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Biological Principles Lab Report: Biologically Important Molecules

Name: Arjan Caushi

Tube # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Water

Solution Positive control Unknown #1 Unknown #2 Unknown #3 Unknown #4 Unknown #5 Unknown #6

Glucose +/Blue Red+ Brown + Orange + Blue Blue Blue Blue -

Starch +/Red Blue + Orange Lilac + Orange Orange Dark Orange Dark Orange -

Protein +/Light BlueViolet + Yellow Light Violet + Green Light Blue Violet + Violet +

Question 1 a. Which of the solutions served as the positive control? Which served as the negative control? The solution that served as positive control was; Glucose. The solution that served as negative control was; Water

b. What is the function of the indicator in this assay?

The function of the indicator is to detect the presence of glucose in the solutions.

c. What was the indicator used in this experiment? Benedict reagent

d. In this experiment, what color(s) indicates the presence of glucose? Absence of glucose?

The red color indicates the presence of glucose. The blue color indicates the absence of glucose.

Question 2 a. control? Which of the solutions served as the positive control? Which served as the negative

Biological Principles Lab Report: Biologically Important Molecules In this test the positive solution was starch, and negative solution was water.

Name: Arjan Caushi

b.

What was the indicator used in this experiment? Lugol`s iodine

c.

In this experiment, what color(s) indicate the presence starch? Absence of starch?

The colors blue and indigo indicated presence of starch. The colors rusty, orange and dark orange indicated absence of starch.

d.

How is glucose stored in animals? How is it stored in plants?

In animals, glucose is stored in the form of glycogen, which is a polymer of glucose. In plants, glucose is stored in the form of starch, which is also a polymer of glucose.

Question 3 a. Which of the solutions served as the positive control? Which served as the negative control?

In this test, protein served as a positive control, and water as negative control.

b. What was the indicator in this experiment? Biuret reagent

c.

In this experiment, what color(s) indicate the presence of protein? Absence of protein?

In this experiment, color violet indicates presence of protein. Colors blue, green, yellow indicated absence of protein.

d. Why did you include controls in all three tests? It was very important to include controls in all three experiments, because we needed a point of reference to compare the results of the unknown liquids. We reached conclusions based on the results of the 2

Biological Principles Lab Report: Biologically Important Molecules controls of the experiment.

Name: Arjan Caushi

e. Are controls always necessary when conducting experiments? Why or why not? Yes, controls are necessary for the experiments because, without them would be difficult to explain and compare the results and draw conclusions from them.

f.

When the identities of the unknowns were revealed, were you surprised?

Identities were not revealed.

Objective: This lab`s main objective is to learn how to detect the presence of organic molecules in unknown liquids, through experiments by using solutions called controls, and learn to make comparisons and draw conclusions.

Purpose: To use biochemical assays to distinguish between different types of biological molecules.

Biological Principles Lab Report: Biologically Important Molecules

Name: Arjan Caushi

To gain an appreciation for the importance of experimental controls in analyzing biological data.

Conclusion: In conclusion to these experiments we observed how the indicators used, detected the presence of organic molecules in the unknown liquids. Based on the results obtained from interaction of indicators with the controls, we were able to discover which unknown liquids contained glucose, starch or protein. These experiments helped us understand the function of indicators, and the importance of having controls, which were decisive in making comparisons and drawing conclusions.