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Ramirez, Thirdthe Florence D.


1.) What is the communication process? The communication process consists of a message being sent and received. The message may be verbal or nonverbal. The same basic principles apply whether humans, animals, other forms of life, or combinations of these are involved. Effective communication involves a message being sent and received. Added to this however, is the element of feedback to ensure that the message sent was received exactly as intended. 2.) Enumerate 3 communication theories and models. a.) Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication

The information source selects a desired message out of a set of possible messages. The transmitter changes the message into a signal that is sent over the communication channel to the receiver. The receiver is a sort of inverse transmitter, changing the transmitted signal back into a message, and interpreting this message. This message is then sent to the destination. The destination may be another receiver (i.e., the message is passed on to someone else), or the message may rest with the initial receiver, and the transmission is achieved. In the process of transmitting a message, certain information that was not intended by the information source is unavoidably added to the signal (or message). This "noise" can be internal (i.e., coming from the receiver's own knowledge, attitudes, or beliefs) or external (i.e., coming from other sources). Such internal or external "noise" can either strengthen the intended effect of a message (if the information confirms the message), or weaken the intended effect (if the information in the "noise" contradicts the original message). b.) Berlos Model of Communication / Berlos S-M-C-R

According to Berlo, the source encodes message intended to produce desired response from receiver. The sourceencoder is influenced by four factors: the sources communication skills, attitudes, knowledge level, and position within the social-cultural system. The message is encoded by the source and reflects these influences. The message itself is the actual physical product of the source- encoder, and relies on three factors: the message code, content, and treatment. The channel is how the message will be transmitted, meaning the determination of which senses will be utilized so that the receiver has the greatest opportunity to accurately interpret the message. It is crucial to note that the communication- receiver is influenced by the same factors as the source-encoder. Without accounting for the four critical factors of communications skills, attitudes, knowledge level, and social-cultural system position of the receiver, the sender is less likely to be able to communicate a message in an effective manner. When the message is decoded as the source intended the receiver is able to provide an effective response, thus exchanging roles with the original sourceencoder c.) Osgood- Schramm Model of Communication

This model breaks the sender and receiver model it seems communication in a practical way. It is not a traditional model. It can happen within our self or two people; each person acts as both sender and receiver and hence use interpretation. It is simultaneously take place e.g. encoding, interpret and decoding. Semantic noise is a concept introduced here it occurs when sender and receiver apply different meaning to the same message. It happens mostly because of words and phrases for e.g. Technical Language, So certain words and phrases will cause you to deviate from the actual meaning of the communication.

REFERENCES: http://www.cultsock.org/index.php?page=introductory/smcr.html http://comminit.com/global/node/201246 http://www.uri.edu/personal/carson/hendersonk/explanation.html http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/Communication%20Models.htm http://communicationtheory.org/osgood-schramm-model-of-communication/