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Contents

Contributors Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview 1.1 General 1.2 Drivers for Improved Airframe Materials 1.3 High-Performance Fiber Composite Concepts 1.4 Fiber Reinforcements 1.5 Matrices 1.6 Polymer Matrix Composites 1.7 Non-polymeric Composite Systems 1.8 Hybrid Metal/PMC Composites References Bibliography Chapter 2 Basic Principles of Fiber Composite Materials 2.1 Introduction to Fiber Composite Systems 2.2 Micromechanical Versus Macromechanical View of Composites 2.3 Micromechanics 2.4 Elastic Constants 2.5 Micromechanics Approach to Strength 2.6 Simple Estimate of Compressive Strength 2.7 Off-axis Strength in Tension 2.8 Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Composites References Chapter 3 Fibers for Polymer-Matrix Composites 3.1 Overview 3.2 Glass Fibers 3.3 Carbon Fibers 3.4 Boron Fibers 3.5 Silicon Carbide 3.6 Aramid Fibers 3.7 Orientated Polyethylene Fibers 3.8 Dry Fiber Forms References
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55 55 57 63 67 69 71 73 74 79

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Chapter 4 Polymeric Matrix Materials 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Thermoset and Thermoplastic Polymer Matrix Materials 4.3 Thermosetting Resin Systems 4.4 Thermoplastic Systems References Chapter 5 Component Form and Manufacture 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Outline of General Laminating Procedures 5.3 Laminating Procedures For Aircraft-Grade Composite Components 5.4 Liquid Resin Molding Techniques 5.5 Filament Winding 5.6 Pultrusion 5.7 Process Modelling 5.8 Tooling 5.9 Special Thermoplastic Techniques References Chapter 6 Structural Analysis 6.1 Overview 6.2 Laminate Theory 6.3 Stress Concentration and Edge Effects 6.4 Failure Theories 6.5 Fracture Mechanics 6.6 Failure Prediction Near Stress Raisers and Damage Tolerance 6.7 Buckling 6.8 Summary References Chapter 7 Mechanical Property Measurement 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Coupon Tests 7.3 Laboratory Simulation of Environmental Effects 7.4 Measurement of Residual Strength 7.5 Measurement of Interlaminar Fracture Energy References Chapter 8 Properties of Composite Systems 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Glass-Fiber Composite Systems 8.3 Boron Fiber Composite Systems 8.4 Aramid Fiber Composite Systems 8.5 Carbon Fiber Systems 8.6 Properties of Laminates

81 81 86 88 108 112
113 113 115 117 132 140 145 149 158 162 169 171 171 172 191 194 203 204 207 209 209 213 213 216 225 227 231 237 239 239 241 247 249 257 262

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8.7 8.8 8.9

Impact Damage Resistance Fatigue of Composite Laminates Environmental Effects References

263 266 276 286

Chapter 9 Joining of Composite Structures


9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Introduction Comparison Between Mechanically Fastened and Adhesively Bonded Joints Adhesively Bonded Joints Mechanically Fastened Joints References

289
289 290 292 337 366

Chapter 10 Repair Technology


Introduction 10.1 10.2 Assessment of the Need to Repair Classification of Types of Structure 10.3 10.4 Repair Requirements 10.5 Non-patch Repairs 10.6 Patch Repairs: General Considerations 10.7 Bonded Patch Repairs 10.8 Materials Engineering Aspects 10.9 Application Technology: In Situ Repairs 10.10 Bolted Repairs 10.11 Materials Engineering Aspects References

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369 369 371 371 374 377 379 390 394 395 398 401

Chapter 11 Quality Assurance


11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Introduction Quality Control Cure Monitoring Non-destructive Inspection of Advanced Composite Aerospace Structures Conclusion References

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403 403 408 414 430 431

Chapter 12 Aircraft Applications and Design Issues


12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Overview Applications of Glass-Fiber Composites Current Applications Design Considerations Design of Carbon-Fiber-Based Components Design Methodologies

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435 435 436 447 449 462

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12.7 12.8

A Value Engineering Approach to the Use of Composite Materials Conclusion References

466 474 474 477 477 480 482 484 486 487 487 488

Chapter 13 Airworthiness Considerations For Airframe Structures 13.1 Overview 13.2 Certification of Airframe Structures 13.3 The Development of Design Allowables 13.4 Demonstration of Static Strength 13.5 Demonstration of Fatigue Strength 13.6 Demonstration of Damage Tolerance 13.7 Assessment of the Impact Damage Threat References Chapter 14 Three-Dimensionally Reinforced Preforms and Composites 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Stitching 14.3 Z-Pinning 14.4 Three-Dimensional Weaving 14.5 Braiding 14.6 Knitting 14.7 Non-crimp Fabrics 14.8 Conclusion References Chapter 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15 Smart Structures Introduction Engineering Approaches Selected Applications and Demonstrators Key Technology Needs References

491 491 492 498 502 507 515 519 523 523 525 525 526 531 544 545 549 549 552 553 562 563 566 568 569

Chapter 16 Knowledge-Based Engineering, Computer-Aided Design, and Finite Element Analysis 16.1 Knowledge-Based Design Systems 16.2 Finite Element Modelling of Composite Structures 16.3 Finite Element Solution Process 16.4 Element Types 16.5 Finite Element Modelling of Composite Structures 16.6 Implementation 16.7 Design Optimization References

CONTENTS

Appendix Overview of Some Sensors and Actuators Used for Smart Structure Applications A. 1 Piezoelectric Materials A.2 Shape Memory Alloys A.3 Optical Fiber Sensors A.4 Electrorheological Fluids A.5 Magnetostrictive Materials A.6 Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems A.7 Comparison Of Actuators References

Index