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DEVELOPMENT OF A PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATION METHOD FOR WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

By

JWALA RAJ SHARMA

Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Arlington in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON MAY 2010

Copyright © 2010 by Jwala Raj Sharma All Rights Reserved

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my appreciation for Dr. Mohammad Najafi, Ph.D., P.E., Director of Center for Underground Research and Education (CUIRE) and Assistant Professor, The University of Texas at Arlington, for his continuous and invaluable guidance, support, and encouragement during my graduate studies, and research works. It has been a pleasure working under him in various research projects including this thesis. I wish to thank Dr. Syed R. Qasim, Professor Emeritus, for his special guidance during the research project which this thesis report is based on. I wish to acknowledge the members of my graduate committee, Dr. Melanie L. Sattler, P.E., and Dr. Hyeok Choi for serving on my committee and their review and suggestions for improvement of the thesis report. A special thanks to my father Murali Prasad Sharma, and mother Geeta Sharma, to whom this thesis report is dedicated. Lastly, I wish to thank my wife, Srishti Pathak, for her love, support, and patience throughout my graduate work. March 25, 2010

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ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF A PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATION METHOD FOR WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

Jwala Raj Sharma, M.S. The University of Texas at Arlington, 2010

Supervising Professor: Dr. Mohammad Najafi Reliable cost estimates for construction, and operation and maintenance (O&M) of water treatment plants are essential for their project planning and design. During the planning phases of the project, preliminary cost estimates are developed for major project components, and for screening of alternatives. Construction and O&M cost curves are widely used for developing preliminary cost estimates. This method is time consuming and there is possibility of human errors. Therefore, for this thesis, construction, and O&M cost equations were developed considering historical cost data for different unit operations and processes involved in a water treatment plant. These equations were developed from historical cost data and can be used to develop preliminary cost estimate for different alternative process trains of a water treatment project. The historical cost data were updated to September 2009 costs by using Engineering News Record (ENR) and Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) cost indexes, and September 2009 prices of energy and labor. Use of single cost index to further update construction and O&M costs provides a simple and straight forward method for future cost updating using ENR construction and building cost indexes.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................................................................iii ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................................. iv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ..........................................................................................................................vii LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................................................... ix Chapter Page

1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Background ......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Need Statement .................................................................................................................................. 2 1.3 Objectives ........................................................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Methodology ....................................................................................................................................... 3 1.5 Thesis Organization ............................................................................................................................ 3 1.6 Expected Outcome ............................................................................................................................. 4 1.7 Chapter Summary............................................................................................................................... 4 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................................................. 5 2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 5 2.2 Water Treatment Plants and Their Processes.................................................................................... 5 2.2.1 Water Quality ............................................................................................................................... 5 2.2.2 Water Treatment System ............................................................................................................ 6 2.2.3 Unit Operations and Processes................................................................................................... 7 2.3 Water Treatment Plant Cost Data .................................................................................................... 23 2.4 Equation Generation ......................................................................................................................... 23 2.5 Cost Update ...................................................................................................................................... 24 2.5.1 The Engineering News Record (ENR) Indexes ......................................................................... 25 2.5.2 Indexes Applicable for Update of Cost ...................................................................................... 26 2.5.3 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Indexes ................................................................................. 26 2.6 Present worth and annual equivalent worth calculation ................................................................... 27 2.7 Chapter Summary............................................................................................................................. 28 3 METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................... 29 3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 29 3.2 Comparison of Cost Update Methods .............................................................................................. 29 v

3.2.1 Single Index ............................................................................................................................... 29 3.2.2 Multiple Indexes ........................................................................................................................ 29 3.2.3 Controlled Single Index ............................................................................................................. 29 3.3 Update of Construction and O&M Cost Data.................................................................................... 30 3.4 Development of Cost Equations ....................................................................................................... 31 3.5 Use of Microsoft Excel™ for Regression Analysis ........................................................................... 31 3.6 Excel™ Template to Prepare Preliminary Cost Estimate of Water Treatment Plant ....................... 32 3.7 Chapter Summary............................................................................................................................. 33 4 RESEARCH RESULTS............................................................................................................................ 34 4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 34 4.2 Comparison of Cost Update Methods .............................................................................................. 34 4.3 Generalized Construction Cost Equations ........................................................................................ 34 4.3.1 Generalized Operation and Maintenance Cost Equations ........................................................ 37 4.4 Illustration.......................................................................................................................................... 59 4.5 Excel™ Template for Preliminary Cost Estimate of 1 mgd to 200 mgd Water Treatment Plants .... 61 4.5.1 Project Details ........................................................................................................................... 61 4.5.2 Unit Operation and Processes .................................................................................................. 62 4.5.3 Summary of Capital Costs ......................................................................................................... 62 4.5.4 Summary of O&M Costs............................................................................................................ 62 4.5.5 Present & Annual Value ............................................................................................................ 62 4.6 Chapter Summary............................................................................................................................. 63 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................ 64 5.1 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................................... 64 5.2 Recommendations for Future Research ........................................................................................... 64 APPENDIX A. COST AND LOCATION INDEXES FOR THE UNITED STATES .......................................................... 66 B. CONTROLLED SINGLE INDEX UPDATES AT INTERVAL OF 8 AND 10 YEARS .............................. 76 C. COST BASIS FOR WATER TREATMENT UNIT OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES .......................... 82 D. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................... 95 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................ 98 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ............................................................................................................. 101

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............ 31 3..... 10 yr Interval ........ Updated Using Single Index.........1 Construction Costs of 3600 ft Rectangular Clarifier...... 80 B. Multiple Indexes... and Controlled Single Index......1 Flow Chart for Forward Method ....3 Construction Costs of 540 lb/hr Capacity Liquid Alum Feed System............ Updated Using Single Index........... and Controlled Single Index....8 Construction Costs of 540 lb/hr Capacity Liquid Alum Feed System......................2 Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Liquid Alum Feed System ...3 Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Rectangular Clarifier ......... 78 B.............................2 Construction Costs of 50 mgd Gravity Filtration Structure.. 10 yr Interval ................. Updated Using Single Index. Multiple Indexes. Updated Using Single Index.......... and Operation and Maintenance Costs .....7 Construction Costs of 50 mgd Gravity Filtration Structure..5 Construction Costs of 1400 ft2 Filter Area Capacity Air-Water Backwash.... 8 yr Interval ...................... Updated Using Single Index......5 Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Gravity Filtration Structures .......................... 81 2 vii .......... 79 B................................ 8 yr Interval .................4 Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Gravity Filtration Structures ............................6 Construction Costs of 3600 ft2 Rectangular Clarifier. 36 4............. 35 4.................... Updated Using Single Index............... 8 yr Interval . Multiple Indexes and Controlled Single Index......... 77 B........................1 Alternative Unit Operations and Processes for Different Stages of Residual Management ......... 2 2............................ 10 yr Interval ........... and Controlled Single Index...... 79 B...... 8 yr Interval ............4 Construction Costs of 2000 lb/day Chlorine Storage and Feed System.................... 80 B.... 36 4................ Updated Using Single Index....................... 8 yr Interval .... 37 B........... Multiple Indexes. Multiple Indexes.................... Multiple Indexes..... 78 B...... 10 yr Interval ..... and Controlled Single Index. Multiple Indexes..... 35 4.........1 Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Chlorine Storage and Feed System . and Controlled Single Index.............. Multiple Indexes and Controlled Single Index...........LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1..............9 Construction Costs of 2000 lb/day Chlorine Storage and Feed System...............2 Sample Equation Generation Chart from Excel™ ............1 Components of Capital............... Updated Using Single Index................... 77 B................ Updated Using Single Index......................... and Controlled Single Index............. Multiple Indexes.... and Controlled Single Index....... 21 3.. 32 4.....

.... 81 viii ...10 Construction Costs of 1400 ft2 Filter Area Capacity Air-Water Backwash....................... Multiple Indexes. Updated Using Single Index..B.............. and Controlled Single Index ...........

..................... 67 C...................................................1 Summary of Various Unit Operations and Processes ........................................................................3 Generalized O&M Cost Equations Applicable to 1 mgd to 200 mgd Water Treatment Plants .................................................................. Modified October 1978 and September 2009 Index Values ..500 gpd to 1 mgd Water Treatment Plants ..........5 Features of Membrane Processes and Ion Exchange ............................ 14 2....................2 Generalized Construction Cost Equations Applicable for 2.................................................6 General Advantages and Disadvantages of Water Treatment Oxidants ......... 17 2.................................................................................................................................................................... 16 2...................... 22 2.......1 Cost and Location Indexes for the United States................ 12 2............... 19 2........................................................................2 Selection Guide for Some Basic Types of Clarifiers ......9 October 1978.............................8 Cost Components and Applicable Index for Construction and Operation & Maintenance Costs of Water Treatment Plants ................................................ 47 4.............................................. 38 4........................................................................................................... 50 4................................................................... 6 2..................500 gpd to 1 mgd Water Treatment Plants .............................LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2.. 56 A......................................1 Generalized Construction Cost Equations Applicable for 1 to 200 mgd Water Treatment Plants ...............................................1 Cost Basis for Water Treatment Unit Operations and Processes ..........7 Descriptions and Applications of Different Stages of Residual Management and Their Alternatives .........4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Backwash System .............4 Generalized O&M Cost Equations Applicable for 2............................................. 27 4.. 26 2................ 83 ix ................3 Types of Filter Medium and Applications ......................

Cost estimating is defined as the process of prediction of the cost of performing the work within the scope of the project (Holm et al. Such cost estimates are feasible only after the project design is nearing the final steps and the engineering plans and specifications are fully developed.1. The collective arrangement of treatment processes are called process diagram..CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a brief introduction to cost estimation for construction. Many guidelines have been developed that may assist planners and engineers for evaluation and selection of cost-effective process diagram. However. The construction and O&M costs of any water treatment project are best developed using detailed engineering cost estimates. The accuracy of the estimate depends upon how well the variables and uncertainties within the scope of the project are defined and understood.1 Background Capital and O&M costs of water treatment plants are essential for planning and design of the treatment facilities. 2005). The cost components are based on actual quantities of material and manufacturers’ data on the equipment. during the early planning phases of the project 1 . Many process trains can be assembled from different processes to achieve a desired level of treatment. 1. However. these costs are essential for evaluation and comparison of cost and benefits of different alternatives to select the most feasible alternative. the most preferred process train is the one that is most cost effective. process train or flow schematic. These costs are used to evaluate the financial and economic benefits of the project. Additionally. Water treatment plants utilize many treatment units to achieve a desired degree of treatment. Various components of the capital and O&M costs are shown in Figure 1. and operation and maintenance (O&M) of water treatment plants and their importance in evaluation of project feasibility.

2 Need Statement Developing preliminary cost data from cost curves is time consuming and is subject to human error in reading the graphical coordinates. Later. Also. 1.when alternative selection and project design are in conceptual stages. these equations can easily be integrated in a computer program to develop design and cost estimates of the treatment units. Most challenging task however is updating historical costs into current dollar. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Qasim et al. (1992) developed mathematical equations from the cost curves that simplified the preliminary cost estimating of capital and O&M costs of treatment units.S. Cost equations are more convenient and accurate.S. alternative but less reliable preliminary cost estimates of treatment units were made from many published cost curves.1: Components of Capital. mechanical and instrumentation Site improvement and project closure Figure 1. These curves have been traditionally developed by U. and Operation and Maintenance Costs Historically. Capital Costs O&M Costs Site preparation and earthwork Structure Pipelines Energy Parts and Materials Labor Equipment and installation Electrical. The historical capital and O&M cost estimates utilize combination of indexes provided by Engineering News Record (ENR) and Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) for different cost components of the treatment 2 . preliminary cost estimates constitute valuable data source for decision making. Bureau of Reclamation developed computer programs that integrate the cost equations and provide preliminary cost estimates. U. public utilities and consulting engineers.

To utilize only ENR indexes for cost updating will offer simplicity and effectiveness in capital cost updating to current dollars. 1. Chapter 2 consists of literature review of process description.4 Methodology A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify and review the available material. It offers a great deal of flexibility and accuracy to develop generalized capital and O&M cost equations. (ii) theory and design of water treatment processes. updating costs using the BLS index is more complicated than using ENR indexes. Over the past forty years BLS has changed bases for cost indexing several times. An Excel™ template was created for preliminary construction. The subjects searched include (i) construction and O&M costs of water treatment processes. and websites. Microsoft Excel™ is a popular and widely used computer spreadsheet program. and cost updating indexes. 1. There is a need to develop a simplified and widely used method to develop and update the capital and O&M costs. The construction and O&M cost equations developed for water treatment processes are truly the results of this study. books. (iii) procedures to develop construction and O&M cost equations.3 Objectives The objectives of this research are (i) to utilize ENR and BLS indexes to update historical costs to current costs. As a result.5 Thesis Organization Chapter 1 presents introduction to the cost estimation of water treatment plants and introduces objectives and methodologies of the thesis. ENR indexes have been traditionally used for cost updating for most infrastructures. and O&M cost estimates of water treatment plants. journal articles. and O&M cost equations from data obtained through comprehensive literature search. The sources searched include government documents and published reports. theses and dissertations. and (ii) to accord utilization of the most widely used ENR engineering indexes to further update the costs. They are 3 . and (iv) applicable methods and cost indexes to update the historical costs in current dollars. Likewise. information on developing cost equations. Microsoft Excel™ was utilized to develop construction. 1. (ii) to use a common software tool such as utilize Microsoft Excel™ to develop construction and O&M cost equations for water treatment processes.processes. Chapter 3 contains the methodology for developing cost equations. existing cost data of water treatment plants.

Development of reliable data and estimation technique is necessary. A product of this research will also be a computer program which will have capability to generate and estimate the cost of alternative process trains and select the most cost effective system. Additionally. The research methodology will consist of comprehensive literature search and use of computer software for development of cost estimation method. 1. chapter 5 contains the discussion. The objectives of this thesis are to address these needs. 4 . these cost equation can be integrated within the computer program to select and design a most cost effective treatment plant. These equations and cost indexes will provide a resource for treatment plant designers and planners to compare the preliminary costs of process trains and select the most cost-effective system. 1. The case study data are also provided in this chapter. conclusions and recommendations.presented separately in Chapter 4.6 Expected Outcome The expected outcome of this research is availability of cost equations of water treatment processes and indexes for updating capital and operating costs. Finally.7 Chapter Summary Preliminary construction and O&M cost estimates for water treatment plants are important for evaluation of project feasibility and arrangement of project funding.

iron.1 Introduction This chapter consists of the review of findings of a comprehensive literature search that was conducted as a part of this research.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. carbonate-bicarbonate. Procedures to develop cost equations and applicable indexes will be reviewed in this chapter. conductivity.2. (iii) procedures to develop construction and O&M cost equations. and (iv) applicable methods and cost indexes to update the historical costs in current dollars. especially minerals like calcium. There may also be other minor inorganic ions present in water depending upon the source path of the water. potassium. Alkalinity. Thus. But. methoxyl and quinoid. total dissolved solids..1 Water Quality Water in its pure state is a colorless. sulfate.2 Water Treatment Plants and Their Processes 2. Organic contaminants present in natural water may be natural organic matter or synthetic inorganic compounds. manganese. turbidity. it is able to dissolve most minerals and can carry other inorganic and inorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in suspended and/or dissolved form. Humification of these substances produces a variety of chemical groups like hydroxyl. Principal inorganic ions found in most natural water are calcium. iron. phosphate and fluoride. hardness. sodium adsorption ratio and stability of water are indicators for quality and quantity of inorganic impurities in water. magnesium. water in its natural form mostly contains impurities. magnesium. 2. odorless and tasteless liquid. nitrate. sodium. Natural organic matters are mainly proteins. Right doses of most of these inorganic ions. sodium. etc. carboxyl. potassium. Principal synthetic organic compounds that may be found in 5 . particle count. are essential for human life while other inorganic ions and overdoses of essential inorganic ions may be toxic to humans. chloride. carbohydrates and lipids originated from plant and animal residues. dissolved oxygen. (ii) theory and design of water treatment processes. The subjects searched include (i) construction and O&M costs of water treatment processes.

algae. Aeration systems include gravity aerator. Aeration (UP) Mixing (UO) Pre-oxidation (UP) Coagulation (UP) Flocculation (UO) Sedimentation (UO) Filtration (UO) 6 . diffuser and mechanical aerator. mixed or multilayered. BOD5. Principal unit operations and processes are listed in Table 2.2 Water Treatment System Water treatment system consists of a number of unit operations and/or unit processes arranged in a sequence called flow schematic or process train.1: Summary of Various Unit Operations and Processes Unit Operation and Process Trash rack (UO) Coarse screen or fish screen (UO) Microstrainer (UO) Description and Principal Applications Removes floating debris and ice at intake Mechanically cleaned screens at the intake gate or in sump well ahead of pumps. TOC. However.2. TOD. ThOD. Unit operations are referred to physical processes while unit processes are referred to processes with chemical and biological reactions. fungi. cleaning solvents.natural water are surfactants. Disease carrying microorganisms like bacteria.1 with their description and applications. viruses. Provides uniform and rapid distribution of chemicals and gases into water. Used after coagulation and flocculation and chemical precipitation. Addition and rapid mixing of coagulant resulting in destabilization of the colloidal particle and formation of pin-head floc. Removal of particulate matter by percolation through granular media which may be single (sand. 2. etc. protozoa and parasitic worms may be present in raw water. pesticides and herbicides.). Aeration in the reservoir helps destratification and T&O control. Table 2. polychlorinated biphenyls and disinfection by-products. Protects fish and removes small solids and frazil ice Removes algae and plankton from raw water. anthracite. Strips and oxidizes taste and odor (T&O) causing volatile organics and gases and oxidizes iron and manganese. ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence are indicators of quality and quantity of organic compounds present in water. odor and color causing compounds. color. potassium permanganate and chlorine compounds in raw water and in other treatment units. many processes are combination of both physical processes and chemical and biological reactions. COD. Raw water streamed through a string of operations and/or processes in order attain desired quality of water. spray aerator. Retards microbiological growth and oxidizes taste. Application of oxidizing agents such as ozone. Aggregation of destabilized turbidity and color causing particles to form a rapid-settling floc. Gravity separation of suspended solids or floc produced in treatment processes.

distillation and/or Demineralization (UP) freezing. membrane process. Removes species like fluoride. Bubbling of carbon dioxide. iron and manganese and many heavy metals..continued Description and Principal Applications Addition of chemicals in water to transform dissolved compounds into Chemical precipitation (UP) insoluble matters. 2.1 Aeration After removal of some solid particles at intake by physical operations like screens and strainers. iodine. phosphate. Achieved by ultraviolet radiation and by oxidative chemicals such as Disinfection (UP) chlorine (most common). Converts supersaturated forms of Ca and Mg into more soluble forms. Reduces T&O and Trihalomethane (THM) formation. Beds containing cation and anion exchange resins. Note: UO = Unit operation. Principal unit processes and their cost bases are described below. Removes dissolved salts. Removes T&O (UP) causing compounds. pp. Provision of organic source such as ethanol or sugar to act as Biological Denitrification (UP) hydrogen donor (oxygen acceptor) and carbon source for anaerobic reduction of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen. Lowers pH. Removes Ion exchange (UP) hardness. Uses electrical potential to remove cations and anions through ionElectro-dialysis (UO) selective membranes. Achieved by ion exchange.2.Table 2. Aeration is process of bringing water in contact Unit Operation and Process 7 . De-mineralizes water. Converts free chlorine residual to chloramines. ultrafiltration (UO) Removes dissolved solids like nitrate and arsenic. Used as powdered activated carbon (PAC) at the intake or as Activated carbon adsorption granular activated carbon (GAC) bed after filtration. nitrate and ammonia by selective resins. Kills disease-causing organisms. bromine. sodium silicofluoride and/or Fluoridation (UP) hydrofluosilicic acid in finished water. Optimizes fluoride level for control of tooth decay. aeration is the first process in a water treatment facility. Restores chemical balance of water after Recarbonation (UP) lime-soda process. De-mineralizes water. Chloramines are less Ammoniation (UP) reactive and thus have fewer tendencies to combine with organic compounds. Addition of sodium fluoride. UP = unit process. 2000. Removes hardness. potassium permanganate and ozone. Chemical precipitation process to remove hardness of water by Lime-soda ash (UP) precipitating excess amounts of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg).3.2. Consists of multiple-effect evaporation and condensation and Distillation (UO) distillation with vapor compression. 35-37) 2.1 . Consists of freezing of saline water and melting of ice (consisting of Freeze (UO) pure water) so obtained. Source: (Qasim et al. chlorinated compounds and many metals. arsenic and selenium from Activated alumina (UP) water by hydrolytic adsorption.3 Unit Operations and Processes Unit operations consist of physical processes used in treatment of water. Reverse osmosis (RO) and Passage of high-quality water through semi-permeable membranes.

Mechanical surface aerators can be used to aerate water in existing basins.. 1990).............1) where.. ASCE and AWWA. As a result of above mentioned oxidations.with air or other gases in order to expedite the transfer gas and/or volatile substances in and from water (Cornwell.. 2000... mg/L C0 = initial concentration...... 1990). methane and various volatile organic and aromatic compounds is achieved by aeration. Aeration reduces concentration of taste and odor producing substances like hydrogen sulfide and various organic compounds by oxidation. dC/dt = rate of change in concentration (mg/L. (Cornwell............. However...... Addition of oxygen and removal of hydrogen sulfide.. 2000).... the cost of subsequent treatment processes are reduced... (Qasim et al... 8 .... l/s Cs = concentration at time t......... Equilibrium is a condition when net transfer of gas to and from water is zero. (ii) spray aerators.. coefficient of gas diffusion....... mg/L Four commonly used aerators are (i) gravity aerators.. Spray aerators have been used for many year in water treatment field with primary application of addition of oxygen to water in order to oxidize iron and manganese and to remove carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from water.s) KLa = overall mass-transfer coefficient. 2000) are more more efficient in removing less volatile compounds like trihalomethanes (THM).. air pollution due to VOC removed from water is a concern. Packed towers (classified as a type of gravity tower by Qasim et al. Diffused aerators usually has a much higher power cost for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) removal and hence are considered when the process can take place in existing tanks. area through which gas is diffused...... The rate of gas transfer across a liquid-gas interface (expressed commonly by Equation 1) depends upon temperature. It also oxidizes iron and magnesium to render them insoluble.... volume of liquid in contact. dC/dt = KLa(Cs – C0) .... Time to reach equilibrium may be instantaneous or very long.. etc.. 1990).. The transfer of gas to and from water occurs in order to reach equilibrium when the concentration of the gas dissolved reaches the saturation value (Cs)... (2.... (iii) diffusers and (iv) mechanical aerators (Qasim et al.......

starches large polymers and some humic substances are stable indefinitely. 1990.2 Coagulation and Flocculation Water treatment processes require techniques.2.. chemistry. according to Amirtharajah & O'Melia. water quality and microbiology (Qasim et al. The principal forces occurring between particles are electrostatic forces. 1990 described coagulation and flocculation as a chemical/physical process of blending or mixing a coagulating chemical into a stream and then gently stirring the blended mixture in order to improve the particle and colloid reduction efficiency of subsequent settling and/or filtration process. suspended particles with lower size spectrum do not readily settle and require physical and chemical conditioning. Similary. chemical particle destabilization and physical interparticle contacts. 2000). Flocculation is the physical process of producing contacts.. Colloids that are not stable indifinitely are termed as irreversible and can be coagulated. according to Qasim et al.2. Coagulation is chemical conditioning of colloids by addition of chemicals that modify the physical properties of colloids. proteins. mechanisms and results in the overall process of particle aggregation within water being treated. Stable colloids are colloids which do not readily settle. understanding and input from a wide range of disciplines including engineering. These include in situ coagulant formation. The particles with similar charge repel each other while the ones with opposite charges attract each other. Coagulation and flocculation have different meanings to different people and no unique correct and universal definitions for these terms exist (Amirtharajah & O'Melia. 1990. 1990). Colloids like ordered structures from soap and detergent molecules (micelles). 1990). Whereas. coagulation encompasses all reactions. Most of the colloids present in water are electrically charged. The terms stable and unstable for irreversible colloids have kinetic meaning.. ASCE and AWWA. Flocculation is physical conditioning of colloids by gently mixing the suspension to accelerate interparticle contact and thus promoting agglomeration of colloidal particles into larger floc. van der Waals forces and hydrodynamic forces or Brownian motion (Amirtharajah & O'Melia. 2000).3. 2000. Coagulation is used to increase the rate or kinetics at which particles aggregate. Qasim et al. These forces of attraction and repulsion are electrostatic forces. These colloids are energetically or thermodynamically instable are are termed as reversible colloids (Amirtharajah & O'Melia. The force of attraction between any two mass that depend on mass of the bodies and 9 .

interparticle bridging.2. etc.. 2000. 2. Clarification is widely used after coagulation and flotation and before filtration in order to reduce load on filtration process (ASCE and AWWA. 2000). ferric sulfate. eg. eg. Qasim et al.. 2000. Coagulation involves addition of chemicals into water in order to break down the stabilizing forces and/or enhance the destabilizing forces.3 Clarification (Sedimentation and Floatation) Clarification is defined as process of separating suspension into clarified fluid and more concentrated suspension (Kawamura.the distance between them is known as van der Waals forces. Kawamura (2000) classified sedimentation process into grit chamber (plain sedimentation) and sedimentation tanks (clarifiers). counter-ion adsorption and charge neutralization. ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate and/or polymers. (iii) Type III sedimentation or hindered settling or zone settling that describes sedimentation of a suspension with solids concentration sufficiently high to cause the particles to settle as a mass. Coagulant surface waters. floc is formed due to agglomeration of particles by van der Waals forces of attraction between the particles. Such chemicals may be metal salts like aluminium sulfate (alum). As a result. Qasim et al. Upper portion of sludge blanket in sludge thickeners. (2000) and Gregory & Zabel (1990) described four types or classes of sedimentation: (i) Type I Sedimentation or discrete settling that describes the sedimentation of low concentrations of particles that settle as individual entities. sand. eg. Gregory & Zabel. 1990).. precipitation. Amirtharajah & O'Melia. and specific gravity of the suspended solids to be separated. quantity. 2000. 1990.3. 1990). Silt. This reduces the electrostatic forces of repulsion between the similar ions and van der Waals forces become predominant. (ii) Type II sedimentation or flocculant settling that describes sedimentation of larger concentrations of solid that agglomerate as they settle. Compression of the double layer includes addition of positive (counter) ions to neutralize the predominant negative charge in colloids. (iv) Type IV sedimentation or compression settling that describes 10 . Kawamura. Sedimentation utilizes gravity settling to remove suspended solids while floatation utilizes buoyancy for solid-liquid separation (Kawamura. 2000). These chemicals are known as coagulants. enmeshment in a precipitate and hetero-coagulation (Qasim et al. Based on criteria of the size. Hydrodynamic forces or Brownian motion is force due to motion of water molecules. The processes involved in colloid destabilization are compression of the double layer.

2000). and sedimentation remove much of the turbidity causing colloidal materials. 1990). (iv) local climatic conditions. (xi) type and selection of high-rate settling modules. (iii) settling velocity of the suspended particles to be removed. Types of flotation tanks used are circular tanks. Other types of clarifiers that are used in water treatment are upflow clarifiers. 1990). Although processes like coagulation. gas bubbles are attached to solid particles to cause the apparent density of the bubble-solid agglomerates to be less than that of water. Horizontal flow-type sedimentaion basins are most common in water treatment (ASCE and AWWA. thereby allowing the agglomerate to float to the surface (Gregory & Zabel. and inclined (plate and tube) settlers (Gregory & Zabel. Some design criteria. eg. reactor clarifiers and sludge blanket clarifiers. (v) raw water characteristics. (vii) variations in the plant flow rate. Filtration is commonly utilized to achieve such further colloid removal (Qasim et al. Filtration can 11 . In floatation. important cinsiderations that directly affect the design of the sedimentation process are: (i) overall treatment process. (x) design of the tank inlet and outlet. further removal of colloidal materials is required in order to meet public health standards promulgated after the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. multistorey. According to Kawamura (2000). (viii) occurrence of flow short-circuiting within the tank. 1990). Configuration of horizontal flow-type sedimentation basins can be rectangular. advantages and disadvantages.sedimentation of suspensions with solids concentration so high that the particles are in contact with one another and further sedimentation can occur only by compression of mass.3. 2. rectangular tanks and combined flotation and filtration tanks (Gregory & Zabel.2. lower portion of gravity sludge thickeners. (ix) type and overall configuration of the sedimentation tank.. and proper application of some basic types of clarifiers are listed in Table 2. Three types of flotation are: (i) electrolytic flotation. (vi) geological characteristics of the plant site. (xii) method of sludge removal. circular. 2000). and (iii) dissolved-air flotation.4 Filtration The fundamental system in a water treatment process train that removes particulate matter is filtration (Kawamura. and (xiii) cost and shape of the tank. 1990). flocculation. (ii) nature of the suspended matter within the raw water. (ii) dispersed-air flotation.2.

2 gpm/ft Weir loading: 10 – 20 gpm/ft Upflow velocity: <0.Table 2.75 gpm/ft Water Depth: 9 – 16 ft Settling time: 1 – 3 hr Weir loading: 10 gpm/ft a)Economical compact geometry b)Easy sludge removal c) High clarification efficiency Reactor clarifiers Flocculation time: approx 20 min Settling time: 1 – 2 hr Surface loading: 0.5 – 3 hr Width/length: >1/5 Weir loading: <15 gpm/ft a)Subject to density flow creation in the basin b)Requires careful design of the inlet and outlet structures c) Usually requires separate flocculation facilities a)Problems of flow short-circuiting b)Less tolerance to shock loads c) A need for more careful operation d)Limitation on the practical size of the unit e)May require separate flocculation facilities a)Requires greater operator skill b)Less reliability than conventional due to dependency on one mixing motor c) Subject to upsets due to thermal effects Upflow type (radialupflow type) Circular or square type Surface loading: 0.8 – b)Compact and necessary sludge Sludge 1.5 – 2 0.164 fpm a)Incorporates flocculation and clarification in one unit b)Good flocculation and clarification efficiency due to a seeding effect c) Some ability to take shock loads a)Very sensitive to shock loads b)Sensitive to Flocculation time: a)Good softening temperature change approx 20 min and turbidity c) Several days required Settling time: 1 – 2 hr removal to build up the Surface loading: 0.2: Selection Guide for Some Basic Types of Clarifiers Type of Clarifier Some Design Criteria Advantages a)More tolerance to shock loads b)Predictable performance under most conditions c) Easy operation and low maintenance costs d)Easy adaptation to high-rate settler modules Limitations Proper Application a)Most municipal and industrial water works b)Parlicularly suited to larger capacity plants a)Small to midsized municipal and industrial treatment plants b)Best suited where rate of flow and raw water quality are constant a)Water softening (1. Source: Kawamura (2000) 12 .8 – 2 1.5 – 2 gpm/ft) b)A plant that treats a steady quality of raw water a)Water softening b)Flocculation/s edimentation treatment of raw water with a constant quality and rate of flow c) Plant treating raw water with a low content of solids to be in the same Rectangular basin (horizontal flow) Surface loading: 0.34 2 – 1 gpm/ft Water Depth: 9 – 16 ft Detention time: 1.2 gpm/ft2 economical design blanket blanket Weir loading: 10 – 20 c) Tolerates limited d)Plant operation clarifiers gpm/ft changes in raw depends on a single Slurry circulation rate: water quality and mixing flocculation up to 3 – 5 times the flow rate motor raw water inflow rate e)Higher maintenance costs and a need for greater operator skill Note: The reactor clarifiers and the sludge blanket type clarifiers are often considered category.

(iii) impaction. approximately 2 gpm/ft . (x) control of the filtration rate. the amount of allowable headloss for filtration. (iv) interception. (xii) chemical application points.be defined as the passage of water through a porous medium for the removal of suspended solids (ASCE and AWWA. (v) raw water quality. (ix) type of filter wash system. rapid sand filters and high-rate filters are less than 0. These mechanisms are: (i) straining. rapid filters. Filters commonly utilized in water treatment are classified on basis of (i) filtration rate. (viii) provisions for future modification or addition of filters. 2000). (xi) type of filter bed. 2000). When flow streamline passes very close to a media grain. At low-velocity zones of the filter. (ii) design guidelines set by regulatory agencies such as the state department of health. 2000). Hydraulic application rates for slow sand filters. The factors that must be taken into consideration when a proper granular filtration process are: (i) local conditions. (vi) type of pretreatment process. and types of filter underdrain. (ii) sedimentation.. 2000). type of filter. Kawamura (2000) presented slow sand filters. Colloidal particles which are too large to pass through pore spaces in the filter media bed become trapped and are removed. some particles touch media grains and become clogged to be removed by interception. (vii) new and proven types of filter. (iii) site topography. (ii) driving force. and waste-wash-water handling facility.. (iv) plant size. Additional issues while designing a proper granular medium filtration process are: use of wash troughs. and greater than 4 gpm/ft respectively (Qasim et al. 1990). Slow sand filters. some particles settle and are removed by sedimentation. and high-rate filters as alternatives for granular medium filtration process.17 gpm/ft . Filtration cosists of a number of mechanisms acting simultaneously in the solids removal process (Qasim et al. 2000). Some colloidal particles with large masses fail to follow the flow streamline and strike the medium to be removed by inpaction. rapid filters. and (iii) direction of flow (Qasim et al. and high-rate filters are classified under basis of filtration rate (Qasim et al. Kawamura (2000) has classified gravity filters and pressure filters as proprietory filters as these are typically supplied by manufacturers. and other miscellaneous items (Kawamura. Filters as classified on basis of driving force are gravity filters and pressure filters.. Gravity filters typically operate at head of 6 to 10 ft while pressure filters operate at 2 2 2 13 . This mechanism is known as straining..

0 mm U.* > 2.7 Depth: 2.+: 2-3 Depth: 3. dual-media filters and mixedmedia filters. ilmenite. 2000).: 1.35 mm U.3 – 4 ft S.C.05 – 0..5 ft S.7 Depth: 2 – 2. Filters as classified on basis of direction of flow can be downflow or upflow.G.4 – 1.. Downflow filters are most usually used in water treatment system (Qasim et al. Table 2. Other materials that may be used as filter media are garnet.3. Different types of filter media and their applications are listed in Table 2.63 Limitations a)Requires a large filter bed area a)Simple design and construction b)Applicable only for good quality area b)Good effluent c) Requires frequent quality without scaping off of pretreatment surface layer (every 20 – 30 days) a)Rather short filter a)A proven and runs due to surface widely accepted filtration filtration process b)Always a need for b)A wide coagulation application range pretreatment and an if pretreatment is auxiliary washing provided system a)An effective highrate filtration a)Auxiliary wash process with very system is limited to long filter runs air-scour type b)Requires deep filter b)A wide cells and a special application range underdrain with polymer pretretment. the hydraulic loading rate of the filters.: 1. or (iii) a pre-selected maximum filter run time has passed since it was cleaned.63 Coarse sand High-rate filters 5 – 12 gpm/ft2 filtration rate Direct filtration Effective size: 0.25 – 0.G. > 2.. Filters must be cleaned from time to time in order to continue filtration with same efficeincy. 2000).higher head (Qasim et al. (ii) turbidity breakthrough causes the effluent quality to be less than a minimum acceptable level. On basis of number of filtration medium used.6 – 7 ft S. 2000). filter cell must be cleaned when either (i) the head loss through the filter exceeds the design value. Gravity filters are used on both small and large water treatment systems while pressure are typically used in small water treatment systems only because of cost. 2000). According to (Qasim et al. and the finished water quality depend heavily upon the selection of filter media (Qasim et al.4 – 1.G.45 – 0..C. The solids-holding capacity of the filter bed. > 2.65 mm U.8 – 2. filters can be categorized as single-medium filters.17 gpm/ft2 filtration rate Rapid sand filters 2 – 3 Medium sand gpm/ft2 filtration rate Effective size: 0.63 14 . pumice. 2000).C. Advantages Fine Sand Slow Sand filter 0.3: Types of Filter Medium and Applications Filter Media Type of Filter Medium Design Criteria Effective size: 0. The most commonly used filter mediums are silica sand and anthracite coal. and synthetic materials (Kawamura.

and anionic complexes of uranium (Clifford.. selenate. Source water 15 .G.Table 2. Typical backwash rates.35 to 1. stontium.4 – 1. nitrate. and advantages and disadvantages of different types of backwash systems are shown in Table 2. and radium and anoins such as fluoride.C.e. > 2.G. efficiency including green Depends on the guaranteed by the purpose sand and manufacturer synthetic media Type of Filter Limitations Multimedia coal-sand dual or coal-sandgarnet trimedia a)Either surface wash or air-scour wash is required as an auxiliary washing system and a polymer is required as a filter aid b)Proper selection of each medium is important c) Requires a high backwash rate for restratification Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) a)Must be regenerated or replaced when adsorption capacity is depleted b)High initial and maintenance costs Proprietory Type Gravity or pressure filters Source: Kawamura (2000) a)Limited number of suppliers b)Mostly patented items Filter units are cleaned by backwash systems.3 . 1990).4 – 1. chromate. fulvates.5 Depth: 1 ft S.37 Contact time: pesticides) 10-15 min b)Can also operate effectively as a conventional filter a)Design and Variety of types.3.5 ft widely accepted filtration S.6 filtration process Garnet Effective size: 0. > 1.: 1. (ii) surface wash plus fluidized-bed backwash.5 – 6 gpm/ft2 taste and odors. arsenate. > 1.4 process with long 4 – 10 gpm/ft2 mm filter runs filtration rate U. U. 2.4.63 a)An effective highAnthracite coal rate filtration High-rate filters Effective size: 0.65 mm U. 1990. Depth: 6 – 12 ft filtration rate THMs. magnesium.2 – 1.9 – 1. (iii) sequential air-scouring wash. > 4.0 to 4.5 – 1.C.: 1.1 a)A proven and accepted process Removal of for specific Effective size: 0.25 – 0. humates.G. Kawamura.C.5 b)A proven and Direct or in-line Depth: 1.: 1.3 mm U. 2000).C.5 Ion Exchange and Inorganic Adsorption Ion exchange or adsorption onto activated alumina can be used to remove contaminant cations such as calcium. and S.0 organic removal of organic mm contaminant 3 contaminants (i.5 – 2. Basic types of filter wash systems are: (i) Upflow wash with full fluidization. and (iv) concurrent air-scouring wash (Cleasby.5 to 1. barium.continued Filter Media Advantages Medium Design Criteria Sand Effective size: 0.45 – 0.5 Depth: 1 ft S.2.: 1.G.

3. Nitrate. 1990). magnesium.6 Membrane processes Advanced membrane technologies provide superior potable water quality more efficiently than conventional treatment systems and the depletion of water supplies.00 mm ES: 2 Airflow rate: 6 to 8 scfm/ft 2 Water flow: 6 to 8 gpm/ft Adapted from Cleasby (1990). velocities are increased. c) Possibility of moving 2 Airflow rate: 2 to 4 scfm/ft wash c) Agitates entire filter supporting gravel. 2 Water flow: 5 to 8 gpm/ft Concurrent b)Adaptable to any b)Possible loss of filter media.4: Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Backwash System Backwash System Upflow wash with full fluidization Typical Backwash Rates Advantages Limitations 15 to 23 gpm/ft 2 Surface wash plus fluidizedbed backwash Sequential air-scouring wash Fixed nozzle system: 2 to 4 2 gpm/ft Rotary nozzle system: 0.5 gives some features of ion exchange process. removal of calcium.5mm ES sand: a)Covers full filter 2 Airflow rate: 1 to 2 scfm/ft a)Very limited application.2. and other polyvalent cations in exchange for sodium (Clifford. media. For sands about 1. c) Usually requires auxiliary scour system. arsenate. especially by complex organic materials like priority pollutants have contributed to their 16 . For sands about 2. Table 2. sometimes stick in one better cleaning position temporarily and do action and lower not rotate as intended. and selenate can be removed by resin beds containing chloride-form anion-exchange resins. 2 Water flow: 6 gpm/ft depth. b)Mud balls may sink in b)Accessible for fluidized beds and no longer maintenance and come in contact of surface repair.0mm ES anthracite and 0. The flow of water may be in upflow or downflow. Activated alumina is used to remove fluoride and arsenate.00 mm ES: air-scouring filter dimensions.is continually passed through a packed bed of ion-exchange resin bed of ion-exchange resin beds or alumina granules to achieve ion-exchange.. area. and water pollution. i. a)Rotary type washers a)Relatively simple. For dual-media with about 1.5 to 2 2 gpm/ft Airflow rate: 3 scfm/ft 2 Water flow: 8 to 12 gpm/ft 2 a)Movement of fine grains to top in rapid sand filters a)Restratification of b)Does not solve all dirty-filter layers in dualproblems. Table 2. wash jets. saltwater intrusion. Radium and barium can also be removed during ion softening. 2. Kawamura (2000) and ASCE & AWWA (1990) The largest application of ion exchange to drinking water treatment has been for softening.e. water requirements. chromate. a)Interstitial water a)Possible loss of filter media.

36kW /lb salt <7 psig Ionized salt ions Settled or filtered water. 50-1.01 µm.000 10-40 psig 75-150 psig 200-400 < 1 nm - > 200 psig Electrodi alysis (ED) Ion Exchang e Filtered water.000 Driving Force 10-20 psig Removal Objects Feature Batch process. (v) easy integration into the automatic control system.000 mg/L salts < 1 nm - DC*. Mg Ionized salt ions and colloidal matter 50.expanded use (Conlin.0031-0. Cutoff (daltons) 300. incomplete removal of salts Batch process. 0. and cationic polymer for certain types of membrane).1-0.000 mg/L salts Pore/Resin Size 0.01 µm is more common 0.5: Features of Membrane Processes and Ion Exchange Process Microfiltration (MF) Ultrafiltration (UF) Nanofiltration (NF) Reverse Osmosis (RO) Suitable Water 500.36. complete removal of salts Particulates and microbial Molecular size compounds. (vii) chemical-free backwash water that can often be discharged to local water bodies. chlorine residual. 100.2 µm.8.2 µm is more common 0. Table 2.µm selfcleaning cartridge filter 200 to 500 µm self-cleaning cartridge filter Regular filter effluent or MF filtrate Filtered water. up to about 200 ntu turbidity. (iv) much less space (footprint) required than for the conventional treatment process.001-0. 0. (ii) reliable production of good filtered water. and (viii) long-term compliance with drinking water regulations. 9095% inorganic salts and 9599% organic matter Continuous process. including color. Kawamura (2000) listed the followings as the shortcomings of membrane processes: (i) membrane fouling (by bacteria. Membrane processes include use of semipermeable membranes to separate impurities from water.000 mg/L salts Source: Kawamura (2000) < 1 nm - Ionized ions According to Kawamura (2000).sized particles. with no coagulant.270. liquid-solid separation Batch process. removal of particles over 0. (vi) minimum labor requirement so that it can maintain unattended operation most of the time. the distinct advantages of of membrane processes over conventional treatment processes are: (i) removal of suspended solids.5 µm Batch process. Ca. virus. particulates and microbial NOM. (ii) 17 .and Cryptosporidium. 500. (iii) very high “log removal” of Giardia. 0. DBPs control and softening Continuous process. 1990).005 µm Mol. Wt.

and (iv) removal of THMs.2. General advantages and disadvantages of these oxidants are given in Table 2.2.3. Primary adsorbent of organic compounds in water treatment processes is activated carbon. (iv) Ozone. Diferent features of these membrane processes are presented in Table 2. and (v) difficulty in complete removal of PAC particle from finished water. 1990). 2. (iv) control of tastes and odors. (ii) control of biological growth in basins. Two primarily used activated carbons in water treatment processes are (i) Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC). (ii) color removal.6. (v) reduction of specific organic pollutants.5. 2. (ii) Ultrafiltration.3. such as a liquid and a solid. and (vi) Chlorine dioxide. (v) potassium permanganate. (iii) Chloramines. 1990). and (iii) need for pretreatment of poor-quality raw water. Kawamura (2000) listed GAC as a filter media.8 Adsorption of Organic Compounds Accumulation of a substance (adsorbate) at the interface (adsorbent) between two phases. is called adsorption (Snoeyink.7 Chemical Oxidation Chemical oxidation plays several important roles in water treatment and can be added at several locations in the treatment process depending upon the purpose of oxidation (Glaze. (iv) difficulty in sludge disposal. and (ix) to provide an extra level of disinfection. (iii) color removal. Chemical oxidants are usually added for following purposes: (i) as first stage disinfection.3. (iii) Nanofiltration. 18 . (iii) removal of mutation causing and toxic substance. (vii) treatment to control growth on filters. Advantages of PAC are: (i) low capital cost. Commonly used chemical oxidants are: (i) Oxygen. (iii) low TOC removal.requirement of treatment of chemically washed waste before disposal. The uses of activated carbon are: (i) tasteand odor control. 1990). (ii) inability to regenerate. Different types of membrane processes available are: (i) Microfiltration. (ii) Chlorine. and (ii) ability to change dosage with change in water quality (Snoeyink. and (ii) Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). (iv) Reverse osmosis. and (v) Electrodialysis. Disadvantages of PAC include: (i) high operating costs (if high dosage required for long period of time). (vi) precipitation of metals. (viii) to remove manganese. or a gas and a solid. Features of GAC as filter media are given in Table 2.

Unknown by-products. (v) the quality of the process water. No-by-products. Complex generation and feeding. (ii) the feasibility of uding alternative disinfectants. odor. According to Kawamura (2000). The word “deliberate” and “reduction” are important here because: (i) other processes like filtration. etc. and appliance sufaces is known as stability (Qasim et al. Long history of use No THM formation. 1990). 2000). Common method to calculate stability of water is the Langelier saturation index (LI). No THM formation Limitations Chlorinated by-products. Effectiveness influenced by pH Weak oxidant. Some by-products are biodegradable. plumbing. Corrosion and scaling Chlorimines Ozone Chlorine dioxide Potassium permanganate Oxygen Simple feeding. 2. Possibility of taste and odor problems.. (iv) the formation of disinfectant byproducts and their magnitude. On-site generation required.3. (vi) safetly problems associated with the disinfectants. 1990). Nontoxic Source: Glaze (1990) 2. Coagulant aid Strong oxidant. Disinfection can be achieved by chemical oxidation (chemicals involved are discussed above in section g) or ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Corrosive TOX formation.Table 2. Usually no THM or TOX formation. Simple feeding. ClO3 and ClO2 byproducts.3.9 Disinfection Disinfection is a process designed for the deliberate reduction of a number of pathogenic microorganisms (Haas. Energy intensive. Some TOX formation. No pH effect Easy to feed. On-site generation required.6: General Advantages and Disadvantages of Water Treatment Oxidants Oxidant Chlorine Advantages Strong oxidant. Relatively persistent residual.. No THM formation. Little pH effect. No taste or odor problem.10 Water Stability Tendency of water to either dissolve (corrosion) or deposit (scaling) certain minerals in pipes. Persistent residual. Simple feeding. coagulation and flocculation. Causes precipitation Weak oxidant. 2000). major considerations in selecting a disinfection process are: (i) the presence of surrogate organisms in the drinking water supply. Possibility of taste. Persistent residual. Common treatments for corrosive waters are 19 . (iii) the disinfectant residual-contact time relationship. Hydrocarbon odors possible Pink H2O.2. Companion Stripping. and (ii) total destruction or removal of all organisms is called sterilization which is not to be confused with disinfection (Kawamura.2. also achieve some pathogen reduction but this is not their primary objective (Haas. and (vii) the cost of each disinfection alternative. Long history of use Strong oxidant. and growth problems Short half-life.

.11 Finished Water Reservoirs (Clearwell) A clearwell is a storage tank commonly located at a water treatment plant (Qasim et al. soda ash or sodium hydroxide. Such discharged is now prohibited under the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and the Clean Water Act of 1977 (Qasim et al. (ii) ground level. (iii) to ensure adequate chlorine contact time.2. viruses.2. With these environmental and legal implications. a rectangular or square deep basin (25 ft) with a reinforced concrete structure having vertical sidewalls or a trapezoidal cross section with sidewalls of rather thin concrete and peripheral walls composed of reinforced concrete that are 8 ft high to support roofing system or anchored floating membrane cover. and quality of raw water (Qasim et al. 2000). 2. and (iii) a rectangular. Scale forming waters are commonly treated by recarbonation. It is not appropriate to refer all residues as wastes because some of the residues can be recycled.. rather shallow (10 ft) reinforced-concrete tank.. including algae. Selection and design of residual management system depends upon quantity of the sludge. 2000). High service pumps may be required for water distribution (Qasim et al. bacteria. located directly underneath filter structure (Kawamura. Historically. Residues from water treatment processes contain organic and inorganic turbidity-causing solids. A residue is something remaining after another part has been taken away (Doe. 2000). 2000). residual management is one of the major components of any water treatment facility. Some of primary residuals from a water 20 . water treatment residuals were discharged in natural water bodies. 1990). Four basic purposes of clearwell are: (i) to meet water peak demands. This had major environment implications like aluminium toxicity to aquatic organisms and so forth (Doe. (ii) to provide a sufficient volume of water for plant operations including filter washing. added chemicals. 2000). 2000). and the nature of solids.. Three basic types of clearwells are: (i) ground level up to approximately 30 ft in height and a steel or reinforced concrete tank. 2. These are primarily a function of treatment processes. usually cylindrical in shape.3. silt and clay. 1990).12 Residual Processing and Disposal (Management) Water treatment processes as discussed above leave behind many residues. 2000).addition of hydrated lime.3.. and (iv) to store enough water for firefighting (Kawamura. and precipitated chemicals (Qasim et al. solids content.

1: Alternative Unit Operations and Processes for Different Stages of Residual Management 2. Belt Filter Press 6. Chemical 1. (2000) Figure 2. (iii) Dewatering. 2000). (viii) diatomeceous-Earth Filter Washwater. Residual management generally consists of five stages: (i) Thickening. Figure 2. Lagooning 2. (ii) softening sludge. Lagooning 3. (iv) advanced display and data handling: data acquisition and logging/report generation/alarm indication/plant graphic display/analog variable displays. (iv) iron and manganese precipitation sludge. and (ix) spent brine. Description and applications of the stages and their alternatives have been listed in Table 2. Deep-well 1. (iii) data acquisition and logging/report generation/alarm indicator/plant graphic display. (iv) Recovery.1 gives various alternatives for different stages of residual management. Drying Beds 2.3. Lagoons 3. Thickening Conditioning Dewatering Recovery Ultimate Disposal 1. (iii) filter backwash. Land Disposal 2. Centrifuge 1. Discharge into Sanitary Sewer 5. The major advantage of computerizing treatment plants is effective process control through decisions based on timely and accurate information (Kawamura. Freezing and Thawing 2. (v) residues from coagulant aid. (ii) data acquisition and logging/report generation/alarm indication. Coagulan t 2. Dissolved Air Flotation 1.2. Discharge into Surface Water 6. Lime 3.treatment plant are: (i) alum of iron coagulation sludge. Land spreading and Land Filling 4. Magnesiu m Source: Qasim et al. (vii) spent PAC. Frame Filter Press 5. There are six computer systems that are different combinations of the following tasks: (i) report generation. (v) manual plant control and advanced data handling: data acquisition and logging/report generation/alarm indication/ 21 . (vi) residues from filter aid.13 Instrumentation and Process Control Modern supervisory control and data acquisition systems can be used to monitor the treatment plants and distribution systems. Gravity Thickener 3. Vacuum Filter 4.7. and (v) Ultimate Disposal. (ii) Conditioning.

7: Descriptions and Applications of Different Stages of Residual Management and Their Alternatives Unit Operation and Processes Sedimentation and thickening Sludge lagoon Gravity Description and Principal Application The objective is to remove excess water and to concentrate solids. Sludge conditioning is done to aid in thickening and mechanical dewatering. manganese. 22 Conditioning Chemical Freezing Heat Treatment Dewatering Drying bed Centrifuge Vacuum filter Filter press Belt filter press Recovery Coagulants Lime (Recalcination) Magnesium Disposal Land Disposal Sanitary sewer . Direct discharge into sewer system is an attractive option if residuals do not adversely affect the operation of the wastewater treatment plant. semi-liquid. Dewatered. and by deep-well injection.Table 2. Circular tanks designed and operated similar to a solids-contact clarifier or sedimentation basin. Provides continuous operation. Lime and inert granular materials like fly ash have also been used. It is an effective method of sludge dewatering. Water is removed by filtration and by decanting. Freezing destroys the gelatinous structure and thus improves thickening and dewatering. Magnesium recovery is possible from a sludge containing calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide. Bubbling CO2 produces soluble magnesium bicarbonate. CO2 produces soluble magnesium bicarbonate. The dewatered sludge is dried and heated to about 1000 degrees C. The liquid is usually recovered unless it contains taste and odors. Recovery of aluminium and iron can be accomplished by adding acid (sulfuric acid) to solubilize the metal ions from the sludge. Both capital and operating costs are high. and liquid residuals are disposed of by land-filling or land-spreading governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. and magnesium bicarbonate is possible from the sludge. Recovery of lime from calcium carbonate sludge is achieved by Recalcination. Conditioned sludge is dewatered in a solid-bowl or basket centrifuge. Also known as plate-and-frame or leaf filter. Because of energy cost. This is a gravity dewatering system where conditioned sludge may be applied without thickening. This process is usually applied only where natural freezing is possible. Sludge is applied on a filling and drying cycle over filter beds of lagoons that have an underdrain system. Chemical conditioning may be needed. coagulants. in sanitary sewer. Large open earthen or concrete reservoirs 3 to 4m deep. algae. so the water will be released easily from solids. The process produces relatively dry sludge for further treatment or disposal. The sludge is squeezed between two belts as it passes between various rollers. Polymers are the most commonly used chemicals for sludge conditioning. It is a batch process and uses chemically conditioned sludge. Conditioning is generally used for alumcoagulated sludge. and other microorganisms. Sludge conditioning is generally needed. Cost of transportation may be significant. Recovery of water. Rotary drum vacuum filter with traveling media or precoat media filters are used for dewatering. Thickening of solids 5 to 10 percent can be achieved in one to three months with continuous decanting. Heating improves settling and dewatering. in surface waters. Disposal of residuals may be achieved on land. it is an undesirable method of sludge conditioning. Accumulation of heavy metals. while calcium carbonate remains insoluble. while calcium carbonate remains insoluble. Sludge conditioning is necessary. The objectives are to improve the physical properties of the sludge. and other organic compounds is possible.

(iii) describe quantitatively or qualitatively the relationship between independent and dependent variables but control for the effects of other variables.Table 2. Source: Qasim et al. Such injection disposals are controlled by local environmental regulations subject to geology and groundwater hydrology. The fifth and sixth computer systems are known as DCSs or SCADA systems.500 gpd to 1 mgd capacity. These cost data have been utilized to develop cost curves in both the references. Kawamura (2000) gave some cost data on instrumentation and process control. 2. and operation and maintenance cost data for conventional water treatment unit operations and processes. and strength of the association. X2.continued Unit Operation and Processes Surface Water Description and Principal Application NPDES permit is required for disposal of residuals into surface water. 1998). direction. continuous dependable variable Y (Kleinbaum et al. (2000) plant graphic displays/analog variable displays/manual plant control..3 Water Treatment Plant Cost Data The USEPA report (Gumerman et al. Gumerman et al. (1979) contains cost data for 72 unit operations and processes applicable to conventional treatment plant of 1mgd to 200 mgd capacity and for 27 unit operations and processes applicable to conventional treatment plant of 2.7 . (ii) seek a quantitative formula or equation to describe the dependent variable as a function of the independent variable(s). Cost data for membrane filtration equipments were available from Elarde & Bergman (2001). A regression analysis can be used in order to: (i) characterize the relationship between the dependent and independent variables by determining the extent. 1979) was found to be major source of construction. (v) determine the best mathematical model for describing the relationship between a dependent variable and one or 23 . (iv) determine which of several independent variables are important and which are not for predicting a dependent variable. …. 2.4 Equation Generation Regression analysis is a statistical tool for evaluating the relationship of one or more independent variables X1.. The permit requirements vary with the types of residuals and with the type of surface water. Xk to a single. The methodologies of use of these data are discussed in Chapter 3. and (iv) Automatic plant control: data acquisition and logging/report generation/alarm indication/plant graphic displays/analog variable displays/automatic plant control. Brines from ion exchangers and membrane processes may be injected into deep Deep-well injection wells.

regression analysis has been used to seek a quantitative equation to describe the costs of treatment plants (dependent variable) as a function of treatment capacity and other parameters like area. if necessary. (ii) backward method – begins with a complicated model and successively simplifies it. feed capacity. Two methods to solve second question are: (i) least-squares method. Cost indexes are used to measure a given project to a basis and typically reference a base year. These adjustments require appropriate cost scale-up and location factors. 1998).more independent variables. and (iii) model suggested from experience or theory. a log function. a power function. 24 . (2008)).. (vii) compare several derived regression relationships.5 Cost Update Order-of-magnitude estimates of projects can be done by making adjustments to cost of similar project. with respect to variables like time. which started in 1909 (Grogan. Both these methods yield same solution (Kleinbaum et al. if available.. or what?.. Cost and location indexes available in the United States are listed in Appendix A.. location and size. etc. and (ii) minimum-variance method. Common strategies to tackle first problem are: (i) forward method – begins with simply structured model and adds more complexity in successive steps. Equations 2 and 3 can be used to estimate costs (adapted from Remer et al. 2. Inflation and location indexes use a base year or base location. These indexes can be used to estimate the cost of similar project at different time and/or location. 2008). (independent variables). (vi) assess the interactive effects of two or more independent variables with regard to a dependent variable. a parabola. (ii) how to determine the best-fitting model for the data? (Kleinbaum et al. The oldest cost index currently being used by the engineers is the Engineering News Record (ENR) index. 1998). A number of set of observations (estimates in case of this research) can be plotted on a graph to get a scatter diagram.. Basic questions to be dealt with in regression analysis are: (i) what is the most appropriate mathematical model to use – a straight line. which is assigned an index value of 100 (Remer et al. In this research. 1998). 1994). and (viii) obtain a valid and precise estimate of one or more regression coefficients from a larger set of regression coefficients in a given model (Kleinbaum et al.

. b) carpenters. multiplied by the 20-city average rate for wages and fringe benefits. Key advantages of the ENR indexes are their availability..... 1979)...... However.. For their materials component....... The USEPA report provides ENR index data with 1967 as base year............. 2009). use of index value with 1913 as base year was found more desirable because ENR indexes with 1913 base year are 25 ... (2.5... The ENR indexes measure how much it costs to purchase this hypothetical package of goods compared to what it was in the base year.1 The Engineering News Record (ENR) Indexes Most frequently used single indexes in the construction industry are the ENR Construction Cost Indexes (CCI) and Building Cost Indexes (BCI) (Gumerman et al.3) Where... and c) structural ironworkers........... 1979). multiplied by the 20-city wage-fringe average for three trades: a) bricklayers......... However...128 tons of bulk portland cement priced locally and 1........ The CCI uses 200 hours of common labor.... their simplicity..... both indexes use 25 cwt of fabricated standard structural steel at the 20-city average price....... (2.... Cost2 = Estimated cost at time of construction Cost1 = Actual/estimated historical cost Inflation Index1 = Inflation index at construction/estimation of historical cost Inflation Index2 = Inflation index at time of construction Cost2 = Cost1 X (Location Index2/Location Index1) ....38 hours of skilled labor............. The BCI uses 68.2) Where.....088 board-ft of 2x4 lumber priced locally..... 1. Cost2 = Estimated cost at location of construction Cost1 = Actual/estimated cost at location of project of available data Location Index1 = Location index at location of project of available data Location Index2 = Location index at location of construction 2... many engineers and planners believe that ENR indexes are not applicable to water treatment plant construction because ENR indexes do not include mechanical equipment or pipes and valves (Gumerman et al......Cost2 = Cost1 X (Cost Index2/Cost Index1).. and their geographical specificity....... CCI can be used where labor component of the work is high while BCI is more applicable for structures (Grogan...........

1978. 2009) ENR index values. electrical and instrumentation (G). Table 2. 1979) were divided into eight components for construction costs: excavation and siteworks (A). natural gas (J). 1978 ENR indexes as well as latest (September. Use of any of those index base years were found to yield same update factor. steel (D). labor (E). (1992). and diesel (K)).8: Cost Components and Applicable Index for Construction and Operation & Maintenance Costs of Water Treatment Plants Cost Component Total Construction Cost Excavation and Sitework Manufactured Equipment Concrete Steel Labor Pipes and Valves Electrical and Instrumentation Housing Maintenance Material Index ENR Construction Cost Index ENR Skilled Labor Wage Index BLS General Purpose Machinery and Equipment – Commodity Code 114 BLS Concrete Ingredients Commodity Code 132 BLS Steel Mill Products Commodity Code 1017 ENR Skilled Labor Wage Index BLS Valves and Fittings Commodity Code 114901 (Used Miscellaneous general purpose equipment 1149) BLS Electrical Machinery and Equipment – Commodity Code 117 ENR Building Cost Index BLS Producer Price Index for Finished Goods (Commodity Code SOP3000) Applicable To Construction Cost Construction Cost Construction Cost Construction Cost Construction Cost Construction Cost Construction Cost Construction Cost Construction Cost O&M Cost 2.more readily available. The indexes 26 .8 gives these cost components and applicable indexes as suggested by Gumerman et al. 1992b). Cost data provided in USEPA reports (Gumerman et al. 1992a. manufactured equipment (B). pipes and valaves (F). The second method recommended was to use different indexes for eight aggregated cost components. (1979) recommended two methods to update the construction and operation and maintenance cost to current dollars. labor (L). and three components for operation and maintenance cost: energy (includes electricity (I).3 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Indexes Using BLS producer price index (PPI) is complicated because BLS changed the basis for cost indexing in 1978 and 1992 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. So the costs may be updated using revised index for categories in which the basis for indexing is changed.5. (1979) and Qasim et al.9 gives revised October. and housing (H). Table 2. The first method was to use a single index (ENR CCI was recommended). and maintenance material (M).2 Indexes Applicable for Update of Cost Gumerman et al. concrete (C). Table 2.5. 2.

4* (1982 = 100) 113. and equivalent annual costs are obtained from Equations 2.2 (1982 = 100) Updated September 2009 Value of Index 8585.44 (1913 = 100) 173.5 ENR Building Cost Index (1967 = 100) (1913 = 100) BLS Producer Price Index for Finished Goods 199.2* (1982 = 100) 227.8 (1913 = 100) 72.3 (1967 = 100) (1982 = 100) 254. and 2. Table 2. The present worth of annual O&M cost.9: October 1978.6 (Commodity Code SOP3000) (1967 = 100) (1982 = 100) Adapted from Gumerman et al.9 gives October.5 respectively.0 (1967 = 100) 221.3 (1967 = 100) 221.14 (1913 = 100) 199.. Equivalent annual cost is used to calculate cost per unit of water treated.5 72.0 (1913 = 100) 2467.1 (1967 = 100) 236. Modified 1978 October indexes can also be obtained from official BLS website (Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2009 index values.7 71.9 (1982 = 100) 71. Table 2. 2009).(1979).8 1727.71 (1913 = 100) 8251. Also.4 (1967 = 100) Modified October 1978 Value of Index 2859.2* (1982 = 100) 169. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009). 1992). Modified October 1978 and September 2009 Index Values Index ENR Construction Cost Index ENR Skilled Labor Wage Index BLS General Purpose Machinery and Equipment – Commodity Code 114 BLS Concrete Ingredients Commodity Code 132 BLS Steel Mill Products Commodity Code 1017 BLS Valves and Fittings Commodity Code 114901 (Used Miscellaneous general purpose equipment 1149) BLS Electrical Machinery and Equipment – Commodity Code 117 October 1978 Value of Index 265. 1978 modified BLS index values as well September.6 Present worth and annual equivalent worth calculation Present worth (PW) of annual operation and maintenance cost is a minimum sum that must be invested today at a given interest rate to pay for O&M cost every year throughout the life of the water treatment plant. Engineering (1978 & 2009) 2. Equivalent annual cost is uniform series of expenditures at the end of each year that is equivalent to different nonuniform capital and O&M expenditures made during the life cycle of the treatment plant (Qasim et al. 27 .6 (1982 = 100) 75. when different alternatives are considered.0 (1982 = 100) 70.4* (1982 = 100) News-Record 167.provided in the USEPA report provides BLS indexes with 1967 as base year.38 (1967 = 100) 247.7* (1982 = 100) 4764. equivalent annual costs are used to compare and select the most cost effective alternative.4.1 (1967 = 100) 262.1* (1982 = 100) 235.

.... designer has options of rectangular. if clarifier is considered....5) Where......... years...................7 Chapter Summary Various treatment units combine to form a process train in a water treatment plant................ what treatment processes are required (for example if a clarifier is required in this case). Water quality is the first indicator of types of unit operations and processes required in a treatment plant. Historical cost data for treatment units are available in literatures. and annual equivalent worth of project alternatives..... Various unit operations and processes were discussed in this chapter... The information consisted in this chapter are necessarily findings of the literature search and does not contain any opinion of the author of this thesis... or upflow clarifiers. $/year = project PW x CRF ..... For example. firstly.. Regression analysis is a tool to come up with equations from set of data.. and secondly which is alternative is most cost effective..... Therefore.... (2... The project feasibility and alternative evaluations are carried out by calculating present worth.. it is important to know. PW = present worth CRF = capital recovery factor = i/(1 – (1 + i) ) i = interest rate n = design period. (2.......4) Equivalent annual cost... circular.. 2...PW of annual O&M cost = (total annual O&M cost) x CRF –1 ........ there are different alternatives that can be used for same purpose. –n 28 . Within these unit operations and processes. The method to update these costs primarily utilizes cost indexes like ENR and BLS indexes..

2 Comparison of Cost Update Methods One of the objectives of this research was to make it possible for future updates of construction and O&M cost data using single index. Average yearly index values were used to update the construction cost to each year from 1978 to 2009. Average yearly index values were used to update the construction cost to each year from 1978 to 2009. It was necessary to observe how the results obtained by using single and multiple indexes vary with time involved in cost update.CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.2. use of multiple indexes provides more accurate data.2. However.8 were used to applicable construction cost components. 3. five treatment units: (i) chlorine storage and feed system (2000 lb/day capacity).3Controlled Single Index Updating by controlled single index value involved using both single and multiple indexes. Use of single index is simple.2. 3. (ii) liquid alum feed system (540 lb/hr capacity).1 Single Index ENR Construction Cost Index (CCI) was used to update 1978 October construction cost. 3. Construction costs of each of these treatment units were updated for every year from 1978 to 2009 by following three methods: 3. (iv) gravity filtration structure (50 mgd capacity). For this purpose. This chapter provides details of methodology of this research. (iii) rectangular clarifier (3600 ft surface area). The overview of the methodology was listed in Chapter 1.2 Multiple Indexes Cost indexes listed in Table 2.1 Introduction This chapter discusses the methodology adopted to obtain the final results of this research. This approach was adopted to see if difference in results from using single and multiple indexes could be 29 2 2 . and (v) airwater backwash (1400 ft filter area capacity).

82/ labor-hr (Engineering News Records. and 2008 construction costs were respectively updated by using single ENR CCI to 1991-1995. 30 . 1978 maintenance material costs were updated to September. This update would allow further updates to be done by using single index.9 were used. and maintenance materials. and $0. $0. 1997-2001. (1979) provided October 1978 construction and O&M cost data for different treatment units applicable to water treatment plants of 1 mgd to 200 mgd (Volume 2) and 2500 gpd to 1 mgd (Volume 3). multiple indexes were used for construction cost update to years 1990. and 2008. 2002.h of electricity. 1996. $0. 2002. Installed membrane equipment costs were updated to September. 1978 O&M costs data were updated to September. 1996. October. natural gas.3 Update of Construction and O&M Cost Data Gumerman et al. 2009 maintenance material costs by using BLS Producer Price Index (PPI) for Finished Goods (Commodity Code SOP3000). 2009 costs by using BLS General Purpose Machinery and Equipment – Commodity Code 114.03/kW. (b) Multiple indexes were used for construction cost update to year 1984. The O&M costs include cost for energy (electricity.626/gal of diesel (Energy Information Administration. The energy cost update was based on unit energy cost of $0.8. (1979) are based on unit energy cost of $0.45/gal of diesel. Construction costs were updated by using multiple cost indexes for different construction cost components as listed in Table 2.0013/scf of natural gas. (e) 1990. 2010c). The estimates provided by Gumerman et al. 3. For this purpose. each of October 1978 construction and O&M cost data were updated to September 2009 costs. 2009 O&M cost data. 2009). labor cost update was based on $ 45. The procedure adopted for this approach is as follows: (a) Single ENR CCI was used to update construction cost for each year from 1978 to 1983. (c) 1984 construction cost obtained from step (b) was used with single ENR CCI to update construction cost for each year from 1985 to 1989. October.controlled. Unit labor costs are based on $10/ labor-hr. It was necessary for these cost data to be updated to 2009 cost data.0981/kW.00898/scf of natural gas (Energy Information Administration. and diesel). labor. 2010b) and $2.h of electricity (Energy Information Administration. Likewise. (d) Similarly. 20032007 and 2009 construction costs. 2010a). The index values listed in Table 2.

Updated September 2009 construction and O&M cost data were used to develop these equations. polynomial (with degrees of 2 to 6) or power functions. Then.2 shows a sample of equation generated from Excel™. 3. feed capacity (lb/hr).1: Flow Chart for Forward Method 31 . and O&M costs were treated as the dependent variables and parameters chosen as independent variable were plant capacity (mgd or gpd).3 was adopted for regression analysis.3. 2 3 Assume straightline model Find best estimate of assumed model Assess whether the best estimate helps to describe Y? Assume New Model No Is the assumed model appropriate? Yes Stop Source: Kleinbaum et al. Forward method discussed in Section 2. The equation of trendline and value of leastsquared are displayed in the graph. volume (ft ). and so on. Each of above mentioned trendline functions options are selected.1 gives the flow chart for the methodology utilized for regression analysis. The procedure for equation generation is simple. Trendline can be selected as linear. exponential. surface area (ft ). Figure 3. (1998) Figure 3. Figure 3. The trendline and hence equation with value of R-squared closest to 1 and/or the equation that best represents the data is selected.4 Development of Cost Equations Regression analysis was carried out in order to develop cost equations. trendline is added to the curve.5 Use of Microsoft Excel™ for Regression Analysis Generalized construction cost equations were generated by using Microsoft Excel™ which is a popular and widely used computer spreadsheet program. Construction. First the data is enetered in the spreadsheet and the cost curves are plotted by using X-Y scatter format of graph.

and equivalent annual cost of the project.3. (1979) and Qasim et al. cost parameters for unit operations and processes. inflated operation and maintenance cost. ft. design life.000 Construction Cost $500. etc. The spreadsheet template is presented as part of this research and considered as a part of this report. energy. The spreadsheet calculates the estimated construction cost.000 $0 0 1.000 $100.000 Surface Area. interest and inflation rates. The user can choose either to use single ENR index or multiple indexes recommended by Gumerman et al.0031x2 + 155.61x + 78329 R² = 0. sq.000 $200.000 4. Construction Cost of Rectangular Clarifier $800.000 6.2: Sample Equation Generation Chart from Excel™ 32 . The user of this template is allowed to enter project details.).000 $600. annual operation and maintenance cost.000 2.000 5. and other costs not covered by the generalized equations. annuatized capital cost.000 $300.000 3.9995 Figure 3.000 $400.000 $700. present value of project cost. y = -0.6 Excel™ Template to Prepare Preliminary Cost Estimate of Water Treatment Plant An Excel™ template was created to prepare preliminary estimate of water treatment plant of 1mgd to 200 mgd. (1992). The template uses generalized operation and maintenance cost equations and updated generalized construction cost equations to calculate estimated cost of unit processes. applicable indexes and unit prices (labor.

3. The equations thus obtained were used to devise an Excel™ template to estimate construction and O&M costs for water treatment plants. difference in results by updating cost by single and multiple indexes were compared. 33 . Regression analysis was utilized to generate cost equations which would yield September 2009 construction and O&M costs. A new concept of controlled single index updating was introduced. it was decided to update all available historical data to September 2009 cost.7 Chapter Summary Firstly. This would enable further updates to costs be done more accurately by using single cost index. From the result of this comparison. Microsoft Excel™ was used to carry out these regression analyses.

These three methods are explained in Section 3. 2009. 4. Controlled single index in the results shown were done at interval of five years. 4. 4.500 gpd to 1 mgd water treatment plants (Table 4. (ii) multiple indexes.2. The results show that updated construction costs obtained from controlled single index method is close to that obtained from multiple indexes.2). (iv) gravity filtration structure (50 mgd capacity). An Excel™ template for preliminary cost estimate of 1 mgd to 200 mgd water treatment plants is a result of this research.4 and 4. (iii) rectangular clarifier (3600 ft surface area). An example to illustration calculation of construction cost. September.2 Comparison of Cost Update Methods Comparisons were made for results obtained from construction cost updates made by three methods: (i) single index. and (iii) controlled single index. Interval of eight and ten years were also tested which are shown in Appendix B. and (ii) generalized construction cost equations applicable for 2.1. The results are presented in Figures 4.1). Generalized construction and O&M cost equations are presented in separate tables for 1 to 200 mgd water treatment plants and 2500 gpd to 1 mgd treatment plants.2. The costs were updated for five treatment units: (i) chlorine storage and feed system (2000 lb/day capacity). The results of yearly cost updates made to five treatment units listed in Section 3. 4. Features of this template are described in this chapter. These cost equations yield the estimated construction cost for September. The template itself is a supplemental submission to this thesis. 2009 was selected 2 2 34 . O&M cost.5.3. present worth.2 are presented.CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH RESULTS 4.1 Introduction This chapter presents the results of this research. (ii) liquid alum feed system (540 lb/hr capacity). 4. and (v) air-water backwash (1400 ft filter area capacity). and equivalent annual worth is presented.3 Generalized Construction Cost Equations Two sets of generalized construction cost equations were generated: (i) generalized construction cost equations applicable for 1 mgd to 200 mgd water treatment plants (Table 4.

Construction Costs of 2000 lb/day Chlorine Storage and Feed System. 2009. for at least five more years. These percentages can be used to update the construction costs to future costs if the use of multiple indexes is desired.000 $200.2: Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Liquid Alum Feed System 1997 2007 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index Updated Construction Cost 35 . Multiple Indexes and Controlled Single Index $500. Multiple Indexes. The percentages of construction costs attributable to each of eight categories were also calculated. and Controlled Single Index $250. use of single index is expected to yield estimated costs close to that obtained by using multiple indexes.000 Updated Construction Cost $200.000 $300.000 $150. However. Updated Using Single Index.000 $400.as date for cost to be updated because latest indexes available for all categories of cost at the time of research were for September.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 1997 2007 Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index Single Index Figure 4.1: Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Chlorine Storage and Feed System Construction Costs of 540 lb/hr Capacity Liquid Alum Feed System.000 $0 1977 1987 Year Figure 4. Updated Using Single Index.000 $50.000 $100.000 $100.

000. Multiple Indexes.000. and Controlled Single Index $700.000.000 Updated Construction Cost $6.000 $300.000.000 $0 1977 1987 Year Figure 4.000.000 $5.000 $100. Updated Using Single Index.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 1997 2007 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index Figure 4.000.000 $2.000 $400.000. Multiple Indexes.4: Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Gravity Filtration Structures 36 .000 $500.000 $200. and Controlled Single Index $7.3: Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Rectangular Clarifier 1997 2007 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index Construction Costs of 50 mgd Gravity Filtration Structure. Updated Using Single Index.000 $4.000 $3.000 Updated Construction Cost $600.Construction Costs of 3600 ft2 Rectangular Clarifier.000 $1.

(iii) maintenance materials. 1997 2007 Multiple Indexes Single Index 37 . 2009. The percentage of cost attributable to five categories.000 $100. Updated Using Single Index.1 Generalized Operation and Maintenance Cost Equations Two sets of generalized operation and maintenance cost equations were generated: (i) generalized operation and maintenance cost equations applicable for 1 mgd to 200 mgd water treatment plants (Table 4. (iv) labor. Multiple Indexes. were also calculated. and (v) diesel.000 $0 1977 1987 Year Figure 4. (ii) natural gas.000 $200.5: Comparison of Updated Construction Costs of Gravity Filtration Structures 4.Construction Costs of 1400 ft2 Filter Area Capacity Air-Water Backwash.000 Updated Construction Cost $500. These cost equations yield the estimated operation and maintenance cost for September. (i) energy.500 gpd to 1 mgd water treatment plants (Table 4.000 $300. and Controlled Single Index $600. and (ii) generalized operation and maintenance cost equations applicable for 2.000 $400.3.3).4).

000 4. lb/day 2 CC = 6E–6 x + 5.000 2.734 x + 47956 x = chlorine feed capacity.9 6 66 21 24 49 25 3 6 460 10 92.3 4.1 4.000 10. lb/day 4.0158 x + 98.0019 x + 13. lb/day 3 2 CC = 0.000 10.500 Ozone Contact Chambers On-Site Hypochlorite Generation Systems Powdered Activated Feed Systems Carbon 4. Component Cost-Percentages A B C D E F G H Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m Raw Water Pumping Raw Water Pumping Facilities TDH = 30 ft.0783 x + 663.4 4.360 .000 4.000 Powdered Carbon Regeneration – Fluidized Bed Process 4. lb/hr 3 2 CC = 7E–7 x – 0.0361 x + 832.68 x + 82909 x = chlorine dioxide feed capacity.5 7.181 x + 41901 3 x = contact chamber volume.3451 x + 4147.72 x + 87471 x = hypochlorite generation rate.8 x + 212878 x = ozone generation capacity.97 x + 29368 3 2 CC = 1E–6 x – 0.0423 x + 267. mgd 3 2 4.5 4.896 x + 10708 2 CC = 0.000 5. Pretreatment Chlorine Storage and Feed Cylinder Storage On-site storage tank with rail delivery Direct feed from rail car 38 Chlorine Dioxide Generating and Feed Ozone Generations Systems CC = 9355.000 10. lb/day 2 CC = – 0.10 1 56 4 5 8 14 10 2 3.64 x + 2000000 x = regeneration capacity. ft 3 2 CC = 8E–6 x – 0.4 x + 60290 CC = 12627 x + 68364 x = plant capacity.6 40 80 82 29 2 6 10 8 36 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 2 47 1 2 30 10 2.7 83 15 2 10 3.2 40 45 19 15 36 27 5 13 1 1 200 200 CC = 3E–6 x – 0.86 x + 175653 x = feed capacity. No.000 1 10.8 4.11 49 42 8 1 209 33. lb/day 2 CC = – 0.0577 x + 778.1: Generalized Construction Cost Equations Applicable for 1 to 200 mgd Water Treatment Plants Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations Eq.0002 x – 1.1413 x + 884.Table 4. TDH = 100 ft.

lb/day Aeration Diffused Aeration Basin CC = 0.0002 x + 29.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations CC = 511.15 4.21 33 59 7 20 3 8 6 6 51 7 10 10 5.68 256 4. lb/hr 2 CC = – 0.001 x + 177.13 1 63 2 2 21 9 2 1.443 x + 29756 Rapid Mix.0002 x + 22.0055 x + 1.16 4.35 x + 36294 Systems x = feed capacity.0002 x + 55.23 4.8481 x – 19.19 64 41 41 41 70 14 4 4 4 4 2 5 5 5 2 4 3 3 3 4 16 47 47 47 20 5.0249 x + 280.3 1 5.000 20.000 5. lb/hr 3 2 CC = – 0.Table 4. lb/day 2 CC = 0. lb/day 2 CC = – 0.000 4.22 4. lb/hr 2 CC = – 0.17 4.92 x + 63605 Ferric Sulfate Feed Systems x = feed capacity. ft 2 CC = 0.776 x + 28584 Rapid Mix.002 x + 222.18 4. 1000 ft 2 CC = – 19.78 x + 71071 Dry Alum Feed System x = feed capacity.24 4 3 2 38 47 68 10 8 5 10 8 5 23 21 16 15 13 4 100 100 100 20.000 10.21 x + 54288 Liquid Alum Feed System CC = 240.51 x + 64933 x + 287711 3 x = aeration basin volume.000 20. Precipitation and Flocculation 2 CC = – 0.9 380 4. G = 300 /s 3 x = total basin volume.20 4.600 200 39 4.12 Component Cost-Percentages A B 85 C D E F G 7 H 8 Powdered Carbon Regeneration – Atomized Suspension Process Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m 1. gpd Sodium Hydroxide Feed CC = 20. G = 600 /s 3 x = total basin volume.350 6.000 .4 10 10.2287 x – 133. 1000 ft Coagulation. 4.000 10.0029 x + 48.434 x + 22648 Sulfuric Acid Feed Systems x = feed capacity.15 x + 63563 Ferrous Sulfate Feed Systems x = feed capacity. G = 900 /s 3 x = total basin volume.72 x + Polymer Feed Systems 54155 x = feed capacity.7 13. ft 2 CC = 0.53 x + 342140 x = regeneration capacity.000 4.857 x + 25002 x + 175725 Aeration Towers 3 x = aeration tower volume.1 .14 64 7 7 20 2 0. No.400 5.209 x + 30388 Rapid Mix. ft 3 2 Eq.

ft CC = 2.Table 4.000 25.89 x + 182801 2 CC = – 0.35 3 4 31 26 51 9 11 33 22 25 16 24 24 44 6 12 2 1 707 240 1 2.27 4.49 x + 138705 x + 453613 x = plant flow rate. Component Cost-Percentages A 6 5 4 3 3 3 B 17 25 35 22 22 24 C 18 15 11 11 11 11 D 18 15 12 13 13 12 E 30 30 30 35 35 35 F G 11 10 8 16 16 15 H Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m 1. G = 20 /s Horizontal Paddle Systems.0005 x + 27.000.544 4.32 4.25 4.8748 x + 162853 3 2 CC = 5E–12 x – 7E–06 x + 7.000 Flocculation Horizontal Paddle Systems.800 1.3239 x + 160468 CC = – 0.800 1. G = 80 /s Vertical Turbine Flocculators.30 Circular Clarifiers Rectangular Clarifiers Tube Settling Modules Contact Basins Filtration Gravity Filtration Structures CC = 3E–7 x – 0. ft 2 CC = – 0.000004 x + 9. G = 50 /s Vertical Turbine Flocculators.31 5 49 9 8 28 1 255 14. mgd CC = 7558.61 x + 78329 2 x = surface area.28 4.00 0 1.000 25. G = 50 /s Horizontal Paddle Systems.800 200 52.800 1.6888 x + 17121 x + 21973 2 x = tube module area. G = 80 /s 40 Sedimentation Upflow Solids Contact Clarifiers CC = 5E–12 x – 7E–6 x + 6.36 1 18 7 3 24 26 3 18 1 200 Filtration Media Rapid Sand 4.26 4. No.800 1.800 8 22 26 4.000.7415 x + 158139 2 CC = – 0. ft 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 4.1 .800 1. ft 0. G = 20 /s Vertical Turbine Flocculators.0005 x + 26.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations Eq.54 x 2 x = basin volume.800 1.0031 x + 155.042 x + 32609 CC = – 0.45 x + 181434 2 x = net effective settling area.5804 CC = 611.37 10 0 1 200 . ft 2 CC = – 5.642 x – 822.0005 x + 28.34 4.00 0 500.0095 x + 167.863 x + 34588 CC = – 0.29 4.0005 x + 86.640 31.306 x + 33732 x = total basin volume.416 4.4 x + 13488 3 2 4.33 4.000 25.

558 x + 217239 x + 263133 x = plant flow.0011 x – 1.0003 x + 69. ft 2 CC = – 0. mgd CC = 18815 x 0.38 4.Table 4.7418 2 2 Eq.42 49 8 30 13 1. mgd CC = 157157 x + 269123 x = plant flow.39 Component Cost-Percentages A B 10 0 10 0 40 60 C D E F G H Dual Media Mixed Media Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m 1 200 1 200 Capping Sand Anthracite Filters with 4. 1000 gal 2 CC = – 22.092 x + 71429 2 x = total filter area. mgd CC = 9.9 x + 20510 CC = 9434.586 CC = 802. gpd/sf . ft 3 2 CC = 4E–8 x – 0.000 500.3 x = plant flow.44 4.y 4.43 62 13 13 12 140 28.8 33.47 1 2 31 33 1 48 9 13 35 2 11 47 62 14 53 5 5 1 140 10. 4.94 x – 624.91 x x = basin capacity.41 38 56 6 140 28.000 4. gal 3 2 CC = 0. mgd y = membrane flux.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations CC = 5779.000 21 28.004 x + 250723 2 x = total filter area.0006 x + 49.0019 x + 81. ft 3 2 CC = 11.000 Modification of Rapid Sand Filters to High Rate Filters Backwash Pumping Facilities 41 4.3924 x + 1779 x = filter area.40 350 70. No.0 Hydraulic Systems Surface Wash 4.1 .471 x + 1265 x + 2867 x = storage volume.46 4.000 Air-Water Backwash Facilities Wash Water Surge Basins Wash Water Storage Tanks Continuous Automatic Backwash Filter Pressure Filtration Plants 4. gpm 2 CC = 0.4 x + 25491 x = plant flow rate. ft 0.48 47 9 29 7 8 1 200 Installed Membrane Equipments Filtration .49 10 0 0.03 x + 78749 x = total filter area.000 900 200 1 2 24 1 4.73 x + 23021 x + 67631 x = pumping capacity.45 4.

56 1 67 72 3 1 2 1 10 8 8 9 2 4 7 5 1.000 4.51 55 18 12 6 8 250 5. mgd CC = 53829 ln(x) – 59146 CC = 20.1 122.200 Re-carbonation Basin .0002 x + 10.7 135 4.000 770 1.51 x + 37137 x = feed capacity.50 Ammonia Feed Aqua Ammonia Feed Facilities Reverse Osmosis Ion Exchange Pressure Ion Softening 42 CC = 9E–6 x – 0.58 4.1 150 12.3 CC = 58.000 4.53 81 6 6 7 1 200 Exchange 4.000 10.0759 x + 204.0554 x + 57. 1000 gpd CC = – 170. ft 2 4.73 x + 165412 x + 447664 x = plant capacity. No. Component Cost-Percentages A B 37 C D E 8 F 13 G 20 H 22 Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m 1 500 Taste and Odor Control Potassium Permanganate Feed Systems Disinfection Anhydrous Facilities CC = – 0.264 x + 25081 x = feed capacity.6 Gravity Ion Exchange Softening Pressure Ion Exchange Nitrate Removal Fluoride Removal Activated Alumina for Fluoride Removal Stability Lime Feed Systems 4.04 x + 439556 x + 174939 x = plant capacity.0091 x + 39. lb/day 2 4. lb/day 2 CC = – 0.0007 x + 1203.065 x + 193268 x = lime feed capacity.55 4.60 8 63 67 22 24 2 3 43 5 6 3 5 6 25 18 10 1.438 x + 185206 x + 103524 x = plant capacity.027 x + 19287 3 x = single basin volume.000 35.57 51 17 20 2 10 0.59 4.Table 4.1 .54 52 1 12 17 10 8 1.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations Eq. lb/hr 3 2 CC = 4E–9 x – 0. lb/day 3 2 CC = 1E–06 x – 0.44 x + 283732 x + 37413 x = plant capacity.522 x + 23138 x = feed capacity.5 1. mgd 2 CC = 272. mgd 2 CC = – 123. mgd 2 3 2 4.1 x + 2000000 x = plant capacity.52 76 7 6 11 250 5.

0492 x + 1171. 12. ft 2 CC = – 429.62 55 24 17 4 500 10.65 1 18 6 3 20 33 3 16 140 28.925 Concrete Gravity Carbon Contactors.5 min Empty Bed Contact Time and 5 ft Bed Depth Concrete Gravity Carbon Contactors.63 46 31 15 8 2.68 44 1 10 22 3 20 10 40 4.500 50.5 min Empty Bed Contact Time and 8.5399 CC = 1490.64 60 31 1 8 179 2.6 x + 1000000 2 x = effective hearth area.67 43 1 10 22 3 21 5 100 Steel Gravity Carbon Contactors.9835 x + 7188.Table 4.578 x + 130812 x = installed capacity. 4.0005 x – 2.000 4. 7.5 min Empty Bed Contact Time and 5 ft Bed Depth CC = 897917 x + 822066 x = number of contactors CC = 1778. 20 ft deep Tanks Pressure Carbon Contactors – 7. 20 ft deep Tanks 4. lb/day 0. No.2 x x = installed capacity.8 x + 502902 x = total contactor area.1 .61 Component Cost-Percentages A B 55 C D E 25 F 13 G H 7 Re-carbonation – Liquid CO2 as CO2 Source Re-carbonation – Submerged Burners as CO2 Source Re-carbonation – Stack Gas as CO2 Source Multiple Hearth Recalcination Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m 380 15.074 x + 128953 x = installed capacity.000 4.0107 x + 46. 30 ft Diameter.000 4. 20 ft Diameter.5 x + 136180 2 4. lb/day 4 3 2 CC = – 7E–11 x + 2E–6 x – 0.0452 x + 1094. ft 3 2 CC = 1E-06 x – 0. ft .69 x + 491322 x + 8537 x = number of contactors 4. ft 3 2 CC = 1E–06 x – 0. lb/CO2/day 3 2 CC = 0.786 x = total contactor area.000 x = total contactor area.3 ft Bed Depth Steel Gravity Carbon Contactors.69 50 1 9 20 6 14 157 6.000 43 4.5 x + 561247 2 2 2 Eq.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units 3 Cost Equations CC = 9E–8 x – 0.001 x + 42.66 1 17 7 3 24 30 3 15 140 28.

000 24.75 64 21 1 5 9 2.786 x = total contactor area. 1000 gal 4.78 3 76 43 10 19 5 34 2 6 1 1 10 8. lb/day Clear Water Storage and Distribution 2 Below-Ground Clearwell Storage CC = – 0.0697 x + 1161.0011 x + 87.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations CC = 2000.0004 x + 41.116 x + 40083 3 4.509 x = furnace hearth area.70 Component Cost-Percentages A B 49 C 1 D E 8 F 19 G 6 H 17 Pressure Carbon Contactors – 15 min Empty Bed Contact Time and 10 ft Bed Depth Pressure Carbon Contactors – 30 min Empty Bed Contact Time and 20 ft Bed Depth Conversion of Sand Filter to Carbon Contactor (Carbon Bed Depth = 30”) Off-Site Regional Carbon Regeneration – Handling and Transportation Multiple Hearth Granular Carbon Regeneration Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m 157 6.0636 x + 585. ft 2 CC = – 0.7 x + 154612 2 Eq. 4.4067 CC = 406413 x 2 4.000 20.74 50 33 2 1 14 27 1.712 x + 69940 3 2 4.786 x = total contactor area.000 44 x = on-site storage capacity. ft 0. 1000 gal 3 2 CC = 4E–06 x – 0.400 60.77 4.000 x = contactor volume.000 4. lb/day 3 2 Granular Carbon Regeneration – CC = 2E–8 x – 0.400.1 .4 .73 15 3 30 47 5 1.72 10 26 63 1 875 175.308 x + Furnace 601190 x = regeneration capacity.00004 x + 60. No. ft 2 CC = 0.500 9. ft CC = 3185.71 51 6 19 4 20 157 6.0018 x + 93.5 7. ft 3 2 Infrared Carbon Regeneration CC = 1E–8 x – 0.965 x + Fluid Bed Process 2000000 x = regeneration capacity.000 4.1 x + 205007 4.76 66 25 1 8 6.7 x + Ground-Level Clearwell Storage 86980 x = clearwell capacity.Table 4.9 x + 115431 x = clearwell capacity.

In-Plant Pumping Pumping CC = – 4.453 x + 9607.85 Thickened Sludge 22130 x = pumping capacity.3 x + 68377 x = diameter. Component Cost-Percentages A B C D E F G H Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m Finished Water Facilities TDH = 30 ft.80 4.Table 4.3 896 50 19 7 1 23 10 500 . ft 3 2 CC = 16.000 45 68 16 4 3 9 5 1.86 2833.33 x + 4.7 x + Filter Press 4.758 x + 12402 x + 84932 x = plant flow. mgd 2 4.0133 x – 12.685 x + 5635.81 44 60 17 2 2 13 10 39 28 17 28 15 13 6 6 1.9 x + 28173 x + 53608 x = plant capacity. gpm 61 32 2 15 6 4 18 26 31 6 25 30 9 3 5 6 14 7 1 1 20 200 200 10.1 .87 2 x = total filter area. ft 3 2 CC = 0.0004 x – 0. No. mgd 2 CC = 62.250 4 39 13 12 31 1 20 150 50 5 4 61 4 26 26 2 16 1 21 9.90 411407 x = machine capacity.4 0.537 x + Gravity Sludge Thickeners 4.1909 x – 85.954 x + 218790 x + 498789 Pressure Diatomite Filters 4.3 x + Decanter Centrifuges 4.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations Eq.0039 x – 1.88 14155 x = effective storage volume.041 x – 1483.0246 x + 174.1664 x + 1863 x + 465811 Vacuum Filters 4.0093 x – 12.5 1. ft 2 CC = – 0.83 x = plant flow.3 1.320 60 21 1 1 16 4. TDH = 100 ft.89 734176 3 x = total filter press volume. gpm 4 3 2 CC = 0.8889 x + 13015 x + 44288 3 2 CC = 0.5 1 300 300 200 Residuals Processing and Disposal 2 CC = – 76. gpm 3 2 Chemical Sludge Pumping – CC = 0.099 x + 280763 x + 207572 Vacuum Diatomite Filters 4.7412 x + 494.82 x = plant flow.82 x + 4.84 Unthickened Sludge 89824 x = pumping capacity. mgd 3 2 Chemical Sludge Pumping – CC = 1E–6 x – 0.3 x + 60825 x + Sludge Dewatering Lagoons 4. million gallons 3 2 CC = 0. mgd 2 CC = 11.0079 x + 82.79 4.

G = electrical and instrumentation.94 10 0 1 200 x = plant capacity.93 5 65 10 2 58 24 25 3 8 5 15 400 450 Management Administrative.6 720 Sand Drying Beds Belt Filter Press 4.9857 x + 10798 x + 14836 2 x = total bed area capacity.91 Component Cost-Percentages A B 52 C D E 20 F 5 G 1 H 22 Basket Centrifuges Applicable Ranges of x Maximu Minimu m m 3.1326 x + 53.Table 4.0727 x + 48.06 x + 522542 x = total machine capacity. B = manufactured equipment.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations CC = 0.09 x – 710. C = concrete. 4.92 4. 1000 ft 3 2 CC = – 0. Laboratory and Maintenance Building 4.5523 4 3 2 Eq. 1000gpd 2 CC = – 9. E = labor. D = steel.1 . gpm CC = 69195 x 0. F = pipes and valaves. and H = housing 46 .0001 x – 0.326 x + 13071 x + 389081 x = total installed machine capacity. mgd CC = September 2009 construction cost. No. A = excavation and sitework.

ft 3 2 CC = – 0. gpm Filtration Rate 5 gpm/sq.1356 x + 971.35 x + 2607 2 x = filter area.102 1 67 1 5 6 1 19 30 720 Package Ultrafiltration Plants 4. ft. 1000 gpd 3 2 2 4 10 4.5 x plant capacity.0021 x – 0.9 x + 38246 x = plant flow.400 280 280 280 47 Package Filters Package Filters Pressure Diatomite 4.7213 x + 860. ft. 3 2 CC = 0.8109 x + 2016.7 x + Plants 60520 x = 2.37 x + Package Gravity Filter Plants 268511 x = 2. gpm Filtration Rate 2 gpm/sq.0259 x + 121.98 4. Filter Media 3 2 CC = 0.0013 x – 1. x = plant capacity.000 Vacuum Diatomite 4.101 28 1.37 x + 402 Rapid Sand Dual Media (Coal-Sand) Mixed Media CC = – 0. gpm Filtration Rate 2 gpm/sq.0059 x – 5.9505 x + 275.Table 4.2286 x + 104.000 .4823 x + 179.0895 x + 2024.103 63 1 9 1 8 18 2.4 x + 119909 x = plant flow.5 x plant capacity. x = plant capacity.64 x + 127018 x = plant capacity.5 x plant capacity.0004 x – 0.400 560 1.100 10 0 10 0 10 0 1 57 1 10 4 3 24 4 4 4 560 1. 4.95 Component Cost-Percentages A 1 B 41 C 1 D E 12 F 3 G 13 H 29 Applicable Ranges of x Minimu Maximu m m Package Complete Treatment CC = – 0.99 4. gpm Filtration Rate 5 gpm/sq. 3 2 Package Pressure Filtration CC = 0. gpm Filtration Rate 2 gpm/sq.5 1.0003 x + 0.0003 x – 0.2: Generalized Construction Cost Equations Applicable for 2.91 x + 596 CC = 0. 1000 gpd 3 2 CC = 0.400 560 1. x = plant capacity.0005 x – 0. ft.500 gpd to 1 mgd Water Treatment Plants Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations 2 Eq. ft. gpm Filtration Rate 5 gpm/sq. No. gpm 3 2 CC = 0. ft.97 41 2 16 2 7 32 80 200 4. ft.96 1 23 16 10 7 11 32 80 200 4.3 x + 151058 Plants x = 2.4383 x + 887.

109 34 29 10 10 3 9 3 3 50 49 2. lb/day CC = 11.4414 x + 26179 x = plant capacity.954 x = plant capacity. gpd 3 2 CC = 2E–13 x – 4E–07 x + 0.0084 x – 5.111 4.636 x + 7302.110 4.00 0 10 13.000 .113 4.112 65 81 48 3 1 13 15 8 7 3 22 0.114 1 58 59 5 4 13 4 4 12 24 16 10 2.179 x + 9042 x = plant capacity.5 850 34 4. lb/hr CC = 11. gpm 2 CC = – 1E–6 x + 3.7 350 Potassium Permanganate Feed Systems Polymer Feed Systems Powdered Activated Feed Systems Carbon 4.974 x = plant capacity.7586 x x = contactor volume.2233 x + 1318.000 Pressure Softening Ion Exchange 4.540 50 Ozone Generation Systems Ozone Contact Chambers Chlorine Dioxide Generating and Feed System Ultraviolet Light Disinfection Reverse Osmosis 4.323 x = plant capacity.000. gpm CC = 20.856 x + 888.4 x + 27144 x = plant flow.00 0 860.107 68 81 5 13 2 4 6 21 1 1 10 Direct Feed Gas Chlorination Sodium Feed Hypochlorite Solution 48 4. lb/day 0. gal CC = 26.105 21 6 6 2 65 1 4.106 4. gpd 3 2 Eq.2 .9048 CC = 5.108 4.0065 x + 93. gpd 2 CC = – 45.5000 100 1.500 780 1.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units Cost Equations CC = 0. No.000. 4. mgd CC = 50.08 x + 8061 x = feed system capacity.4275 x + 132617 x = plant capacity.115 1 34 2 2 13 20 16 12 70.4x + 58785 x = ozone generation capacity.Table 4.104 Component Cost-Percentages A B 24 C 2 D E 24 F 13 G 2 H 35 Package Granular Carbon Columns Activated Applicable Ranges of x Minimu Maximu m m 1. mgd 2 CC = – 37. lb/day 2 CC = 0.838 x = feed capacity.683 x = chlorine generating capacity.

118 31 17 19 15 18 16300 800. ft 2 CC = – 0.5112x + 3117 4 79 15 500 30.500 30.03 x + 29989 x = pumping capacity.2911 CC = 5600.7024 x + 217. gpd 4 3 2 CC = – 2E–18x + 4E–12x – 2E–6 x + 0. gal 3 2 CC = 6E–10 x – 0.1 x x = plant capacity. and H = housing . gpd 0. D = steel.700 910.000 4.8756 x + 126895 x = plant capacity.121 2 x = storage volume.000 4.continued Construction Costs Treatment Units 3 Cost Equations CC = 3E–13 x – 4E–7 x + 0. ft CC = September 2009 construction cost. F = pipes and valaves.0012 x – 0.000 4.004 x + 21.6293 x + Sludge Dewatering Lagoons 13 28 25 1.000 Package Raw Water Pumping Facilities.122 3 4 5960 3 x = effective lagoon volume.000 Bone Char Fluoride Removal 4.321 x + 2593 Sand Drying Beds 36 4 27 28 200 800 4.120 78 14 6 2 30 1. A = excavation and sitework. gpm 2 CC = – 1E–5 x + 2.00002 x + 0.119 9 52 5 23 9 2 20 700 4. gpd 4 3 2 CC = – 7E–7 x + 0. G = electrical and instrumentation. E = labor.117 24 15 27 23 11 12.2 .116 Component Cost-Percentages A B 49 C 1 D 1 E 9 F 17 G 13 H 10 Pressure Ion Exchange Nitrate Removal Activated Removal Alumina Fluoride Applicable Ranges of x Minimu Maximu m m 70. 4. TDH = 50 ft Package High Service Pumping Stations Steel Backwash/Clearwell Tanks 4.995 x + 28397 2 Eq.123 5 2 x = bed area. C = concrete.000 830.Table 4. B = manufactured equipment. gpm 2 CC = – 0.0189 x + 49.100 49 x = pumping capacity.5706 x + 130264 x = plant capacity. No.

133 18 2 3 6 76 70 27 41 44 74 75 68 85 16 20 56 13 8 23 29 9 8 10 17 2 10 2.000 4.048 x + 53991 x = regeneration capacity.127 4. lb/day 2 O&MC = – 0.2 x + 23723 O&MC = 8709. I J K L M Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um Treatment Units Raw Water Pumping Raw Water Pumping Facilities TDH = 30 ft. mgd 3 2 4.8195 x + 43965 2 O&MC = – 0.570 4.9 0. TDH = 100 ft.1722 x + 42499 x = chlorine feed capacity.00006 x + 2.130 4.0106 x + 105.000 10. 1000 ft 4. lb/hr 3 2 O&MC = 3E–8 x – 0.0085 x + 65.5 x + 23723 x = plant capacity.131 4.136 74 63 25 22 1 15 1.000 10.000 3.129 4. lb/day O&MC = 19557 x + 76673 3 x = aeration basin volume. lb/day 2 O&MC = – 0.135 4.0034 x + 147.000 5.Table 4. Cost Equations No.132 4.125 73 81 22 15 5 4 1 1 200 200 O&MC = 5E–7 x – 0.019 x + 20205 2 O&MC = – 0.5 220 10. lb/day O&MC = 56.000 2.3: Generalized O&M Cost Equations Applicable to 1 mgd to 200 mgd Water Treatment Plants Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq.000 32. 1000 ft O&MC = 1525. lb/day 2 O&MC = – 0.000 10.68 380 256 . Pretreatment Chlorine Storage and Feed Cylinder Storage On-site storage tank with rail delivery Direct feed from rail car Chlorine Dioxide Generating and Feed 50 Ozone Generations Systems On-Site Hypochlorite Generation Systems Powdered Activated Carbon Feed Systems Powdered Carbon Regeneration – Fluidized Bed Process Powdered Carbon Regeneration – Atomized Suspension Process Aeration Diffused Aeration Basin Aeration Towers O&MC = 5768.44 x + 25004 x = hypochlorite generation rate.82 x + 32441 x = chlorine dioxide feed capacity.32 x + 33867 x = ozone generation capacity.134 7 75 16 2 1.07 x + 54144 x = feed capacity.0093 x + 354.2 x + 4343 3 x = aeration tower volume.000 1 10 10 3.000 7.003 x + 5.500 10.128 4.16 x + 68295 x = regeneration capacity.124 4.126 4.012 x + 300. lb/day 2 O&MC = – 0.0204 x + 262.

0008 x + 2. Cost Equations No.00 0 Coagulation.continued Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq. lb/day 3 2 O&MC = – 3E–8 x + 0.149 65 20 15 1.2757 x + 6594 x = total basin volume.5908 x + 6872 2 x = surface area.137 4.151 25 5 67 72 8 23 20 30 150 200 .3 .8375 x + 22588 3 x = total basin volume.143 4.3 1 10 10 100 100 100 5.139 4.645 x + 12194 x = feed capacity.800 4.000 1.7157 x + 24019 2 x = net effective settling area.141 4.000.000 10.142 4.575 x + 14170 x = feed capacity.000 5.0001 x – 0. ft 3 2 O&MC = 3E–13 x – 4E–7 x + 0.150 4. G = 20 Flocculation – Horizontal Paddle Systems. lb/day O&MC = 4.660 200 5. I J K L M O&MC = 2118 x 2 O&MC = 0. Precipitation and Flocculation Liquid Alum Feed System Dry Alum Feed System Ferrous Sulfate Feed Systems Ferric Sulfate Feed Systems Polymer Feed Systems Sulfuric Acid Feed Systems Sodium Hydroxide Feed Systems 51 Rapid Mix.5692 x + 6748 x = total basin volume. gpd 2 O&MC = 0.400 5.146 4.8308 x + 22588 3 x = total basin volume.800 O&MC = – 0.0004 x + 44. ft 4.0168 x + 10.0008 x + 7.000 20. ft O&MC = 36.000.425 x + 14152 3 2 O&MC = 0.148 55 31 14 1.145 4.Table 4.318 x + 6040 x = total basin volume.639 x + 14147 x = feed capacity.7 13.144 4. Lime Sludge 2 3 3 3 0. ft 3 2 O&MC = 3E–13 x – 5E–7 x + 0.8361 x + 6649 x = feed capacity.0 00 500.138 4.0004 x + 41. ft 3 2 O&MC = – 3E–8 x + 0. ft Sedimentation Upflow Solids Contact Clarifiers Circular Clarifiers. lb/hr 2 O&MC = 0.293 Treatment Units Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um 5. G = 900 Flocculation – Horizontal Paddle Systems.000 20. G = 80 4.00005x + 1.4 10 10. ft 3 2 O&MC = 7E–10 x – 0. ft 2 O&MC = – 3E–7 x + 0.096 x + 18928 3 x = total basin volume.000 20.350 6. G = 600 Rapid Mix. lb/hr 2 O&MC = 0. G = 300 Rapid Mix.147 52 13 13 13 20 4 28 44 62 84 12 45 86 86 86 74 94 68 55 38 16 42 3 1 1 1 6 2 4 1 46 1.6736 x + 5513 x = feed capacity.00007 x + 3.800 4.0002 x – 0.140 4. G = 50 Flocculation – Horizontal Paddle Systems.0 00 1.0003 x + 33.

mgd 3 2 3 2 3 2 Treatment Units Circular Clarifiers.0651 x – 345. mgd 3 2 O&MC = 1. lb/day O&MC = 7E–7 x – 0.7 x + 47252 x = plant flow rate. ft 3 2 O&MC = 3E–9 x – 0. mgd 3 2 O&MC = 1.3 .238 x + 7077.3285 x + 95.000 5.154 4.800 4.000 200 Pressure Diatomite Filters Vacuum Diatomite Filters Pressure Filtration Plants Taste and Odor Control Potassium Permanganate Feed Systems Disinfection Anhydrous Ammonia Feed Facilities Aqua Ammonia Feed Facilities Reverse Osmosis 4.000 28.39 x + 48425 x + 119921 x = plant flow.158 31 51 44 51 63 62 32 53 17 33 7 17 3 32 4 1 140 140 140 1 200 28.157 4. lb/day O&MC = 391189 x + 207533 x = plant capacity.000 28.155 4.2532 x – 81.1929 x – 48. Ferric and Alum Sludge Rectangular Clarifiers Filtration Gravity Filtration Structures Backwash Pumping Facilities Hydraulic Surface Wash Systems Air-Water Backwash Facilities 52 Continuous Automatic Backwash Filter 4.159 4.165 6 1 57 68 89 1 26 10 42 250 250 1 5.152 4.162 4 95 1 1 500 4.2485 x + 7748 2 x = Surface Area.0001 x + 4. mgd 3 2 O&MC = 3E–9 x – 0.161 52 48 41 44 48 49 4 4 10 1 1 1 200 200 200 4.2 ln(x) + 8594 x = feed capacity.Table 4.5792 x + 6734 2 x = surface area.7276 x + 7107 x = feed capacity. Cost Equations No.160 4. ft 2 O&MC = – 0. lb/day 3 2 O&MC = 2E–8 x – 0.0001 x + 4.0002 x + 0. mgd 3 2 O&MC = 0.00003 x + 4.00005 x + 1.156 4.8 x + 39086 x = plant flow.0002 x + 3.164 4. gpm 3 2 O&MC = 4E–9 x – 0. ft 3 2 O&MC = – 0.8176 x + 4446 2 x = total filter area.153 3 3 73 88 24 9 Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um 30 200 240 4. ft O&MC = 0.continued Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq.0057 x + 20.023 x + 8242.18 x + 45849 x + 106841 x = plant flow. mgd O&MC = 2840.8751 x + 10915 x = pumping capacity.1709 x – 370.527 x + 16236 x + 66980 x = plant flow. I J K L M O&MC = 7E–10 x – 0.163 4.000 200 .58 x + 26763 x = feed capacity.905 x + 10915 2 x = total filter area.

7 x x = feed capacity.166 4.6 1.102 x + 11322 x + 106281 x = plant capacity.000 10.167 4.551 x + 9322 x = installed capacity.5 1.174 4. In-Plant Pumping TDH = 35 ft TDH = 75 ft Residuals Processing and Disposal Multiple Hearth Recalcination 4.000 4. mgd O&MC = 0.04 x + 3754.039 x + 18861 x + 102201 x = plant flow rate.Table 4. mgd 3 2 O&MC = – 226.168 14 9 4 36 36 27 50 55 69 Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um 1. TDH = 100 ft. lb/day 3 2 O&MC = 5E–10 x – 0. Cost Equations No.500 50.7312 x + 4608 x = installed capacity. mgd O&MC = 6506 x + 23506 O&MC = 12388 x + 23506 x = pumping rate.2149 x + 1333. mgd O&MC = 4616.7 135 4. lb/day 3 2 O&MC = 1E–8 x – 0.172 4 32 12 82 93 23 3 3 45 3 10 380 500 10.175 75 90 20 8 5 2 1. ft 3 2 4.00008 x – 0.173 55 27 18 2.0004 x + 6.continued Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq.3 .4589 2 Treatment Units Pressure Ion Exchange Softening Gravity Ion Exchange Softening Pressure Ion Exchange Nitrate Removal 4.170 4.3 Activated Alumina for Fluoride Removal Stability Lime Feed Systems Re-carbonation – Liquid CO2 as CO2 Source 53 Re-carbonation – Submerged Burners as CO2 Source Re-carbonation – Stack Gas as CO2 Source Clear Water Storage and Distribution Finished Water Pumping Facilities TDH = 30 ft. mgd 2 O&MC = 6. mgd O&MC = 15935 x + 108481 x = plant flow rate.171 4.0008 x + 35.00004 x + 3.5 300 300 4.925 .5 x + 49769 x + 109914 x = plant capacity. lb/CO2/day 0.5 1.176 4. lb/day 3 2 O&MC = 4E–8 x – 0.178 6 63 28 3 179 2.169 12 52 36 0.1 150 12.1 122.177 75 86 20 11 5 3 1 1 200 200 4.000 15. I J K L M O&MC = – 12.000 O&MC = 6296 x + 22339 O&MC = 16097 x + 22339 x = plant capacity.19 x + 10265 x = installed capacity.5 x + 180001 2 x = effective hearth area.

186 26 27 47 20 10. ft 2 O&MC = – 0.190 4. ft 2 O&MC = – 2.192 x + 109145 x = regeneration capacity.3 150 1.4 10 4.000 4. ft 2 O&MC = – 0. ft 3 2 O&MC = 0.568 x + 4554 x = diameter. lb/day 3 2 O&MC = 3E–7 x – 0. lb/day O&MC = 15.288 x + 340.181 43 52 5 10 40 4. ft 2 O&MC = – 0. gpm 2 O&MC = 0.0111 x + 352.505 x + 53026 2 x = total contactor area.000 60.185 66 9 42 29 36 5 13 2. 30 ft Diameter.2581 x + 2202.continued Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq.87 x + 353816 3 x = total filter press volume.0443 x + 117.183 28 7 61 60 30 12 2 157 27 6.188 4.180 31 47 62 46 7 7 Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um 140 28. Cost Equations No.0021 x + 3.3 x + 81957 x = furnace hearth area.0055 x + 40.00002 x + 37.000 24.320 5.187 43 31 26 5 1.000 896 .191 9 26 7 10 73 53 92 88 18 21 1 2 20 9.179 4.000 4. 20 ft deep Tanks Pressure Carbon Contactors Multiple Hearth Regeneration 54 Granular Carbon 4.88 x + 6447 x = pumping rate.0029 x + 100.87 x + 4914 3 x = volume of sludge removed. gpm 2 O&MC = – 0.3 . 1000 ft 3 2 O&MC = – 0.0007 x – 1.71 x + 97478 2 x = total surface area. 20 ft Diameter.000 5 100 4.184 4.182 4. ft 2 Treatment Units Concrete Gravity Carbon Contactors Steel Gravity Carbon Contactors.189 4.400 6.503 x + 128481 x = regeneration capacity.509 Infrared Carbon Regeneration Furnace Granular Carbon Regeneration – Fluid Bed Process Chemical Sludge Pumping – Unthickened Sludge Chemical Sludge Pumping – Thickened Sludge Gravity Sludge Thickeners Vacuum Filters Sludge Dewatering Lagoons Filter Press 4.250 4.786 1.98 x + 10803 x = pumping rate.0894 x + 26464 x + 74238 x = number of contactors 2 O&MC = – 140.03 x + 62173 x + 9742 x = number of contactors 2 O&MC = – 0.Table 4.4225 x + 84. 20 ft deep Tanks Steel Gravity Carbon Contactors. I J K L M O&MC = 45.4542 x + 1441 x + 48536 2 x = total filter area.

gpm O&MC = 1056.4529 0. Laboratory and Maintenance Building 4.192 4. 1000 ft 2 O&MC = 0.5981 x + 1598.h. M = Maintenance Material Cost 55 .00898/scf.82/hr. J = Natural Gas Cost at $0.4 x + 26656 x = sludge flow rate.196 10 85 5 1 200 x = plant capacity. mgd I = Electricity Cost at $0.4168 Treatment Units Decanter Centrifuges Basket Centrifuges Sand Drying Beds Belt Filter Press Management Administrative. I J K L M O&MC = 19829 x x = feed sludge flow.0981/kW.194 4.6868 x + 1730 x + 24236 2 x = total sand drying bed area.4 x + 48127 x = feed sludge flow rate.Table 4.195 27 58 7 30 61 34 89 62 12 8 4 8 Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um 10 500 3. K = Diesel cost at $2.continued Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq.3 . 1000 gpd 2 O&MC = 0.6 5 15 720 400 450 4. L = Labor Cost at $45. Cost Equations No.193 4. gpm O&MC = 88589 x 0.626/gal.

432 x + 18957 x = plant capacity.1553 x + 160.0061 x – 5. Cost Equations No. Package Pressure Filtration Plants Filtration Rate 2 gpm/sq.7 1.209 4.000 350 Potassium Permanganate Feed Systems Polymer Feed Systems Powdered Activated Carbon Feed Systems Direct Feed Gas Chlorination 4.68 x + 128812 x = plant capacity.210 7 21 2 5 90 74 97 94 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 10 100 . Package Gravity Filter Plants Filtration Rate 2 gpm/sq.28 x + 17092 x = plant flow.7 28 30 2. ft.208 4.202 4. 1000 gpd 3 2 O&MC = 0. I J K L M O&MC = 0.97 x + 30678 x = plant capacity.0877 x + 256. mgd 2 O&MC = – 20.00002 x + 0. gpm O&MC = – 0.204 4. ft.46 x + 57972 x = plant capacity. lb/hr O&MC = 8893 x = Feed Capacity in lb/day 3 2 2 3 2 Treatment Units Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um 4 10 560 1.206 22 23 9 11 12 23 76 75 90 88 30 49 2 2 1 1 58 28 0. ft.205 4. gpm O&MC = – 0.62 x + 32178 x = plant flow.5 1. Filtration Rate 5 gpm/sq.397 x + 1523. gpm 3 2 O&MC = – 0.200 12 13 86 85 2 2 80 200 560 1.000 720 1.201 4.0005 x – 0. ft. gpm O&MC = 241.197 4. mgd O&MC = 12.199 4. Package Pressure Diatomite Filters Package Vacuum Diatomite Filters Package Ultrafiltration Plants Package Columns Granular Activated Carbon 56 4.0245 x + 83.0001 x + 0.3763 x + 140.8642 x + 611.3 x + 57882 3 2 O&MC = 0. gpm O&MC = 5127 x = plant capacity.539 x + 18973 3 2 O&MC = – 0.400 4.7 140 350 1.0141 x + 90.4: Generalized O&M Cost Equations Applicable for 2.0004 x – 0.1477 x + 122.91 x + 128821 2 O&MC = – 0. 1000 gpd 3 2 O&MC = 0.203 4.5 x + 7466 x = feed system capacity.207 4.0001 x + 0. ft.0002 x – 0.500 gpd to 1 mgd Water Treatment Plants Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq.156 x = plant capacity.400 Package Complete Treatment Plants Filtration Rate 2 gpm/sq.669 x + 2045.Table 4. Filtration Rate 5 gpm/sq.13 x + 4959 x = plant flow. ft.0142 x + 105.198 10 11 87 86 3 3 4. Filtration Rate 5 gpm/sq.

gpd 2 O&MC = – 199.00 0 12. ft /yr 3 2 Treatment Units Sodium Hypochlorite Solution Feed 4.continued Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq.0049 x + 26. gpd 3 2 O&MC = 1E–13 x – 2E–7 x + 0.1517 x + 39162 x = plant flow rate. gpd 57 Pressure Ion Exchange Softening O&MC = 1E–13 x – 2E–7 x + 0.222 56 7 43 88 1 5 30 750 1.00 0 70.217 3 72 25 Activated Alumina Fluoride Removal 4.500 1.219 7 87 6 Package Raw Water Pumping Facilities.Table 4.215 33 38 21 27 46 35 10 2.000.70 0 16. gpm 2 O&MC = – 0.6 x + 2162 x = plant flow rate.4 .500 780 1. TDH = 50 ft Package High Service Pumping Stations Sludge Dewatering Lagoons 4.080 x = Plant Capacity.00 0 700 Pressure Ion Exchange Nitrate Removal 4.000 .212 4.30 0 20 860.885 x + 26400 x = plant capacity.348 x + 2344 x = pumping capacity. lb/day O&MC = 17. gpd O&MC = 12175 ln (x) – 76070 x = plant capacity.00005 x + 0. lb/day O&MC = 15.100 15.00 0 830.490 x = chlorine generating capacity. gpd 3 2 O&MC = 2E–13 x – 3E–7 x + 0. Cost Equations No.5 10 50 Ozone Generation Systems Chlorine Dioxide Generating and Feed System Ultraviolet Light Disinfection Reverse Osmosis 4.211 2 98 Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um 2.0963 x + 761 3 x = volume of sludge removed.221 4.0 00 0. gpd O&MC = 16.1869 x + 37854 x = plant capacity.220 48 49 3 4.218 2 94 4 Bone Char Fluoride Removal 4.708 x + 4194 x = pumping capacity.00 0 910.00 0 800.214 4.56 x + 3395 x + 16492 x = ozone generation capacity.000.213 11 3 87 96 2 1 4. gpm 3 2 O&MC = – 2E–9 x + 0. gpm 2 O&MC = – 3E–7 x + 0.2095 x + 38182 x = plant flow rate. I J K L M O&MC = 17.0 00 4.216 4 89 7 70.

2229 x + 6179 4. J = Natural Gas Cost at $0.0153 x + 3.626/gal. K = Diesel cost at $2.82/hr. L = Labor Cost at $45.223 1 1 98 2 x = bed area.continued Operation and Maintenance Costs Component CostPercentages Eq.4 .0981/kW. ft I = Electricity Cost at $0. Cost Equations No.h.00898/scf. I J K L M 2 Treatment Units O&MC = 0.Table 4. M = Maintenance Material Cost Sand Drying Beds Applicable Ranges of x Minim Maxim um um 200 800 58 .

4. CC = – 0.153. The clarifier design and O&M data are summarized below: Hydraulic loading on clarifier Optimum liquid alum dose Liquid alum unit cost Design life Interest rate Miscellaneous costs for special siteworks.4 Illustration An example of a rectangular clarifier is given below to illustrate the procedure for developing preliminary construction and O&M costs.61 x + 78329. Calculate liquid alum feed capacity required. 3.mg/L) x (1/24) d/hr = 209 lb/hr.3 mgd. The maximum limit of CC equation for rectangular clarifier is 4800 ft . present worth of O&M costs. Calculate September 2009 O&M cost of rectangular clarifier (Eq.).). Calculate construction cost of liquid alum feed system (Eq. For x = 4400 ft . 4. 4.900 ft . CC = $111. Provide eight rectangular clarifiers of 4400 ft surface area each. 5. and annual equivalent worth.15. overhead and profit. 3. Table 4.000 gpd / 860 gpd/ft = 34.700.000.18 per lb = 15 y = 6% 59 . Table 4.000.0031 x + 155. These costs are developed for February 2010.d.33.).0249 x + 280. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 860 gpd/ft = 20 mg/L 2 = $0.4. CC = $703. Calculate September 2009 construction cost of clarifier (Eq. Total surface area of rectangular clarifier required = 30. Design capacity of liquid alum feed system = 30mgd x 20 mg/L x (8.000. Table 4.624.34 lb/mgd. The clarifier is designed to remove the alum coagulated sludge. Construction cost of eight rectangular clarifiers is $5. 2. For x = 209 lb/hr.21 x + 54288. Calculate surface area of clarifier. administration and interest during construction =28% of total construction cost 1. The design capacity of the clarifier is 30 mgd and average flow is 15. CC = – 0.

labor and maintenance materials are 3%. $300/y respectively. 3. Component percent of electricity. Update O&M costs of liquid alum feed system to February. The updated February 2010 cost of electricity = $6210/y x (0. labor and maintenance materials are 52%. February 2010 construction cost = ($5.82) = $4620/y. O&MC = $10.620 respectively.624. 2010. 2010) respectively. and. 8. $182.0942/kW.2485 x + 7748. The September 2009 annual costs of each component are $6210.77/8585. February 2010 ENR CCI = 8671. Table 4. and $46.h (Energy Information Administration.100/y. and.77/8585.100. September 2009 O&M cost for rectangular clarifier = $206.793. labor = $182.O&MC = – 0.810/y. O&M cost for eight rectangular clarifiers is $206.800/y.100/y.).000 + $111. 88% and 9% respectively (Eq.82) = $185.57/45. For x = 4300 ft .137. Update O&M costs of rectangular clarifier to February.880/y.050. Calculate September 2009 O&M cost of liquid alum feed system (Eq. 2. For x = 209 lb/hr. and labor are 0. The updated February 2010 cost of electricity = $5250/y x (0. Update the construction cost of clarifier and alum feed system to February.77 (Engineering News-Record. 45% and 3% respectively (Eq. The September 2009 annual costs of each component are $5250/y.77 (Engineering News-Record. and $18.2).57/45. 2010).620/y x (8671.860/y. 3. February 2010 ENR CCI is 8671. Table 4. 6.293 2 2 . 2010).0942/0. labor = $4550/y x (46.050/y x (46. Component percent of electricity.57 (Engineering News-Record. September 2009 O&M cost for alum feed system = $10. 2010 (Eq. 9.30. Table 4. O&MC = $25.).).71) = $18.71) = $5. 3.14.880/y. 7. maintenance materials = $300/y x (8671. 2010.0981) = $5960/y.0942/0. and maintenance materials = $18. The updated February 2010 unit price of electricity.77/8585.00003 x + 4.030/y.71) = $300/y. Total February 2010 O&M cost of liquid alum feed system = $9960/y.981) = $5040/y. 60 . $4550/y.700) x (8671. 2010). O&MC = is 2118 x 0. Total February 2010 O&M cost of clarifiers = $209.

12.4 & 2.761. current natural gas price.5.18/lb = $167. 4.103 = $3.415. project present worth.5 Excel™ Template for Preliminary Cost Estimate of 1 mgd to 200 mgd Water Treatment Plants An Excel™ template was prepared for preliminary cost estimate of 1 mgd to 200 mgd water treatment plants. 11.1 Project Details This spreadsheet allows the user to enter basic project design data.103 = $1. current labor price. It allows the users to enter the design data to obtain desired outputs. Calculate the present worth of annual O&M cost.176.10.793. engineering. Special costs are 28 percent of construction cost.mg/L) x 365 d/y = 931.415.151. This template is a result of thesis and has been submitted as a supplementary file to the thesis. The template contains following spreadsheets: 4. and cost per gallon of water treated. fiscal.800 + $9960 + $167.660. and administrative) as percentage of construction cost.3 mgd x 20 mg/L x (8. Calculate the capital cost.200. The information users can input are date of estimate.460 + $7. The outputs include total capital costs. operation and maintenance costs. CRF = 0.103.761.34 lb/mgd. project location. Calculate February 2010 cost of liquid alum feed.3 mgd.06/(1 – 1.460.5) The design life of the facility is 15 yrs and interest rate is 6%.200 = $11.28 x $5. 2. design capacity.100 = $7. interest rate.670/y. Annual equivalent cost = $11.200. legal.176. the user can further select between using ENR Construction Cost Index or ENR Building Cost Index. Project PW = $3. annual equivalent worth.670)/0. and equivalent annual costs (Eq. Annual liquid alum cost in February 2010 = 931. current electricity price. PW of annual O&M cost = ($209. and special costs (general contractor’s overhead. If multiple index option is 61 . Total capital cost = 1. Annual liquid alum requirement = 15. project design life. The average plant flow = 15.d. current diesel price. If single index option is chosen. average plant flow (as percentage of design capacity). The user can use either single index or multiple indexes for cost updates.500 lb/y.660 x 0. expected inflation rate. land.500 lb/y x $0. The user is asked to enter current value of single index selected.06) –15 = 0. name of the project.

5. the user is asked to enter current value of all applicable indexes which are ENR Skilled Labor Index. Construction and O&M costs of each treatment unit selected by the user as required are presented as output. BLS Electrical Machinery and Equipment Index.5.selected. 4. 62 . The equations presented in Tables 10 & 12 are comprehensively used as built in equations.3 Summary of Capital Costs This spreadsheet presents summary of the capital costs obtained from the design criteria entered by the user. annual equivalent worth.4 Summary of O&M Costs This spreadsheet presents summary of the O&M costs obtained from the design criteria entered by the user.5. 4. 4. The users can also input self calculated other capital costs not covered by the built in equations of the template. Present value of the project. Update factors are calculated from the indexes entered by the user. The users can also input self calculated O&M costs not covered by the built in equations of the template. the users enter design criteria of each treatment unit that is part of the process train being evaluated. BLS Valves and Fittings Index. BLS General Purpose Machinery Index. ENR Building Cost Index. and BLS Producer Price Index for Commodity. BLS Concrete Ingredients Index. Annual cost for each year is presented in tabular form. However. the chemical costs not covered in “Unit Operation and Processes” spreadsheet must be entered separately in this spreadsheet. Current construction and O&M costs are automatically calculated through built in equations and update factors. 4.2 Unit Operation and Processes In this spreadsheet. BLS Steel Mill Products Index. and cost per gallon of water treated is presented. Most of the chemical costs are calculated through built in equations as well.5.5 Present & Annual Value This spreadsheet presents final output of the template.

4. 4. 63 . Illustration to show steps to utilize these equations to calculate present value and annual equivalent worth of a project was presented in this chapter. Excel™ template for estimation of capital and O&M costs of water treatment plants was also described.4 are essentially the results of this thesis. 4.3 and 4.1.6 Chapter Summary The cost equations presented in Tables 4.2.

and general local and nationwide economic conditions. weather. The total present worth and equivalent annual costs are used to evaluate and compare the economics of different alternatives.CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. detailed estimate of project costs are specific and cannot be generalized. and operation and maintenance cost equations are convenient way to develop preliminary cost estimates of water treatment plants during the planning phase. Actual construction costs of the projects heavily depend on the site conditions. detailed estimates of construction.1 Conclusions Generalized construction. Probability of human error is considerably decreased when cost equations are used instead of cost curves. use of these equations is recommended for evaluation of alternatives and arrangement of funds. The cost components included in these equations are general. 5. and labor should be used to develop detailed cost estimate of the project. and operation and maintenance costs cannot be generalized and must be developed for each specific project. the construction and O&M costs updating procedure using single ENR cost index can be used. If short time interval is involved. equipment. 64 . The detailed estimate of project costs require quantity take-offs of detailed design and actual prices provided by manufacturers. Designers may use same approach presented in this paper but with other cost indexes if desired. Therefore. Design details and cost estimates based on quantities of materials. suppliers and subcontractors. competetion among bidders and suppliers. The cost estimates developed from these equations are only preliminary estimates and do not represent the accutate cost estimate of the project. and to arrange for project funding and to secure engineering design services. Therefore. The construction and O&M equations presented in this thesis are quicker to use than the cost curves. However.2 Recommendations for Future Research The users of the cost equations presented in this thesis must be aware of the cost components included in the equations.

This comparison will help in evaluation of usefulness of cost equations and indexes in preliminary estimates of water treatment plant construction. It is essential to compare the result of the equations presented in this thesis with the actual cost data obtained from the industry. and O&M costs.It is recommended that the construction & O&M costs are updated at intervals of at five to eight years and new set of equations be presented in this time interval. 65 . Other available cost indexes (presented in Appendix A) should also be evaluated to see which index best fits to predict construction and O&M costs of water treatment plants.

APPENDIX A COST AND LOCATION INDEXES FOR THE UNITED STATES 66 .

fax: (703) 522-4985. www. phone: 800-388-0650. Economics and Finance Dept. and other operating expenses. materials. www.Table A. Taxes not considered. ACCRA Cost of Living Index (COLI) Cost of General living ACCRA. standard deviations and range for 59 costs.org. phone: (202) 639-2103. NW. Railroad Cost Index Equipm ent Construc tion rental rates Associated Equipment Distributors. Box 100127. DC 20001. Presents data in two forms: Composite Index and Average Prices.00 yearly Constru ction Railroad Compiler (quarterly or annually). www. Data for each year released the following May. DC 20008. fuel.aar. 50 F. phone: (703) 522-4980. P.org Compiler (annually) CED Magazine. fax: (630) 574-0132. Components include labor. fax: (202) 639. acquisitions.O. IL 60523. St. Contact Clyde Crimmel at (202) 6392309.1: Cost and Location Indexes for the United States Index Name Academic library price index Cost Measur e Operati on Industry Educatio n Compiler Information Research Association of Washington. info@aednet.. mean. Arlington. supplies. No geographic breakdown. 2605 Klingle Rd. Oak Brook. and contracted services.accra. For Index info: www. VA 22210.aednet. 615 West 22nd St. . or send email to ccrimmel@aar.. Washington.org Association of American Railroads. Subscription: $25. Washington. Composite Index is composed of six components. Average prices reports median.2350. (202) 966-3326 Index Availability Compiler (annually) Description Measures the inflation affecting the operation of academic libraries.org. including housing and health care. $350 for business members 67 Associated equipment distributor’s compilation of averaged rental rates for construction equipment Association of American Railroad. Used as a component in the Higher Education Price Index.. including personnel compensation.org Includes two rail cost indexes: Rail Cost Recovery Index (RCR) and the Rail Cost Adjustment Factor (RCAF). supplies and equipment. US nationally averaged rental rates for construction equipment items as reported by distributor members of association.coli.com Compiler (annually) Membership: $95 for professional members.

H. of Purchasing Agents (quarterly) Boeckh Building Cost Index Numbers. Engineering NewsRecord (quarterly cost roundup).gov Employment and Earnings (monthly). 2885 South Calhoun Road. 19 labor trades. Bulletin of the National Assoc. phone: (440) 544-2600. Virgin Islands. calculated from weighted cost changes of 115 components. .com E.info@theaustin.. concrete foundations and floors. Compiler (quarterly). Boeckh Co. 19 building labor trades.bls. hourly earnings. and 8 tax and insurance Elements. employment. and 7 tax and insurance elements. Cleveland. 89 building materials. PO Box 510291. at web site: http:// www.gov/ncs/ect/ Includes monthly and annual figures for all employees.theaustin. stats. overtime hours.1 – continued Cost Index Name Measur Industry e Austin BCI Building Industrial Compiler Information The Austin Company. and women workers. electrical. production workers. Boeckh Building Cost Index Building General Boeckh Building Cost Modifier Building General 68 Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment and Earnings for States and Areas Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment and Earnings for the United States Employ ment and earning s Employ ment and earning s General General Bureau of Labor Statistics. fax: (262) 7800306 Index Availability Engineering NewsRecord (quarterly cost roundup). phone: (800) 285-1288. Austin. One-year US subscription $82.bls. and plumbing. Puerto Rico. Index data for 11 building types in 202 US and 53 Canadian cities. sprinklers.. New Berlin. hours. Provides annual average data on industry. OH 44124-4186. DC 20212.bls. and 265 major labor areas. from weighted cost changes of 115 elements in each location. DC.. 6095 Parkland Blvd.00 Boeckh Building Cost Modifier Numbers. Since 1913. (202) 691-5900. fax: (440) 544-2684. HVAC. Engineering NewsRecord (quarterly cost roundup). and earnings for all 50 states. One-year US subscription $82. NE. 89 building materials. weekly earnings. weekly hours. WI 53151-0291. Postal Square Building. Also. US Department of Labor. Modifier is calculated for 11 building types in 190 US cities.00 Employment and Earnings (monthly). Wall Street Journal (daily).gov/ncs/ect/ Description Derived by periodically re-pricing a typical one-story steel frame industrial building of 116760 ft2 and an office building of 8325 ft2. www. Room 4110. at web site: http:// www. Includes labor and basic material costs including site work.com.Table A. 2 Massachusetts Ave. Also. Office of Public Affairs. Washington. mechanical.

Also. engineering.html Chemical Engineering (biweekly) annual subscription $495.gov/ Chemical Engineering.bls. Washington. Not seasonally adjusted. and Clerical Pay 69 Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index (CEPCI) Constru ction Plant (chemica l) . phone: (202) 691-6199.com. NE. Administrative.gov Index Availability For the indexes: http://stats. P. BLS National Survey of Professional.mcgraw-hill.Table A. www. Technical. Suite 4175. and supervision costs.htm Description Provides semi-annual wages and salaries. building materials.gpo. benefits. Engineering NewsRecord (bi-annually). Compiler’s release covers 34 types of dam and water projects. and Workers compen sation Bureau of Labor Produc er price Statistics Producer Price Index – Construction Machinery and Equipment Bureau of Constru Reclamation ction Industry General Compiler Information Bureau of Labor Statistics..release/eci.com/pindex/ Producer prices and price index (monthly) Nine categories of construction equipment and machinery. and Kippling. th Box 25007.che.toc. ENR publishes the BuRec’s general property index that measures costs for office and maintenance buildings associated with its projects. Cost Index for Private Industry benefits . McGraw Hill.gov/index . New York. 5 Ave. 1221 Avenue of the Americas. Productivity corrections for wages/salaries and engineering services. categorized by industry and occupational groups. labor. Office of Compensation and Working Conditions. http://www. US Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of hourly earnings (monthly). Cost components include equipment.. Monthly. stats. www.O. Website includes construction quarterly indexes for 36 types of structures. Denver Federal Center. since January 1947. Publications also at bookstore. Construc tion machiner y and equipme nt General Bureau of Reclamation. NY 10020. fax: (202) 691-6647. phone: (212) 512-2000. including Portable Air Compressors and Parts.usbr. DC 20212. Based on direct price reporting of typical transaction and list prices generally from manufacturer to distributor. but used throughout the process industry. Denver.bls. and compensation indexes for private industry workers. Specifically for a chemical process plant. CO 80225.1 – continued Cost Index Name Measur e Bureau of Labor Wages and Statistics salaries Employment . 2 Massachusetts Ave. phone: (303) 445-2784. Compiler (quarterly). Inc.gov/ news. machinery.

productivity rates. of Commerce Composite CCI Constru ction General 70 Dept of Commerce Schedule of Annual Indexes for Carriers by Railroad Dodge Building Cost Index Constru ction Railroad Interstate Commerce Div. CA 90026. NE. This reflects market conditions as well as price. BLS supplements (annually). Consumer Prices and Price Index (monthly). Cost components include grading.html Description Measures average changes in prices of about 400 goods and services bought by wage earners and clerical workers. of Commerce.1 – continued Cost Index Name Measur e Consumer Price Goods Index Industry Consum er Compiler Information Bureau of Labor Statistics. Components include labor (22 trades). DC 20212. Dept.Table A. and freight cars. DC 20423 Constru ction General Marshall and Swift. Construction Review (bi-monthly). since 1913.gov Bureau of the Census. bridges. A series of indexes that trends reproduction cost changes in railroad property and equipment. First.gov/pub/co nst/C30/indexes. Or. http://www.bls.marshallswift. Washington. (202) 691-7000. Suite 3130. Annually and monthly. Division of Consumer Prices and Price Indexes.bls. Compiled quarterly. individual prices for hard-to-find items. material.census.. Los Angeles.census. and equipment costs includes crew sizes. phone: (800) 5262756.com Compiler (annually) Dodge Unit Cost Guide . US Dept. stats. (800) 262-4729. 1617 Beverly Blvd. DC 20233. www. Publishes two construction related indexes.gov/cpi/ Construction Reports (monthly).gov Index Availability BLS press release (initial). Washington. 2 Massachusetts Ave. rail. Bureau of the Accounts. Since 1915. Washington. comwww. (800) 393–6343. Both published monthly. ties.marshallswift. Indexes applicable to national average only. Combination of various cost indexes weighted monthly to the current relative importance of major classes of construction. Weightings based on periodic surveys. locomotives. both families and single persons. and location factors for 1000 regions in US and Canada included. More info at http://www. a composite fixed-weight index is a ratio of the annual value of new construction put in place in current dollars to comparable values in 1992.. The second reflects changes in prices but also changes in the composition of value put in place. Engineering NewsRecord (quarterly cost roundup). Construction Statistics Division. This index reflects only a change in price. or get historical data (1964– 2003) at: www. tunnels.

plus fringe benefits for certain workers. Restructured when necessary. Annually.Record. Data obtained by averaging current wage rates for common labor on buildings and other construction and by averaging rates for bricklayers. and structures. Indexes of structural steel. since 1962.com Index Availability Engineering NewsRecord (weekly). SW.gov Price Trends for Federal-Aid Highway Construction (quarterly). Two Penn Plaza. Highway statistics (annually) Covers skilled labor wage rates.00 Highway-Federal US Department of Transportation. One year US subscription $82. One year US subscription $82. Derived from average unit bid prices for excavation. New York. Engineering NewsRecord (weekly).00 Description Applicable to structure construction.Table A. 71 . phone: (212) 904– 3507. based on base rates and fringe benefits. portland cement. cement and lumber. Washington. in dollars per hour for 20 cities in the US. Engineering NewsRecord (quarterly cost roundup). One year US subscription $82. One year US subscription $82. Survey of Current Business (monthly). Inc.. DC 20590.fhwa. and lumber materials.enr. Index also tracks union wages. structural steel shapes.1 – continued Cost Index Name Measur Industry e Constru General Engineering ction — NewsRecord Building structur e cost Cost Index dominat es Labor WageEngineering rate NewsRecord Common Labor Index Material General Engineering s NewsRecord Materials Cost Index Labor WageEngineering rate NewsRecord Skilled Labor Index Federal Highway Constru ction Administration (FHWA) Construction Bid Price Index HighwayFederal Compiler Information Engineering News.00 Engineering NewsRecord (weekly). and structural ironworkers in 20 US cities. Includes skilled labor. surfacing. Federal Highway Administration. 400 7th Street. Quarterly since 1972. Tracks cost of current prices for base period quantities. McGraw-Hill. Highway and heavy construction (quarterly). Obtained by weekly re-pricing of a hypothetical block of construction in 20 US cities.00 Engineering NewsRecord (weekly).dot. www. www. carpenters. NY 101212298.

Weightings and components revised when needed. fax: (410) 243-5716.com Whitman. Since 1912. Chatsworth. Baltimore@wrallp.1 – continued Cost Index Name Measur Industry e Fru-Con BCI Building Industrial Compiler Information Fru-Con Corporation. Suite 1645.Table A. www.businesscycle.. phone: (800) 6243352. DC 20008 Economic Cycle Research Institute.com.com Treats construction costs separately for electric. fax: (212) 557-9874. and telephone utility construction. Suite 203.com Index Availability Compiler (monthly) Description Based on an average industrial building in St. www. fruconinfo@frucon. Washington.wrallp.com .com Saylor Publications. Monthly. www. Created in 1986 and revised in 1994.htm . Louis). P. Requardt and Associates. Measures the price level of goods and services colleges and universities purchase for their current education operations. Box 100. For 6 US geographical regions in 48 contiguous states. A LaborMaterial Cost Index weighted at 54% labor and 46% materials. www. There is also an index for a reinforced concrete building. lumber. Journal of Commerce: www. plastics. New York. concrete mortar. Inc. gas. CA 91311.saylor. 9420 Topanga Canyon Blvd.O.95 per copy Indexes (from 1967 to 2005): www. metals. Lee Saylor went bankrupt in 1995.com . 2605 Klingle Rd. Components include 9 types of labor and 23 materials costs quoted in 20 cities. Metals.com/indexes . clay. Construction Costs: 74. phone: 1-800FRUCON. fax: (818) 718-8024.joc. Textiles and Miscellaneous. Handy-Whitman of Public Utility Construction Cost Index Constru ction Public utility Compiler (annually) Higher Education Price Index JOC-ECRI Industrial Price Index Operati on Educatio n Compiler (annually) Industrial Raw material s Compiler. saylor@saylor. Index now compiled by Saylor Publications.. phone: (212) 557-7788. Made of 18 components divided into 4 subindexes: Petroleum products. paint. MD 21231. or (636) 391– 6799. 420 Lexington Avenue.saylor. Components include current labor and materials costs (fridges. Inc. NY 10170. Louis region. 15933 Clayton Rd. Subcontractor Index also available for 21 materials. water. NW.. 72 Lee Saylor BCI Building General Compiler (monthly). Weightings adjusted if needed. This index is designed to yield a cyclical leading indicator of the inflation cycle. and glass). fax: (636) 391-4513.frucon.com Research Association of Washington. Ballwin (St. Baltimore. phone: (410) 2353450. 801 South Caroline Street. MO 63011.

com Index Availability Chemical Engineering. Tracks assemblies’ costs for 16 components in 305 US cities and Canadian cities. Marshall Valuation Service (monthly). appraisal Marshall Valuation Service (monthly). Components include materials.com CostWorks software. and pre-engineering steel frames.marshallswift.asp Description Represents a composite of the equipment costs of an entire plant based on a national average.. and national indexes. district. CA 90026. LA. Marshall and Swift Commercial Building Estimator Software Marshall and Swift Building Cost Index Building General Building Industrial . Houston.swiftestimator.95 (2006) Index is an average of 100 US cities combined into various regional. Since 1901. Chicago. fax: (800) 632-6732. Valuation Book (quarterly) Means Building Construction Cost Constru ction General Means Comple General Assemblies Cost te building Assemblies Means Concrete Constru General & Masonry Cost ction R. For more information: www. MA 02364-9988. agricultural or institutional buildings including all classes. reinforced concrete. Cost facts for virtually all concrete/masonry estimating needs. Kingston. Inc. Allows user to quickly estimate costs on nearly 250 commercial.1 – continued Cost Index Name Measur e Equipm Marshall and ent Swift Industrial Equipment Cost Index Industry General Compiler Information Marshall and Swift. Tracks construction costs for 16 components in 305 US cities and Canadian cities and 50 components for New York. shapes and quality levels. www. phone: (800) 5262756. 63 Smiths Lane.95 (2005) and $154. Also available for 18 Canadian cities. phone: (800) 334-3509. S. 73 . Los Angeles. retail. Means Company. Allows user to access industry-standard Means construction costs. National averages for 30 largest US cities included. National averages for 30 largest US cities included. Covers 48 industries with the general average for all.500 selected entries.com/ ce. wood. sizes. Since 1913. PO Box 800.Table A. $142. www. industrial. Unit cost section contains more than 8.rsmeans. Valuation Book (quarterly) Commercial Estimator. equipment and labor. Tracks costs of 5 types of buildings in various parts of US: fire-proof steel. masonry. from complicated formwork to various sizes and face finishes of brick and block. 1617 Beverly Blvd. and Boston.

95 (2005) and $154. MA 02364-9988. Washington. DC 20212. Based on sales of large lots in the primary market. FAX: (918) 831–9776. materials. such as Crude Materials and Finished Goods. instrumentation. electrical machinery. $142. construction and renovation of commercial.gov Bureau of Labor Statistics.census. Tulsa.. phone:(918) 832– 9301. NE. labor. Components include fuel. .rsmeans.gov/c onst/www/newresconstin dex.pennnet.pennnet.1 – continued Cost Index Name Measur e Means Constru Electrical Cost ction Industry General Compiler Information R..com Index Availability CostWorks software. maintenance. this index provides quarterly starts and completions. S. and investment costs. BLS press release (initial). and institutional properties.7705. www. Inc.html Provides index including building permits. www. municipal.95 (2005) and $356. Producer Price Index. Listed separately and by groups. reported by survey. 74 Oil and Gas Journal Measures inflation effects on refinery operating costs. Washington.95 (2006) Oil and Gas Journal Description More than 15.com/cd_anchor_ home/ Oil and Gas Journal. chemicals.. housing starts and housing completions. ogj. Means Facilities Construction Cost Constru ction General Provides costs associated with maintenance. Residential Construction Branch. fax: (918) 831–9776. Since 1926. (202) 691. Since 1890. $329. Tulsa. Sheridan Rd. DC 20233. Allows user to access industry-standard Means construction costs. Producer Prices and Price Index (monthly). 2 Massachusetts Ave. Covers all commodities produced or imported and sold in US primary markets. industrial. 1421 S. OK 74112. Nelson-Farrar Refinery Construction Cost Index Constru ction Refinery Nelson-Farrar Refinery Operating Cost Index Operati ng Refinery New Residential Construction Index Constru ction Housing construct ion Producer Price Index Goods Producer Oil and Gas Journal. 4700 Silver Hill Road. Suite 3840. phone:(918) 832– 9301. heat exchangers. BLS supplements (annually). PO Box 800.com/cd_anchor_ home/ Bureau of the Census. Information on web site http://www. OK 74112.census. Sheridan Rd. Means Company. (301) 763–5160. stats. phone: (800) 334-3509.95 (2006) CostWorks software.gov Components include process equipment. By US and regions. 1421 S.Table A. Allows user to access industry-standard Means construction costs. and labor costs. ogj. 63 Smiths Lane.. fax: (800) 632-6732. Kingston.000 unit and systems costs with design tables.bls.

Washington. AZ 85214-9103.gov http://www. Washington.. Washington. Inc. AZ 852149103. Tracks average labor rates for various types of construction crews.bls. phone: (480) 497-2062. NE. Inc. stats. FAX: (480) 497-5529 Research Association of Washington.org/ Index Availability Compiler (annually) Description Measures the inflation affecting university research funding and expenditures. DC 2008 Bureau of Labor Statistics. phone: (202) 691-7101. Source: Remer et al. phone: (480) 4972062. fax: (480) 497-5529 Richardson Engineering Services. PO Box 9103. Mesa. fax: (202) 691-7179. 2 Massachusetts Ave. 2605 Klingle Rd. Suite 3955.Table A. Monthly indexes by locality of origin are available US Periodical Price Index Periodic General als American Libraries (annual) Includes indexes that track change in annual subscription of periodicals. NW. Compiler (semiannually) Construc tion Compiler (semiannually) Operati on Importe d and exporte d goods Educatio n General Compiler (annually) For the indexes: stats. Office of International Prices. PO Box 9103. DC 20212. Provides indexes of goods or services purchased from abroad by US residents (imports) or sold to foreign buyers by US residents (exports). htm Measures the price level of goods and services purchased by primary and secondary education institutions. NW. this has breakdowns by subject categories and ranks by subscription price increases . Also. Enables detailed labor cost estimation for construction projects.1 – continued Cost Index Name Measur e Goods Research and Development Price Index Labor Richardson Construction Cost Trend Reporter Richardson International Construction Factors School Price Index 75 United States Import and Export Price Index Locatio n factors Industry Educatio n Construc tion Compiler Information Research Association of Washington. Provides location factors based on typical process plants for 14 major process industry locations around the world. Mesa. (2008) . 2605 Klingle Rd. DC 20008 Richardson Engineering Services...gov/mxp/home. Averaged for the entire US.ala.bls.

APPENDIX B CONTROLLED SINGLE INDEX UPDATES AT INTERVAL OF 8 AND 10 YEARS 76 .

000 Updated Construction Cost $5.000 $6.000. and Controlled Single Index.000 $0 1977 1987 Year Figure B.000 $100.000 $300. Updated Using Single Index.000.000.000 $3.000 $500. 8 yr Interval 77 .000.000. and Controlled Single Index.000 $1.000 $600.2: Construction Costs of 50 mgd Gravity Filtration Structure. Multiple Indexes.1: Construction Costs of 3600 ft Rectangular Clarifier. Multiple Indexes.000.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 1997 2007 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index Figure B. 8 yr Interval 2 Updated Construction Cost Single Index Multiple Indexes Controll ed Single Index 1997 2007 $7.000 $4.000 $200.000 $2.$700. Updated Using Single Index.000 $400.000.

000 $0 1977 1987 Year 1997 2007 Figure B.000 $200.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 1997 2007 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controll ed Single Index Figure B.000 $300. Multiple Indexes.000 $100.000 $450.000 $350.3: Construction Costs of 540 lb/hr Capacity Liquid Alum Feed System. Updated Using Single Index.000 $50.$250. 8 yr Interval $500.000 $250.000 $50.000 $150.000 $150. Updated Using Single Index. and Controlled Single Index.4: Construction Costs of 2000 lb/day Chlorine Storage and Feed System.000 Updated Construction Cost $400.000 Updated Construction Cost $200. 8 yr Interval 78 . Multiple Indexes and Controlled Single Index.000 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlle d Single Index $100.

000 $300.5: Construction Costs of 1400 ft Filter Area Capacity Air-Water Backwash.$600. 8 yr Interval $700.6: Construction Costs of 3600 ft Rectangular Clarifier.000 $600.000 Updated Construction Cost $500.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 2 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlle d Single Index 1997 2007 Figure B. Multiple Indexes.000 Updated Construction Cost $500. Updated Using Single Index.000 $400. Updated Using Single Index.000 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index $300.000 $100. and Controlled Single Index.000 $400.000 $100.000 $200.000 $200. and Controlled Single Index. Multiple Indexes. 10 yr Interval 79 .000 $0 1977 1987 Year 2 1997 2007 Figure B.

000. 10 yr Interval $250. 10 yr Interval 80 .7: Construction Costs of 50 mgd Gravity Filtration Structure.000 Updated Construction Cost $200. Updated Using Single Index.8: Construction Costs of 540 lb/hr Capacity Liquid Alum Feed System.000 $2.000 $3.000 Updated Construction Cost $5.000 $4. Multiple Indexes.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 1997 2007 Figure B.000. and Controlled Single Index.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 1997 2007 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index Figure B.$7.000.000 $150.000. Multiple Indexes.000.000 $1. and Controlled Single Index.000. Updated Using Single Index.000 $50.000 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlle d Single Index $100.000.000 $6.

000 $100. and Controlled Single Index 81 .000 $300.000 $500.000 Single Index $300. Multiple Indexes. Updated Using Single Index.000 $150.000 $100.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 2 Updated Construction Cost Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index 1997 2007 Figure B.$500.000 $400. Updated Using Single Index. 10 yr Interval $600.10: Construction Costs of 1400 ft Filter Area Capacity Air-Water Backwash.000 $200.000 Updated Construction Cost $400.000 $200.9: Construction Costs of 2000 lb/day Chlorine Storage and Feed System.000 $50.000 $350.000 $0 1977 1987 Year 1997 2007 Single Index Multiple Indexes Controlled Single Index Figure B. Multiple Indexes and Controlled Single Index.000 $450.000 $250.

APPENDIX C COST BASIS FOR WATER TREATMENT UNIT OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES 82 .

lubricants for fans and motors. dual-head metering pumps. Maintenance material cost includes repair parts for pumps and motors. standby metering pump. routine O&M of feeding equipment. and electrically driven induced-draft fans with fan stacks and drift eliminators. valves. ventilation. weekly housing of distributing nozzles and media to remove slime growths. dust collectors. Maintenance material costs include lubricants. . Energy costs include solution mixers. building lighting.Table C. and heating for outdoor storage tanks (large liquid feed installations). Alum costs are not included. feeder operation. Wet well and housing are not included. and electrical controls. Aeration Towers Includes rectangular aeration towers with 16-ft of PVC media and overall tower height of 22-ft. and electrical starters and controls. and other miscellaneous items. Energy cost includes continuous operation of induced draft fan. Precipitation. and occasional repair or replacement of damaged packaged media. valves. heating. 83 Coagulation. direct drive centrifugal compressors. valves and manifold piping. Construction Cost Includes pumps. Energy cost includes continuous operation of direct drive centrifugal air compressors. air piping.1: Cost Basis for Water Treatment Unit Operations and Processes Treatment Units Raw Water Pumping Raw Water Pumping Facilities TDH = 30 ft. 150 ft 316 stainless steel pipe to convey liquid alum. Labor costs include maintenance of air compressors. and diffusers and for maintenance of aeration basins. and electrical equipment and instrumentation. replacement components for air compressors. and Flocculation Liquid Alum Feed Includes uncovered (indoor for small installations) or System covered (and vented with insulation and heating for larger installations) fiber glass reinforced polyester (FRP) tanks for 15 days storage. valves. Maintenance material costs include replacement of packing media. Labor costs include chemical loading. Dry Alum Feed Based on use of commercial dry alum with a density 3 System of 60 lb/ft . and porous diffusers. and dual-head diaphragm metering pumps. Includes mild steel storage hoppers for 15 days dry alum storage. Labor cost includes O&M of pumps and motors. Labor costs include fan and motor maintenance. Diffused Basin Aeration Includes open rectangular reinforced concrete basins. solution tanks located directly beneath storage hoppers. and miscellaneous fittings and valves for each metering pump. TDH = 100 ft. and alum unloading. Maintenance material costs are based on 3% of manufactured equipment cost. volumetric feeders for small installations and mechanical weigh belt feeders for large installations. Operation & Maintenance Cost Energy costs include pumps and motors. reinforced concrete basin support. and air diffusion equipment.

and routine O&M. Labor costs include chemical unloading. and housing. dual-head metering pumps. and routine O&M. Includes chemical feed equipment. Includes rectangular-shaped. Labor costs include O&M of basins.3H2O with density of 80 3 Systems lb/ft . Energy costs include solution mixers. mixer. Labor costs include unloading. volumetric feeders/mechanical weigh belt feeders.1 – Continued Treatment Units Construction Cost Ferrous Sulfate Feed Based on use of FeSO4. Maintenance material costs are based on 3% of manufactured equipment cost. G = 900 /s Flocculation Systems Energy costs are based on motor horsepower.Table C.mixing and feeding. and cleaning. feeder operation. oil change. volumetric feeders/mechanical weigh belt feeders. Maintenance material costs are based on 3% of manufactured equipment cost. metering pump (with standby pump). Sodium Hydroxide Feed Systems Rapid Mix. Labor costs include jar testing. dual-head diaphragm metering pumps. vertical shaft. feeder operation. building lighting. Ferric Sulfate Feed Based on use of Fe(SO4)3. Maintenance material cost includes oil for the gearbox drive unit. and a standby metering pump. Labor costs include unloading chemical and O&M for metering pumps. Polymer Feed Based on use of dry polymers. and building energy requirements. Includes reinforced concrete basins (common wall construction for multiple basins). manufactured equipments. Maintenance material costs are based on 3% of manufactured equipment and pipe/valve costs. and pipes and valves. dual-head diaphragm metering pumps. flocculators. Maintenance material costs are 3% of equipment cost. ventilation. and housing. Labor costs include chemical unloading. G = 600 /s Rapid Mix. Each tank includes a mixer and a dual-head metering pump. 12 ft deep reinforced concrete structures. and oil change. and heating. hoppers. routine operation and maintenance of chemical feeder and solution metering pump. G = 300 /s Rapid Mix. Energy costs include metering pump and building energy for indoor storage. Includes indoor MS storage hoppers for 15 days storage. Energy costs include volumetric feeder. For less than 200 lb/day (dry NaOH) includes a volumetric feeder. Sulfuric Acid Systems Feed Includes storage tank. variable speed turbine mixers. fed manually to a Systems storage hopper located on the chemical feeder. paddle and TEFC motors. and FRP tanks for outside storage for 15 days or indoor building area required for storage in drums. No standby or redundant equipment is provided. hoppers. For more than 200 lb/day. Energy costs include feeder and metering pump. . building lighting. two day tanks . ventilation. Energy costs include motor and mechanism.7H2O with density of 64 3 Systems lb/ft . and heating. Labor costs include unloading chemical and O&M for dualmetering pumps. includes indoor FRP tanks for 15 days of storage. inspection. Maintenance material costs are 3% of equipment cost. and metering pump. excluding tanks. draining. 84 Operation & Maintenance Cost Energy costs include solution mixers. Maintenance material costs are based on 3% of manufactured equipment cost. Includes indoor MS storage hoppers for 15 days storage. routine operation and maintenance.

Includes labor for removing and disposing sand. effluent launders with V-notch plates. Maintenance materials include parts for drive mechanism and weirs. Maintenance material costs include general supplies. Labor costs include operation. and lighting only. the center column. and installation. a circular reinforced concrete structure with 12ft sidewall depth. Energy costs include flash mix. Includes the filter structure. N/A N/A N/A . and sludge withdrawal piping. Piping to and from clarifier is not included. flocculation mixer. a sludge pump. and a rate of flow controller. Maintenance materials include parts for drive mechanism and weirs. reinforced concrete basin with 11 ft water depth. jar testing for one clarifier unit. and installation labor. a new pneumatically operated butterfly valve. Includes the chain and flight collector. ventilation. maintenance of drive units and mixers. Energy cost includes motor. tube module supports and anchor brackets. 12 ft sidewall depth reinforced concrete structure complete with inlet and outlet troughs. and a steel wall. Labor costs include periodic checking of the clarifier drive mechanism. weirs. and periodic maintenance of mechanism and weirs. Circular Clarifiers Rectangular Clarifiers 85 Tube Modules Settling Contact Basins Filtration Gravity Structures Filtration Filtration Media Capping Sand Filters with Anthracite Modification of Rapid Sand Filters to High Rate Filters Includes center feed clarifier mechanism. troughs. and periodic maintenance of mechanism and weirs. Labor costs include periodic checking of the clarifier drive mechanism. a pipe gallery. underdrains. and mechanism drive. Includes open. filter flow and headloss instrumentation. weirs. instrumentation repair. a sludge scraper. collector drive mechanism. and instrument and equipment repairs and supervision. wash water troughs. Includes new effluent piping. material and freight costs for anthracite coal.1 – Continued Treatment Units Construction Cost Operation & Maintenance Cost Sedimentation Upflow Solids Contact Clarifiers Includes all mixers. Energy cost includes motor. and an inboard steel weir trough for diameters greater than 80 ft. Circular units with sidewall depth of 16 ft were assumed. baffles. a filter control panel. N/A N/A Energy costs include building heating.5% of the initial clarifier mechanism cost. and periodic addition of filter media. Includes purchase and placement of media. required piping and cylinder operated butterfly valves. Includes tube modules. and the total housing requirement. Maintenance costs are based on 1. transition baffle. Labor costs include operational control of the coagulant dose and clarifier mechanism.Table C.

rapid sand filter media. Hydraulic Surface Includes dual pump with one as standby. piping. flow Facilities control. filter valves. valves. manholes. backwash header. access ladder. pump station valving. and valving. and instrumentation. instruments and chemical feed pump replacement parts.Table C. and other associated items. level control instrumentation. motor starters. and headers within the filter pipe gallery. backwash pumps. and for verification of chemical dosages and water quality. backwash pumps. oilimpregnated sand cushion and a concrete ring footing wall. filter backwash sequencing control. Labor cost includes maintenance of equipment only. interconnecting pipe and Energy costs include building heating. Water pumping cost is not included. Maintenance materials and labor costs are same as water wash systems. wash water collection trough. drain and overflow nozzles. Wash Water Surge Includes covered below-ground reinforced concrete Basins basins. Energy cost includes wash time. including diatomaceous earth storage. electrical controls. one standby unit. N/A N/A 86 Vacuum Filters Diatomite Includes complete installation. Labor cost includes general supervision and maintenance. instruments and chemical feed pump replacement parts. handrails. Labor costs include only preparation of body feed and precoat. application of lubricants. vacuum filtration units. and motor starters. including Filters diatomaceous earth storage. mixers. . and complete housing. the air supply header and piping to the filters. Energy costs include filter pumps. Energy costs include filter pumps. over-head pump carriage. Pressure Diatomite Includes complete installation. Maintenance material costs include general supplies. electrical Wash Systems control. filter valves. preparation and feed facilities. and surface agitators. and all valves and electrical equipment and instrumentation. mixers. and other associated items. Maintenance material costs include repair of backwash pumps. Labor cost includes maintenance labor only.1 – Continued Treatment Units Construction Cost Backwash Pumping Includes pump and motors. Continuous Automatic Includes filtration structure. application of lubricants. preparation and feed facilities. control panel for automatic operation. interconnecting pipe and fittings. filter backwash sequencing control. starter. Maintenance material costs include repair of pumps. outlet/inlet. Air-Water Backwash Includes air compressor and motor drives. application of lubricants. application of lubricants. filter pumps and motors. Energy cost includes air addition. pump maintenance and repair parts. and ventilation. pressure filtration units. underdrains. and pumping costs. Wash Water Storage Includes 35 ft high cylindrical tanks painted inside Tanks and outside. and other miscellaneous items. replacement sand. filter pumps and motors. Maintenance material costs include replacement of pump seals. instruments and chemical feed pump replacement parts. valves. Operation & Maintenance Cost Energy costs include motors/pumps. Facilities backwash pumps and motor drives. motor. the wash water piping outside of the basic filter structure. Maintenance material costs include replacement of pump seals. internal mechanical Backwash Filter equipment. and general facility maintenance supplies. partitions. lighting.

Labor costs include only preparation of body feed and precoat. Labor requirements for rail car include time to move the rail car into place and to connect and disconnect cars from the feed system. gearbox oil change. lighting and ventilating. Maintenance material costs include oil for gearbox drives and minor repair of pumps. Energy costs include pump motors and continuous mixing. Cost of chlorine is not included. cleaning. preparation of solution. cylinder operated butterfly valves. and housing heating. Maximum chlorinator capacity of 8. and for verification of chemical dosages and water quality. injector pumps. and slurry pumps. time to connect and disconnect cylinders and time for routine daily checking (for cylinder storage). equipment for PAC feed.000 lb/day and more. unloading platform. maintenance material costs as 3% of manufactured equipment cost. Includes residual analyzers with flow-proportioning controls included for 1. evaporators and injector pump. dual-head diaphragm pump. lighting. 87 Disinfection Chlorine Storage and Feed Cylinder Storage Use of 150 lb cylinders for feed rates up to 100 lb/day and ton cylinders for feed rates up to 2. and ventilation. inspection and routine maintenance. Labor requirements based on loading and unloading cylinders. Housing is included. filter face piping and headers within the filter gallery. Energy costs include process. . charts and ink for recorders. and labor costs for unloading drums of chemicals. chlorinator. Potassium Permanganate Feed and metering pump (with one standby metering pump). 500 ft of on-site track. Taste and Odor Control Includes day tank. Energy costs for solution mixers and metering pumps. Electrically operated. and an overhead rotodip volumetric feeder. headloss instrumentation. Pressure Plants Filtration Includes complete filtration plant with vessels. Maintenance materials include additional filter media. chlorinator room and cylinder storage room. mixers. monorail trolley included for 100 lb/day and more. control panel for automatic operation.Table C.1 – Continued Treatment Units Construction Cost fittings. and miscellaneous repair items.000 lb/day with one standby chlorinator per installation. electrical hoist (when cylinders are used). filter flow control and measurement instrumentation. and On-site storage tank with rail delivery Direct feed from Includes heating. Also includes checking and maintenance labor time for all systems. motors. Includes rail siding. and sitework and excavation around immediate vicinity. Labor requirements for on-site tank storage include time to unload bulk delivery truck or rail tanker. evaporator.000 lb/day. and routine operation of the solution metering pump were included. and switching gear. Includes cost of turnout from the main line. and a mass filter control panel. a diaphragm type metering pump (for less than 20 lb/hr feed rate) or a positive displacement-type pump (for more than 20 lb/hr feed rate). and general facility maintenance supplies. Systems Powdered Carbon Systems Activated Feed Includes below ground uncovered concrete tanks. Labor costs include unloading. Operation & Maintenance Cost instruments and chemical feed pump replacement parts.

water softener. a mixer for the day tank. Maintenance . and building heating.1 – Continued Treatment Units Construction Cost rail car other equipments as on-site storage tank and cylinder storage. sized for detention time of about 0. electrical and instrumentation costs. brine transfer and metering pumps. Includes. and to maintain mixing and metering equipments. and ventilating of the ammoniator building. and building heating. and day-to-day operation. Maintenance materials based on experience. sodium chlorite mixing and metering system. flowmeters. and operation of evaporators. hypochlorite transfer and metering pumps. and Includes power for gaseous chlorination system. operation and maintenance of pumps. maintenance of oxygen generation equipment. membrane-type system for 2.2 min. salt storage tank and brine dissolver. lighting. a scale. Chlorine dioxide generator is PVC tube filled with porcelain Rasching Rings or other turbulenceproducing media. Includes gas preparation equipment. and a dual head metering pump. and lighting requirements. electrical control equipment. annual maintenance. Does not include ozone dissolution equipment. cells. periodic repair of pumps. to adjust its feed rate. A covered. Operation & Maintenance Cost Chlorine Dioxide Generating and Feed On-Site Hypochlorite Generation Systems Includes sodium chlorite mixing and metering system. hypochlorite storage tank. reinforced concrete structure with depth of 18 ft. oxygen generation equipment (at more than 100 lb/day). miscellaneous parts.000 lb/day. Sodium chlorite system consists of a polyethylene day tank. lighting. brine transfer and metering pumps. 88 Ozone Chambers Contact Anhydrous Ammonia Feed Facilities N/A Energy costs include heating. dissolution equipment. an air padding system.500 lb/day. tank supports. power rectifier. to mix sodium chlorite solution. the ozone generator. heating. off gas recycling equipment. brine storage tank. Labor cost includes salt delivery and handling. motors. Includes bulk ammonia storage tanks for 10 days. ozone generation. electrical control system. Includes energy for oxygen generation (for more than 100 lb/day).Table C. Cost of salt is not included. cell gaskets. and an approximate length-to-width ratio of 2:1.500 to 10. Brine purification system is included for systems larger than 2. Ozone Generations Systems Energy cost includes electrolysis cell and rectifier usage. and housing. piping and valves. sodium hypochlorite transfer and metering pumps. Maintenance material for periodic equipment repair and replacement parts. occasional cleaning of electrolysis cells. and electrical control. ozone dissolution. chlorine dioxide generator. operation of electrolysis cells. and supplying and mixing brine purification chemicals for the larger systems. Utilizes partitions. and ventilating. Labor cost includes periodic cleaning. electrode re-plating or replacing. Labor cost includes labor for gaseous chlorination systems.000 lb/day. Considered to be housed. lighting and ventilation. and all required safety and monitoring equipment. cooling. Open-cell system for up to 2. but oxygengenerating equipment located outside on a concrete slab. Maintenance material cost includes electrode re-plating (every 2 yrs for open cell) or replacement (every 3 yrs for membrane).

Energy costs include regenerant pumping. Pressure Ion Exchange Softening Gravity Ion Exchange Softening Includes contact vessels. two open reinforced concrete salt storage/brining basins. pumping facilities. pumps. and ventilation. piping and valves. valve repairs. and the metering pump. Maintenance material costs include periodic repair and replacement of components (1% of construction cost). and building heating. Labor costs include cleaning and replacing membranes. occasional backwash pumping. Labor costs include unloading. 10 ft deep resins. Energy costs include regenerant pumping. maintaining pumps. Labor cost includes O&M or ion exchange vessels and pumping facilities. Energy costs include regenerant pumping. replacing cartridge filters. and resin replacement (25% of resin cost). an evaporator. Maintenance material costs include membrane replacement. acid and polyphosphate feed equipment. Maintenance material costs include periodic repair and replacement of components (1% of construction cost). piping. metering pumps. Reverse Osmosis Includes housing. structural steel and miscellaneous metalwork. replacement of cartridge filters. backwash pumping. determining and preparing proper dosages. tanks.1 – Continued Treatment Units Aqua Ammonia Feed Facilities Construction Cost all required gauges and switches. resins. Labor cost includes O&M or ion exchange vessels and pumping facilities. reverse osmosis membrane elements and pressure vessels. Operation & Maintenance Cost material costs were based on experience. Stability . lighting. an ammoniator. and O&M. and lighting. heating. and activated alumina replacement (10% of activated alumina cost).Table C. maintaining chemical feed equipment. and ventilation. and cleaning equipment. lighting. and ventilating for housing. and building heating. Energy costs include high-pressure feed-water pumps. pumping facilities. and materials for periodic repair of pumps. Includes one horizontal pressure vessel and its supports. a caustic dilution tank. Labor cost includes O&M or ion exchange vessels and pumping facilities. Maintenance material costs include repair parts for metering pump. flow meters. sulfuric acid storage tank (for more than 70 mgd). motors. and resin replacement (13% of resin cost). resins. and monitoring performance. and flow-proportioning equipment. Activated Alumina for Fluoride Removal Includes contact vessels. and pumping facilities. lighting. Maintenance material costs include periodic repair and replacement of components (1% of construction cost). membrane cleaning chemicals. and painting of the storage tank. other pumps and chemical feed equipment. an eductor. valves. rinse pumping. 89 Pressure Exchange Removal Ion Nitrate Includes two open reinforced concrete salt storage/brining basins. cartridge filters. Energy cost includes only operation of metering pump. backwash pumping. and day-to-day O&M. Labor costs include transfer of ammonia to storage tank. rinse pumping. an eductor. and building heating. and ventilation. and electrical control equipment.

a pump. and grit removal. flexible connection to the slaker. cleaning air filter. Includes a storage tank with 10 days storage.1 – Continued Treatment Units Construction Cost Lime Feed Systems Hydrated lime for feed rates up to 50 lb/hr and quicklime at higher rates. complete with influent and effluent channels. and handrails surrounding the basin. and associated grit removal. pipes and valves. valve maintenance. N/A . Clearwell Storage instrumentation and control of clearwell water level. Maintenance material costs are based on 5% of manufactured equipment cost. and dissolving tank with 5-min detention time for hydrated lime. Natural gas cost is based on manufacturer’s recommendations. Maintenance material costs are based on experience from chlorine feed facilities. Re-carbonation Basin Re-carbonation – Liquid CO2 as CO2 Source 90 Re-carbonation – Submerged Burners as CO2 Source Re-carbonation – Stack Gas as CO2 Source Includes reinforced concrete structure. two CO2 vaporizers and solution-type CO2 feeders (one of each is standby). a centralized control panel. slaker. and quarterly and annual maintenance. bin gate. and instrumentation for turbidity and chlorine measurement and other quality control operations. Maintenance material costs were based on 3% of manufactured equipment costs. and an automatic control system. Electricity cost includes pump. Maintenance material costs include compressor repair parts. dust collector. Includes stainless steel submerged burner assembly.Table C. Energy cost includes compression of stack gas to 8 psi. Labor cost includes maintenance of compressor and related accessories. foam suppression piping and sprayers. an injector pump for the solution water. diffuser pipes for the recarbonation basin. lime slakers. Includes volumetric or gravimetric feeder. Includes elevated hoppers for 30 day storage. and a pH-controlled feed system. Lime cost is not included. N/A Energy costs include injector pump and CO2 vaporizer. Labor cost includes only checking and adjustment of the feeder and vaporizer. Ground-Level Includes steel tanks. and standby slakers for quicklime. Labor costs include oil change. automatic control. O&M for lime feeder. slaker. a compressed CO2 supply line. Labor costs include unloading. Includes compressors. a stainless steel main header. N/A Clear Water Storage and Distribution Below-Ground Includes reinforced concrete structures. instrumentation and control of Clearwell Storage clearwell water level. and maintenance of electrical components. and instrumentation for turbidity and chlorine measurement and other quality control operations. diffuser piping. Operation & Maintenance Cost Energy costs include feeder.

Labor costs include operation of contactors. motors. and a building. backwash pumping. and carbon slurry pumps. valve replacement or repair. and a building to house the contractors. and instrument and equipment repairs and supervision. center shaft cooling fan. an induced draft fan. Labor cost includes O&M of pumps motors. face and interconnecting piping. In-Plant Pumping Construction Cost Includes vertical turbine type pumps (one standby pump with capacity equal to largest pump). drive assembly. flow control and other instrumentation. and electrical controls. valves. Includes a complete carbon contacting facility with vessels. and maintenance of electrical controls. Natural gas costs are as recommended by manufacturers. combustion air systems and cooling air fan. backwash pumping and carbon slurry pumping. flow measurement and other instrumentation. Residuals Processing and Disposal Multiple Hearth Includes the basic furnace and its associated Recalcination screw conveyors. backwash and carbon transport pump maintenance. vertical motors. Energy costs include building heating. carbon slurry pumps. backwash pumps. Maintenance material costs include routine repairs of motor. Labor cost includes operation of facility and maintenance and supervision. instrumentation repair. and controls. Energy costs include center shaft drive. Energy costs include building heating. pumping of spent carbon. a stack gas scrubber. Maintenance material costs include general supplies. and return of regenerated carbon. and carbon slurry pumping. including the contactor structure.Table C. product cooler. and repairs and supervision of instruments and equipments. and other miscellaneous work items. and lighting. . and other miscellaneous items. Maintenance material costs include repair parts for pumps. master operations control panel. Maintenance material costs include repair parts for pumps. cylinder-operated butterfly valves. and lighting. Includes a complete carbon contacting facility with vessels. motors. Includes constant speed vertical turbine pumps driven by drip-proof high-thrust vertical motors. flow measurement and other instrumentation. and electrical starters and controls. and valves. valves. and refractory material. and building. Maintenance material costs include general supplies. pumps. Energy costs include backwash pumping. master operations control panel. master operations control panel. and valves. Energy costs include pump operation. Includes removing and disposing existing sand and Same as before conversion. cylinder-operated butterfly valves. liquid and carbon handling face piping with headers within the carbon contactor building. and building lighting and ventilation. turboblower for burners. access walkways. cylinder-operated butterfly valves. Maintenance material costs include cost of general supplies. a wet well. valves. manually operated ball or knife-type valves. instrumentation repair. instrumentation repair.1 – Continued Treatment Units Finished Water Pumping Facilities TDH = 30 ft. Labor costs include O&M of pumps. and other miscellaneous items. motors. backwash pumps. liquid and carbon handling piping with headers in a pipe gallery. ventilating. all electrical equipment and instrumentation. and electrical starters and controls. TDH = 100 ft. backwash and carbon transport pump maintenance. Concrete Gravity Carbon Contactors 91 Steel Gravity Carbon Contactors Pressure Contactors Carbon Conversion of Sand Includes a complete carbon contacting facility. ventilation. Not specified. Operation & Maintenance Cost Energy costs include pump and motor with efficiencies of 90% and 85% respectively. Labor costs include cost of operation of contactors. Labor cost principally includes operation. and pipes and valves.

exhaust scrubbing system. reactivated carbon storage tank. and controls and instrumentation. process electrical equipment and controls. regenerated carbon handling system. installation of slurry pumps and related controls for Bed Depth = 30”) transport of spent carbon. and activation). Includes fluidized bed reactor. small moving parts. heat exchangers.Table C. and distribution piping. cyclone and venture separators. pyrolysis. installing carbon collection troughs and Contactor (Carbon related piping and valves outside of filter. Includes basic furnace. process pumps and piping. and building lighting and ventilation. spent carbon holding tank. particulate scrubber. Electricity cost includes fluidizing air blower and other operation and maintenance requirements. and associated pipes and valves. and damaged refractory materials. Labor cost includes O&M of . Electricity cost includes furnaces. and other general maintenance items. Maintenance material costs include maintenance and repair of electrical drive and control machinery. replacement of rabble arms. and controls and instrumentation. replacement of FBF refractory materials. N/A The costs are for operation of 100% of time. and general equipment maintenance. Energy cost includes operation of infrared heating units. fluid bed reactor. after burner. Maintenance material cost includes replacement cost of tungsten filament quartz heating units.1 – Continued Treatment Units Construction Cost Filter to Carbon gravel. A 35 ft steel building is also included. Natural gas costs are as recommended by the manufacturers at 1000 BTU/scf. center shaft drive. Labor cost includes operation and maintenance of equipment. auxiliary fuel system. scrubbing water system. wet scrubber. control panel. Labor cost principally includes operation of equipment. dewatering feed screw. carbon dewatering system. spent carbon storage and dewatering equipment. replacement of silica sand. and instrumentation. and other general equipment maintenance items. steam boiler. Electricity cost includes operating furnaces. all duck work. Labor cost includes O&M of equipment. Natural gas costs include heating. fluidizing air blower. interconnecting piping and electrical equipment within process area limits. carbon feed and removal equipment. quench tank. Maintenance material costs include maintenance and repair of electrical drive machinery. quench tank. furnace and cooling fans. exhaust gas blower. fluidizing air blower. Includes spent and regenerated carbon storage. Natural gas costs heating. and prefabricated metal housing. Operation & Maintenance Cost Off-Site Regional Carbon Regeneration – Handling and Transportation Multiple Hearth Granular Carbon Regeneration 92 Infrared Carbon Regeneration Furnace Granular Carbon Regeneration – Fluid Bed Process Powdered Carbon Regeneration – Fluidized Bed Process Includes elevated tanks (cylinder for less than 2000 3 ft or rectangular). damaged refractory materials. quench tank. building lighting and ventilation. reactivated carbon eductors. cooling and exhaust blowers. Maintenance material cost includes replacement parts for electrical drive machinery. stainless steel dewatering screens. Includes pre-manufactured furnace modules (drying. scrubber water piping and valves within process limits.

Includes vacuum drum filter. Maintenance material and labor costs include estimated annual costs for filter operation and maintenance. and for general maintenance. motors. Includes progressive cavity pump and motors. regenerated carbon recovery equipment. and housing.1 – Continued Treatment Units Powdered Carbon Regeneration – Atomized Suspension Process Construction Cost Includes manufactured equipment costs for basic reactor. and electrical control units. Electricity costs include drum drive. Land cost is not included. heating units. and reinforced concrete structure with 12 ft sidewall. a sludge conditioning and mixing tank. Chemical Sludge Pumping – Unthickened Sludge Chemical Sludge Pumping – Thickened Sludge Gravity Thickeners Sludge 93 Includes variable speed horizontal centrifugal pump. Energy cost includes average cost for driving thickener mechanism for lime. feed pumps (including one standby). Vacuum Filters Sludge Dewatering Lagoons Filter Press Energy cost includes pumping lime sludge with 65% efficiency. Maintenance material and labor costs include repair and normal maintenance of thickener drive mechanism and weirs. and periodic maintenance. and electrical control units. precoat pump. Labor cost includes periodic checking of pumps and motors. and belt conveyor. and application of polymers. Maintenance material costs include annual cost for replacement parts and miscellaneous components. and polymer preparation and feed equipment. Operation & Maintenance Cost equipment. electrical equipment and instrumentation. Electricity cost includes process pumping and reactor air supply. polymer preparation. Includes decanter centrifuge and provisions for preparation. belt. and for replacement parts. Energy cost includes pumping thickened lime mud. a lime storage bin and feeders. discharge roller. precast pump and storage tanks. back drive unit. required pipes and valves. Maintenance material costs include periodic repair of the pumps. vacuum and filtrate pump assemblies. Maintenance material costs include repair of electrically driven machinery. Entire dry well cost is not covered. conveyor. and ferric sludge. and exhaust scrubbing facilities – all furnished and installed. and housing above dry well. motors. and periodic maintenance. tank agitators.Table C. Natural gas cost is for heating. open-close mechanism and tray mover. and occasional maintenance involving machine and motor lubrication. vacuum and filtrate pumps. storage. Includes unlined lagoons. Maintenance material costs include periodic repair of the pumps. and installation labor cost. an acid wash system. spent carbon slurry storage tank. Includes the filter press. one standby pump. electrical controls and housing. Labor costs include start-up and adjustment. alum. interconnecting piping. Decanter Centrifuges Energy costs include operation of feed pump. Includes sludge removal from the lagoon. Includes cost of thickener mechanism and its installation. and housing. pipes and valves. Labor cost includes periodic checking of pumps and motors. Maintenance material and labor costs include annual costs estimated from manufacturers’ experience and data from several operating installations. furnace feed pump. . and routine maintenance of system. Labor cost includes operation of equipment. Energy costs include main drive unit.

Table C.1 – Continued Treatment Units Construction Cost Basket Centrifuges Includes basket centrifuge and equipments for preparation, storage, and application of polymers.

Operation & Maintenance Cost Energy costs include machine acceleration, sludge feeding, skimming, decelerating, and sludge plowing. Energy costs also include polymer preparation and feed equipment. Maintenance material costs include annual cost for maintenance, replacement parts, lubrication, and other consumable items. Labor costs include start-up and adjustment, polymer preparation, and required maintenance.

Sand Drying Beds

Belt Filter Press

Includes uncovered and unlined sand drying beds, sludge distribution piping, 9 inch of sand overlying 9 inch of gravel media, 2 ft concrete dividers between beds, and underdrain system. Land cost is not included. Includes belt press unit, wash pump, conditioning tank, feed pump, polymer storage tank and pump, belt conveyor, and electrical control panel.

Energy cost includes front-end loader. Maintenance material cost includes replacement of sand lost during bed cleaning. Labor costs include sludge removal and bed preparation.

Energy costs include belt drive unit, belt wash pump, conditioning tank, feed pump, polymer pump and tanks, belt conveyor, and electrical control panel. Maintenance material and labor costs are based on equipment manufacturers’ data. Includes O&M costs related to administrative, laboratory, and maintenance functions. Energy cost is based on building area requirement. Maintenance material costs are not directly assignable to specific plant components and include O&M of administrative facilities such as office supplies, communications, dues, subscriptions, office equipment repairs, travel expenses, training course expense, and custodial supplies. Labor costs include only administration and management of plant like superintendent, assistant superintendent, plant chemist, bacteriologist, clerk, and maintenance supervisor.

94

Management Administrative, Laboratory and Maintenance Building

Based on building area review of over dozen of treatment facilities.

APPENDIX D

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

95

BCI BLS BOD5 CC CCI COD CRF DCS ED ENR ES GAC LI MF NF O&M O&MC PAC PW RO SCADA THM ThOD TOC TOD TOX T&O UF

Building Cost INdex Bureau of Labor Statistics 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand Construction Cost Construction Cost Index Chemical Oxygen Demand Capital Recovery Factor Distributed Control System Electrodialysis Engineering News-Record Effective Size Granular Activated Carbon Langelier Saturation Index Microfiltration Nanofiltration Operation and Maintenance Operation and Maintenance Cost Powdered Activated Carbon Present Worth Reverse Osmosis Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Trihalomethane Theoritical Oxygen Demand Total Organic Compound Total Oxygen Demand Total Organic Halogen Taste and Odor Ultrafiltration 96

UO UP USEPA UV VOC Unit Operation Unit Process United States Environmental Protection Agency Ultraviolet Volatile Organic Compound 97 .

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BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Jwala Raj Sharma completed his Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering from Institute of Engineering. He aspires to continue with more researches. Tribhuvan University in Kathmandu. During his time at the UTA. he contributed in various researched. Nepal. 101 . He started MS in Civil Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington in Fall 2008.