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Turbine control from the Power plant operations department...

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Turbine control
Posted by prabhakar on 17 August, 2008 - 12:50 pm

What is the difference between constant pressure mode and sliding pressure mode operation of a steam and can you give the suitability for each one?

Posted by Mikas on 17 August, 2008 - 10:41 pm

There are people here (CSA and others) who will probably give better explanation, but here it goes. Operation mode of steam turbine depends on the control concept that is implemented on steam power plant. Unit's power is generally controlled by manipulating of steam flow through turbine. Turbine's steam flow depends on steam pressure and size of input area through which steam enters turbine. This area is manipulated (control) by position of turbine's control valves. Therefore, there are two operational modes (in general): - mode with constant pressure in front of turbine where turbine's pressure is controlled by changing control valves position and - mode with sliding pressure in front of turbine, where control valves are maintained at some constant position (for example 80 or 100% opened). In such case steam pressure is controlled by boiler control loops (by manipulating coal feeders). Very closely related to this operational modes are so called "control concepts" (maybe this is not 100% correct English techincal term, but I cannot find better right now). Concept of "boiler leading" means that steam pressure in front of turbine is controlled by control valves (constant) while power output setpoint is associated with boiler controller that manipulate coal firing. On the other side, there is "turbine leading" concept in which, power output setpoint is associated by control valves and therefore every demand in power is immediately followed by changing of control valves position. Then, steam pressure is controlled by boiler. Please not that this concept is not fully "sliding mode" because, control valve position is not constant, but this concept is usually called sliding pressure mode, because steam pressure is changing and boiler pressure controller needs to adapt to these changes. As I said, I hope CSA will jump in and clearify this a little bit, but I hope you how more complete picture now. Regards

Posted by CSA on 19 August, 2008 - 1:14 am

My recent experience with steam turbine controls is limited to being exposed to them during combined cycle plant construction and commissioning, so I'm not able to offer very much in the way of help with this topic. I am hoping jojo or someone else will jump in here and provide some more information. It's my understanding that when a steam turbine is operated in sliding pressure control its control valve(s) are moved to the full open position and the power output of the turbine-generator is a function of the steam pressure and temperature which is available from the boiler. I think this is done for plants which don't run at "base load" (rated output) to increase steam turbine efficiency slightly by eliminating any drop in temperature of the steam which would occur when it passed through a valve which is "throttled" (partially open). I believe constant pressure control for combined cycle plants refers to when the steam turbine control valve(s) is(are) throttled to control the pressure of the steam at the steam turbine inlet. If the firing rate of the boiler (in a combined cycle power plant, this is a function of the gas turbine exhaust temperature and flow) is held constant, the steam pressure can be controlled by opening and closing the steam turbine control valve(s); of course, the power output of the steam turbine varies as the control valve(s) is(are) varied. Or, if the firing rate of the boilers varies (such as when gas turbine load is varied), the steam turbine control valve(s) can be used to control the pressure at the steam turbine inlet. I think this mode is used when the steam is also used in another process and it's pressure needs to be fairly constant, but the gas turbines are run at various loads which means their exhaust temperature and flow is varying. Again, when the steam turbine control valves are throttled, the power output of the steam turbine varies. I'm sure my understanding is very limited, and may not even be entirely correct. I'm also not sure if the terms are used

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24-08-2011

Turbine control

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similarly in conventional steam plants (such as natural gas- and coal-fired plants) and combined cycle plants (where gas turbine exhaust is used to generate steam). Something else I have come to understand about combined cycle plants is that the designers of them have all manner of slight "tweaks" (changes; improvements; modifications) to the plant design to try to improve efficiency and that sometimes these tweaks have names which don't really seem to be descriptive or even entirely correct in the strict interpretation of the meaning of the words used to name them. So, it's possible that my understanding may be slightly off because of my exposure to one of these plants which used a term which was not entirely descriptive of the modified process. I don't have a copy of the book, but the Babcock & Wilcox "Steam: Its Generation and Use" engineering text/reference manual is one of the best on the subject of steam generation and boiler cycles and steam plant design. It's pretty common in many libraries (though not always the latest version), and it's available on the 'Net via the following link: http://www.babcock.com/library/pdf/steambook.pdf It should be in the "library" of every fossil fuel-fired steam-producing plant in the world. Google and Dogpile (http://www.dogpile.com) are two good Internet search utilities which might yield some good results if you're patient and can try various word groupings (which is what most people don't do when using search engines for technical material; one needs to think of as many permutations of titles and functions to try, and even search some of the lesser-relevant sites to find even more possible search entries). There are also many good engineering handbooks which might have more and better descriptions. http://www.alibris.com has been recommended here on control.com before; one can find new and used copies of books anywhere in the world on this site.

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Fortune The debate rages on: Is PL/I Bachtrian or Dromedary?

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24-08-2011