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# A Calculus Refresher

## www.mathcentre.ac.uk c 2003 mathcentre

Contents

Foreword Preliminary work How to use this booklet Reminders Tables of derivatives and integrals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Derivatives of basic functions Linearity in dierentiation Higher derivatives The product rule for dierentiation The quotient rule for dierentiation The chain rule for dierentiation Dierentiation of functions dened implicitly Dierentiation of functions dened parametrically Miscellaneous dierentiation exercises Integrals of basic functions Linearity in integration Evaluating denite integrals Integration by parts Integration by substitution Integration using partial fractions Integration using trigonometrical identities Miscellaneous integration exercises Answers Acknowledgements

2 2 2 3 4 5 7 9 10 11 13 15 16 17 20 21 23 24 26 29 33 35 39 46

Foreword
The material in this refresher course has been designed to enable you to cope better with your university mathematics programme. When your programme starts you will nd that the ability to dierentiate and integrate condently will be invaluable. We think that this is so important that we are making this course available for you to work through either before you come to university, or during the early stages of your programme.

Preliminary work
You are advised to work through the companion booklet An Algebra Refresher before embarking upon this calculus revision course.

## How to use this booklet

Level
This material has been prepared for students who have completed an A-level course in mathematics
2

Reminders
Use this page to note topics and questions which you found dicult. Seek help with these from your tutor or from other university support services as soon as possible.

Tables
The following tables of common derivatives and integrals are provided for revision purposes. It will be a great advantage to know these derivatives and integrals because they are required so frequently in mathematics courses.

Table of derivatives
f (x) xn ln kx ekx ax sin kx cos kx tan kx f (x) nxn1 1 x kekx ax ln a k cos kx k sin kx k sec2 kx

Table of integrals
f (x)
n

(n = 1) 1 x

x1 = ekx

## 1. Derivatives of basic functions

Try to nd all the derivatives in this section without referring to a table of derivatives. The derivatives of these functions occur so frequently that you should try to memorise the appropriate rules. If you are really stuck, consult the table on page 4. 1. Dierentiate each of the following with respect to x. (a) x (b) x6 (c) 6 (d) x (e) x1 (f) x1/7 1 x3 (h) x79 (i) x1.3 1 (j) 3 x (k) x5/3 (l) 1 x0.71

(g)

2.

Dierentiate each of the following with respect to . (b) cos 4 4 (c) sin (i) cos 3 (d) sin 2 3 5 2 (e) tan (k) sin 0.7 (f) tan

(a) cos

## (g) sin(8) (h) tan

(j) cos

3. (a) (e)

Find the following derivatives. d x (e ) dx d 2z/ (e ) dz (b) (f) d 2y (e ) dy d 1.4x (e ) dx (c) (g) d 7t (e ) dt d x (3 ) dx (d) d x/3 (e ) dx

4. (a)

## Find the following derivatives. d (ln x) dx (b) d (ln 5z) dz (c) 2x d ln dx 3

2. Linearity in dierentiation
The linearity rules enable us to dierentiate sums and dierences of functions, and constant multiples of functions. Specically d d d (f (x) g(x)) = (f (x)) (g(x)), dx dx dx 1. d d (kf (x)) = k (f (x)). dx dx

Dierentiate each of the following with respect to x. (b) 2x x2 (c) cos x sin x 1 (f) 4 3 ln x (g) 4x5 3 tan 8x 2e5x x (d) 3x3 + 4 sin 4x

## (a) 3x + 2 (e) 2ex + e2x

2. (a)

Find the following derivatives. d t8 5t1/5 + dt 8 d 2 3x 3 tan cos 8x dx 9 2 4 (b) d 2 cos 3e/4 d 4 d dz 1 4/3 1 4z/3 z e 4 3 (c) d dx 3e3x/5 5

(d)

(e)

In Questions 3-5 you dont need the product rule, quotient rule or chain rule to dierentiate any of these if you do the algebra rst! 3. Expand the powers or roots and hence nd the following derivatives. (a) d dy 2y (b) 1 d (2x)3 dx (2x)3 (c) d dy 1 y e 2
4

(d)

d 2t 3 5e dt

4. Simplify or expand each of the following expressions, and then dierentiate with respect to x. (a) x x2 x3
2x

(b) x( x x2 )
3x

(c) 2x

2 x

3 +x x2

(d) (e

1)(3 e )

## 1 e2x (e) e4x

5.

Use the laws of logarithms to nd the following derivatives. d 1 (b) ln dx 6x t3 d ln 3t (c) dt e (d) d ln te2t dt
1/3

d (a) ln x9/2 dx

3. Higher derivatives
1. (a) (d) (g) Find the following second derivatives. d2 5 (x ) dx2 d2 (8 13y) dy 2 1 d2 x3/2 3/2 2 dx x (b) (e) (h) d2 (cos 3x) dx2 d2 dx2 1 3x 3x3 x (c) (f) (i) d2 2z (e e2z ) 2 dz d2 (ln 2t 6t) dt2 d2 dt2 1 1 sin 2t ln 4t 2 4

## 4. The product rule for dierentiation

The rule for dierentiating the product of two functions f (x) and g(x) is d (f (x)g(x)) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x). dx 1. Dierentiate each of the following with respect to x. (b) x3 cos 2x (e) (x2 x) sin 6x (c) x1/3 e3x x x 1 tan cos (f) x 3 3 (a) x sin x (d) x ln 4x

2. (a) (e)

Find the following derivatives. d (sin cos ) d d 6x (e ln 6x) dx (b) (f) d (sin 2t tan 5t) dt d (cos cos 3) d (c) (g) d (sin z ln 4z) dz d (ln t ln 2t) dt (d) x d ex/2 cos dx 2

10

## 5. The quotient rule for dierentiation

The rule for dierentiating the quotient of two functions f (x) and g(x) is d dx 1. f (x) g(x) = f (x)g(x) f (x)g (x) . (g(x))2 1+ x (e) xx

Dierentiate each of the following with respect to x. x4 (b) 1x 2x (c) 1 + 2x 3x2 2x3 (d) 2x3 + 3

x (a) 1 x2

11

2. (a)

Find the following derivatives. d sin x dx x (b) d dx ln x x4/3 (c) d d 2 tan 2 (d) d dz ez z (e) d dx x2 ln 2x

3. (a)

Find the following derivatives. d sin 2t dt sin 5t (b) d dx e2x tan x (c) d dx ln x cos 3x (d) d dx ln 3x ln 4x

12

## 6. The chain rule for dierentiation

The chain rule is used to dierentiate a function of a function: d (f (g(x))) = f (g(x)).g (x). dx 1. Dierentiate each of the following with respect to x. (b) (1 x4 )3 (f) (2x2 3x + 5)
5/2

## (a) (4 + 3x)2 (e) x 1 x

1/3

(c) (g)

1 (1 2x)2

(d)

1 + x2 1 4x2 x4

x2 x

(h)

13

2. Find the following derivatives. (Remember the notation for powers of trigonometric functions: sin2 x means (sin x)2 , etc.) (a) (e) d (sin2 ) d d (cos5 5z) dz (b) (f) d (sin 2 ) d d 1 dx cos3 x (c) (g) d (sin(sin )) d d (sin(2 t 3t2 )) dt (d) d (tan(3 4x)) dx

3. Find the following derivatives. (The notation exp x is used rather than ex where it is clearer.) (a) (e) d exp(y 2 ) dy d (sin(ln 4x)) dx (b) (f) d (exp(cos 3x)) dx d (ln(ex ex )) dx (c) d (cos(e3x )) dx d 3t (g) e 3 cos 3t dt (d) d (ln(sin 4x)) dx

14

## 7. Dierentiation of functions dened implicitly

dy 1. Find dx in terms of y when x and y are related by the following equations. You dy will need the formula dx = 1/ dx . dy

(a) x = y y 3

(b) x = y 2 +

1 y

(c) x = ey + e2y

(d) x = ln(y ey )

2. Find equations.

dy dx

in terms of x and/or y when x and y are related by the following (b) x + y 2 = y x2 (e) x + ey = ln x + ln y (c) y sin y = cos x (f) y = (x y)3

15

## 8. Dierentiation of functions dened parametrically

If x and y are both functions of a parameter t, then dy dx dy = dx dt dt
dy 1. Find dx in terms of t when x and y are related by the following pairs of parametric equations.

## (a) x = sin t, (c) x = e2t + t,

y = cos t y = et + t2

1 (b) x = t , y = 1 t2 t (d) x = ln t + t, y = t ln t

2. Find dx in terms of t when x and y are related by the following pairs of parametric dy equations. (a) x = 3t + t3 , y = 2t2 + t4 (b) x = cos 2t, y = tan 2t

16

## 9. Miscellaneous dierentiation exercises

1. Find the following derivatives, each of which requires one of the techniques covered in previous sections. You have to decide which technique is required for each derivative! (a) (e) (i) d 3 (x tan 4x) dx d (exp(x ex )) dx d 53x dx (b) (f) (j) d (tan3 4t) dt d dy y 4 + y 4 y + y 1 (c) (g) (k) d (exp(3 tan 4x)) dx d x 2 (2 x ) dx d 1z ln dz 1+z
2

(d) (h)

d d

3 tan 4

d (ln(ln t)) dt

d 1 dx ln x x

2. (a)

Find the following derivatives, which require both the product and quotient rules. d x cos x dx 1 cos x (b) d dz ez z ln z (c) d d sin 3 cos 2 tan 4

17

3. Find the following derivatives, which require the chain rule as well as either the product rule or the quotient rule. (a) (d) d t (e ln(et + 1)) dt d (exp( cos )) d d dy 1 y2 1 (b) (e) d (sin2 3 cos4 3) d d (x ln x)3 dx (c) (f) d 1x dx 1 + x2

2 3/2

d 1x exp dx 1+x

(g)

y2

4. (a)

Find the following derivatives, which require use of the chain rule more than once. d ( 1 cos3 x) dx (b) d exp (x x2 )1/4 dx (c) d 1 ln tan d

18

5. (a)

Find the following second derivatives. d2 ( 1 + x2 ) dx2 (b) d2 (exp(z 2 )) dz 2 (c) d2 (sin3 ) d2 (d) d2 dx2 1 (1 x4 )4

1 cos x 1 , sec x = and cot x = , nd the 6. Remembering that cosec x = sin x cos x sin x following derivatives. (a) (d) d (cosec 2x) dx d (cosec 2 cot3 ) d (b) (e) d (sec2 ) d d (ln(sec x + tan x)) dx (c) (f) d ( 1 + cot z) dz d (tan(sec )) d

19

## 10. Integrals of basic functions

Try to nd all the integrals in this section without referring to a table of integrals. The integrals of these functions occur so frequently that you should try to memorise the appropriate rules. If you are really stuck, consult the Tables on page 4. Integrate each of the following with respect to x. (a) x4 (b) x7 (c) x1/2 (d) x1/3 (e) x 1. (h) 1 x3 (i) x0.2 (j) 1 x0.3 1 (k) x 1 (l) x3 4

## (f) x1/2 (m) x2

(g)

(n) x4/3

Integrate each of the following with respect to x. x 1 (a) cos 5x (b) sin 2x (c) sin 2 x (d) cos 2 1 (g) e2x (h) ex/3 (i) e0.5x (j) x e 2.

(e)

1 x 1 (k) 2x e

20

## 11. Linearity in integration

The linearity rules enable us to integrate sums (and dierences) of functions, and constant multiples of functions. Specically (f (x) g(x))dx = 1. (a) 7x4 (g) x3 + (b) 4x7 1 1 (h) 3 2 x 7x f (x) dx g(x)dx, k f (x)dx = k 1 x x 2 x f (x)dx 1 x

Integrate each of the following with respect to x. (c) x1/2 + x1/3 (i) 11 (d) 17x1/3 (j) 11 x0.3 (e) (f) x2 +

(k) 2x

(l) 7x 11

Integrate each of the following with respect to x. x x (a) 3x + cos 4x (b) 4 + sin 3x (c) + sin 2 2 1 , k constant (e) e2x + e2x (f) 3 sin 2x + 2 sin 3x (g) kx 1 1 (i) 1 + x + x2 (j) 7 (k) 1 cos 2 x 2 3x 2.

## (d) 4ex + cos (h) 1 4 x

x 2

(l) 1 x2 3x1/2 2

21

3. Simplify each of the following expressions rst and then integrate them with respect to x. (a) 6x(x + 1) (b) (x + 1)(x 2) e3x e2x ex x3 + 2x2 (c) x (g) x+4 x (d) ( x + 2)( x 3) (h) x2 + 3x + 2 x+2

22

## 12. Evaluating denite integrals

1. (a) (e) (i) Evaluate each of the following denite integrals.
1 0 3

7x4 dx

(b)

3 2

4t7 dt

2 1

## (x1/2 + x1/3 )dx (t2 + 2t)dt

(d) (h)

1 2 0 1 0

17t1/3 dt cos 2x dx

1 1/2 0

1 4 2

1 dx x2 1 dx ex

/4

0 /4 0

(2 + sin )d (l)

(ex + ex )dx

2.

2 0

f (x)dx +

f (x)dx =

3 0

f (x)dx

3.

1 1

f (x)dx =

1 1

f (x)dx.

23

## 13. Integration by parts

Integration by parts is a technique which can often be used to integrate products of functions. If u and v are both functions of x then du dv dx u dx = uv v dx dx When dealing with denite integrals the relevant formula is b du b dv dx v u dx = [uv]b a dx dx a a 1. Integrate each of the following with respect to x. x (a) xex (b) 5x cos x (c) x sin x (d) x cos 2x (e) x ln x (f) 2x sin 2

2. (a)

## Evaluate the following denite integrals.

/2 0

x cos x dx

(b)

2 1

4xex dx

(c)

1 1

5te2t dt

(d)

3 1

x ln x dx

3. In the following exercises it may be necessary to apply the integration by parts formula more than once. Integrate each of the following with respect to x. x (a) x2 ex (b) 5x2 cos x (c) x(ln x)2 (d) x3 ex (e) x2 sin 2

24

4. (a)

## Evaluate the following denite integrals.

/2 0

x2 cos x dx

(b)

1 0

7x2 ex dx

(c)

1 1

t2 e2t dt

5.

By writing ln x as 1 ln x nd

ln x dx.

6.

## 1 Hence deduce that I = 2 (ln t)2 + c.

7. Let I stand for the integral et sin t dt. Using integration by parts twice show that I = et sin t et cos t I ( plus a constant of integration ) et (sin t cos t) +c Hence deduce that et sin t dt = 2

25

## 14. Integration by substitution

1. (a) (c) (e) (g) (i) (k) Find each of the following integrals using the given substitution. cos(x 3)dx, cos(t + )dt, x(3x2 + 8)3 dx, 1 dx, (x 2)4 x ex dx, t dt, 1 + t2
2

u =x3 u = t + u = 3x2 + 8

sin(2x + 4)dx,

u = 2x + 4

## e9x7 dx, u = 9x 7 x 4x 3 dx, u = 4x 3 1 dt, (3 t)5 u= 3t u = cos x

u=x2

u = x2 u = 1 + t2

## sin x cos3 x dx, x dx, 2x + 1

u = 2x + 1

26

Find each of the following integrals using the given substitution. x dx, z = x3 (b) (x 5)4 (x + 3)2 dx, u= x5 (a) x3 2.

## 3. (a) (c) (d)

Evaluate each of the following denite integrals using the given substitution.
/4 0 3 2 2

t t 2 dt,

cos(x )dx,

z =x

(b)

9 8

u=x8

/4 0 2 1

u = tan x

e t dt, t

27

4.

## By means of the substitution u = 4x2 7x + 2 show that 8x 7 dx = ln |4x2 7x + 2| + c 2 7x + 2 4x

5. The result of the previous exercise is a particular case of a more general rule with which you should become familiar: when the integrand takes the form derivative of denominator denominator the integral is the logarithm of the denominator. Use this rule to nd the following integrals, checking each example by making an appropriate substitution. 1 1 3 2 (a) dx (b) dx (c) dx (d) dx x+1 x3 3x + 4 2x + 1

6. Use the technique of Question 5 together with a linearity rule to nd the following x integrals. For example, to nd dx we note that the numerator can be made x2 7 equal to the derivative of the denominator as follows: 1 2x 1 x dx = dx = ln |x2 7| + c. 2 7 2 7 x 2 x 2 x sin 3 3e2x (a) dx (b) d (c) dx x2 + 1 1 + cos 3 1 + e2x

28

## 15. Integration using partial fractions

1. By expressing the integrand as the sum of its partial fractions, nd the following integrals. (a) (d) (g) 2x + 1 dx x2 + x x+1 dx (1 x)(x 2) 4x dx 4 x2 (b) (e) (h) 3x + 1 dx x2 + x 9x + 25 dx 2 + 10x + 9 x 15x + 51 dx 2 + 7x + 10 x (c) (f) (i) 5x + 6 dx + 3x + 2 5x 11 dx 2 + 10x + 9 x ds 21 s x2

2. By expressing the integrand as the sum of its partial fractions, nd the following denite integrals. (a)
2 1

2 8x dx x2 + 2x

(b)

2 0

5x + 7 dx (x + 1)(x + 2)

(c)

1 x2

7x 11 dx 3x + 2

29

3. By expressing the integrand as the sum of its partial fractions, nd the following integrals. (a) x2 x dx 2x + 1 (b) 4x + 6 dx (x + 1)2 (c) x2 7x 23 dx 6x + 9

4. By expressing the integrand as the sum of its partial fractions, nd the following denite integrals. (a)
1 0

x2

x+8 dx + 6x + 9

(b)

1 1 x2

2x + 19 dx + 18x + 81

(c)

2 0

x2

8x dx + 2x + 1

30

5.

Find

6.

Find

7.

Find

## x2 11x 4 dx. (2x + 1)(x + 1)(3 x)

31

In this example note that the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree x3 dx. of the denominator. Find (x + 1)(x + 2) 8.

9.

Show that

Hence nd

10.

Find

32

## 16. Integration using trigonometrical identities

Trigonometrical identities can often be used to write an integrand in an alternative form which can then be integrated. Some identities which are particularly useful for integration are given in the table below. Table of trigonometric identities sin A sin B = 1 (cos(A B) cos(A + B)) 2 sin A cos B = (sin(A + B) + sin(A B)) sin A cos A = 1 sin 2A 2 1 2 cos A = 2 (1 + cos 2A)
1 sin2 A = 2 (1 cos 2A) 1 2 1 2

cos A cos B =

## (cos(A B) + cos(A + B))

sin2 A + cos2 A = 1

tan2 A = sec2 A 1 1. (a) In preparation for what follows nd each of the following integrals. sin 3x dx (b) cos 8x dx (c) sin 7t dt (d) cos 6x dx

2.

sin2 x dx.

3.

## sin t cos t dt.

33

4.

Find

(a)

2 sin 7t cos 3t dt

(b)

8 cos 9x cos 4x dx

(c)

sin t sin 7t dt

5.

Find

tan2 t dt.

(Hint: use one of the identities and note that the derivative of tan t is sec2 t).

6.

Find

## cos4 t dt. (Hint: square an identity for cos2 A).

7.

(a) Use the substitution u = cos x to show that sin x cosn x dx = 1 cosn+1 x + c n+1 sin5 t dt. Start by writing

## (b) In this question you are required to nd the integral

the integrand as sin4 t sin t. Take the identity sin2 t = 1 cos2 t and square it to produce an identity for sin4 t. Finally use the result in part (a) to nd the required integral, sin5 t dt.

34

## 17. Miscellaneous integration exercises

To nd the integrals in this section you will need to select an appropriate technique from any of the earlier techniques. 1. Find (9x 2)5 dx.

2.

Find

1 dt. t+1

3.

Find

t4 ln t dt.

4.

Find

(5 t 3t3 + 2) dt.

35

5.

Find

## (cos 3t + 3 sin t) dt.

6.

By taking logarithms to base e show that ax can be written as ex ln a . Hence nd ax dx where a is a constant.

7.

Find

xe3x+1 dx.

8.

Find

2x dx. (x + 2)(x 2)

36

9.

Find

tan sec2 d.

10.

Find

/2 0

sin3 x dx.

11.

1 x2 dx.

12.

Find

ex sin 2x dx.

37

13.

Find

14.

Find

15. In =

## xn e2x dx. Using integration by parts show that

xn e2x n In1 . This result is known as a reduction formula. Use it repeatedly 2 2 to nd I4 , that is x4 e2x dx.

16.

Find

1 0

## 1 dt, by letting t = 2 sin . (4 t2 )3/2

38

Section 1. Derivatives of basic functions
1. (a) 1 (e) x2 2. (i) 1.3x0.3 (b) 6x5
1 (f) 7 x6/7 1 (j) 3 x4/3

5 (k) 3 x8/3

(d)

1 2 x

(h) 79x78
0.71 (l) x1.71

1 4

4

(f) sec2

(b) 4 sin 4

5 2

(d)

2 3

cos 2 3

## (g) 8 cos(8) = 8 cos 8

5 sin 5 = 2 sin 5 2 2

(i) 3 sin 3

## (k) 0.7 cos 0.7

1 3. (a) ex (b) 2e2y (c) 7e7t (d) 3 ex/3 x 3 ln 3

(e)

2 2z/ e

(f) 1.4e1.4x

(g)

4.

(a)

1 x

(b)

1 z

(c)

1 x

## Section 2. Linearity in dierentiation

1. a) 3 e) 2ex 2e2x 2. (a) t4/5 + t7
4 (e) 1 z 1/3 + 9 e4z/3 3

b) 2 2x f) x12

3 x

c) sin x cos x

9e3x/5 25

1 3

sec2

3x 2

+ 6 sin 8x

3. 4.

(a)

1 2y

(b) 24x2 +
1 x2

3 8x4

3 t

3 (d) 2 5e2t 3
18 x4

9 2x

(b)

3 x 2

1 (b) 2x

+ 4x

5.

1 3t

2 3

1. (a) 20x3 (e)
2 x3

(b) 9 cos 3x
6 3/2 t 4 1 4t2

15 7/2 x 4

(i) 2 sin 2t +

18x (f) t1 + 2

39

## Section 4. The product rule for dierentiation

1. (a) sin x + x cos x
1 (c) 3 x4/3 e3x 3x1/3 e3x

## (b) 3x2 cos 2x 2x3 sin 2x (d)

1 2 x

ln 4x +

1 x

(e) (2x 1) sin 6x + 6(x2 x) cos 6x 2. (a) cos2 sin2 (c) cos z ln 4z + (e) 6e6x ln 6x +
sin z z e6x x

## (f) x12 tan x cos x + 3 3

1 3x

sec2

x 3

+ sin x 3

(b) 2 cos 2t tan 5t + 5 sin 2t sec2 5t (d) 1 ex/2 cos x + sin x 2 2 2 (f) sin cos 3 3 cos sin 3

(g) 1 (ln 2t + ln t) t

## Section 5. The quotient rule for dierentiation

1. (a) (d) 2. (a) (d) 3. (a) (c)
1+x2 (1x2 )2 18x18x2 6x4 (2x3 +3)2 x cos xsin x x2 z e 1 ( z 2z ) z

(b) (e)

+1

1 2 x

## 5 (c) (1+2x)2 /( x x)2

4 (b) (1 3 ln x)x7/3

(c)

(e)

## 2x ln 2xx (ln 2x)2

2 cos 2t sin 5t5 cos 5t sin 2t sin2 5t (cos 3x)/x+3 ln x sin 3x , cos2 3x

(b) (d)

## Section 6. The chain rule for dierentiation

1. (a) 6(4 + 3x) (d)
x 1+x2 1 x 2

(b) 12x3 (1 x4 )2
1 (e) 3 1 + 1 x2
3

(c)
1 x 4/3

4 (12x)3

(g) 1 2.

1 x2 x

2

4

3 sin x cos4 x

## (g) (1 6t) cos(2 t 3t2 ) (a)2y exp(y 2 ) (d)

4 cos 4x = 4 cot 4x sin 4x 3t +9 sin 3t 3e 2 e3t 3 cos 3t

3.

1 x

cos(ln 4x)

(f)

ex +ex ex ex

(g)

40

1. (a)
1 13y 2

(b)

y2 2y 3 1

(c)

1 ey +2e2y

(d)
sin x 1cos y

yey 1+ey

2.

(a) (f)

(b)

2x1 2y1

(c)

(d)

ex 1 2e2y +2

(e)

1 x

1 / ey

1 y

## Section 8. Dierentiation of functions dened parametrically

1. 2. (a) tan t (a)
3 4t

(b)

2t3 t2 +1

(c)

et +2t 2e2t +1

(d)

t1 1+t

## Section 9. Miscellaneous dierentiation exercises

1. (a) 3x2 tan 4x + 4x3 sec2 4x (d) (j) 2. (a) (c) 3. (g) (2 ln 2)x + 2
1 t ln t cos xcos2 xx sin x (1cos x)2 3 tan 412 sec2 4 tan2 4 x 2 x+1

## (b) 12 tan2 4t sec2 4t (h) (k)

x1 x(ln xx)2 4 1z 2

## (c) 12 exp(3 tan 4x) sec2 4x (i) (3 ln 5)5

3y 4 +5y 2 5y 4 3y 6 (y+y 1 )2 3x

(b)

## (a) et ln(et + 1) + (c)

6x(1x2 )1/2 (1+x2 )5/2

(b) 6 sin 3 cos5 3 12 sin3 3 cos3 3 (d) (cos sin ) exp( cos ) (f)
2 (1+x)2

## (e) 3(x ln x)2 (1 + ln x) (g) 4. 5. (a) (a) (d) 6.

23y 2 y 3 (y 2 1)3/2 3 2 x sin x cos 2 1cos3 x

exp

1x 1+x

## 1 (1+x2 )3/2 320x6 (1x4 )6

(b) (2 + 4z 2 ) exp(z 2 )
48x2 (1x4 )5

41

1. (a)
x5 5

+ c,

(b) (g)

x8 8

+ c, + c,

(c)

2x3/2 3

+c

+ c,

x0.7 0.7

(f) 2x1/2 + c,

4x5/4 5

+ c, +c

+c

1 5

3x7/3

sin 5x + c,

(i) 2e0.5x + c

(e) ln |x| + c

## (d) 2 sin x + c 2 (h) 3ex/3 + c

1 1 (l) 7 sin(7x) + c = 7 sin 7x + c

(j) ex + c

1. (a) (e)
7x5 5 3

+ c,

2x3/2

(b) x2 + c,
x3 3 11x0.7 0.7

(c) (g)

2x3/2 3 x4 4

+
1 x

3x4/3 4

+c

(d)

51x4/3 4

+ c,

+ ln |x| + c +c

## (i) 11x + c 2. (a) (g) (j) 3.

3x2 2 1 + 4 sin 4x + c

e2x 2

+c

1 (h) 14x2 + c

(l)

7x2 2

11x + c

## (d) 4ex + 2 sin x + c 2

1 ln |x| + c k 1 ln |x| 7x 3

## (b) 4x 1 cos 3x + c 3 (e) e 2 +

2x

+c

(h) x 4 ln |x| + c +c
1 (k) sin 2 x + c x3 3 e3x 3 x2 2

+c

x2 2

## (b) (e) (h)

2x3/2 3

x2 2

6x + c

ex + c

2x + c

(c) (f)

2x7/2 7 e2x 2

4x5/2 5

+c

ex + c

(g) x + 4 ln |x| + c

+x+c

## Section 12. Evaluating denite integrals

1. (a) (f) (k) 2. 3.
3 7 5 4 5 2 16

1 2

(c) (h)

+1
2

## (l) e e1 14 , 3 0 1 8 f (x)dx = . 3 1 f (x) dx =

3 2

2 3 1 2 1

8+

3 4

16

17 12

(d) (i)

51 (1 3 16) 4 1 3/2 (e 1) 3

## (e) 168 (j) 2(e1 e2 )

33 , 2 0 1 8 f (x) dx = , 3 1 f (x) dx =

f (x) dx =

71 14 71 33 . Then + = . 6 3 6 2

42

## Section 13. Integration by parts

1. (a) xex ex + c (b) 5 cos x + 5x sin x + c 1 1 (d) 4 cos 2x + 2 x sin 2x + c (e) 1 x2 ln x 1 x2 + c 2 4 (a) 1 2 5 (c) 15 e2 4 e2 4 (a) ex (x2 2x + 2) + c (b) 4e2 (d) 9 ln 3 2 2 (b) 5x2 sin x 10 sin x + 10x cos x + c (c) sin x x cos x + c (f) 8 sin x 4x cos x + c 2 2

2.

3.

## (d) ex (x3 + 3x2 + 6x + 6) + c

4. 5.

(a)

(b) 7e 14

5 (c) 4 e2 + 1 e2 4

x ln x x + c.

## Section 14. Integration by substitution

1. (a) sin(x 3) + c
1 (d) 9 e9x7 + c 1 (g) 3(x2)3 + c

## (b) 1 cos(2x + 4) + c 2 (e) (h)

1 (3x2 + 8)4 24 1 +c 4(3t)4

## (c) (f) (i) (l)

sin(t + ) + c +c

+c

2.

2(x 3)3/2 +6 x3+c 3 (x 5)7 8(x 5)6 64(x 5)5 (b) + + +c 7 3 5 1 7 39 5 1025 3 which can be expanded to x7 x6 + x + 55 x4 x 375 x2 + 5625 x + c 7 3 5 3 (a) 1 (a) 2 2
26 15 1 2

(j) cos 4

## 3/2 (4x3)5/2 + (4x3) 40 8 2 1 2 ex + c

+c

(k) (1 + t2 )1/2 + c

2x+1 4

1 ln |2x + 1| + c 4

3.

(b) (d)

(c) (e)

907 56 5265 8

(f) 2
2

(g) 2(e 5. 6.

## e1 ) (b) ln |x 3| + c (c) ln |3x + 4| + c (c)

3 2

(a) ln |x + 1| + c (a)
1 2

(d) ln |2x + 1| + c.

ln |x2 + 1| + c

1 (b) 3 ln |1 + cos 3| + c

ln |1 + e2x | + c

43

## Section 15. Integration using partial fractions

1. (a) ln |x| + ln |x + 1| + c (b) 2 ln |x + 1| + ln |x| + c

(i) 2.

(g) 2 ln |x + 2| 2 ln |x 2| + c
1 2 1 ln |s 1| 2 ln |s + 1| + c

(e) 7 ln |x + 9| + 2 ln |x + 1| + c

(c) 4 ln |x + 2| + ln |x + 1| + c

(h) 8 ln |x + 5| + 7 ln |x + 2| + c

(f) 7 ln |x + 9| 2 ln |x + 1| + c

(d) 2 ln |x 1| 3 ln |x 2| + c

(c) 3 ln 3 ln 2 3.

(a) 9 ln 3 17 ln 2

(b) 2 ln 3 + 3 ln 2

1 (a) ln |x 1| x1 + c 2 (c) 7 ln |x 3| + x3 + c

(b) 4 ln |x + 1|

2 x+1

+c

4.

(c) 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

(a) ln 3 + 2 ln 2 +
16 3

5 12

8 ln 3

(b) 2 ln 5 4 ln 2 +
1 x+1

1 40

ln |x + 4| + 2 ln |x 3| + 2 ln |x 2| + c.
1 2 x 2

ln |x + 2| + ln |x + 1|

+ c.

ln |x 3| + 1 ln |2x + 1| 2 ln |x + 1| + c. 2 3x ln |x + 1| + 8 ln |x + 2| + c.
15 x+2

2x ln |x + 1|

3 x2 x + 4 ln |x| + 2 ln |2x + 1| + c

9 ln |x + 2| + c.

## Section 16. Integration using trigonometrical identities

1. 2. 3. 4.
x 2

(a) 1 cos 3x + c 3
sin 2x 4

(b)

1 8

sin 8x + c

+ c.

1 (c) 7 cos 7t + c

(d)

sin 6x 6

+c

(b)

4 5

sin 5x +

4 13

sin 13x + c

(c)

1 12

sin 6t

1 16

sin 8t + c

5. 6. 7.

tan t t + c.
3 t 8

1 + 4 sin 2t +

1 32 3

sin 4t + c.

44

## Section 17. Miscellaneous integration exercises

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. (9x 2)6 + c. 54 2 t 2 ln | t + 1| + c. (Hint: let u = t + 1.)
1 5 t 5
4 10 3/2 t 3t + 2t + c. 3 4 1 sin 3t 3 cos t + c. 3 1 x ln a ax e + c = ln a + c. ln a

ln |t|

1 5 t 25

+ c.

e3x+1
1 2

x 3

1 9

+c

## ln |x + 2| + ln |x 2| + c. tan2 + c. 2/3. 1 arcsin x + 2

1 x e (sin 2x 5 x 1x2 2

+ c.

2 cos 2x) + c c.

3 ln |x| 2 ln |x 1| ln |x + 3| + c.

## 1 2 x + 2x 2 ln |x + 3| + ln |x 3| + 2 1 2x e [2x4 4x3 + 6x2 6x + 3] + c. 4 3 . 12

45

Acknowledgements

The materials in A Calculus Refresher were prepared by Dr Tony Croft and Dr Anthony Kay, both at the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University. The authors would like to express their appreciation to Dr Joe Kyle and Jonathan De Souza for their many helpful corrections and suggestions. This edition has been published by mathcentre in March 2003. Users are invited to send any suggestions for improvement to enquiries@mathcentre.ac.uk.

Departments may wish to customise the latex source code of this booklet. Further details from: mathcentre c/o Mathematics Education Centre Loughborough University LE11 3TU email: enquiries@mathcentre.ac.uk tel: 01509 227465 www: http://www.mathcentre.ac.uk

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