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SCIENCE FOUNDATION

2011/2012

CODE SUBJECT: BIO095

SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2011/2012 CODE SUBJECT: BIO095 CHAPTER 6: THE NERVOUS AND HORMONAL COMMUNICATION Structured Questions

CHAPTER 6: THE NERVOUS AND HORMONAL COMMUNICATION

Structured Questions (Please answer all questions in the other paper)

1. Hormones trigger responses by bindings to specific receptors proteins in or on target cells.

a.

Hormones

are………Therefore, they secrete the hormones directly into the………(2 marks)

are

released

by

endocrine

glands.

Endocrine

glands

b. The mechanism of action by which a hormone acts depends mainly on whether its receptor molecule is within the target cell or on its surface and it can be divided into steroid and peptide hormones.

i. Hormone that bind to the receptor molecule within the target cell is…… mark)

(1

ii. Hormone that bind to the receptor molecule on target cell’s surface is…….(1 mark)

iii. Which hormones (which referring to steroid and peptide hormones) that is soluble or insoluble in water? (2 marks)

iv. Hormones that insoluble in water are not able to dissolve in the plasma, how these hormones are carried to the target cells? (1 mark)

v. Explain in brief the process of binding of steroid hormones once/after it enters the target cell. (4 marks)

vi. Peptide hormones are hydrophilic, so these hormones are not able to enter the cells. How to resolve this problem? (2 mark)

vii. By referring to your answer in question 1.e.vii. what happen to that peptide hormone? (4 marks)

(2 mark) vii. By referring to your answer in question 1.e.vii. what happen to that peptide
(2 mark) vii. By referring to your answer in question 1.e.vii. what happen to that peptide

SCIENCE FOUNDATION

2011/2012

CODE SUBJECT: BIO095

SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2011/2012 CODE SUBJECT: BIO095 2. Neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system

2. Neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system

a. What does neuron do? (1 mark)

b. A neuron has a large cell body. Name two (2) types of neuronal processes which projected from the cell body. (2 marks)

c. Figure below show the structure of the neuron. Label the following structures. (7 marks)

body. (2 marks) c. Figure below show the structure of the neuron. Label the following structures.
body. (2 marks) c. Figure below show the structure of the neuron. Label the following structures.
body. (2 marks) c. Figure below show the structure of the neuron. Label the following structures.

SCIENCE FOUNDATION

2011/2012

CODE SUBJECT: BIO095

SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2011/2012 CODE SUBJECT: BIO095 3. All cells have a membrane/action potential, a voltage across

3. All cells have a membrane/action potential, a voltage across their plasma membrane. The plasma membrane of neuron always had unequal distribution of electrical charges between the two sides of the membrane. Stimuli cause changes in this membrane potential that act as signals, transmitting and processing information. The stimuli is send in form of impulses via neuron. A neuron that is not transmitting impulse is said to be in the resting membrane potential state.

a. Which pump play important roles in the formation of the resting potential? (1 marks)

b. Using your answer in b, describe formation of the resting potential via this pump. (4 marks)

c. Explain the neuron transmission of impulse along the axon. (5 marks)

d. Define the following words:

i. Salutatory conduction (1 mark)

.

ii. Hyperpolarization (1 mark)

iii. Depolarization (1 mark)

e. Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses. Whenever action potentials arrive at the end of a neuron’s axon, the information will be passed to a receiving cell across the synapse.

i. What is presynaptic cell and postsynaptic cell? (2 marks)

ii. How the information is passing from the presynaptic cell to the prosynaptic cell? (6 marks)

iii. Give one example each for excitatory neurotransmitter and inhibitory neurotransmitter. (2 marks)

marks) iii. Give one example each for excitatory neurotransmitter and inhibitory neurotransmitter. (2 marks) SSK Page
marks) iii. Give one example each for excitatory neurotransmitter and inhibitory neurotransmitter. (2 marks) SSK Page