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XIII

Coastal and Ocean Engineering


87 Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering John B. Herbich Wave Phenomena Sediment Processes Beach Prole Longshore Sediment Transport Coastal Structures Navigational Channels Marine Foundations Oil Spills Offshore Structures

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87
Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering
87.1 Wave Phenomena
Airy (Low Amplitude) Cnoidal (Shallow Water, Long Waves) Stream Function Stokian (Third Order)

87.2 Sediment Processes 87.3 Beach Prole 87.4 Longshore Sediment Transport
General Energy Flux Equation Threshold of Sand Movement by Waves

87.5 Coastal Structures


Seawalls Breakwaters

John B. Herbich
Texas A & M University Consulting & Research Services, Inc.

87.6 87.7 87.8 87.9

Navigational Channels Marine Foundations Oil Spills Offshore Structures

Ocean engineering is a relatively new branch of engineering. The need for this new specialty was recognized in the 1960s. Several universities, including Texas A&M, MIT, Florida Atlantic, the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, and the U.S. Naval Academy, have established undergraduate degree programs in ocean engineering. Several universities have also developed programs at the graduate level specializing in ocean engineering. Ocean and coastal engineering covers many topics, generally divided between shallow water (coastal engineering) and deep water (ocean engineering), shown in Figure 87.1 and Figure 87.2.

87.1 Wave Phenomena


Wave phenomena are of great importance in coastal and ocean engineering. Waves determine the composition and geometry of beaches. Since waves interact with human-made shore structures or offshore structures, safe design of these structures depends to a large extent on the selected wave characteristics. The structural stability criteria are often stated in terms of extreme environmental conditions (wave heights, periods, water levels, astronomical tides, storm surges, tsunamis, and winds). Waves in the ocean constantly change and are irregular in shape, particularly when under the inuence of wind; such waves are called seas. When waves are no longer under the inuence of wind and are out of the generating area, they are referred to as swells. Many wave theories have been developed, including the Airy, cnoidal, solitary, stream function, Stokian, and so forth. Figure 87.3 describes the regions of validity for various wave theories. Cnoidal and stream function theories apply principally to shallow

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Wave Phenomena Characteristics Design Values

Sediment Processes OnshoreOffshore Littoral

Coastal Structures Seawalls Groins Breakwater Shore Connected

Marine Foundation

Shallow

Deep

Detached

Navigation Channels

Ports & Harbors

Oil Spills Containment Removal

Design Construction Maintenance Contaminated Design Construction Maintenance Contaminated Sediment Sediment Removal Removal Dredging Dredging Dredging Dredging Dredging Dredging

FIGURE 87.1 Coastal engineering (shallow water).


Wave Phenomena Offshore Structures Offshore Pipelines

Characteristics Design Values

Floating

Fixed Tension

Dynamic Naval Positioning Architecture

Structural Analysis

Pile Driving

Stability

FIGURE 87.2 Ocean engineering (deep water).

and transitional water, whereas Airy and Stokian theories apply to transitional and deep water (Airy applies to low amplitude waves).

Airy (Low Amplitude)


Wavelength is given by the following equations. Shallow water L = T gh = CT gT 2 2ph tanh L 2p gT 2 = C oT 2p (87.1)

Transitional water

L=

(87.2)

Deep water

Lo =

(87.3)

where T = wave period; g = acceleration due to gravity; h = water depth; and C = wave celerity. Subscript o denotes deep water conditions.

Cnoidal (Shallow Water, Long Waves)


The theory originally developed by Boussinesq [1877] has been studied and presented in more usable form by several researchers. Wavelength is given by

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d = 0.040 L d = 0.00155 gT2 Shallow water

d = 0.500 L d = 0.0792 gT2 Deep water

Transitional water

H0 = 0.14 L0 BREAKING

Stokes 4th order

Stokes 3rd order

H
th ry eo

= d

0.

78

Stream Function V

Br

ea

kin

lim

it

o (S

lita

ry

v wa

H= NONBREAKING

HB 4

Stokes 2nd order

Stream Function V

L2H ~ 26 ~ d3

Croidal Theory

Linear (Airy) Theory

0.0004

0.001

0.002

0.004 0.006 0.01 d gT2

0.02

0.04 0.06

0.1

0.2 0.3 0.4

FIGURE 87.3 Regions of validity for various wave theories (Source: Le Mhaut, B. 1969. An Introduction to Hydrodynamics and Water Waves, Report No. ERL 118-POL3-1&2. U.S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Science Services Administration, Washington, DC.)

L= and wave period by

16d3 kK (k ) 3H

(87.4)

16 yt h g kK (k ) T = h 3H yt H 1 E(k ) 1 + yt k 2 2 K (k )

(87.5)

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where yt = distance from the bottom to the wave trough; k = modulus of the elliptic integrals; K(k) = complete elliptic integral of the rst kind; and E(k) = complete elliptic integral of the second kind. Cnoidal waves are periodic and of permanent form; thus L = CT.

Stream Function
Stream function was developed by Dean [1977] and is of analytical form with the wavelength L, coefcients X(n), and the value of stream function on the free surface yh determined numerically. The expression for the stream function, y, for a wave system rendered stationary by a reference frame moving with the speed of the wave, C, is L y = -U z + T

X(n)sinh L
n=1

NN

2p n

2p nx (h + z ) cos L

(87.6)

with the coordinate z referenced to the mean water level; U is a uniform current. Stream function (Table 87.1) provides values of wavelength L = L/Lo, hc = hc/H (water surface elevation above mean water), ht = ht/H (wave surface elevation below mean water), uc (horizontal dimensionless velocity at the crest), w m (maximum dimensionless vertical velocity), (FD)m (maximum dimensionless drag force), and (FI)m (maximum dimensionless inertia force).

Stokian (Third Order)


Wavelength is given by
2 2 gT 2 2ph pH 5 + 2 cosh(4ph / L) + 2 cosh (4ph / L tanh 1 + L L 2p 8 sinh 4 (2pd/L)

L=

(87.7)

87.2 Sediment Processes


Along the coasts the ocean meets land. Waves, currents, tsunamis, and storms have been shaping the beaches for many thousands of years. Beaches form the rst defense against the waves and are constantly moving on, off, and along the shore (littoral drift). Figure 87.4 provides a denition for terms describing a typical beach prole. The shoreline behavior is very complex and difcult to understand; it cannot be expressed by equations because many of the processes are site specic. Researchers have, however, developed equations that should be summarized. There are two basic sediment movements: 1. On- and offshore 2. Parallel to the shore and at an angle to the shore.

87.3 Beach Prole


Information on beach proles is essential in designing structural modications (such as seawalls, revetments, and breakwaters, both connected and detached, pipeline crossings, and beach replenishment. Bruun [1954] indicated that many beach proles (Figure 87.5) can be represented by h(x) = Ax2/3 where h is the water depth at a distance x offshore, and A is a dimensional scale parameter. Dean [1977] showed that Hb/wT is an important parameter distinguishing barred proles from nonbarred proles (where Hb is breaking wave height, w is fall velocity of sediment in water, and T is wave period). This parameter is consistent with the following beach proles in nature:
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TABLE 87.1 Selected Summary of Tabulated Dimensionless Stream Function Quantities


Case 1-A 1-B 1-C 1-D 2-A 2-B 2-C 2-D 3-A 3-B 3-C 3-D 4-A 4-B 4-C 4-D 5-A 5-B 5-C 5-D 6-A 6-B 6-C 6-D 7-A 7-B 7-C 7-D 8-A 8-B 8-C 8-D 9-A 9-B 9-C 9-D 10-A 10-B 10-C 10-D h/Lo 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 H/L0 0.00039 0.00078 0.00117 0.00156 0.00097 0.00195 0.00293 0.00388 0.00195 0.00389 0.00582 0.00775 0.00390 0.00777 0.01168 0.01555 0.00975 0.01951 0.02916 0.03900 0.0183 0.0366 0.0549 0.0730 0.0313 0.0625 0.0938 0.1245 0.0420 0.0840 0.1260 0.1681 0.0427 0.0852 0.1280 0.1697 0.0426 0.0852 0.1275 0.1704 L 0.120 0.128 0.137 0.146 0.187 0.199 0.211 0.223 0.260 0.276 0.292 0.308 0.359 0.380 0.401 0.422 0.541 0.566 0.597 0.627 0.718 0.744 0.783 0.824 0.899 0.931 0.981 1.035 1.013 1.059 1.125 1.194 1.017 1.065 1.133 1.211 1.018 1.065 1.134 1.222 h c 0.910 0.938 0.951 0.959 0.857 0.904 0.927 0.944 0.799 0.865 0.898 0.922 0.722 0.810 0.858 0.889 0.623 0.716 0.784 0.839 0.571 0.642 0.713 0.782 0.544 0.593 0.653 0.724 0.534 0.570 0.611 0.677 0.534 0.569 0.609 0.661 0.533 0.569 0.608 0.657 ht -0.090 -0.062 -0.049 -0.041 -0.143 -0.096 -0.073 -0.056 -0.201 -0.135 -0.102 -0.078 -0.278 -0.190 -0.142 -0.111 -0.377 -0.284 -0.216 -0.161 -0.429 -0.358 -0.287 -0.218 -0.456 -0.407 -0.347 -0.276 -0.466 -0.430 -0.389 -0.323 -0.466 -0.431 -0.391 -0.339 -0.467 -0.431 -0.392 -0.343 uc 49.68 47.32 43.64 40.02 29.82 29.08 26.71 23.98 19.83 19.87 18.47 16.46 12.82 13.35 12.58 11.29 7.20 7.66 7.41 6.47 4.88 5.09 5.00 4.43 3.63 3.64 3.54 3.16 3.11 3.01 2.86 2.57 3.09 2.98 2.83 2.60 3.09 2.98 2.83 2.62 w m* 13.31 15.57 14.98 13.63 8.70 9.29 9.85 9.47 6.22 7.34 6.98 6.22 4.50 5.38 5.29 4.99 3.44 3.69 3.63 3.16 3.16 3.07 2.98 2.44 3.05 2.93 2.49 2.14 2.99 2.85 2.62 1.94 2.99 2.85 2.62 1.99 2.99 2.85 2.63 2.04 q(w m ) * 10 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 30 20 20 10 30 30 20 20 50 50 30 30 75 50 50 50 75 75 50 50 75 75 75 50 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 (FD ) m 2574.0 2774.6 2861.0 2985.6 907.0 1007.9 1060.7 1128.4 390.3 457.3 494.7 535.4 156.3 197.6 222.9 242.4 44.3 59.1 72.0 85.5 17.12 22.37 28.79 36.48 6.69 8.60 11.31 15.16 2.09 2.71 3.53 4.96 1.025 1.329 1.720 2.303 0.513 0.664 0.860 1.137 (FI) * m 815.6 1027.0 1043.5 1001.7 327.1 407.1 465.7 465.2 162.1 209.0 225.6 242.4 82.2 103.4 116.1 113.5 37.6 38.5 47.1 45.1 22.62 23.67 23.64 22.43 13.86 13.61 13.31 11.68 6.20 6.21 5.96 5.36 3.116 3.126 3.011 2.836 1.558 1.563 1.510 1.479
* q(FI) m

p Dc (Bottom) 1.57 1.45 1.35 1.29 1.46 1.36 1.23 1.11 1.34 1.28 1.16 1.04 1.18 1.16 1.06 0.97 0.93 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.73 0.73 0.70 0.62 0.46 0.47 0.47 0.44 0.090 0.101 0.116 0.120 0.004 0.005 0.008 0.009 -0.001 0.000 -0.001 0.0000

10 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 30 20 10 10 30 20 20 20 50 50 30 20 75 50 30 30 75 75 50 50 75 75 75 50 75 75 75 50 75 75 75 50

Notes: (1) Except where obvious or noted otherwise, dimensionless quantities are presented for mean water elevation. (2) The maximum dimensionless drag and inertial forces apply for a piling extending through the entire water column. (3) Subscripts m, c, and t denote maximum, crest, and trough, respectively. Source: Dean, R. G. 1991. Beach proles. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf, Houston. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. Used with permission. All rights reserved.

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High waves Milder slope profiles Short periods Small sediment diameter Low waves Steeper profiles Long periods Large sediment diameter When Hb > 0.85 , one can expect bar formation. wT (87.8a)

When

Hb < 0.85 , a monotonic prole can be expected. wT

(87.8b)

Later, on the basis of large laboratory data, Kriebel et al. [1986] found the value of 2.3 rather than 0.85 in Equation (87.8a) and Equation (87.8b).

87.4 Longshore Sediment Transport


The longshore transport (Q) is the volumetric rate of sand movement parallel to the shoreline. Much longshore transport occurs in the surf zone and is caused by the approach of waves at an angle to the shoreline.
Coastal area

Coast

Beach or shore Foreshore

Nearshore zone (defines area of nearshore currents) Inshore or shoreface (extends through breaker zone) Surf Zone Offshore

Backshore luff or scarpment Beach scarp Crest of berm

Berms Breakers High water level

Ordinary low water level

Plunge point

Bottom

FIGURE 87.4 Visual denition of terms describing a typical beach prole. (Source: Department of the Army. 1987. Shore Protection Manual, vols. I and II. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.)

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SEDIMENT SCALE PARAMETER, A(m1/3)

1.0

Suggested Empirical Relationship From Hughes Field Results From Individual Field Profiles Where a Range of Sand Sizes Was Given

0.10

From Swarts Laboratory Results 0.01 0.01

0.1

1.0

10.0

100.0

SEDIMENT SIZE, D (mm)

FIGURE 87.5 Beach prole scale factor, A, versus sediment diameter, D, in relationship h = Ax2/3. (Source: Dean, R. G. 1991. Beach proles. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf, Houston. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. Used with permission. All rights reserved.)

Longshore transport rate (Q, given in unit volume per second) is assumed to depend upon the longshore component of wave energy ux, Pls (Department of the Army, 1984): Q= K P (r s - r)ga ls (87.9)

where K = dimensionless empirical coefcient (based on eld measurements) = 0.39; rs = density of sand; r = density of water; g = acceleration due to gravity; and a = ratio of the volume of solids to total volume, accounting for sand porosity = 0.6.

General Energy Flux Equation


The energy ux per unit length of wave crest or, equivalently, the rate at which wave energy is transmitted across a plane of unit width perpendicular to the direction of wave advance, is P = ECg (87.10)

where E is wave energy density and Cg is wave group speed. The wave energy density is calculated by E= rgH 2 8 (87.11)

where r is mass density of water, g is acceleration of gravity, and H is wave height. If the wave crests make an angle a with the shoreline, the energy ux in the direction of wave advance per unit length of beach is P cos a = rgH 2 C g cos a 8 (87.12)

The longshore component of wave energy ux is Pl = P cos a sin a = rgH 2 C g cos a sin a 8 (87.13)

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4 Bagnold 2 101 8 6 4 2 Shields Theoretical curve Empirical formula Goddet Manohar Rance & Warren
D d 0/ =5 0

Theoretical curves

*c

100

Laminar 50 100 4

200 Turbulent

200
102 1 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10
2

6 8 103

6 8 104

FIGURE 87.6 Threshold of sand movement by waves with Shields, Sleath, and Tsuchiya empirical curves, as well as the theoretical curve. (Source: Tsuchiya, Y. 1991. Threshold of sand movement. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf, Houston. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. Used with permission. All rights reserved.)

or rg 2 H C g sin 2a 16

Pl =

(87.14)

Threshold of Sand Movement by Waves


The threshold of sand movement by wave action has been investigated by a number of researchers [e.g., Tsuchiya, 1991]. Figure 87.6 shows the modied Shields diagram, where t*c = 1/eyi(Dv*), and yi(Dv*) is a function of sediment-uid number only, plotted as a function of Dv*. The empirical formula shown by dashed lines is as follows: t *c = 0.20
- / = 0.20Dv *23 / = 0.010D13 v*

for Dv * 1 for 1 Dv * 20 for 20 Dv * 125 for 125 Dv * (87.15)

= 0.050

87.5 Coastal Structures


Wave forces act on coastal and offshore structures; the forces may be classied as due to non-breaking, breaking, and broken waves. Fixed coastal structures include: 1. Wall-type structures such as seawalls, bulkheads, revetments, and certain types of breakwaters 2. Pile-supported structures such as piers and offshore platforms 3. Rubble structures such as breakwaters, groins, and revetments

Seawalls
Forces due to nonbreaking waves may be calculated using Sainou or MicheRundgren formulas. Employing the MicheRundgren formula, the pressure distribution is

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Crest of Clapotis at Wall h0 SWL Actual Pressure Distribution d Fc A h p1 A Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution

Trough of Clapotis of Wall

SWL Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution

F1

Actual Pressure Distribution

p1

FIGURE 87.7 Pressure distributions for nonbreaking waves. (Source: Department of the Army. 1987. Shore Protection Manual, vols. I and II. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.)

g Hi 1+ c p1 = 2 cosh(2ph / L)

(87.16)

where c = wave reection coefcient; g = unit weight of water; Hi = incident wave height; h = water depth; and L = wavelength. Figure 87.7 shows the pressure distribution at a vertical wall at the crest and trough of a clapotis. Forces due to breaking waves may be estimated by Minikin and Goda methods. The Minikin method described by the Department of the Army [1984] estimates the maximum pressure (assumed to act on the SWL) to be: H b ds (D + ds ) LD D

pm = 101g

(87.17)

where pm is the maximum dynamic pressure, Hb is the breaker height, ds is the depth at the toe of the wall, D is the depth one wavelength in front of the wall, and LD is the wavelength in water depth D. The distribution of dynamic pressure is shown in Figure 87.8. The pressure decreases parabolically from pm at the WL to zero at a distance of Hb/2 above and below the SWL. The force represented by the area under the dynamic pressure distribution is pm H b 3

Rm =

(87.18)

Godas method [1985] assumes a trapezoidal pressure distribution (Figure 87.9). The pressure extends to a point measured from SWL at a distance given by h*: h* = 0.75(1 + cos b)Hmax (87.19)

in which b denotes the angle between the direction of wave approach and a line normal to the breakwater. The wave pressure at the wall is given by

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pm

SWL Hb Dynamic Component Hydrostatic Component ds Combined Total (ds + Hb ) 2

FIGURE 87.8 Minikin wave pressure diagram. (Source: Department of the Army. 1987. Shore Protection Manual, vols. I and II. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.)
p1 *

hc d h pu p2 p3
Buoyancy

FIGURE 87.9 Distribution of wave pressure on an upright section of a vertical breakwater. (Source: Goda, Y. 1990. Random wave interaction with structures. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 1, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf, Houston. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. Used with permission. All rights reserved.)

1 p1 = (1 + cos b)(a 1 + a 2 cos 2 b)gH max 2 p2 = p1 cosh(2p h / L) p3 = a 3 p1 in which 4p h / L a 1 = 0.6 + 0.5 sinh(4p h / L)
2

(87.20)

(87.21)

(87.22)

(87.23)

h - d H 2 2d max a 2 = min b , 3hb d H max


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(87.24)

Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering

87-11

Crest Width Breakwater Crest Max. Design SWL W SWL (Minimum) 3r 2r W/10 W/10 W/200 to W/4000 1.3 H SWL (Minimum)

Recommended Three-layer Section

FIGURE 87.10 Rubble-mound section for wave exposure on both sides with moderate overtopping conditions. (Source: Department of the Army. 1987. Shore Protection Manual, vols. I and II. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.)

a3 = 1 -

h 1 1h cosh(2p h / L)

(87.25)

Breakwaters
Rubble-mound breakwaters are the oldest form of breakwaters, dating back to Roman times. The rubble mound is protected by larger rocks or articial concrete units. This protective layer is usually referred to as armor or cover layer. g rH3 K D (S r - 1)3 cot q

W=

(87.26)

where W = weight in newtons or pounds of an individual armor unit in the primary cover layer; gr = unit weight (saturated surface dry) of armor unit in N/m3 or lb/ft3; Sr = specic gravity of armor unit, relative to the water at the structure (Sr = wr/ww); gw = unit weight of water: freshwater = 9800 N/m3 (62.4 lb/ft3); seawater = 10,047 N/m3 (64.0 lb/ft3); q = angle of structure slope measured from horizontal in degrees; and KD = stability coefcient that varies primarily with the shape of the armor units, roughness of the armor unit surface, sharpness of edges, and degree of interlocking obtained in placement. Figure 87.10 presents the recommended three-layer section of a rubble-mound breakwater. Note that underlayer units are given in terms of W, the weight of armor units. Automated coastal engineering system (ACES) describes the computer programs available for the design of breakwaters using Hudson and related equations. Van der Meer [1987] developed stability formulas for plunging (breaking) waves and for surging (nonbreaking) waves. For plunging waves, H s / DDn50 * x z = 6.2P 0.18(S / N 0.2 ) For surging waves, H s / DDn50 = 1.0P -0.13(S / N 0.2 ) cot ax zp where Hs = signicant wave height at the toe of the structure (87.28) (87.27)

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8 PLUNGING WAVES 7 Wave height Hs (m) cot = 6 SURGING WAVES

5 cot = 4 cot = 3

cot = 2 cot = 1.5

1 Dn50 = 1 m

3 4 5 z = cot / Hs /Lz = 1.6 S=5 P = 0.5

N = 3000

FIGURE 87.11 Inuence of slope angle. (Source: Van der Meer, J. W. 1990. Rubble mounds Recent modications. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 1, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf, Houston, TX. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX. Used with permission. All rights reserved.)

xz = surf similarity parameter, x z Tz a D ra r Dn50 W50 P S A N

tan a 2pH s / gTz2

= zero up-crossing wave period = slope angle = relative mass density of the stone, D = ra/(r - 1) = mass density of the stone = mass density of water = nominal diameter of the stone, Dn50 = (W50/ra)1/3 = 50% value (median) of the mass distribution curve = permeability coefcient of the structure 2 = damage level, S = A / Dn50 = erosion area in a cross-section = number of waves (storm duration)

Inuence of breakwater slope angle is depicted in Figure 87.11.

87.6 Navigational Channels


The development of very large commercial craft (VLCC) and ultralarge commercial craft (ULCC) forced many government planners and port managers to evaluate existing channels. Navigational channels allow large vessels to reach harbors. Of paramount design consideration is the safety of vessels in a channel, particularly when passing [Herbich, 1992]. Vessel behavior in channels is a function of bottom suction, bank suction, interference of passing ships, waves, winds, and currents. Most major maritime countries have criteria regarding the depth and width of channels. The international commission ICORELS (sponsored by the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses PIANC) recommends that general criteria for gross underkeel clearances can be given for drawing up preliminary plans:
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TABLE 87.2 General Criteria for Channel Widths


Minimum Channel Width in Percent of Beam Vessel Controllability Location Maneuvering lane, straight channel Bend, 26 turn Bend, 40 turn Ship clearance Bank clearance
a

Very Good 160 325 385 80 60

Good 180 370 440 80 60 plus

Poor 200 415 490 80 60 plus

Channels with Yawing Forces Judgmenta Judgmenta Judgmenta 100 but not less than 100 ft 150

Judgment will have to be based on local conditions at each project. Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1983. Engineering Manual: Hydraulic Design of Deep Draft Navigation Projects, EM 1110-2-1613. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC.

Open sea area. When exposed to strong and long stern or quarter swells where speed may be high, the gross underkeel clearance should be about 20% of the maximum draft of the large ships to be received. Waiting area. When exposed to strong or long swells, the gross underkeel clearance should be about 15% of the draft. Channel. For sections exposed to long swells, the gross underkeel clearance should be about 15% of the draft. The Engineering Manual [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1983] provides guidance for the layout and design of deep-draft navigation channels. Table 87.2 provides the general criteria for channel widths.

87.7 Marine Foundations


Design of marine foundations is an integral part of any design of marine structures. The design criteria require a thorough understanding of marine geology; geotechnical properties of sediments at a given location; and wind, wave, currents, tides, and surges during maximum storm conditions. In the arctic areas information on fast ice and pack ice is required for the design of offshore structures (on articial islands) and offshore pipelines. A number of soil engineering parameters are required, as shown in Table 87.3. Many of the properties may be obtained employing standard geotechnical methods. Geotechnical surveys and mapping of seabed characteristics have reached a high degree of sophistication. High-resolution geophysical surveys determine water depth, seaoor imagery, and vertical proles. Bottom-mapping systems include multibeam bathymetry, sea beam, side-scan sonars, and subbottom prolers (including shallow, medium, and deep penetration types). The geotechnical investigation is designed to include sediment stratigraphy; sediment types; and sediment properties, including density, strength, and deformational characteristics. Deployment systems employed for sampling in situ include self-contained units, drilling rigs, and submersibles. (Figure 87.12 shows the deployment systems.) There are many in situ testing devices; these include the vane shear test, cone penetrometer test, pressure meter, shear vane velocity tools, temperature probes, natural gamma logger, and so forth [Young, 1991].

87.8 Oil Spills


The best method of controlling oil pollution is to prevent oil spills in the rst place. This may include such techniques as rapid removal of oil from stricken tankers, continuous monitoring of oil wells, killing wild wells at sea, and containing oil spills under the water surface. Spilled oil, being lighter than water, oats on the water surface and spreads laterally. As oil is spilled, several regimes are generally assumed:
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TABLE 87.3 Soil Engineering Parameters Normally Required for Categories of Geotechnical Engineering Applications
Strength Properties Application Shallow foundation Deadweight anchors Deep pile foundations Pile anchors Direct-embedment anchors Drag anchors Penetration Breakout Scour Slope stability Soil Classication Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Grain Size Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Atterberg Limits Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes Clay Su, St Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes c, f Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes f Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Sand f or Su Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Common Properties Clay Cv, k Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No Cc Yes No Yes No No No No No No No Sand Cc Yes No No No No No No No No No Subbottom Depth of Survey 1.5 to 2 foundation width 1.5 to 2 anchor width 1 to 1.5 pile group width, below individual pile tips To depth of pile anchor To expected penetration of anchor, maximum 33 to 50 ft clay; 13 to 33 ft sand 33 to 50 ft clay; 10 to 16 1 ft sand for large 2 anchors 33 to 50 ft clay; 13 to 33 ft sand 1 object width plus embedment depth 3.3 to 16 1 ft; related to object size and 2 water motion 33 to 100 ft; more on rare occasions

Note: Su = udrained shear strength; St = sensitivity; c = drained cohesion intercept; f = drained friction angle; f = undrained friction angle for sands rapidly sheared; Cv = coefcient of consolidation; k = permeability; Cc = compression index. Source: Marine Board, National Research Council. 1989. Our Seabed Frontier Challenges and Choices, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

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DRILLING RIG

SELF-CONTAINED UNIT

Small Vessel

Drill Ship

Drill String Single Umbilical Umbilical

SUBMERSIBLE Thrusting Platform In Situ Tool/Sampler Sensor Fixed Carrier Tool Testrod Stabilizing Mass

In Situ Tool/Sampler

FIGURE 87.12 Deployment systems used for sampling, in situ, and experimental testings. (Source: Marine Board, National Research Council. 1989. Our Seabed Frontier Challenges and Choices, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.)

gravity-inertial, gravity-viscous, and surface tension. In the early stage, generally less than 1 h, the gravityinertial regime, or inertial spread, dominates and is described by R = k 4 (DgLt 2 )1/4 (87.29)

where R = radius of the oil slick; k4 = nondimensional coefcient experimentally determined to be 1.14; D = the ratio of the absolute difference between the densities of sea water and the oil to that of seawater; g = force of gravity; L = original volume of oil spilled; and t = time. When the oil lm thickness becomes equal to the viscous layer in the water, a transition occurs from the gravity-inertial regime to the gravity-viscous regime. This viscous spreading is described by DgL2t 3/2 Radius of oil slock = R = k5 v 1/2
16 /

(87.30)

where k5 is the nondimensional coefcient determined to be about 1.45, v is the kinematic viscosity of water, D is the ratio of the difference between density of seawater and oil, L is the original volume of spilled oil, and t is the time.

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The last phase, the surface tension regime, occurs when the oil lm thickness drops below a critical level, which is a function of the net surface tension, the mass densities of the oil and the water, and the force of gravity. The surface tension spread is described by s 2t 3 R = k6 2 rv
1/4

(87.31)

where k6 = 2.30, experimentally determined; s = surface tension; and r = density of water. For large spills, on the order of 10,000 tons, inertial and viscous spreading will dominate for about the rst week, with the surface tension spread controlling thereafter. Although the exact mechanisms that cause the termination of spreading are unknown, the terminal areas of several oil slicks have been observed and used to determine an analytical relationship for the maximum area of a given oil spill based on the properties of the oil. This is described by s 2V 6 AT = K a 2 3 6 r vD s
18 /

(87.32)

where Ka = undetermined constant or order unit; V = volume of oil that can be dissolved in this layer; D = diffusivity; and s = solubility of the signicant oil fractions in the water. In addition, the area covered by the oil slick is not allowed to exceed AT ; therefore, spreading is terminated at the time
12 / 14 / Vr v K t = a2 ss D p k 6 23 /

(87.33)

Oil may be set up by wind and current against a barrier; any containment device must take the setup estimates into account. There are a number of containment devices (barriers) that prevent oil from spreading. Most mechanical-type oil containment barriers fail in wave heights greater than 2 ft, when the wave steepness ratio is greater than 0.08, and in currents normal to the barrier greater than about 0.7 knots. Oil may also be removed from the water surface by skimming devices. Most mechanical skimming devices have only been able to work in waves less than 2 to 3 ft in height, in moderate currents.

87.9 Offshore Structures


Many types of offshore structures have been developed since 1947, when the rst steel structure was installed in 18 feet of water. Since that time over 4100 template-platforms have been constructed on the U.S. continental shelf in water depths less than 600 feet (Figure 87.13). Deep-water marine structures include gravity platforms, xed platforms, guyed tower, tension-leg platform, and a buoyant compliant tower (Figure 87.14). Wave forces on certain types of offshore platforms are computed by the Morrison equation, which is written as the sum of two individual forces, inertia and drag. The equation may be written as p 1 ( f (t ) = C M r D 2u t ) + C D rD u(t ) u(t ) 4 2 (87.34)

The force, f, as a function of time, t, is written as a function of the horizontal water particle velocity, ( u(t), and the horizontal water particle acceleration, u t ), at the axis of the cylinder, and is dependent on
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12Well Structure

El. +5 m 1:7 Batter Pile Loads Ult. Axial Capacity 18 mn Design Lat. Load 1 mn

8 Main Piles 1.2 m diameter Welded at top 91.5 m penet.

4 Skirt Piles grouted in sleeves

El. 85 m Template Weight 19.5 mn

FIGURE 87.13 Template-type pile foundation structure. (Source: Young, A. G. 1991. Marine foundation studies. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf, Houston. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. Used with permission. All rights reserved.)
GRAVITY PLATFORM
WATER DEPTH FEET METERS

FIXED PLATFORM

GUYED TOWER
7002000 FEET (200600 METERS)

TENSION-LEG PLATFORM
10003000 FEET (300900 METERS)

BUOYANT COMPLIANT TOWER


10002500 FEET (300750 METERS)

0700 FEET (0200 METERS)

01000 FEET (0300 METERS)

2000

600 FLOATING PLATFORM

500 1500 400 GUY-LINES 1000 300

TETHERS

200 500 100 SEABED ANCHOR PILES

FIGURE 87.14 Range of water depths for various types of deep-water marine structures. (Source: Marine Board, National Research Council. 1989. Our Seabed Frontier Challenges and Choices, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.)
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the water density, r. The quantities CM and CD are dened as the inertia (or mass) coefcient and the drag coefcient, respectively. The design and dynamic analysis of offshore platforms, which include jacket structures, topside structures, pile foundations, and dynamic analysis, may be found in Hsu [1991]; discussion of wave forces is given in Chakrabarti [1991].

Dening Terms
Armor unit A relatively large quarry stone or concrete shape that is selected to t specied geometric characteristics and density. It is usually of nearly uniform size and usually large enough to require individual placement. In normal cases it is used as primary wave protection and is placed in thicknesses of at least two units. Articial nourishment The process of replenishing a beach with material (usually sand) obtained from another location. Attenuation (1) A lessening of the amplitude of a wave with distance from the origin. (2) The decrease of water-particle motion with increasing depth. Particle motion resulting from surface oscillatory waves attenuates rapidly with depth and practically disappears at a depth equal to a surface wavelength. Bar A submerged or emerged embankment of sand, gravel, or other unconsolidated material built on the sea oor in shallow water by waves and currents. Diffraction The phenomenon by which energy is transmitted laterally along a wave crest. When a part of a train of waves is interrupted by a barrier, such as a breakwater, the effect of diffraction is manifested by propagation of waves into the sheltered region within the barriers geometric shadow. Dunes (1) Ridges or mounds of loose, wind-blown material, usually sand. (2) Bed forms smaller than bars but larger than ripples that are out of phase with any water-surface gravity waves associated with them. Ebb current The tidal current away from shore or down a tidal stream, usually associated with the decrease in height of the tide. Fetch The area in which seas are generated by a wind having a fairly constant direction and speed. Sometimes used synonymously with fetch length or generating area. Flood current The tidal current toward shore or up a tidal stream, usually associated with an increase in the height of the tide. Groin A shore protection structure built (usually perpendicular to the shoreline) to trap littoral drift or retard erosion of the shore. Harbor oscillation (harbor surging) The nontidal vertical water movement in a harbor or bay. The vertical motions are usually low, but when oscillations are excited by a tsunami or storm surge, they may be quite large. Variable winds, air oscillations, or surf beat also may cause oscillations. See seiche. Hurricane An intense tropical cyclone in which winds tend to spiral inward toward a core of low pressure, with maximum surface wind velocities that equal or exceed 33.5 meters per second (75 mph or 65 knots) for several minutes or longer at some points. Tropical storm is the term applied if maximum winds are less than 33.5 meters per second. Mean high water (MHW) The average height of the high waters over a 19-year period. For shorter periods of observations, corrections are applied to eliminate known variations and reduce the results to the equivalent of a mean 19-year value. Probable maximum water level A hypothetical water level (exclusive of wave run-up from normal wind-generated waves) that might result from the most severe combination of hydrometeorological, geoseismic, and other geophysical factors and that is considered reasonably possible in the region involved, with each of these factors considered as affecting the locality in a maximum manner. This level represents the physical response of a body of water to maximum applied
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phenomena such as hurricanes, moving squall lines, other cyclonic meteorological events, tsunamis, and astronomical tide, combined with maximum probable ambient hydrological conditions such as wave setup, rainfall, runoff, and river ow. It is a water level with virtually no risk of being exceeded. Refraction (1) The process by which the direction of a wave moving in shallow water at an angle to the contours is changed. The part of the wave advancing in shallower water moves more slowly than that part still advancing in deeper water, causing the wave crest to bend toward alignment with the underwater contours. (2) The bending of wave crests by currents. Scour Removal of underwater material by waves and currents, especially at the base or toe of a shore structure. Seawall A structure separating land and water areas, primarily designed to prevent erosion and other damage due to wave action. Seiche (1) A standing wave oscillation of an enclosed water body that continues, pendulum fashion, after the cessation of the originating force, which may have been either seismic or atmospheric. (2) An oscillation of a uid body in response to a disturbing force having the same frequency as the natural frequency of the uid system. Tides are now considered to be seiches induced primarily by the periodic forces caused by the sun and moon. Signicant wave A statistical term relating to the one-third highest waves of a given wave group and dened by the average of their heights and periods. The composition of the higher waves depends upon the extent to which the lower wave are considered. Wave spectrum In ocean wave studies, a graph, table, or mathematical equation showing the distribution of wave energy as a function of wave frequency. The spectrum may be based on observations or theoretical considerations. Several forms of graphical display are widely used.

References
Boussinesq, J. 1877. Essai sur la theorie des eaux courantes, Mem. divers Savants a LAcademie des Science, No. 32:56. Bruun, P. 1954. Coast Erosion and the Development of Beach Proles, Tech. Memo. No. 44, 1954. Beach Erosion Board, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Chakrabarti, S. K. 1991. Wave forces on offshore structures. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. Dean, R. G. 1977. Equilibrium Beach Proles: U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, Ocean Engineering T.R. No. 12. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE. Dean, R. G. 1990. Stream function wave theory and applications. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 1, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. Dean, R. G. 1991. Beach proles. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. Department of the Army. 1987. Shore Protection Manual, vols. I and II. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Department of the Army. 1992. Automated Coastal Engineering System, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Goda, Y. 1985. Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures, Tokyo University Press, Tokyo, Goda, Y. 1990. Random wave interaction with structures. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 1, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. Herbich, J. B. (Ed.) 1990 (vol. 1), 1991 (vol. 2), 1992 (vol. 3). Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. Hsu, T. H. 1991. Design and dynamic analysis of offshore platforms. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. Kriebel, D. L., Dally, W. R., and Dean, R. G. 1986. Undistorted Froude Number for Surf Zone Sediment Transport, Proc. 20th Coastal Engineering Conference, ASCE. pp. 12961310.
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Le Mhaut, B. 1969. An Introduction to Hydrodynamics and Water Waves, Report No. ERL 118-POL31&2. U.S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Science Services Administration, Washington, DC. Tsuchiya, Y. 1991. Threshold of sand movement. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1983. Engineering Manual: Hydraulic Design of Deep Draft Navigation Projects, EM 1110-2-1613. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC. Van der Meer, J. W. 1987. Stability of breakwater armor layers Design formula. J. Coastal Engin. 11(3):219239. Van der Meer, J. W. 1990. Rubble mounds Recent modications. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 1, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. Young, A. G. 1991. Marine foundation studies. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Volume 2, ed. J. B. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, TX.

Further Information
ASCE Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering: Published bimonthly by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Reports advances in coastal and ocean engineering. ASCE specialty conference proceedings: Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Report advances in coastal and ocean engineering. PIANC Bulletin: Published quarterly by the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses, Brussels, Belgium. Reports case studies. Coastal Engineering Research Center (Technical reports, contract reports, miscellaneous papers): Published by the Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Sea Technology: Published monthly by Compass Publications, Inc., Arlington, VA. IEEE proceedings of ocean conferences: Published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Report advances in ocean engineering. Offshore Technology Conference Preprints: Published by the Offshore Technology Conference, Dallas, TX. Report annually on topics in ocean engineering. Marine Board, National Research Council reports: Published by the National Academy Press, Washington, DC. American Gas Association project reports: Published by the American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. American Petroleum Institute standards: Published by the American Petroleum Institute, Dallas. Marine Technology Society conference proceedings: Published by the Marine Technology Society, Houston. World Dredging, Mining & Construction: Published monthly by Wodcon Association, Irvine, CA. Terra et Aqua: Published by the International Association of Dredging Companies, The Hague, the Netherlands. Center for Dredging Studies abstracts: Published by the Center for Dredging Studies, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. Komar, P. D. 1983. Handbook of Coastal Processes and Erosion, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. A series of papers on coastal processes, beach erosion, and replenishment. Bruun, P. 198990. Port Engineering, vols. 1 and 2, 4th ed. Gulf, Houston. A comprehensive treatment on port and harbor design. International Dredging Review: Bimonthly, Fort Collins, CO. Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan, 1980: Published by the Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan, 3-2-4 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Herbich, J. B., Schiller, R. E., Jr., Watanabe, R. K., and Dunlap, W. A. 1987. Seaoor Scour. Marcel Dekker, New York. Design guidelines for ocean-founded structures. Grace, R. A. 1978. Marine Outfalls Systems, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. A comprehensive treatment of marine outfalls.
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Herbich, J. B. 1981. Offshore Pipelines Design Elements, Marcel Dekker, New York. Information relating to design of offshore pipelines. Herbich, J. B. 1992. Handbook of Dredging Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York. A comprehensive treatise on the subject of dredging engineering.

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