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Joseph Kony From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Joseph Kony Born Joseph Rao

Kony July-September 1961 (age 50)[1] Odek, Uganda[2][3] Nationality Ugandan Known for Leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) Height 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m) Weight 180 lbs. Religion Christian Spouse Thought to have 88 wives as of 2007[4] Children Thought to have 42 children as of 2006[5]

Joseph Rao Kony (pronounced IPA: [ko];[6] born around about July/September of 1961)[1] is the head of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a Ugandan guerrilla group. While initially enjoying strong public support, the LRA turned on its own supporters, supposedly to "purify" the Acholi people and turn Uganda into a theocracy.[2] Kony proclaims himself the spokesperson of God and a spirit medium, has nurtured a cult of personality, and claims he is visited by a multinational host of 13 spirits, including a Chinese phantom.[2] Ideologically, the group is a syncretic mix of mysticism, Acholi nationalism, and Christian fundamentalism,[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] and claims to be establishing a theocratic state based on the Ten Commandments and local Acholi tradition.[17][18][19]

He ordered the abduction of children to become child-sex slaves and child soldiers.[20] An estimated 66,000 children became soldiers and two million people have been internally displaced since 1986.[21] In 2005, Kony was indicted for war crimes and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court in The Hague, Netherlands, but has evaded capture.[22] The LRA operates in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic and South Sudan.[23]

Contents [hide] 1 Biography 1.1 Early life

1.2 Cult leader 1.3 Lord's Resistance Army 1.4 Indictment 2 Religious beliefs 3 Action against Kony 3.1 Uganda 3.2 United States 4 Kony 2012 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

BiographyEarly lifeKony was born in 1961[1] in Odek, a village east of Gulu in northern Uganda,[2][24] to father Luizi Obol and mother Nora, both farmers.[25] He is a member of the Acholi people.[2][26] Kony enjoyed a good relationship with his siblings, but was quick to retaliate in a dispute and when confronted he would often resort to physical violence.[27] His father was a lay catechist of the Catholic Church and his mother was an Anglican.

Kony was an altar boy for several years but stopped attending church around the age of 15[27] and also dropped out of school.[2] As a teenager, Kony was apprenticed as the village witch doctor under Jamie Brow, his older brother, and when Jamie died, Kony took over the position.[28]

Cult leaderKony first came to prominence in January 1986, as the leader of one of the many premillennialist groups that sprang up in Acholiland in the wake of the wildly popular Holy Spirit Movement of Alice Auma (also known as Lakwena and to whom Kony is thought to be related).[2] Their relative loss of influence after the overthrow of Acholi President Tito Okello by Yoweri Museveni and his National Resistance Army (NRA) during the Ugandan Bush War (19811986) spurred resentment among the Acholi. Kony, along with a small group of followers, first moved beyond his home village of Odek on

1 April 1987.[29] A few days later, he met with a small group of former Uganda National Liberation Front soldiers and managed to recruit them for his group. His first raid, carried out shortly afterwards, was on the city of Gulu.[29]

Lord's Resistance ArmyFurther information: Lord's Resistance Army Lord's Resistance Army insurgency

Events 19871994 19942002 20022005 20062008 Juba talks 2008 Garamba offensive Lord's Resistance Army Holy Spirit Movement Joseph Kony ICC investigation

v t e

Kony's group was originally called the United Holy Salvation Army (UHSA), and was not perceived as a threat by the NRA. By 1988 it had become a major player in Ugandan affairs: an agreement between the NRA and the Uganda People's Democratic Army (UPDA) left members of the UPDA unsatisfied, and many joined the UHSA as a form of rebellion. One such person was the UPDA founder Odong Latek, who convinced Kony to use standard military tactics instead of attacking in cross-shaped formations and sprinkling holy water. The new tactics proved successful, and the UHSA completed several small victories against the NRA.[30] The NRA responded by significantly weakening Kony's group through a military campaign named Operation North. The operation was devastating to the UHSA and, with their

numbers reduced from thousands to hundreds, they engaged in retaliatory attacks on civilians and NRA collaborators. The LRA say that spirits were sent to communicate this mission directly to Kony.[30]

The bulk of Kony's foot soldiers were children.[27] While estimates of the number of children conscripted since 1986 vary, some put the figure as high as 104,000.[27] When abducting the children, Kony and his army often killed their family and neighbors, thus leaving the children with little choice but to fight for him.[27] In 1992, Kony renamed the group the United Democratic Christian Army.[31] For a decade, starting in the mid-1990s, the LRA was strengthened by military support from the government of Sudan, which was retaliating against Ugandan government support for rebels in what would become South Sudan.[1]

IndictmentMain article: International Criminal Court investigation in Uganda On 6 October 2005, the International Criminal Court (ICC) announced that arrest warrants had been issued for five members of the Lord's Resistance Army for crimes against humanity following a sealed indictment. On the next day Ugandan defense minister Amama Mbabazi revealed that the warrants include Kony, his deputy Vincent Otti, and LRA commanders Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odiambo, and Dominic Ongwen. According to spokesmen for the military, the Ugandan army killed Lukwiya on 12 August 2006.[22] The BBC received information that Otti had been killed on 2 October 2007, at Kony's home.[32] On 12 November 2006, Kony met Jan Egeland, the United Nations Undersecretary-General for humanitarian affairs and emergency relief.

Religious beliefsBetty Bigombe remembered that the first time she met Kony, his followers used oil to ward off bullets and evil spirits.[33] In a letter regarding future talks, Kony stated that he must consult his self-styled holy spirit. When the talks did occur, they insisted on the participation of religious leaders and opened the proceedings with prayers, led by LRA's Director of Religious Affairs Jenaro Bongomi. During the 1994 peace talks, Kony was preceded by men in robes sprinkling holy water.[24] Kony was thought among followers and detractors alike to have been possessed by spirits; he has been portrayed as either the Messiah or the Devil. He reportedly made annual trips to the Ato Hills in Uganda. He would allegedly ascend to the highest of the hills and lie down in the hot sun for days. Kony believes in the literal protection provided by a cross symbol and tells his child soldiers a cross on their chest drawn in oil will protect them from bullets.[27]

Kony believes in polygamy, and as of 2007 he was thought to have 88 wives, along with 42 children.[4][34] Kony insists that he and the Lord's Resistance Army are fighting for the Ten Commandments. He defends his actions: "Is it bad? It is not against human rights. And that commandment was not given by Joseph. It was not given by LRA. No, those commandments were given

by God."[35] Journeyman Pictures released a 2006 interview with Kony which he proclaims, "I am a freedom fighter not a terrorist."[36][37] He told Reuters: "We don't have any children. We only have combatants."[38]

Action against KonyUgandaThe Ugandan military has attempted to kill Kony throughout the insurgency. In Uganda's latest attempt to track Kony down, former LRA combatants have been enlisted to search remote areas of the Central African Republic, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo where he was last seen.[39] After the 11 September attacks, the United States declared the Lord's Resistance Army a terrorist group.[40]

United StatesOn 28 August 2008, the United States Treasury Department placed Kony on its list of "Specially Designated Global Terrorists", a designation that carries financial and other penalties.[41] It is not known whether Kony has any assets that are affected by this designation.

In November 2008, U.S. President George W. Bush personally signed the directive to the United States Africa Command to provide assistance financially and logistically to the Ugandan government during the unsuccessful Garamba Offensive, code-named Operation Lightning Thunder.[42] No U.S. troops were directly involved, but 17 U.S. advisers and analysts provided intelligence, equipment, and fuel to Ugandan military counterparts.[42] The offensive pushed Kony from his jungle camp, but he was not captured. One hundred children were rescued.[42]

In May 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama signed into law the Lord's Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act,[43] legislation aimed at stopping Kony and the LRA. The bill passed unanimously in the United States Senate on 11 March. On 12 May 2010, a motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill was agreed to by voice vote (two-thirds being in the affirmative) in the House of Representatives.[44] In November 2010, President Obama delivered a strategy document to Congress, asking for more funding to disarm Kony and the LRA.[45] In October 2011, President Obama authorized the deployment of approximately 100 combat-equipped U.S. troops to central Africa.[46] Their goal is to help regional forces remove Kony and senior LRA leaders from the battlefield. "Although the U.S. forces are combat-equipped, they will only be providing information, advice, and assistance to partner nation forces, and they will not themselves engage LRA forces unless necessary for self-defense," President Obama said in a letter to Congress.[47][48]

Kony 2012Main article: Kony 2012

Kony received a surge of attention in early March 2012 when a 30-minute documentary titled Kony 2012 by film maker Jason Russell for the campaign group Invisible Children Inc was released. The intention of the production is to draw attention to Kony in an effort to increase United States involvement in the issue. The Huffington Post commented: "The 27-minute video was posted on Vimeo and YouTube by Invisible Children and became a worldwide trending topic on the Internet. Personally, I have never seen an outpour of support from people on my Facebook news feed like this."[49] The video has been viewed more than 80 million times as of 17 March. The film has quickly received attention from celebrities.[50] Elizabeth Flock, writer for the Washington Post, offered more background on the LRA as well as Invisible Children in response to the documentary.[51] Flock and The Toronto Star stated that Invisible Children hoped to raise Kony's notoriety enough to provoke a massive overnight poster campaign, planned for 20 April 2012.[51][52]

See also Uganda portal Biography portal International Criminal Court investigations The World's 10 Most Wanted References1.^ a b c d Craine, Anthony. "Joseph Kony". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1017670/Joseph-Kony. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 2.^ a b c d e f g Daniel Howden (8 November 2008). "The deadly cult of Joseph Kony". The Independent (UK). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/the-deadly-cult-of-joseph-kony-1001084.html. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 3.^ "Joseph Kony". Nndb.com. http://www.nndb.com/people/398/000022332/. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 4.^ a b Green, Matthew (2008). The Wizard of the Nile: The Hunt for Africa's Most Wanted. Portobello Books. p. 136. ISBN 9781846270314. 5.^ Beatrice Debut Gulu (10 February 2006). "Portrait of Uganda's rebel prophet, painted by wives". Mail & Guardian Online. http://www.mg.co.za/article/2006-02-10-portrait-of-ugandas-rebel-prophetpainted-by-wives. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 6.^ http://boingboing.net/2012/03/08/african-voices-respond-to-hype.html 7.^ Doom, Ruddy; Vlassenroot, Koen (1 January 1999). "The Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda". Afraf.oxfordjournals.org. http://afraf.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/390/5. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 8.^ "Christian Cult Killing, Ravaging In New Uganda"

9.^ Ten Commandments of God: Mass Suicide in Uganda 10.^ Lamb, Christina (2 March 2008). "The Wizard of the Nile The Hunt for Africas Most Wanted by Matthew Green". The Times (London). http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/nonfiction/article3449276.ece. 11.^ McKinley Jr, James C. (5 March 1997). "Christian Rebels Wage a War of Terror in Uganda". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/05/world/christian-rebels-wage-a-war-of-terror-inuganda.html. 12.^ McGreal, Chris (13 March 2008). "Museveni refuses to hand over rebel leaders to war crimes court". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/13/uganda.internationalcrime. 13.^ Boustany, Nora (19 March 2008). "Ugandan Rebel Reaches Out to International Court". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2008/03/18/AR2008031803054.html. 14.^ Haynes, Jeffrey (2002). Politics in the developing world. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 121. ISBN 9780631225560. 15.^ McLaughlin, Abraham (31 December 2004). "The End of Uganda's Mystic Rebel?". Christian Science Monitor. Global Policy Forum. http://www.globalpolicy.org/intljustice/wanted/2004/1231mystic.htm. Retrieved 4 March 2009. 16.^ Muth, Rachel (8 May 2008). "Child Soldiers in the Lords Resistance Army: Factors in the Rehabilitation and Reintegration Process". George Mason University: 23. http://hdl.handle.net/1920/3005. Retrieved 4 March 2009. [dead link] 17.^ Ruddy Doom and Koen Vlassenroot (1999). Kony's message: A new Koine? The Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda. 98. Oxford Journals / Royal African Society. pp. 536. 18.^ Martin, Gus (2006). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. SAGE. pp. 196 197. ISBN 978-1412927222. 19.^ "Interview with Vincent Otti, LRA second in command" and " A leadership based on claims of divine revelations" in IRIN In Depth, June 2007 20.^ International Criminal Court (14 October 2005). Warrant of Arrest unsealed against five LRA Commanders. Retrieved 2 June 2009. 21.^ "Read The Bill: H.R. 2478". GovTrack.us. 19 May 2009. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h111-2478. Retrieved 11 July 2011.

22.^ a b "Ugandan army 'kills senior rebel'". BBC News. 13 August 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4788657.stm. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 23.^ Four African nations crack down on LRA retrieved 11 February 2012 24.^ a b "Profile: Joseph Kony". BBC News. 7 October 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4320858.stm. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 25.^ Green, Matthew (2008). The Wizard of the Nile: The Hunt for Africa's Most Wanted. Portobello Books. pp. 215. ISBN 9781846270314. 26.^ Green, Matthew (2008). The Wizard of the Nile: The Hunt for Africa's Most Wanted. Portobello Books. p. 121. ISBN 9781846270314. 27.^ a b c d e f Jimmie Briggs (2005). Innocents Lost: When Child soldiers Go to war. pp. 105144. 28.^ Peter Eichstaedt, First Kill Your Family: Child Soldiers of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army, p. 206 29.^ a b Green, Matthew (2008). The Wizard of the Nile: The Hunt for Africa's Most Wanted. Portobello Books. pp. 4041. ISBN 9781846270314. 30.^ a b "Joseph Kony". The New York Times. 13 October 2011. http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/people/k/joseph_kony/index.html. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 31.^ "Crises in Sudan and Northern Uganda". Subcommittee on Africa. U.S. House of Representatives. 29 July 1998. http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/intlrel/hfa51667.000/hfa51667_0.HTM. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 32.^ "Otti 'executed by Uganda rebels'". BBC News. 21 December 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7156284.stm. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 33.^ Boustany, Nora (11 July 2007). "The Woman Behind Uganda's Peace Hopes". The Washington Post. p. 3. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/10/AR2007071001933.html. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 34.^ Beatrice Debut Gulu (10 February 2006). "Portrait of Uganda's rebel prophet, painted by wives". Mail & Guardian Online. http://www.mg.co.za/article/2006-02-10-portrait-of-ugandas-rebel-prophetpainted-by-wives. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 35.^ "I will use the Ten Commandments to liberate Uganda". The Times (UK). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article680339.ece. (Subscription required) 36.^ "Meeting Joseph Kony Uganda June 2006". Journeyman Pictures. 8 March 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dWiF9hSgyoU&feature=related. Retrieved 22 March 2012.

37.^ "Joseph Kony News". The New York Times. 9 March 2012. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/k/joseph_kony/index.html. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 38.^ "[AlertNet]". http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L12604312.htm. (Subscription required) 39.^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (10 April 2010). "Uganda Enlists Former Rebels to End a War". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/11/world/africa/11lra.html?hp. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 40.^ Philip T. Reeker (6 December 2001). "Statement on the Designation of 39 Organizations on the USA PATRIOT Act's Terrorist Exclusion List". U.S. Department of State. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/dos120601.html. 41.^ Capaccio, Tony (14 October 2011). "Obama Sends Troops Against Uganda Rebels". Bloomberg News. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-14/obama-sends-troops-against-uganda-rebels.html. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 42.^ a b c Jeffrey Gettleman and Eric Schmitt (6 February 2009). "U.S. Aided a Failed Plan to Rout Ugandan Rebels". http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/07/world/africa/07congo.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 43.^ "LRA Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act of 2009". Resolve Uganda. 24 May 2010. http://www.theresolve.org/lra-disarmament-and-northern-uganda-recovery-act-of-2009. 44.^ 2010 Congressional Record, Page H3416. 45.^ Kavanagh, Michael J. (25 November 2010). "Obama Administration Asks for Funds to Boost Uganda's Fight Against Rebels". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-25/obamaadministration-asks-fpr-funds-to-boost-uganda-s-fight-against-rebels.html. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 46.^ Gerson, Michael (26 January 2011). "Joseph Kony and the international effort to bring him to justice". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/joseph-kony-and-theinternational-effort-to-bring-him-to-justice/2012/01/26/gIQAYk04TQ_story.html. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 47.^ USA Today The Oval: "Obama dispatches 100 troops to Africa" 14 October 2011 48.^ ABC News: "Obama Sends 100 US Troops to Uganda to Help Combat Lords Resistance Army" 14 October 2011 49.^ "Michael Geheren, "Kony 2012: Changing the World, One Tweet at a Time", March 7 2012". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-geheren/post_3074_b_1326942.html. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 50.^ "Joseph Kony 2012: online video campaign to bring Uganda war criminal to justice goes viral". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 7 March 2012.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/uganda/9129085/Joseph-Kony2012-online-video-campaign-to-bring-Uganda-war-criminal-to-justice-goes-viral.html. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 51.^ a b "Invisible Childrens Stop Kony campaign", Elizabeth Flock, Washington Post: BlogPOST, 7 March 2012. 52.^ "Casey, "Kony 2012 campaign goes viral in an effort to help hunt down Ugandan warlord Joseph Kony", March 7 2012". Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/news/world/article/1142287--kony-2012campaign-goes-viral-in-an-effort-to-help-hunt-down-ugandan-warlord-joseph-konyLiam. Retrieved 8 March 2012. BibliographyGreen, Matthew (2008). The Wizard of the Nile: The Hunt for Africa's Most Wanted. Portobello Books. ISBN 978-1846270307. Briggs, Jimmie (2005). The Innocents Lost: When Child soldiers Go to War. Basic Books. Bussman, Jane (2009). The Worst Date Ever: War Crimes, Hollywood Heart-Throbs and Other Abominations. Macmillan. ISBN 0230737129. External linksInvisible Children 2010 documentary film about abduction and forced enlistment of children by the Joseph Kony & LRA Hague Justice Portal: Joseph Kony "Wanted": Joseph Kony on Interpol`s list of wanted persons [hide]v t ePeople publicly indicted in the International Criminal Court

Central African Republic Jean-Pierre Bemba

Cte d'Ivoire Laurent Gbagbo

Democratic Republic of the Congo Thomas Lubanga Dyilo Bosco Ntaganda Germain Katanga Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui Callixte Mbarushimana

Kenya William Ruto Henry Kosgey Joshua Sang Francis Muthaura Uhuru Kenyatta Mohammed Ali

Libya Muammar Gaddafi Saif al-Islam Gaddafi Abdullah Senussi

Darfur, Sudan Ahmed Haroun Ali Kushayb Omar al-Bashir Bahr Abu Garda Abdallah Banda Saleh Jerbo Abdel Rahim Hussein

Uganda Joseph Kony Vincent Otti Raska Lukwiya Okot Odhiambo Dominic Ongwen

Biography portalUganda portal Persondata Name Kony, Joseph Alternative names Short description Leader of the Lord's Resistance Army Date of birth 1964 Place of birth Odek, Uganda Date of death Place of death Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_Kony&oldid=483989878" View page ratingsRate this page Rate this page Page ratings What's this?Current average ratings. Trustworthy

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