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A.R.ENGINEERING COLLEGE VILLUPURAM DEPARTMENRT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK SUB.NAME: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS SUB.CODE: 147404 YEAR : II UNIT I IC FABRICATION AND CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR LINEAR ICS PART-A 1. Mention the advantages of integrated circuits. 2. Write down the various processes used to fabricate ICs using silicon planar technology. 3. What is the purpose of oxidation? 4. Why aluminum is preferred for metallization? 5. What are the popular IC packages available? 6. Define an operational amplifier. 7. Mention the characteristics of an ideal op-amp. 8. What happens when the common terminal of V+ and V- sources is not grounded? 9. Define input offset voltage 10. Define input offset current. State the reasons for the offset currents at the input of the op-amp 11. Define CMRR of an op-amp. 12. What are the applications of current sources? 13. Justify the reasons for using current sources in integrated circuits. 14. What is the advantage of Wildar current source over constant current source? 15. Mention the advantages of Wilson current source 16. Define sensitivity. 17. What are the limitations in a temperature compensated zener-reference source? 18. What do you mean by a band-gap referenced biasing circuit? 19. In practical op-amps, what is the effect of high frequency on its performance? 20. What is the need for frequency compensation in practical op-amps? BRANCH SEM : ECE : IV

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147404-LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 21. Mention the frequency compensation methods 22. What are the merits and demerits of Dominant-pole compensation? 23. Define slew rate. 24. Why IC 741 is not used for high frequency applications? 25. What causes slew rate? PART-B 1. Describe in detail the processing steps involved in the fabrication of monolithic IC. transistor, diode, capacitor and resistor. (16) (16) (8) 4. Explain the term Epitaxy and describe the epitaxial growth process. 5. Explain the working of a difference amplifier with active load. 6. Explain the methods of frequency compensation used in operational amplifiers. voltage follower. 8. What is an active load? Explain the CE amplifier with active load. 9. Write about the temperature independent biasing provided for differential amplifier. 10. Draw and explain the circuit diagram of a basic current mirror. 11. Explain the working of wildar current source. UNIT II APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS PART-A 1. Mention some of the linear applications of op amps: 2. Mention some of the non linear applications of op-amps:3. What are the areas of application of non-linear op- amp circuits? 4. What is the need for an instrumentation amplifier? 5. List the features of instrumentation amplifier: 6. What are the applications of V-I converter? 7. What do you mean by a precision diode? 8. Write down the applications of precision diode. (8) (10) (16) (8) (8) (16) (10) (8) 2. Briefly explain the various processes involved in fabricating monolithic IC which integrates bipolar 3. Define CMRR.Draw the circuit of an op-amp differential amplifier and give the expression for CMRR.

7. Define slew rate. Explain the causes of slew rate and derive an expression for slew rate for an op-amp

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147404-LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 9. List the applications of Log amplifiers: 10. What are the limitations of the basic differentiator circuit? 11. Write down the condition for good differentiation:12. What is a comparator? 13. What are the applications of comparator? 14. What is a Schmitt trigger? 15. What is a multivibrator? 16. What do you mean by monostable multivibrator? 17. What is an astable multivibrator? 18. What is a bistable multivibrator? 19. What are the requirements for producing sustained oscillations in feedback circuits 20. Mention any two audio frequency oscillators: 21. What are the characteristics of a comparator? 22. What is a filter? 23. What are the demerits of passive filters? 24. What are the advantages of active filters? 25. Mention some commonly used active filters: PART-B 1. Discuss the working of instrumentation amplifier. Name two applications of the same. 2. Explain the steps involved in design of band pass filter using OP AMP. 3. Explain the working of: (i) Full wave precision rectifier. (ii) Schmitt trigger (regenerative comparator) (iii) Voltage to current converters. (iv) Log antilog amplifier. 4. Explain a positive clipper circuit using an op-amp and diode with neat diagrams. a practical differentiator. practical integrator. 7. Design a second order Butterworth low pass filter having cut-off frequency of 1 kHz. 8. Design a first order low pass filter for cut-off frequency of 2 kHz and pass-band gain of 2. (8) (8) (8) (8) (8) (16) (16) (8) (8) (16) (8)

5. Draw and explain a simple op-amp differentiator. Explain with neat diagram how it can be overcome in 6. Draw and explain a simple op-amp integrator. Explain with neat diagram how it can be overcome in a

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147404-LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 9. Explain or design of: (i) Second order low pass filter, High pass filter (ii) First order low pass filter, High pass filter (8) (8) (8) UNIT III ANALOG MULTIPLIER AND PLL PART-A 1. Mention some areas where PLL is widely used: 2. List the basic building blocks of PLL: 3. What are the three stages through which PLL operates? 4. Define lock-in range of a PLL: 5. Define capture range of PLL: 6. Define Pull-in time. 7. For perfect lock, what should be the phase relation between the incoming signal and VCO output signal? 8. Give the classification of phase detector: 9. What is a switch type phase detector? 10. What are the problems associated with switch type phase detector? 11. What is a voltage controlled oscillator? 12. On what parameters does the free running frequency of VCO depend on? 13. Give the expression for the VCO free running frequency. 14. Define Voltage to Frequency conversion factor. 15. What is the purpose of having a low pass filter in PLL? 16. Discuss the effect of having large capture range 17. Mention some typical applications of PLL: 18. What is a compander IC? Give some examples 19. What are the merits of companding? 20. List the applications of OTA:

10. Design a band pass filter using OP AMP to have fl = 500HZ and fh = 2KHZ with pass band gain of 4.

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147404-LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS PART-B 1. With a neat diagram explain the variable transconductance technique in a analog multiplier and give its output equation. 2. Briefly explain the working of voltage controlled oscillator. 3. What are important building block of phase locked loop (PLL) explain its working? range of PLL. of output frequency. 6. Explain the followings: (i) FSK demodulator. (ii) Frequency synthesizing. (iii) Frequency doubling, phase angle detection. 7. Explain Gilbert multiplier cell with four quadrants. 8. Draw the block diagram of PLL and derive the expression for its closed loop transfer function. UNIT IV ANALOG TO DIGITAL AND DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTERS PART-A 1. List the broad classification of ADCs. 2. List out the direct type ADCs. 3. List out some integrating type converters. 4. What is integrating type converter? 5. Explain in brief the principle of operation of successive Approximation ADC. 6. What are the main advantages of integrating type ADCs? 7. Where is the successive approximation type ADCs used? 8. What is the main drawback of a dual-slop ADC? 9. State the advantages of dual slope ADC: 10. Define conversion time. 11. Define resolution of a data converter. 12. Define accuracy of converter. 13. What is settling time? (8) (8) (8) (16) (8) (8) (16) (8) (16) (16)

4. Draw the functional block of a NE 565 PLL. Derive the expression for the capture range and lock in 5. With suitable block diagram, explain the of 566 voltage controlled oscillator, and also derive expression

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147404-LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 14. Explain in brief stability of a converter: 15. What is meant by linearity? 16. What is monotonic DAC? 17. What is multiplying DAC? 18. What is a sample and hold circuit? Where it is used? 19. Define sample period and hold period. 20. What is meant by delta modulation? PART-B 1. With a neat diagram explain the working principle of the following A/D converter (i) Successive approximation ADC (ii) Flash (parallel comparator) ADC (iii) Dual slope ADC 2. With a neat diagram explain the working principle of the following D/A converter (i) Weighted resistor DAC (ii) R-2R ladder DAC (iii) Inverted R-2R ladder (current mode DAC) (iv) Voltage mode DAC 3. Explain sample and hold circuit with suitable sketches. 4. Explain the characteristics of ADC resolution, accuracy, settling time, linearity. the maximum integrator output voltage should be -8v when the counter has recycled through 2n counts. The capacitor used in the integrator is 0.1 f. Find the value of resistor R of the integrator. (8) 6. Explain over sampling technique of delta modulation and sigma delta modulation. (16) (8) (8) (6) (6) (8) (10) (8) (8) (6)

5. A dual slope ADC uses a 16-bit counter and a 4MHz clock rate. The maximum input voltage is +10v.

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147404-LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS UNIT- V WAVEFORM GENERATORS AND SPECIAL FUNCTION ICs PART-A 1. Mention some applications of 555 timer: 2. List the applications of 555 timer in monostable mode of operation 3. List the applications of 555 timer in Astable mode of operation 4. What is a voltage regulator? 5. Give the classification of voltage regulators: 6. What is a linear voltage regulator? 7. What is a switching regulator? 8. What are the advantages of IC voltage regulators? 9. Give some examples of monolithic IC voltage regulators: 10. What is the purpose of having input and output capacitors in three terminal IC regulators? 11. Define line regulation. 12. Define load regulation 13. What is meant by current limiting? 14. Give the drawbacks of linear regulators: 15. What is the advantage of switching regulators? 16. What is an opto-coupler IC? Give examples 17. Mention the advantages of opto-couplers: 18. What is an isolation amplifier? 19. What is the need for a tuned amplifier? 20. Give the classification of tuned amplifier: PART-B 1. Explain in detail the function of 555 timer in astable mode and derive the expression. 2. Draw the internal functional diagram of 555 timer and explain briefly about each pin. 3. (a)Draw and explain the astable operation using 555 to achieve 50% duty cycle and derive the expression for the frequency of Oscillation. b) Write short notes on Optocouplers? 4. Design a adjustable voltage regulator using IC 723 to obtain positive low voltage and high voltage. 5. Explain briefly about (16) (8) (8) (16) (16)

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147404-LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (a) Audio Power amplifiers (b) Isolation amplifiers (c) Video amplifiers (6) (8) (8)

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