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Economic Study of Poultry Development in India A Regional Approach* S.P.

.BHARDWAJ AND ASHOK KUMAR Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute Library Avenue, NewDelhi 110 002 Advertisement:

Introduction A general confidence has been created among the people that green revolution has ushered an era of self-reliance in the food grain production. The rapidly growing population has created some doubts in the said hypothesis. In fact, the crop production alone may not solve the food problem of the country. The advances in cereal technology, of course, can fill the empty stomach but it may not help in the balanced growth of the human body. The chief ingredients of balanced diet also comprise proteins, fats and vitamins, which are essential for growth. The supply of these items can easily be increased through increased production of livestock products. In the livestock sector, poultry is the most efficient enterprise for increasing the supply of desired proteins, fats and vitamins in a short period. Poultry farming in India, in spite of several constraints has progressed considerably during the last decade. Poultry production in India was confined to backyards till recently. Local breed of birds were reared for the supply of eggs and meat. The increasing demand for poultry products necessitates augmenting the supply by importing the improved breed of poultry birds. The proportion of hybrid population in the total population of poultry birds was about 2 percent during 1961. Within a couple of decades these birds have dominated the market sidelining the indigenous birds. The technological advances have revolutionised the role and structure of poultry industry in India. It has become one of the most specialized enterprises in many parts of the country. The present study has been undertaken to examine various aspects related to the growth and development of poultry production in the country. However, the broad objectives of the study are as follows: ADVERTISEMENT ECO-MIX Least Cost Feed Formulation Software for Poultry, Dairy, EMU and any kind of Livestock Please Contact : Y.Srinivas - +91 9224317350 Email : ecomixonline@yahoo.com www.ecomixonline.com 1. To study the existing status of poultry sector in India 2. To examine the growth pattern of poultry in different region and 3. To construct developmental indices for poultry production in different states. Review of Literature

Headley (1964) estimated the production functions for egg laying flocks of hybrid and leghorn hens, raised at Iowa state farms. The regression analysis indicated that flock size, housing area, corn equivalent labour and protein equivalents were significantly contributing the gross returns. Hunter (1981) studied the economic aspects of egg production on Australian poultry farms. This study revealed that feed costs occupy a major share of total cost of production of eggs followed by cost of chicks and labour. Maheshwari (1993) found that the market imperfections were caused by the nexus between producers and commission agents. This study was conducted in Mysore, Davengere and Hubli districts for three crops i.e. Paddy, Groundnut and Jowar. In Mysore, fragmented market and market sharing existed for all the crops. Cotton market in Davengere was competitive while the other markets showed more imperfections. She suggested that mere regulation is not enough to make wholesale market more competitive and direct sales need to be promoted. Bhardwaj et al. (1995), in the study of cost behaviour and marketing margins of broilers, observed that cost of raising broilers varies according to the size of poultry farms. In marketing broilers, the retailers earn maximum profits whereas the producers could earn profit only half of that of retailer. Bhardwaj et al. (1996), in the study of broilers in Haryana, concluded that the supply of broiler was affected by the mortality and culling rates of broilers, which are governed by age of birds and size of poultry farms. The depletion rate decreases as the size of poultry farm increases. The study further showed that the marketing practices were influenced by the size of farms and seasons. Pandey et al. (1996a) studied the status of poultry production in India and also analyzed the behaviour of production cost of poultry products in the selected areas. This study shows that Poultry had become a vital component of the farm economy as it generates additional income and employment in the rural area. The cost estimates revealed that feed alone accounts for about two-thirds of the total cost. The study concluded that availability of feed at reasonable prices would provide an incentive to the producers for more poultry production. Pandey et al. (1996b), examined that development of poultry was adversely affected by wide fluctuations in the demand. The study showed that rise in price of eggs was comparatively lower than the rise in prices of milk, food article and all commodities during the period of 1982-94. The production and disposal of eggs at poultry farms revealed that more than 98 percent of eggs are sold for profit. The main marketing agents were identified as wholesale dealer and contractors in the study. Iqbaluddin (1996) opined that in most of the poultry pockets in India, the marketing is still in the control of private traders. Fluctuation in the prices of poultry products is one of the main constraints for attracting investment in the sector. Market Intervention Scheme (MIS) for procurement of eggs in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan by NAFED has shown encouraging results though the magnitude of operation is very small. Seetharaman (1996) studied the pattern of poultry development. He observed that out of 9 states with well-developed poultry industry, only in two states, i.e., in Gujarat and Maharashtra, the poultry cooperatives were doing well. He recommended that poultry cooperatives have to be extended in all the poultry producing states. METHODOLOGY: WEIGHTED POULTRY DEVELOPMENT INDEX (WPDI)

Where WPDI = Weighted Poultry Development Index for j th states of India. = Mean of ith parameters = is the estimate of variance of i th parameter for j th state K = number of parameters such as: Layer of parent stock Number of improved birds in the total population Number of hatcheries (private and public sector) Birds productivity (No. of eggs produced per annum)
Status of Poultry in India

Poultry enterprises in India can distinctly be grouped into two categories i.e. developmental poultry farms and commercial poultry. a) Developmental poultry It is referred to village/unorganized poultry because these enterprises operate on low scale using less amount of capital and traditional technology. The unit volume of production is low due to the above constraints. However, the concept of developmental poultry is very much relevant for our rural area to enhance the cash earnings of rural poor. The poultry was included into various Central and State Government sponsored programmes such as Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Special Livestock Production Programme (SLPP), Tribal Development Programme (TDP), etc. to popularize poultry in rural areas. However, the growth of developmental poultry could not succeed at desired level. b) Commercial Poultry Commercial / industrial poultry referred to large-scale enterprises where the number of birds per unit is large enough to reap maximum advantages of technological improvement. These enterprises enjoy various economies of scale of operation and thus are able to absorb the fluctuations in demand and supply and input cost, etc. The growth of this sector remained highly significant over the years though it is confined to some pockets of the country. Population of Poultry Birds and their distribution The poultry population in India is given in (Table-1) during 1951 was 73.5 millions and the same has increased 138.5 millions in 1972 (i.e. just doubled) and increased to about four times

by 1992 i.e. 307.07 millions. The growth in population remained 5.32 percent per annum during 1951-56, 5.47 percent per annum during 1977-82 and 5.79 percent per annum (Maximum) during 1982-87. The minimum growth in population was recorded during 1961-66 i.e. 0.21 percent per annum. Distribution or spread of poultry birds over the space may be examined by two approaches: a) Distribution according to area (rural/urban) and b) Distribution according to different regions. Birds population in rural/urban area: Based on Livestock Census, 1987 and 1992, the distribution of poultry birds [Table-2] reveals following interesting features: 1. Rural and semi-urban area accounted for the largest number of poultry birds (more than 90%). 2. Population of improved breed of both layer and meat type has increased much faster during the two periods as compared to desi breed. 3. The population of broilers has increased rapidly i.e. 21 percent per annum as compared to layers. 4. The proportion of birds distribution in two areas does not reveal much variation during the period. Regional distribution, as shown in table-3, reveals that there exists wide disparity in the population of poultry in different regions. Maximum population of birds i.e. 42 percent is confined to Southern Region, followed by Eastern Region 21.88 percent, Western Region, 19.42% and least in the Northern Region i.e. 14.5%. The leading poultry producing states in different regions were Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in Southern Region, West Bengal and Bihar in Eastern Region, Maharashtra in Western Region and Punjab in Northern Region. Productivity of Desi and Improved Birds i.e. eggs produced per annum also varies in different regions. Maximum productivity of desi birds i.e. 91 reported in Eastern region and a minimum of 15 eggs per annum in Northern Region. In case of improved birds, the productivity is highest in Southern Region 241, followed by 238 in Western Region, 209 in Northern region and 204 in Eastern Region. State-wise, the productivity of desi birds was maximum in Himachal Pradesh i.e. 168 egg per annum and least i.e., 79 in Nagaland. In case of improved birds, the maximum productivity was 278 eggs per annum in Andhra Pradesh and minimum 180 eggs/annum again in Nagaland. Regional distribution of hybrid parent stock as shown in Table-4 reveals that it is heavily concentrated in the Southern Region as nearly 45% of layer parent and 37% of eggs type birds are confined to this region. Northern region ranked second in this connection with layer parent 27% and 25% of birds parent stock. This is followed by Western Region with nearly 20% and

25% of layer percent and birds parent stock respectively. Eastern region have only 9% of layer parent and 14% of bird parent stock. State-wise concentration of percent stock of both layer parent and birds parent also reveals the similar trend. The ranking of different states remained as Andhra Pradesh (25% and 18%), Tamil Nadu (14% and 9%), Maharashtra (12% and 18%), Punjab (10% each) and West Bengal (3% and 9%) of layer parent and birds parent stock. Poultry Development in India Weighted Poultry Development Index (WPDI) Status of poultry in different states / UTs was examined by constructing developmental indices on parameters such as layer parent stock, number of improved birds to the total poultry population, number of hatcheries (both in private and public sector), and birds productivity (i.e. no. of eggs produced per annum) as shown in Table-5 Following technique has been used to construct indices for major poultry producing states/UTs in the country. The poultry Development index constructed for the major poultry producing states of Indian Union as the weighted average of the different parameters where in weights are reciprocals of their variances. The states have been arranged in the ascending order of WPDI. This implies that state with least WPDI is placed on number one and so on. Assam & N.E. States thus find first place in the order i.e. poultry is least developed in these states followed by Bihar, Orissa, and Himachal Pradesh etc. Andhra Pradesh is on the top of developmental status of poultry in India. In order to classify all the states in to two groups WPDI at 0.5200 level has been chosen arbitrarily as the dividing point of different states. In this way all the states may be arranged in two groups on the basis of low/high poultry development.

Slow poultry developing states

Northern Region Himachal Pradesh & Uttar Pradesh North East & Eastern Region: Assam and N.E. States Central and Western Region: Madhya Pradesh and Goa Southern Region: Kerala b. High Poultry Developing States Northern Region: - Haryana and Punjab Central Region: - Rajasthan Western Region: - Gujarat and Maharashtra Southern Region: - Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

Eastern Region: - West Bengal Growth in production. Poultry products have shown a massive growth in the country over the years 1961 the egg production was 2881 million which has increased to about 30,000 millions in the year 1996, broiler production starting from zero base has grown to a level of 400 millions in the yea 1996. Similarly poultry meat, which was about 81 thousand tones in the year 1961, has increased to 659 thousand tones during the same period. The increased production has made more availability of poultry production for consumption. Growth in Production and Productivity of Eggs and Broiler Meat Years Eggs (Millions) 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2002 2881 5340 12500 23300 33000 35000 Production Broiler Poultry (Million) meat(000 t) 0 4 30 190 700 800 81 121 179 440 875 975 Per capita availability Egg Poultry (no.) meat (grams) 7 188 10 220 18 266 28 498 36 38 -

The per capita availability of eggs and poultry meat has increased from 7 to 32 and 188g to 707g respectively during the period of 1961-95. b. Growth in Egg Production Growth in egg production in the major producing states of different regions of the country was examined during the period of 1980-98. The period was further divided in to twoparts i.e.,1980-89 and 1990-98.Compound growth and simple growth rates were calculated for the three periods and four regions are given in Table-6. 1. Northern Region-There has been a significant growth in egg production in all the egg producing states of the region. Punjab witnessed maximum growth of 3.12 percent/annum during first period and 3.03 percent/annum in the inter period followed by Himachal Pradesh (3.03, 2.94) Haryana (2.98, 2.96) and U.P. (2.80, 2.86) percent per annum during the second period i.e. 1990-98 witnessed a comparatively less growth in egg production in the region. 2. Western Region The major egg producing states in the region witnessed a much significant growth in egg production during first period except for Rajasthan where the second period i.e. 1990-98 observed much higher growth of 2.99 percent per annum Maharashtra state eggs production shows highest correlation of 99 percent within the same time period. The over-

all growth in the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Goa remained as 2.90, 2.89, 2.83 and 2.82 per annum respectively. 3. Southern Region: In this region, the maximum and highly significant growth of 3.14 percent per annum was observed in Tamil Nadu during first period, 2.79 in second period and 2.96 percent/annum in entire period followed by Andhra Pradesh at 2.97, 2.92 and 2.91 percent/annum respectively, Karnataka at 2.88, 2.83 and 2.84 per/annum and in Kerala 2.86, 2.82, 2.83 percent/annum respectively in the first, second and entire period of study. 4. Eastern Region: In the Eastern RegionSikkim has observed a maximum growth of 3.20, 2.85 and 3.04 percent/annum in egg production in first, second and entire period followed by the West Bengal 3.15, 2.78, 2.92 percent/annum, Nagaland 2.99, 2.79 and 2.95 percent/annum. Meghalaya 2.99, 2.80 and 2.86 percent\annum Manipur 2.87,2.68 and 2.85 per annum, Bihar 2.93, 2.12 and 2.82 percent/annum, Assam 2.87, 2.77 and 2.81 respectively. At national level the growth in egg production remained higher in first period, at 2.96 percent/annum, in second period 2.84 percent/annum and in entire period the growth was 2.90 percent/annum. c. Growth in Bird's Productivity Level Productivity of desi and improved birds in different regions has been examined for the period of 1987-88 to 1994-95 as shown in Table 7. The mean productivity level of Desi birds was maximum i.e. 156 egg/annum in Himachal Pradesh in Northern region and minimum of 62 egg/annum in Manipur in Eastern Region. Whereas in case of improved birds the maximum productivity of 278 eggs/annum was reported in Andhra Pradesh in Southern region and minimum of 109 egg/annum in Manipur state in the Eastern Region. Summary and Conclusion The increasing demand for poultry products has transformed poultry sector activity into a fullfledged industry from a mere household/backyard activity until recently. Technological advances have revolutionised the role and structure of poultry industry in India. The distribution of poultry population suggests that it has concentrated over some limited pockets. 42 percent of total population of poultry birds is confined to Southern region, 22 percent in the Eastern Region, and 20 percent in Western Region and remaining about 16 percent in the Northern region. The improved breed of birds accounts for 59 percent of the total birds population and contributing about 89 percent of the total egg production in the country. The funds allocated for poultry development during the various plans are very minimal. However, the poultry sector has attained the production targets satisfactorily. The status of poultry development in different states reveals that poultry sector in most of the states is still less developed. Only few states like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat are surplus states in poultry production. The study on cost of poultry production reveals that feed is the major component of cost followed by other items such as cost of oneday-old chick, cost of medication and labour cost etc. Marketing of poultry products suggest that they have to more a long distance for marketing. The marketing channel is well organized and operates in a fairly competitive environment. The price movements in wholesale market as well as in the retail market over the year have grown at a significant rate. The price series

correlation in the wholesale and retail market during the period under study remained positive and significantly high. Which implies that wholesale and retail market showed strong integration in the commodity market and the price movements in one market are fully transmitted to other markets. Export of poultry products has also growing at a significant rate and large amount is coming in the form of valuable foreign exchange every year. Table-1: Population of Poultry Birds in India Years 1951 1961 1972 1982 1992 Population in million 73.50 112.20 138.50 207.74 307.07 Annual growth(Five Yearly) 3.79 3.72 5.47 2.21

Data Source: Poultry Industry Year Book 1997 Table-2: Distribution of Birds (No. of Birds "000") Type of birds 1. Cocks Total a) Desi b) Improved 2. Hens a) Desi b) Improved 3. Total Chicken below 5 months Desi for eggs Desi for meat Total 1987 1992 Annual Growth

Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total 32282(94.05) 2041(5.95) 34323 40677(93.02) 3054 (6.98) 43731 4.43 28288(95.05) 1473(4.95) 29761 31741(93.38) 2251(6.62) 33.992 2.21 3994(87.55) 568(12.45) 4562 8936(91.75) 803(8.25) 9739 15.48 68129(94.65) 3853(5.35) 71982 69039(93.29) 4981(6.73) 74020 0.16 30003(85.78) 4975(14.22) 34978 41962(90.70) 4303(9.30) 46265 5.59 98133(91.75) 8828(8.25) 106961 111001(92.28) 9284(7.72) 120285 2.05

28.142(93.53) 1946(6.47) 30088 42581(93.54) 2940(6.46) 45521 8.35 13058(94.25) 797(5.75) 13855 29610(93.50) 2060(6.50) 31670 17.53

60494(95.50) 2848(4.50) 63342 72191(93.52) 5000(6.48) 77191 3.82

a) Improved for eggs b)Improved for meat Total Total chicken Total

10800(86.44) 1694(13.56) 12494 22136(87.66) 3115(12.34) 25251 14.89

5600(86.81)

851(13.90) 6451

15245(86.78) 2322(13.22) 17567 21.57

18335(86.69) 2814(13.31) 21149 37381(87.30) 5437(12.70) 42818 14.84 78829(93.30) 5662(6.70) 84491 109572(91.30) 10437(8.70) 120009 7.03 215480(92.76) 16815(7.24) 232295 261250(91.98) 22775(8.02) 284025 2.50

Data Source: Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics 1999 (AHS Series-7) Table-3: Regional Distribution of Poultry Birds (Population in '000.) Regions/State (1994-95) Desi birds % of A. Northern all Region population India Desi birds 1. Haryana 344 0.48 2. Himachal 227 0.32 3. J&K 1377 1.92 4. Punjab 5. Uttar 2590 3.62 Pradesh Regional Total 4538 6.34 B. Western Region 1. Gujarat 1351 1.89 2. Rajasthan 981 1.37 3. Maharashtra 10120 14.14 4. Madhya 4052 5.66 Pradesh Regional Total 16504 23.06 C. Southern Region 1. Andhra 8035 11.23 Pradesh 2. Karnataka 6980 9.75 Productivity Desi Improved

Improved % of all birds India population Improved bird's population 2695 3.69 147 0.20 396 0.54 12011 16.42 1195 1.63 16444 22.48

Total % of all No. of birds India total population 3039 374 1773 12011 3785 2.10 0.26 1.23 8.30 2.62

144 168 162 128

217 195 200 203 234

20982 14.51

150.5 209.8

1349 1262 5187 3788 11586

1.84 1.73 7.09 5.18 15.84

2700 2243 15307 7840

1.87 1.55 10.58 5.42

95 106 113 97 100

252 240 263 199 238

28090 19.42

16225 3221

22.19 4.40

24260 16.77 16201 7.05

117 96

278 249

3. Kerala 4. Tamil Nadu Regional Total D. Eastern Region 1. Bihar 2. Orissa 3. West Bengal 4. Assam 5. Nagaland Regional Total All India

4113 4481 23609

5.75 6287 6.25 11464 32.98 37201

8.60 15.68 50.87

10400 7.19 15945 11.02 66806 42.03

121 88 100

205 232 241

7970 3731 10655 2661 216 25233 71558 100

11.14 5.21 14.89 3.72 0.30 34.26

3041 1063 1782 394 143 64.23 73127 100

4.16 1.45 2.44 0.54 0.20 8.79

11011 4794 12437 3055 359 31656 144685 100

7.61 3.31 8.60 2.11 0.25 21.88

88 91 114 83 79 91 106 100

187 205 268 183 180 204 233

Source: Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics 1999 AHS - Serirs-7


Table-4: Regional Distribution of hybrid parent stock 1994

Regions/state

1. Northern Region i) Haryana and Delhi ii) Himachal Pradesh iii) Jammu and Kashmir iv) Punjab v) Uttar Pradesh 2. Western Region: i) Goa ii) Gujarat iii) Rajasthan iv) Maharashtra v) Madhya Pradesh 3. Southern Region i) Andhra Pradesh ii) Karnataka iii) Kerala iv) Tamil Nadu

Percent of the total National stock Layers parent stock 2 Birds (egg type) parent stock 3 26.45 24.76 13.0 9.0 2.0 0.76 0.45 2.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 3.0 20.76 24.63 0.76 0.95 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.15 12.0 128.0 3.0 1.53 44.38 37.30 25.0 18.0 5.0 9.0 0.30 1.15 14.0 9.0

v) Pondicherry 4. Eastern Region: i) Bihar ii) Orissa iii) W. Bengal iv) Assam and N.Eastern States

0.08 9.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 2.0

0.15 13.91 0.76 1.15 9.0 3.0

Source: Poultry Industry Year Book 1997


Table-5 Poultry Development Index in Different States/UTs. of India

States/UTs 1. Assam and N.E. States 2. Bihar 3. Orissa 4. Himachal Pradesh 5. Uttar Pradesh 6. Madhya Pradesh 7. Kerala 8. Goa 9. Gujarat 10. West Bengal 11. Rajasthan 12. Karnataka 13. Punjab 14. Maharashtra 15. Tamil Nadu 16. Haryana 17. Andhra Pradesh

Weighted Poultry Development Index (PDI) 0.3964 0.4220 0.4439 0.4585 0.4713 0.4878 0.5122 0.5184 0.5773 0.5791 0.5828 0.5991 0.5992 0.6266 0.6430 0.6595 0.7855

Table-6 Regional Growth in Eggs Production Period 1980-89 Region/States ComSimple R 2 Growth pound Growth A. Northern Region Period 1990-98 Comp- Simple R 2 Growth pound Growth Period 1980-98 ComSimple R 2 Growth pound Growth

1. Haryana 2.98** 2. H.P. 3.03** 3. J & K 2.76* 4. Punjab 3.12** 5. Chandigarh 2.82* 6. Delhi 2.72 7. Uttar 2.80** Pradesh B. Western Region 1.Goa 2.91* 2. Gujarat 2.85** 3. Rajasthan 2.92** 4. M.P. 2.91* 5. Maharashtra 2.88** C. Southern Region 1. Andhra 2.97** Pradesh 2. Karnataka 2.88** 3. Kerala 2.86** 4. Tamil Nadu 3.14** D. Eastern Region 1. Arunachal 2.79** 2. Assam 2.87** 3. Bihar 2.93** 4. Manipur 2.97** 5. Meghalaya 2.99** 6. Mizoram 2.60* 7. Nagaland 2.99** 8. Orissa 2.76* 9. Tripura 2.85** 10. West 3.15** Bengal 11. Sikkim 3.20** All India 2.96**

1.09** 1.09** 1.01* 1.14** 1.03 1.00 1.03**

0.73 0.98 0.25 0.98 0.33 0.12 0.95

2.91* 2.25* 2.87** 2.92** 2.55* 2.88* 2.85**

1.07* 1.05* 1.05** 1.07** -1.05* 1.05* 1.05**

0.77 0.78 0.90 0.97 0.54 0.61 0.93

2.96** 2.94** 2.82** 3.03** 2.73 2.72 2.86**

2.08** 1.07** 1.03** 1.11** 1.00 1.00 1.05**

0.92 0.96 0.86 0.97 0.01 0.2 0.97

1.06* 1.04** 1.07** 1.06* 1.06**

0.65 0.84 0.95 0.78 0.99

2.79* 2.80* 2.99** 2.83** 2.84**

1.02* 1.03* 1.09** 1.04** 1.04**

0.76 0.75 0.95 0.96 0.98

2.82** 2.90** 2.90** 2.89** 2.87** 2.91** 2.84** 2.83** 2.96** 2.72 2.81** 2.82** 284** 2.86** 2.83* 2.95** 2.86** 2.85** 2.92** 3.04** 2.90**

1.03** 1.96** 1.08** 1.06** 1.05**

0.72 0.93 0.98 0.94 0.99

1.09** 0.93 1.06** 0.99 1.05** 0.93 1.14** 0.85 1.02** 1.05** 1.07** 1.09** 1.09** -1.04 1.09** 1.01* 1.04** 1.14** 0.87 0.92 0.98 0.93 0.91 0.04 0.85 0.17 0.96 0.92

2.92** 1.07** 0.86 2.83** 1.04** 0.94 2.82** 1.03* 0.53 2.79** 1.92** 0.87 2.73 2.77** 2.12** 2.68 2.80** 3.38 2.79** 2.91** 2.94** 2.78** 1.00 1.01* 1.00** -1.01 1.03** 1.22 1.02** 1.07** 1.07** 1.02** 0.14 0.60 0,88 0.34 0.98 0.46 0.86 0.86 0.93 0.96

1.07** 0.95 1.04** 0.98 1.04** 0.89 1.08** 0.85 1.00 1.03** 1.03** 1.05** 1.05** 1.04* 1.08** 1.05** 1.04** 1.07** 0.02 0.89 0.84 0.78 0.85 0.11 0.91 0.84 0.94 0.80

1.16* 0.76 1.08** 0.98

2.85** 1.04** 0.94 2.84** 1.04** 0.98

1.11** 0.87 1.06** 0.97

Data Source: Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics 1999. Table-7 Productivity of Birds (Period 1987-88 to 1994-95)

1.

2.

3.

4.

Desi Birds Region/State Mean Std.dev. Northern Region Haryana 145.875 12.345 H.P. 156.875 11.344 U.P. 123.500 3.251 Western Region Gujarat 88.125 3.681 M.P. 113.600 28.315 Maharashtra 116.250 1.909 Rajasthan 99.625 6.163 Southern Region A.P. 138.625 11.722 Karnataka 46.895 1.356 Kerala 115.500 6.141 T.N. 93.000 17.760 Eastern Region Bihar 87.250 0.886 Manipur 62.875 4.794 Meghalaya 107.750 1.982 Mizoram 74.875 2.100 Nagaland 77.375 2.264 Orissa 94.000 1.773

C.V. 8.463 7.231 2.633 4.178 24.927 1.642 6.186 8.456 1.399 5.317 19.097 1.016 7.625 1.840 2.805 2.926 1.886

Improved Birds Mean Std. Dev. C.V. 203.250 183.375 182.000 240.125 199.000 247.625 240.625 278.750 248.375 201.750 231.625 185.750 109.375 213.250 126.250 176.875 206.125 15.173 7.425 32.562 7.699 18.924 37.705 0.916 22.575 0.518 4.062 7.110 2.816 11.538 8.190 9.146 8.061 20.003 7.456 4.049 17.891 3.206 9.512 15.227 0.381 8.099 0.208 2.013 3.070 1.516 10.549 3.841 7.244 4.557 9.704

REFERENCES Bhardwaj, S.P., Nirman K.P.S, Pandey R.K. and Kaushik M.S. (1996) Study of Marketing of Broilers in Haryana. Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, Vol.10, No.2, pp.118. Bhardwaj S.P., Mahajan V.K. and Pandey R.K. (1995) Study of cost Behaviour and Marketing Margins in Poultry Production - A case study of Broilers, Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing Conference special pp.72-73. Patil, E.R. and K.M.Kayala (1992) Economics of layer farming in the Konkan Region of Maharashtra, Poultry Guide vol. XXIX, No.11, pp.29-34. Iqbaluddin (1996) Poultry development policies and planning for higher production environmental production income and employment, XX World Poultry Congress, 25th Sept., New Delhi, Vol.111, pp.333-342

NABARD, Annual Report (1988-89). Pandey, R.K., Bhardwaj, S.P., Mahajan V.K. and Nirman, K.P.S., (1996 a) Economic Study of Poultry Production in India. XX World Poultry Congress Proceedings, vol.III, pp.527-34. Pandey R.K., Bhardwaj S.P., Nirman K.P.S. and Mahajan V.K. (1996 b) Economic Analysis of Price Behaviour and Marketing of Eggs. Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, Vol.III, p.343-357. Seetharaman (1996) The role of Poultry Co-operation in India, XX World Poultry Congress. Vol.III p.343-357. Hunter R. (1981) The Commercial Egg Industry, Fewer Farm Supply on Egg. Quarterly Review of Rural Economy, No.3 (4). Headley, J.C. (1964) Economics of Scale and Size in Floor Managed Laying Flocks. World Agril.Economics and rural Sociology Abstract No.6 (3) Bhardwaj S.P. (1999) Marketing of Poultry Products: Concept and related Issues. Ind. Jr. Agril.Mkt. vol.13. No.2. Bhardwaj S.P., Mahajan V.K. and Pandey R.K. (2000) Project Report on A Study on Production Efficiency and Resource Use in Poultry Production Division of Econometrics, Indian Agril.Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi-12. Source : IPSACON-2005

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I have wonderful experience and got more information on Dairy farm. Excellent training,and response. Sager Bangalore

I have wonderful experience and got more information on Dairy farm. Excellent training,and response. Sager Bangalore

hi; Your article on poultry layer farm management is superb. Pls l need you to convert the pricing into dollar, l dont understand your currency. Tnks. Iam chinedu from Nigeria. My number is +2348033222275. Email: edufeelings@yahoo.com

HI, I attended a training session of EMU Farm and it was a great learning experience. The details provided for starting an Emu farm did give me a better understanding of this business and would help me in chalking out my further steps. They have best to explain me the details and the Farm visit cleared most of my doubts. Pramodh Sampath Hyderabad.Date.21st.April 2011 Email: pramod_sampath@yahoo.com

While browsing internet I came to know about this site(poulvet.com). I have gone through some of the articles posted. Thanks for posting two of my articles. This site is terrific and very much useful to the poultry industry. All the best Dr M.R.Reddy, BVSC., MVSc, PhD (Australia), MACVS (poultry health) Email: rrmaddula@yahoo.com

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