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rice black bug (Scotinophara coarctata) and malunggay (Moringa oleifera): potential feed additive and probiotic on chicken

diets
KARLENE F. BACORAYO AND MARELLA JEAN D. LEGARTA CATEGORY: LIFE SCIENCE SECTOR: ANIMAL NUTRITION REGION, CITY/MUNICIPALITY: REGION XII, ESPERANZA CORRESPONDING AUTHORS EMAIL: karlene_emo12@yahoo.com and mlegarta@yahoo.com Keywords: Rice Black Bug, Probiotic, Chicken Diets, Feed Additive, Moringa oleifera ABSTRACT The study titled: Rice Black Bug (Scotinophara coarctata) and Malunggay (Moringa oleifera): Potential Feed Additive and Probiotic on Chicken Diets is concerned on the effect of rice black bug with Malunggay as feed additive and probiotic to chicken diets. This is to lower the cost of inputs in raising poultry and to help farmers increase their income through the utilization of black bug and malunggay. The study presents four treatments and three replications: Treatment 1 = 75 % commercial feeds and 25% black bug with Malunggay, Treatment 2 = 75% commercial feeds and 25% black bug without Malunggay, Treatment 3 = 100% commercial feeds with Malunggay and Treatment 4 = Commercial feeds positive control. The experiment was conducted at Esperanza National High School, Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat on June 20, 2010 until August 4, 2010. Results showed that rice black bug and malunggay significantly affects the average weight gain and feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens. Treatment 3 (100% commercial feeds with malunggay) obtained the lowest feed conversion ratio. The use of rice black bug and malunggay as feed additive and probiotics on chicken diets also affects the performance index of the chickens and affects the cost production. Treatment 3 (100% commercial feed and malunggay) obtained the highest performance index and Treatment 1 (75% commercial feeds and 25% rice black bugs with malunggay) is the most economically feasible to poultry industry. Based on the foregoing results, the researchers recommend the utilization of rice black bugs together with malunggay as feed additives and probiotic on chicken diets, the evaluation of growth performance of broiler chickens using different ratios between the amount rice black bugs and malunggay, comsideration of more samples to get the best from the strong statistics used to analyze data and promotion of further experimentation using strains of broiler chicken or other farm animals such as ducks, game fowls, and pig. INTRODUCTION Philippines is an agricultural country. Agriculture involves producing crops and raising livestock. Many Filipinos nowadays use poultry farming, such as raising chickens because they would gain profit when the growth of the chickens can be accepted in the markets at a given cost. But new problem arises as the world becomes highlymodernized. Chicken feeds become more expensive giving a burden to the poultry raisers. Theres a need for something that could help lessen this problem. It may be an additional ingredient in commercial feeds that could increase the weight of the chickens so that they can be disposed at a profitable cost. Feed must contain the proper amount of protein to meet the needs of the particular type of chicken and that would balance with its age. Commercial feeds are formulated to meet those needs. Compound feeds are mixed from different raw materials and additives. These blends are formulated according to the specific requirements of target animal. They are made by feed compounders as meal type, pellets or crumbles. Compound feeds that provide all the daily required nutrients, concentrates that provide a part of the ration or supplements that only provide additional micro-nutrients such as minerals and vitamins. Feed formula is a computer-balanced recipe that must maintain equality and balanced nutrients. Rice black bug (Scotinophara coarctata) called itim na atangya in Tagalog. They prefer rain fed wetland and irrigated rice to upland rice. They are also favored in continuously cropped irrigated rice areas and poorly rain fed field. They are usually found in large numbers between tillers at the soil level after the heading stage of the rice when irrigation has been stopped during the ripening stage. Its distribution is rapidly spreading to other areas of the Philippine archipelago. This problem is one of the most common problems encountered by farmers during their cropping season. This insect is said to be rich in protein; though not useful enough. This study also presents the use of malunggay as probiotic on chicken diets. Talking about probiotics, this pertains to substance containing live microorganisms that claims to be beneficial to humans and animals by restoring the balance of microflora in the digestive track as been stated by Microsoft Encarta 2009. 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. The use of Malunggay was then done. Malunggay leaves were once considered a "poor man's vegetables" but now it is known as a "miracle tree" or "nature's medicine cabinet" by scientists and health care workers from around the world because it is loaded with vitamins and minerals that can be an effective remedy against many kinds of ailments. Nutritional analysis has shown that Moringa leaves are extremely nutritious. In fact, they contain larger amounts of several important nutrients than the common foods often associated with these nutrients. Another important point is that Moringa
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leaves contain all of the essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. It is very rare for a vegetable to contain all of these amino acids. Moringa contains these amino acids in a good proportion, so that they are very useful to our bodies. This study utilizes rice black bug as additive to commercial feeds as additional nourishment to broiler chicken and to lower the cost of inputs in raising poultry and to help farmers increase their income. In addition, malunggay serves as probiotic. The effectiveness of rice black bug and malunggay as feed additive and probiotic on the growth performance of broiler chicken is the focus of the investigation. METHODOLOGY PREPARATION OF FEED RATION The rice black bugs were gathered on the selected rice fields at municipalities of Esperanza and were washed by steamed water to eliminate its urine which may affect the growth performance of the experimental animals. After washing, the gathered black bugs were sun dried to neutralize the odor. After it had been sun dried, the black bugs were osterized. For every feed ration, the amount of rice black bug was based on the respective treatments for both brooding and rearing stage. BROODING SYSTEM HOUSING AND SANITATION A brooding house which measures 10ft by 3ft by 3ft (big) was used in the study. A 7 watt bulb was installed at both brooding cages and turned on four (4) hours before the arrival of the chicks. The bulb is 30 cm away from the floor. The improvised brooders were cleaned by removing each newspaper matting together with the dirt for every cleaning and sanitation period. The waterers were filled with potable water which was filtered properly and was changed every 24 hours. The distance of the bulb from the floor varied according to the behavior of the chickens. As the chickens huddled together and chirping, the closer the bulb is. The bulb is retained to 30 cm or higher away from the floor if the chicks is moving away and spreading their wings. Proper lighting was observed during the brooding stage. Too much heat is emitted if the chickens were huddling themselves at the side of the brooder (Office of the Provincial Veterinarian of Bacolod City). Three degrees Celsius (3C) was the reduction of the temperature per week until the chicks were two weeks old. FEEDING B-MEG Chick Boosters was used during the first 14 days. Feeds were scattered on newspaper matting, to let the chicks learn to eat until such time that a shallow rectangular feeders were used. Newspapers were removed and replaced everyday to avoid the chicks from eating pieces of newspaper. Feeding was done ad libitum. The feeders were cleaned regularly. DRINKING Upon three (3) hours of the arrival of the chicks, they were provided with 5% of sugar solution which allowed in giving a recovery from the stress during the

transportation of the chicks to brooding house. A watersoluble Vetracin was given to the chicks with a ratio of one (1) teaspoon in every gallon of water. For this, the drinking plastic jar, each have a capacity of gallon was placed in each brooder. Vetracin was used to avoid the chicks from having colds. REARING SYSTEM HOUSING AND SANITATION A rearing pen, with the dimensions of 20ft by 6ft by 6ft was divided equally among twelve (12) compartments and a 7-watt bulb was installed which provided light and warmth during the night. Feeders and waterers were placed inside the pen. The materials in these systems were cleaned and disinfected three (3) days before the rearing time. The pen was fitted with used folders and old newspapers to give enough protection from cold and draft nighttime and rainy days to the chickens. The 15-day old broilers were randomly placed in each compartment. A label was put at the shank bearing the specific treatment and replication. The initial weights of chickens were recorded before they were introduced to different treatments. FEEDING Feeding during this system was done ad libitum. Each feed ration was given to chicks with respect to their treatments from 15th day to 45th day of the coverage of the giving of the treatments. The use of rice black bug as ingredient was done gradually on the first three days to avoid feeding stress which results to the loss of body weight and developing muscles. DRINKING Fresh water was used during this stage. The ratio of water soluble vetracin was maintained (one teaspoon every gallon of water). LIGHTING The green light was used because according to Kottman (1978), well-developed chickens embryo had been achieved by varying lights in incubators. Blue light causes chick deformities and green light increases hatchability. Chicken wastes under the cages were covered with newspapers, ashes and rice hull to avoid foul odor and infestation of flies. Chicken wastes were removed every other day and disposed in a hole which is being utilized as compost for future uses. Cleaning was done regularly. DATA COLLECTION The initial weight of the chickens was taken during their 15th day and the final weight was taken at the termination of the study. The weight gain of the chickens was computed from initial and final weight. The formulas used were as follows: LBWG (Live Body Gain Weight) = Final Weight Initial Weight FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio) = Feed intake/LBWG PI (Performance Index) = Live Body Gain Weight/FCR x 100 ROI (Return of Investment) = Net Income/Total Expenses x 100 The production cost during the whole duration of the experiment was recorded to determine the return of the

investment and economic feasibility of the study to poultry farmers in a low cost. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data of the study were recorded and were analyzed using the following statistical tools: Means: Arithmetic average of a range of values or quantities, computed by dividing the total of all values by the number of values. Mean was used to find the average weight of each treatment. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): The analysis of variance is used to test the significant differences between the treatments of the study. The significance level was set at 0.05 level of significance. Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT): This test was used to test which of the treatments differed significantly as revealed by one-way ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS It shows that Treatment 3 obtained the highest mean weight gain at 137.5g, followed by Treatment 1 at 124.2g and Treatment 4 at 116.7g. Treatment 2 obtained the lowest mean weight gain at 109.3g because the chicks were not yet accustomed to the new feed preparation given to them. On the 2nd week it shows that Treatment 3 obtained the highest mean weight gain at 291.7g, followed by Treatment 1 at 251.8g and Treatment 4 at 232.5g. Treatment 2 obtained the lowest mean weight gain at 228.3g. On the 3rd week it shows that Treatment 3 obtained the highest mean weight gain at 338.3g, followed by Treatment 1 at 292.3g and Treatment 4 at 286.7g. Treatment 2 obtained the lowest mean weight gain at 280.8g. On the last week it shows that Treatment 3 obtained the highest mean weight gain at 364.2g, followed by Treatment 1 at 340.2g and Treatment 2 at 304.2. Treatment 4 obtained the lowest mean weight gain at 291.7g. Interpretation of One-way ANOVA with F-test It reveals that there is a significant difference among treatment means in the mean weight gain for the four-week treatment period at p<0.05 level of significance because the computed F is higher than tabular F; therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected which states that there is significant difference among treatments. Interpretation of DMRT The Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) affirms the result of one-way ANOVA, where each treatment was grouped separately, showing that there is a significant difference among the four treatments at 0.05 level of significance. The table shows that treatment 1 (75% commercial feeds and 25% rice black bug with malunggay) is the most effective feed preparation among the treatments in terms of the weight gain of the broiler chickens. However, there is no significant difference among treatment 2 (75% commercial feeds and 25% rice black bug without malunggay), Treatment 3 (100% commercial feeds with

Malunggay), Treatment 4 (100% Commercial feeds positive control) which indicates that black bug could be used as chicken feed additives. Average Feed Consumed It shows that treatment 2 (75% commercial feeds plus 25% rice black bug without malunggay) consumed the lowest average amount of feed at 3117g while treatment 3 (100% commercial feeds with malunggay) consumed the highest average amount of feed at 3450g. The researchers observed that chickens fed with rice black bug had a longer interval of feeding time as compared to chicken fed purely with commercial feeds. Qualitative observation also shows that chickens in treatment 3 had the highest appetite since they consumed the same amount of feeds in a shorter span of time which might also be attributed to the enzymatic activity of malunggay. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) ROI and Performance Index It shows that treatment 3 (100% commercial feeds with Malunggay) obtained the lowest feed conversion ratio and the highest performance index while treatment 4 (Commercial feeds - positive) obtained the highest FCR and obtained the lowest PI. The FCR of treatment 1 is 3.24 which means that it requires 3.24 kg of feeds to make a kilogram of meat. The result also implies that in treatment 1, more feeds are converted to meat rather than wasted as by-products. The researchers observed that chickens fed with rice black bug had a dry and less odorous waste output than the 100% commercially-feed chicken. On the ROI analysis, it shows that treatment 1 has the highest return on investment at 31.07% followed by treatment 3, treatment 4 and treatment 2 with the return on investment at 28.16%, 27.68% and 24.05% respectively. Treatment 2 has the least cost of production because malunggay is absent in the ration which was supposed to give a high appetite to the chickens due to its enzymatic activity and therefore, the amount of feeds consumed by the chickens in treatment 2 will decrease. CONCLUSIONS The use of rice black bug and malunggay as feed additive and probiotic on chicken diets significantly affects the average weight gain of broiler chicken, the feed conversion ratio, the performance index of the chicken and the cost production. REFERENCES [1] Sison, B.I and C.P. Subsuban. 2004. Performance of kabir chickens fed home-mixed feeds with varying levels of cassava leaf meal as supplement. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Department of Animal Husbandry, IASA, USM. pp. 11-19. [2] Sarian,Z.B. (July 2009). LessAntibiotics, More Probiotics. Agriculture Magazine. Vol XIII. (No.). [3] Harman, G.E. (1998). Trichoderma spp., including T. harzianum, t viride, t. koningii, t. hamatum and other spp., Deutoromyctes, Moniliales. Retrieved from http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/pathogens/ trichoderma.html On August 1, 2009