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PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College

Protein Synthesis
GeneDNA segment that carries a blueprint for building one protein Proteins have many functions

Cells and Tissues

Building materials for cells Act as enzymes ( y (biological catalysts) g y ) RNA is essential for protein synthesis

PART C

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Role of RNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transfers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Helps form the ribosomes where proteins are p p built Messenger RNA (mRNA) Carries the instructions for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome

Transcription and Translation


Transcription Transfer of information from DNAs base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of mRNA Three-base sequences on mRNA are called codons d

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Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Transcription and Translation


Translation Base sequence of nucleic acid is translated to an amino acid sequence Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins

Protein Synthesis
Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template

Amino acids mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome, and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Growing polypeptide chain Synthetase enzyme

mRNA

Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme

Met Gly Ser Phe Released tRNA reenters the cytoplasmic pool, ready to be recharged with a new amino acid Peptide bond

As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, a new amino acid is added to the growing protein chain Ala

Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon

tRNA head bearing anticodon C G G AU U U C G C C A U A G U C C Large ribosomal subunit

Portion of mRNA already Small ribosomal translated subunit

Codon Direction of ribosome advance; ribosome moves the mRNA strand along sequentially as each codon is read

Figure 3.16
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Protein Synthesis
Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template

Protein Synthesis
Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template

mRNA

mRNA

mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome, and translation begins Nuclear pore

Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane

Nuclear membrane

Large ribosomal subunit U A G U CC Codon

Small ribosomal subunit

Figure 3.16, step 1


Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 3.16, step 2

Protein Synthesis
Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template

Protein Synthesis
Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template

Amino acids mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome, and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Synthetase enzyme mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome, and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane

Amino acids

mRNA

Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme

mRNA

Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme

Synthetase enzyme

Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon tRNA head bearing anticodon Large ribosomal subunit U A G U CC Codon U A G U CC Codon Large ribosomal subunit

Small ribosomal subunit

Small ribosomal subunit

Figure 3.16, step 3


Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 3.16, step 4

Protein Synthesis
Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template

Protein Synthesis
Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template

Amino acids mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome, and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Growing polypeptide chain Synthetase enzyme mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome, and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Growing polypeptide chain

Amino acids

mRNA

Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme

mRNA

Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme

Synthetase enzyme

Met Gly Ser Phe Peptide bond

As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, a new amino acid is added to the growing protein chain Ala

Met Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon Gly Ser Phe Released tRNA reenters the cytoplasmic pool, ready to be recharged with a new amino acid Peptide bond

As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, a new amino acid is added to the growing protein chain Ala

Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon

tRNA head bearing anticodon C G G G C C A U A G U CC Codon Direction of ribosome advance; ribosome moves the mRNA strand along sequentially as each codon is read Large ribosomal subunit

tRNA head bearing anticodon C G G AU U U C G C C A U A G U CC Large ribosomal subunit

Small ribosomal subunit

Portion of mRNA already Small ribosomal translated subunit

Codon Direction of ribosome advance; ribosome moves the mRNA strand along sequentially as each codon is read

Figure 3.16, step 5


Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 3.16, step 6

Body Tissues
Tissues Groups of cells with similar structure and function Four primary types Epithelial tissue (epithelium) p ( p ) Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue

Epithelial Tissues
Locations Body coverings Body linings Glandular tissue Functions F ti Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion

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Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Epithelium Characteristics
Cells fit closely together and often form sheets The apical surface is the free surface of the tissue The lower surface of the epithelium rests on a basement membrane ( pp y) Avascular (no blood supply) Regenerate easily if well nourished

Epithelium Characteristics

Figure 3.17a
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Classification of Epithelia
Number of cell layers Simpleone layer Stratifiedmore than one layer

Classification of Epithelia
Shape of cells Squamous flattened Cuboidal cube-shaped b h d Columnar column-like

Figure 3.17a
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Figure 3.17b

Simple Epithelia
Simple squamous Single layer of flat cells Usually forms membranes Lines body cavities Lines l Li lungs and capillaries d ill i

Simple Epithelia

Figure 3.18a
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Simple Epithelia
Simple cuboidal Single layer of cube-like cells Common in glands and their ducts Forms walls of kidney tubules Covers th ovaries C the i

Simple Epithelia

Figure 3.18b
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Simple Epithelia
Simple columnar Single layer of tall cells Often includes mucus-producing goblet cells Lines digestive tract

Simple Epithelia

Figure 3.18c
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Simple Epithelia
Pseudostratified columnar Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others Often looks like a double layer of cells Sometimes ciliated, such as in the respiratory , p y tract May function in absorption or secretion

Simple Epithelia

Figure 3.18d
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Stratified Epithelia
Stratified squamous Cells at the apical surface are flattened Found as a protective covering where friction is common Locations Skin Mouth Esophagus

Stratified Epithelia

Figure 3.18e
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Stratified Epithelia
Stratified cuboidaltwo layers of cuboidal cells Stratified columnarsurface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape Stratified cuboidal and columnar Rare in human body y Found mainly in ducts of large glands

Stratified Epithelia
Transitional epithelium Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching Lines organs of the urinary system

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Stratified Epithelia

Glandular Epithelium
Gland One or more cells responsible for secreting a particular product

Figure 3.18f
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Glandular Epithelium
Two major gland types Endocrine gland Ductless since secretions diffuse into blood vessels All secretions are hormones Exocrine gland Secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface Include sweat and oil glands

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings