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# Math 320, Real Analysis I

## Solutions to Homework 4 Problems

Exercise 3.2.5. Let a A. Prove that a is an isolated point of A if and only if there exists an -neighborhood V (a) such that V (a) A = {a}. Proof. Let a A. (=) Suppose that a is an isolated point of A. Therefore, by denition, a is not a limit point of A, so it is not the case that every -neighborhood of a meets A is some point other than a. Hence, there must be some > 0 for which V (a) contains no elements of A, except for a. Therefore, for this , we have V (a) A = {a}, since a belongs to both and no other element of V (a) belongs to A. (=) Now assume that V (a) A = {a} for some > 0. Then, in particular, a A. To prove that a is an isolated point of A, it suces therefore to prove that a is not a limit point of A. But V (a) is an -neighborhood of a such that a is the only element of A in V (a). Therefore, by denition of a limit point, we see that a is not one, so a A is an isolated point.

Exercise 3.2.10. (De Morgans Laws). A proof for De Morgans Laws in the case of two sets is outlined in Exercise 1.2.3. The general argument is similar. (a) Given a collection of sets {E : }, show that
c c

c E

and

c E .

Proof. Let {E : } be a (not necessarily nite) collection of sets. c First, we will prove that ( E )c is equal to E . We recall that two sets A and B are equal if and only if A B and B A. Thus, we begin by showing that ( E )c is a c subset of E . Hence, suppose x ( E )c . Therefore, x E , which means that c c for each , x E . That is, for each , x E , so we conclude that x E . c c Thus ( E ) E . To complete the proof that these two sets are equal, we need c c to demonstrate that E is, in turn, a subset of ( E )c . To do so, assume y E , c for all . Therefore, y E for any , so y E . Hence so that y E c c ( E )c . With both inclusions now established, we have shown y ( E ) , so E that c E

c E

as desired. c Now, we will prove that ( E )c is equal to E . We begin by showing that ( E )c c . Hence, suppose s ( E )c . Therefore, s is a subset of E E , which means c that for some 0 , s E0 . That is, for this 0 , s E0 , so we conclude that c c c s E . Thus ( E )c E . We now will show that E is, in turn, a subset c c , so that t E c for some . Therefore, of ( E ) . To do so, assume t E 1 1 c t E1 for at least this one 1 , so t E . Hence t ( E )c , so E ( E )c . With both inclusions now established, we have shown that
c

c E

as desired.

## Solutions to Homework 4 Problems

(b) Now, provide the details for the proof of Theorem 3.2.14: i. The union of a nite collection of closed sets is closed. ii. The intersection of an arbitrary collection of closed sets is closed. Proof. (i) Let {F1 , F2 , . . . , Fm } be a nite collection of closed sets and consider their union,
m

E = F 1 F2 Fm =
j=1

Fj .

We need to prove that E is closed. By Theorem 3.2.13, E is closed if and only if its complement, E c , is open. By De Morgans Laws, c
m m

Ec =
j=1

Fj =
j=1

Fjc

is the intersection of nitely many sets, Fjc , each of which is open by Theorem 3.2.13, so E c is open by Theorem 3.2.3.(ii). Hence E = F1 F2 Fm is closed since its complement is open. (ii) Let {F : } be an arbitrary collection of closed sets and consider the set E=

F .

We want to show that the set E just dened is also closed. By Theorem 3.2.13, E is closed if and only if its complement is open, so consider
c

E =

c F .

c Since each F is closed, by Theorem 3.2.13, each F is an open set, so E c is the union c is itself open by Theorem 3.2.3.(i). of a collection of open sets, which implies that E Hence E is closed, which is what we were to prove.

Exercise 3.2.11. Let A be bounded above so that s = sup A exists. Show that s A. Proof. Let A be bounded above so that s = sup A exists. Let L be the set of limit points of A, so A = A L. If s A, then s A L = A and we are done. Thus, from now on, assume s A. Then we must prove that s is a limit point of A, i.e., that s L. Let > 0 be arbitrary. By Lemma 1.3.7, since s = sup A, there is an element a A such that s < a. Moreover, since s = sup A is an upper bound for A, it follows that s < a s < s + , so a V (s). Furthermore, since we assumed that s A while a A, it follows that a = s, so there is an element of A in V (s) not equal to s. Hence, by denition, we conclude that s is a limit point of A, so s L A L = A.