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LEONARD NADLER'S CRITICAL EVENTS MODEL Identify Organizational Needs Conduct Training | Obtain Instructional Resources | Select Instructional

Strategies | Build the Curriculum | Evaluation Feedback Specify Job Performance | Identify Learner Needs | Determine Objectives

Source: Nadler, L. & Nadler, Z., (1940) Designing Training Programs: The Critical Events Model, Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. It was Nadler's position that identifying all of the steps in program development was rather futile as there are often numerous issues outside of the model that influence the process. He believed that it was better to identify critical program planning events. You will note the events all centre around evaluation and feedback in the model above. Identify Organizational Needs 1. 2. 3. 4. Do performance problems exist? Can the causes of performance problems be distinguished from their symptoms? Are the causes of problems related to deficiencies of knowledge, skill or attitude? Are their management deficiencies?

Specify Job Performance Nadler suggests that at least one form of job analysis be undertaken.

1. Task analysis based on observation 2. Analysis based on task simulation 3. Analysis based on interview Identify Learner Needs What are the characteristics and needs of the participants in the program? Who will do the job or jobs and what must they know or feel to perform the tasks with success? The planner must compare actual to desired to determine the deficiencies. Determine Objectives Once the deficiencies are known (sometime called gap analysis - the gap between what is needed and what is present) the program developer can proceed to define program, instructional and learner objectives. Build the Curriculum There are times that the program developer should or must work with the instructional designers to organize the sequence of events, tasks or subject content. This sequence can be arranged in various ways. 1. Psychological order - content is sequenced to facilitate learning 2. Job-related order - content is sequenced in the order or work tasks or decision order 3. Logical order - building block order based on participants current knowledge 4. Problem-oriented - an inductive order based on the issue or problem Select Instructional Strategies This is the how section. Now that we know what we need to learn, accomplish or organize we can deal with the how. Here the planner selects methods and materials that will accomplish the program's objectives. Planners should consider seven issues at this point 1. 2. 3. 4. The objectives - methods and materials must support desired results The content - what is to be done or learned will affect methods and materials The instruction - instructors or media used will affect methods and materials The targeted learners - characteristics of participants will influence methods and materials 5. The facilities and equipment - what are the limitations that affect methods and materials 6. Time - Is there sufficient time for the project - what are the constraints 7. Costs - financial support will influence the methods and materials chosen Obtain Instructional Resources 1. The planner must develop a pro forma or preliminary budget and secure approvals

2. A detailed line item budget must then be developed (steps 1 & 2 are often combined) 3. Resources are then secured Conduct Training 1. Key "players" are identified and trained for desired outcomes 2. Leaders are held accountable for developing the team. 3. Trained personal review gap analysis and evaluate progress. The model that Nadler developed focused on key events in the planning process. Review your project in terms of this model and identify the key events