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Rachel Ann L.

Reyes 17, 2012 Master of Arts in Education Celerino Baclaan

March Professor

Language Curriculum Framework

A curriculum is more than a list of topics to be conveyed by an educational programme, for which the more commonly accepted world is a syllablus. A curriculum is first of all a policy statement about a piece of education, and secondly an indication as to the ways in which that policy is to be realized through a programme of action. It is the sum of all the activities, experiences and learning opportunities for which an institution or a teacher takes responsibility either deliberately or by default (Coles, 2003). Is the planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners continuous and willful growth in personal social competence (Tanner, 1980). A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice (Stenhouse, 1975).

Curriculum Development is a more comprehensive process than syllabus design. It includes the processes that are used to determine the needs of a group of learners, to develop aims or objectives for a program to address those needs, to determine an appropriate syllabus, course structure, teaching methods, and materials, and to carry out an evaluation of the language program that results from theses processes (Richards, 2001). The Ideology of the Curriculum 1. Academic Rationalism The justification for the aims of curriculum stresses the intrinsic value of the subject matter and its role in developing the learners intellect, humanistic values, and rationality. The content matter of different subjects is viewed as the basis for a curriculum. Mastery of content is an end in itself rather than a means to solving social problems or providing efficient means to achieve the goals of policy makers.

2. Social and Economic Efficiency This educational philosophy emphasizes the practical needs of learners and society and the role of an educational program in producing learners who are economically productive. Bobbit (19 18), one of the founders of curriculum theory, advocated this view of the curriculum. Curriculum development was seen as based on scientific principles, its practitioners were educational engineers whose job was to discover the total range of habits, skills, abilities, forms of thoughtsetc., that its embers need for the effective performance of their vocational labors. In language teaching, this philosophy leads to an 3. Learner-centeredness In language teaching, this educational philosophy is leading to an emphasis on process rather than product, a focus on learning learner differences, learner strategies and on learner self-direction and autonomy. 4. Social Reconstructionism This curriculum perspective emphasizes the roles schools and learners can and should play in addressing social injustices and inequality. Morris (1995) observes: The curriculum derived from this perspective focuses on developing knowledge, skills and attitudes which would create a world where people care about each other, the environment, and the distribution of wealth. Tolerance, the acceptance of diversity and peace would be encouraged. Social injustices and inequality would be central issues in the curriculum.

5. Cultural Pluralism This philosophy argues that schools should prepare students to participate in several different cultures and not merely the culture of the dominant social and economic group. Cultural pluralism seeks to redress racism, to raise the self-esteem of minority groups, and to help children appreciate the viewpoints of other cultures and religions (Phillips and Terry, 1999).

General Curriculum Planning

Tabas outline (1962) of the steps which a course designer must work through to develop subject matter courses has become the foundation for many other writers suggestions. Diagnosis of needs Formulation of objectives Selection of content Organization of content Selection of learning experiences Organization of learning experiences Determination of what to evaluate, and the means to evaluate