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PREDISPOSING FACTORS Sex: female Age: y/o Elderly/ postmenopausal women


Increased in intra-abdominal pressure stretching and tearing of the endopelvic fascia and the levator muscles and perineal body decreased perineal muscle tone stretching

PRECIPITATING FACTORS pregnancy multiparous women hypoestrogenism obesity, chronic pulmonary disease, smoking, constipation pelvic tumors, sacral nerve disorders, and diabetic neuropathy.

further sagging and stretching of perineum

vaginal or uterine descent at or through the introitus

sensation of vaginal fullness or pressure

ulceration of the protruding cervix or vagina

coital difficulty

vaginal spotting

displacement of pelvic organs

sacral back pain with standing

lower abdominal discomfort

displacement of the bladder

rectal pressure

voiding difficulties (incontinence, frequency, and urgency)

defecatory difficulties (Constipation, uncontrollable gas, and fecal