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WWI Aim: Causes of WWI? I. The First WWI A.

1914-1918, it was the most consequential war of the 20th century i. Soldiers were drawn from 30+ countries ii. Everyone is involved in the war except south America and Japan B. It was a conflict between the Allied Powers[France, GB, Russia, US] and the Central Powers[Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire] C. 10 million dead, 20 million severely injuries,

D. The WWI started because of the killing of Franz Ferdinand the Archduke of Austria-Hungary. Killed by a 19 year old male from the terrorist group Black Hand. (Siberian Independence: war against Siberia). Sets a chain reaction of declarations of war. E. M[ilitarism]: belief that you need a large army to secure nationalism. This started the arms race (germany vs. GB); A[lliancies] numerous binding of military alliances; I[mperialism] the era of the new imperialism ends with WWI during this era there is an increase in hostility and minor conflict; N[ationalism] is a created climate conducive towards nationalism. Aim: Bloodiness of the World War I I. Hemoclysm a. Most of the world thought the war would last 4 months -2years, but it wasnt quick and very bloody. 4 years of combat and 30 million casualties b. Weapons really affected the war. Machine gun emerges as a dominant defensive weapon, and a lot of artillery weapons like poison gas are considered offensive weaponry. c. Trench warfare: there are the western front and the eastern front that extend from the alps to the north sea. Most of the fighting occurred in the western front. The eastern front had more mobile networks. d. Significant military weapons were used to actually claim lands at the fronts i. Tanks: Armored machine gun platform that could provide cover for people across the no mans land ii. Poison gun e. The submarines + torpedoes are essential to the WWI Aim: World War I known as a Total War I. Changes in Warfare

a. Both sides faced heavy losses and had little progress. US entry into the war (Lusitania Sunk, Zimmerman, Loan from allies), the Russian Revolutions and withdrawal from the war in Oct., In 1918 the eastern front closed meaning that all of the German forces could fight on only the Western Front, not splitting their supply no more. b. The difference from WWI and prior wars are that there where major philosophical/intellectual changes (no more happy ending thoughts), the number of states involved and casualties, the ethnic/racial diversity of the forces, Equal combat since they were all industrialized, trench warfare and other new weapons, and the Genocide in the Ottoman Empire. c. Total warfare was when civilians had to directly participate in the war effort, before it were only the soldiers. Now there are rations and the need for personal gardens, war bonds that were issued, Propagandas, and huge lose in civil liberty. Women although had a good effect on womens, they worked men Jobs and women suffrage. Aim: Conclusion of WWI I. WWI aftermath a. The Allied Power won because the central power were outnumber (British was able to draft 1 million people from India), the central power had to fight two fronts of the war, the failure of the Schrieffer plan to end the war quickly, Key battles were won by the allies in the west (Battle of Marne 1&2), and USs entry in the war b. The Paris Peace Conference was to negotiate peace deals with the central powers (US pushed for Wilsons 14 points, Russia didnt participate). Austria Hungary is slit up creating new nations to arise, the Ottoman Empire is broken up and new nations arise under the hold of Britain and France. Germany had to sign the treaty of Versailles which included massive reparation, severe military restrictions, War guilt Claus, Stripped of their colonies/ loss of territory in Europe, and trophy provisions. c. The Washington Conference was where they tried to prevent another world war. They outlawed weapons like poison gas, naval arms limitation, and respect for each other territories (no spears of influence). d. Major economic consequences included the creditor nation of US and the Roaring 20s, massive debts in Europe (German reparations) e. Major Political consequences were revolutions in Russia, Germany, Italy; nationalist/independence movements (India & Egypt); Territorial changes (new nations); decrease in state power; limitation in warfare f. Major social consequences: Women suffrage, modern ethics gone, change in art

g. Seeds of Axis power are planted for WWII, German is mad at the Treaty, and Japanese and Italy are displeased as well.