.thefreedictionary.com/blind http://www.thefreedictionary.com/blind http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mount http://dexonline.ro/definitie/ncleca http://www.thefreedictionary.com/stud http://dexonline.ro/definitie/herghelie http://www.thefreedictionary.com/riding+master http://www.thefreedictionary.com/redingote http://dexonline.ro/definitie/redingot http://www.thefreedictionary.com/endurance http://www.thefreedictionary.com/vaulting http://dexonline.ro/definitie/voltija http://www.thefreedictionary.com/currycomb http://www.thefreedictionary.com/spur

LXXXIV

http://dexonline.ro/definitie/pinten

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