Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

Iro

Eweka The Human Face, the Human Mind and the Possibility of a Mysticism Inspired by Benin Olokun Symbolism Oluwatoyin Vincent Adepoju At 7:45 am on Tuesday, March 13, 2012, a great light shot from the earth into the immensity of space, but left its radiance behind. What features of this luminescence have etched themselves in my mind? A face inscrutable, as a person who, as was described of Isaac Newton in his quest for the structure, dynamism and source of the cosmos, is understood as having crossed many strange seas of thought, alone1. The face a mysterious map, radiating a character difficult to conceptualize. It did not fit into the conventional traceries of a human face. The face would have been easier to understand if it was found in the shrine of some esoteric sect, showing to the world a shaman reputed to journey into spirit realms to bring back those who had found their way there and been lost, or some mystic immersed in arcane and sublime mysteries, recalling Esiri Dafiewhares response to my description of a related impression, although more subtle, from my first my meeting with the writer and social activist Wole Soyinka, of a character etched into ones physical persona through having immersed oneself in certain numinous streams. 2 Yes. The right word in describing Iro Ewekas face is the word numinous. It suggests the complexity of personality, of a universe of closely woven impressions, perceptions, emotions and orientations defining the perhaps unfathomable depths of the self. Philip Pullmans novelistic cycle His Dark Materials represents the intricate constitution of personality in terms of a coruscation of energy that projects the dominant mental patterns of the individual, constituting a cloud of symbols that constellate around the person3. The more complex the mind, the more dense and complex this coruscation.
1

As stated in Isaac Newton in Popular Culture Wikipedia : This passage is from William Wordsworths The Prelude in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College, Cambridge: And from my pillow, looking forth by light/Of moon or favouring stars, I could behold/The Antechapel where the Statue stood/Of Newton, with his prism and silent face:/The marble index of a Mind for ever/Voyaging through strange seas of Thought, alone. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton_in_popular_culture. Accessed 3rd April, 2012. The Wikipedia essay links to the particular page in a Google books search where these lines from Wordsworths 1850 version of the Prelude are quoted in J. Robert Barth, Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination. Columbia : University of Missouri Press, 2003. p. 19. Accessed 29/03/1012.

2 Personal communication. Benin-City. 3 Depicted in the novels The Subtle Knife. London: Scholastic, 1997 and The Amber Spyglass. London:

Scholastic, 2000.

Victor Ekpuk Victor Ekpuk, evoking the shaping of thought through symbols, creates compelling visual expressions that may suggest this cognitive cloud that defines the abstract form of the individual, unseen but experienced in terms of the distinctive character of the self, the subtle impressions it projects, and its hidden potential, perhaps unknown even to the human being emanating this presence. What is that glowing core of seeds nestling within the forest of forms, both humanoid and abstract, in Ekpuks Children of the Full Moon?4 Is it perhaps the coordinating centres of the brain, alive with the fire fed though blood and the pulsations of mind, weaving the network of impressions, emotions and attitudes into the complex known as a human mind? The forms are strange but compelling, belonging to no known language even as they recall the figurative and abstract combinations of Egyptian hieroglyphs and Nigerian nsibidi, but transposed in terms of an individualistic imagination feeding from many streams. 4 Visible at various sites online, including the artists site at

http://www.victorekpuk.com/victorekpuk.com/drawings%28hide%29.html . Accessed 16/02/12.

A related sense of something meaningful but which is yet beyond grasp, is suggested by my memory of Iro Eweka. Why was his face so strange? Why did he insist on wearing a white robe and bathroom slippers as he went about his life as a teacher at the University of Benin? How come he presented himself as a consultant psychiatrist and yet taught philosophy of art? He was the first African I knew about who depicted part of his work history as having taught English at the University of Oxford. An African, teaching the English persons native language at a premier seat of English academic aristocracy? Wow! He certainly seemed to know his English literature. I remember his referring my sister to one of the Irishman W.B Yeats more haunting poems in marking one of her essays in aesthetics. A multi-talented person. 5 His legacy in my life emerged decisively decades after I had last seen or interacted with him. I woke up one morning with a revelation of a profound implication of his essay on Olokun symbolism which I had stumbled across online. Revelation, beceause the idea emerged fully formed, without my having given it any attention earlier. In Olokun Symbols, which I read at the Institute for Benin Studies site, Eweka painstakingly describes the ideational significance of a sequence of graphic symbols created in connection with devotion to Olokun, believed to be the sentient personality of the worlds oceans, as worshipped in Ewekas native Benin-city, a very rich but understudied field6. What gripped me most forcefully about Ewekas characterization of these symbols was his careful attention to their unified morphological progression, to their visual forms as representing an unfolding sequence of ideas depicting the unity of Osanobua, the creator of the cosmos, Olokun, the aquatic presence pervasive in the world and the human being, within the context of time and space. Why not draw out clearly the mystical implications of this depiction of Olokun symbols? Is it not possible to take them as an initiatic sequence, enabling a progressive series of contemplations of ultimate meaning as consisting in the unity of the absolute, as represented by Osanobua, and the contingent, as
5 Iro Eweka is designated as Consultant Psychologist/Psychiatrist and Associate Lecturer at the Open University, Bristol, UK, at the text of his lecture We Are Because He Was , the 3rd Jacob Uwadiae Egharevba Memorial Lecture on 8th December 2000 at the Oba Akenzua II Cultural Complex, Benin City posted at http://www.edo-nation.net/eghar3.htm. Accessed 16, March 2012. SEO Ogbonmwan, Adieu Prince ( Professor ) Iro Eweka Message #58442 on the Nigerian Identity Yahoo Group, Wed, March 14, 2012; 10:12 PM http://groups.yahoo.com/group/NigerianID/message/58442 eulogises Iro Eweka in the context of a survey of his educational and professional history. Accessed 16 March 2012.


6 Iro Eweka, Olokun Symbols. Institute for Benin Studies. Accessed 2010. Currently inaccessible.

Accessible at Scribd : http://www.scribd.com/doc/87261390/OLOKUN-SYMBOLS-BY-IRO-EWEKA . Accessed 29 , March 2012.

represented by Olokun, the human being and the spatiotemporal coordinates within which these possibilities of being emerge? Perhaps this sequence of ideas could even be related to a development of mystical theory and practice that takes it from the better known effort to immerse oneself in ultimate reality, and use it as a means of cultivating comprehensive understanding of phenomena, since the unity between constituents of the cosmos Eweka describes can be understood as a unity evident in every aspect of existence. Perhaps climbing such a ladder of partial unifications of the various constituents of existence, one may arrive at a self constructed cosmic unity. Such a unity, a theoretical construct shaped by combining various sources, could provide a template for exploring the idea that contemplating such a self created form could enable one move from the theoretical to the experiential, from a purely abstract understanding of cosmic unity to an experience of such a unity.7 Perhaps from such an experience of cosmic unity one could even travel deeper, transcending knowledge with my thought, in the words of the Christian mystic St. John of the Cross 8 , ones knowledge becoming swallowed up by the transcendence known in various schools of thought as the foundational nothingness. nyat, the void of Buddhism, beyond being and non-being9. Ain Soph, the Unmanifest of Hermetic Kabala, among similar ideas within explicitly religious and philosophical contexts as well as contexts outside those explicit frames, such as the powerful adaptation of the concept by the writer Wole 7 This is a conception of cognitive and aesthetic mysticism, involving contemplative discipline, ratiocinative

effort, aesthetic appreciation and inspiration. Contemplative discipline facilitates inspirational insights and syntheses that integrate ratiocinative and aesthetic perceptions at a level of greater complexity and depth than would be possible through ratiocinative and aesthetic appreciation alone. I am developing this approach through practice and a study of various sources, including the mystical theory of Maurice Bucke in Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of Human Consciousness. New York : E. P. Dutton, 1969.
8 From St. John of the Cross, Verses Written After An Ecstasy of High Exaltation in Poems. Translated by

Peter Campbell. Harmondworth : Penguin, 1968. 47.

9 The concept of nyat, the Void, is developed at length in Buddhism. The Wikipedia article nyat

states : The exact definition and extent of emptiness varies from one Buddhist tradition to another; this can easily lead to confusion. These traditions all explain in slightly different ways what phenomena are empty of, which phenomena exactly are empty and what emptiness means. A collection of essays that studies this idea and a related one in Christianity is Void and Fullness in the Buddhist, Hindu and Christian Traditions : Sunya-Purna-Pleroma. Edited by Bettina Baumer and John R. Dupuche. New Delhi : D. K. Printworld, 2005. .Judith Simmer Brown, Dakinis Warm Breath: The Feminine Principle in Tibetan Buddhism, Boston : Shamballa, 2002, expounds in resonant terms on the idea in terms of space, a correlation between voidness, space, being and consciousness that may be adapted to Norma Rosens account described below, of the characterization of Olokun in Benin Olokun veneration in terms of the sky. The Buddhist source that has struck me most of the few I have read is the poet Jetsun Milarepas summation of his contemplative discipline in the Song to the Gesh in Tibets Great Yogi, Milarepa : A Biography from the Tibetan. Translated by the Lma Kazi Dawa-Samdup and edited by W. Y. Evans-Wentz. Oxford : Oxford UP, 1969. 245-247. 246 : Accustomed long to know the meaning of the Wordless,/ I have forgot the way to trace the roots of verbs and source of words and phrases, the Wordless being described earlier in the same poem as the Unborn, the Indestructible and the Unabiding, being therefore a referent that transcends all forms that structure existence, and consequently Wordless since it is beyond conceptualization, language being the primary human means of expressing concepts.

Soyinka10 and, in a different epistemic context, the quantum nothing of scientific cosmology11. A negation of conventional conceptions created by a convergence of intensities of such force the resulting illumination is akin to darkness, as 10 Wole Soyinkas The Credo of Being and Nothingness . Ibadan : 1991, has a graphic description of a self

developed void meditation. His The Man Died. London: Rex Collings, 1976 , chapter XXXIII, is centred in a compelling account of the writers use of a similar meditation as a means of orienting himself while in solitary confinement, a meditation reflected in his prison poetry A Shuttle in the Crypt. London: Rex Collings, 1972. His development in Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1990, of the concept of the abyss of transition, a transformative space embodying birth, death and rebirth, in relation to his reflections on space in tragic drama, suggests a relationship between space, voidness and being as central to Soyinkas aesthetic. Soyinka describes tragic drama as [engaged with] the profound and elusive phenomenon of being and non-being and the space within which dramatic action takes place as fundamentally a symbolic chthonic space [evoking ] mans fearful awareness of the cosmic context [of his ] existence [shaped by ]the cosmic location of [his] being [ a space that evokes ] the fundamental visceral questioning [that] intrudes, prompted by the patient, immovable and eternal immensity that surrounds [him] [the reality of which] undented vastness [may have ] created the need to challenge, confront and at least initiate a rapport with the realm of infinity.

11 The Kabbalistic and scientific development of a related idea in describing the source of the cosmos may

be correlated in terms of metaphysical and epistemic conceptions from Western occultism and contemporary scientific cosmology. Relevant sources from Western occultism are Anonymous. The Office of the Holy Tree of Life. No publication information and Dion Fortune. Sane Occultism in Sane Occultism and Practical Occultism in Daily Life. Wellingborough : The Aquarian Press, 1987. 13-119. A particularly useful source from contemporary scientific cosmology is Tian Yu Caos Ontology and Scientific Explanation in Explanations: Styles of Scientific Explanation. Edited by John Cornwall. London : Oxford UP, 2004. 173-195. Correlations between Western occult and scientific conceptions of the source of the cosmos may be developed in terms of conceptions of ontological distance between the source of the cosmos and the manifest cosmos. These involve ideas about the emergence of the positive manifestation represented by the cosmos from the fecund negativity of the source of existence. It includes ideas about the epistemic implications of a negative conception of ultimate reality. This is an understanding of ultimate reality, not in terms of positive attributes, but in terms of nothingness, nothingness understood as an utter transcendence of conventional cognitive categories. On the ontological distance between the source of the cosmos and the manifest cosmos, the Office of the Holy Tree of Life states Unidentifiable art thou; and utterly apart from anything thou art (11). Tian Yu Caos account of scientific cosmology presents a similar idea : Since nothing has the least possible connection with the observed universe, that is, it has nothing to do with any physical entities and properties, such as particles, fields, energy, momentum, or even any classical space- time substratum, except for being susceptible to quantum fluctuations that are justified by the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, we seem to have an ontological basis for explaining the origin of the observed universe in terms of a natural cause, that is, the quantum nothing ( 192). On the emergence of the positive manifestation represented by the cosmos from the fecund negativity represented by the source of existence, the Office of the Holy Tree of Life declares : Thou art the void, yet breathest forth vitality and being as Eheieh.Thou art uncreate, yet cause of all creation Thou art motionless, yet every moving nebula proclaims thy power made manifest through nature (34). Tian Yu Cao expounds a similar idea in scientific cosmology : the quantum nothing is its own cause of its very existence and of its change, without requiring any further external cause. ...together with the most general principles and laws of quantum theory, the quantum nothing gives an ontological basis for a picture whose coherence and articulateness yield a clear understanding concerning the origin and evolution of the universe ( 193 ). On the epistemic implications of its negative conception of ultimate reality , the Office of the Holy Tree of Life expounds : We know we know thee not; and only thus we know thee. We know no symbol for thee; nor have we any name for thee except necessity of nothing. Our solitary means of recognizing thy reality is inwardly through inward stillness of our sense (11). Dion Fortune develops this idea it is said of the Mysteries that the candidate was led on from degree to degree and shown more and more recondite symbols of the Godhead, and at the end, when the final curtain was drawn aside, was revealed to him an empty shrine and a voice whispered in his ear, There is no God. the Logos can only be apprehended by those who can meditate in an empty shrine, that is, to say, those who can think without a symbol. The training of the degrees is designed to teach the mind to rise to the abstract and transcend thought, for it is only when thought ceases that apprehension begins. ...the occult doctrines are a system of algebra that enables the mind to function beyond the range of thought ( 19). Tian Yu Caos account of scientific cosmology also locates a negative conception of the source of the cosmos in a transcendence of conventional cognitive categories : Since whatever is physically imaginable is physically connected with our observed universe, ( namely all possible events that are compatible with the observational evidences that we have obtained hitherto), then nothing which is physically imaginable could be responsible for the genesis of the universe. (190-191).

depicted by Aleister Crowley 12, on the highest stage of Samadhi, transformative states in the Indian discipline of Yoga. Light a candle and open the windows at midday. The light of the candle disappears. Expose the light of the sun to a greater light of such intensity the radiance of the sun becomes darkness, adapting Crowleys metaphor of stages of contemplative transformations of perception. I have been on this journey for about two years now and an infinity of possibilities is opening up. I received news of Ewekas departure as I was preparing to enter the temple of nothingness, so called because is it a series of reflections on nothingness as the most fundamental of expressive forms. Nothingness understood as absence. The absence from light that makes possible the growing life in the womb and in the soil. The pauses between sounds that aids speech becoming legible. The void between the celestial bodies within which they execute their orbits without mutual interference. The emptiness that is the space of non-understanding created by the human beings sensitivity in the face of the mysteries that define his existence, where he ultimately comes from and where he goes finally. The abyss, the endless zone, resonant with possibilities, from which all issues yet which is beyond all.13 I was considering what image to use in inspiring myself in this quest though various fields, autobiography, architecture, literature, religion, music and science, exploring the idea of nothingness. The image that began to suggest itself to me on the day I learnt of Ewekas journey is derived from the indelible impression made on me by the stimulus of his essay on Olokun symbolism. Having been inspired by his essay, I sought out more information on this symbol system and discovered Norma Rosens fantastic article Chalk Iconography in Olokun Worship 14 , rich with more graphic symbols. I then integrated one of Rosens drawings of an Olokun symbol with an Ife head. The collage needs to be repeated with a fresher image from Werner Formans photographs in Basil Davidsons Africa: History of a Continent, and without the tear on the right from carrying the image with me for years, having ripped it out of the family copy of the book in crude expression of admiration well before I bought my own copy of the book. The slightly faded image and the tear remind me, however, of my own history and of my father who specialized in buying general interest but scholarly works for the family library, the Davidson being one such, and taking me also to the inscrutable look on my fathers face that
12Aleister Crowley Magick: Liber Aba : Book Four. Boston: Weiser, 1994. 41.

13 This will be presented in a forthcoming work tentatively titled Emptiness and Being, consisting of a

number of essays that will first be posted online.


14 Norma Rosen Chalk Iconography in Olokun Worship in African Arts, Vol. 22, No. 3 (May, 1989), pp. 44-

53+88. JSTOR : http://www.jstor.org/stable/3336778 . Posted at http://obafemio.weebly.com/uploads/5/1/4/2/5142021/chalkiconographyinolokunworship.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2012.

fateful day when I saw him alive for the last time, during an illness in which he repeatedly told me he was passing way while I refused to believe him. What do people think when they know they are leaving this world, particularly if that departure is accepted by them as inevitable? Perhaps there are some kinds of knowledge one may gain that are so beyond the understanding of other humans that this mesh of perceptions reconfigures ones face to a form others can hardly read.

The brooding face of the Ife head suggests elevation of mind while the features are expressive of warm blooded participation in the vagaries of human existence, integrated in a serene understanding within the mind expressed by the face, unlike the lofty remoteness of a Buddha, sublime but removed from involvement in the struggles of life as most humans know it. The mind orients itself within the axis of time and space represented by the centrifugal and centripetal thrust of the arrows of time and the shaping of space, converging at their effusion from eternity within which swim the primal forms that beget the cosmos, represented perhaps by the emergence of the first life forms from primeval seas, by the inchoate forms awaiting manifestation within the great womb that is in everyone while it remains in its essence beyond reach. Let us leave the last word to those who will evoke for us the meaning of the word numinous which I have used in describing Iro Ewekas face. I wont define the word, though I love its definition in Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language 1966, derived from Rudolf Ottos classic use of the term in his Idea of the Holy,15 because that definition is not precise enough for this
15 Rudolf Otto The Idea of the Holy. Oxford : Oxford UP, 1958.

present purpose. I will leave Elechi Amadi in his novel The Concubine and Akin Solanke on Iro Eweka, to indicate this meaning. Elechi Amadi in The Concubine : Emenike noticed that the old men averted their faces when the priest appeared to glance at anyone of them; so he decided to stare back whenever the priests glance fell on him. His opportunity came before the thought was through his mind. He gazed at the priest and immediately regretted that he had done so, for in the priests face he read mild reproach, awe, power, wisdom, love, life and yes, he was sure death. In a fraction of a second he relived his past life. In turns he felt deep affection for the priest, and nauseating repulsion which made him want to scream with disgust. He felt the cold grip of despair, and the hollow sensation which precedes a great calamity: he felt a sickening nostalgia for an indistinct place he was sure he had never been to.16 The tension between fascination and strangeness central to the concept of the numinous is communicated here. Akin Solanke : He was about the best lecturer that taught me then. He was versatile and deep of mind. His strange facial appearance gave room for ambivalent interpretation of his personality. Because he smoked heavily, he appeared dazed and lost like a drug addict; yet, he looked mysterious and unfathomable. His characteristic white garment and beard created further distance and profundity about his strangeness. I had so much admiration for him. I was always excited anytime his psychology course came up on the timetable and I looked forward to it with great expectation17. On learning of the great mans final journey, Akin exclaimed: Prof. Iro Eweka! Gone ... like that? Hmmmmm! He looked untouchable and daring. Of course, Iro Eweka is beyond death. Like he has been for a long time, he lives in the mind of

16 Quoted in Juliet Okonkwo, Elechi Amadi , Perspectives on Nigerian Literature, Vol. Two: 1700 to the

Present. Ed. Yemi Ogunbiyi. Lagos :Guardian Books, 1988.147-153.162. Personal communication. Quoted in Oluwatoyin Vincent Adepoju. Unforgettable Teachers : Iro Eweka at Scribd http://www.scribd.com/Toyin%20Adepoju/d/67088769-UNFORGETTABLE-TEACHERS-IRO- EWEKA and blogger: http://ifastudent-cognitivediary.blogspot.com/2011/10/unforgettable-teachers-iro- eweka.html. Saturday, October 01, 2011
17

those of us who adore and admire him and his prodigious intellect. Adieu!18 th March 2012 14 Dedicated to Mr. Opene, my 3rd year teacher in composition at the University of Benin. His undying summation of written composition : You are the artist.


18 Email communication. Friday, March16, 2012.

References Adepoju, Oluwatoyin Vincent Unforgettable Teachers : Iro Eweka at Scribd http://www.scribd.com/Toyin%20Adepoju/d/67088769-UNFORGETTABLE- TEACHERS-IRO-EWEKA and blogger: http://ifastudent- cognitivediary.blogspot.com/2011/10/unforgettable-teachers-iro-eweka.html. Saturday, October 01, 2011. Accessed 16/02/12. Amadi, Elechi, The Concubine. Ibadan : Heinemann, 1966. Anatta, Wikipedia. Accessed 16/02/12. Anonymous. The Office of the Holy Tree of Life. No publication information Baumer Bettina and John R. Dupuche. Void and Fullness in the Buddhist, Hindu and Christian Traditions : Sunya-Purna-Pleroma. New Delhi : D. K. Printworld, 2005. Barth, J. Robert, Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination. Columbia : University of Missouri Press., 2003. Brown, Judith Simmer,Dakinis Warm Breath: The Feminine Principle in Tibetan Buddhism, Boston: Shamballa, 2002. Bucke, Maurice, Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of Human Consciousness. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1969. Cao, Tian Yu , Ontology and Scientific Explanation in Explanations: Styles of Scientific Explanation. Edited by John Cornwall. London : Oxford UP, 2004. 173- 195. Crowley, Aleister, Magick: Liber Aba : Book Four. Boston: Weiser, 1994. Dafiewhare, Esiri Personal communication. Benin-City. Ekpuk, Victor, Children of the Full Moon. http://www.victorekpuk.com/victorekpuk.com/drawings%28hide%29.html. Accessed16/02/12. Eweka, Iro, We Are Because He Was , the 3rd Jacob Uwadiae Egharevba Memorial Lecture on 8th December 2000 at the Oba Akenzua II Cultural Complex, Benin City. Posted at http://www.edo-nation.net/eghar3.htm. Accessed 16, March 2012. -----------------Olokun Symbols. Institute for Benin Studies. Accessed 2010. Currently inaccessible. Accessible at Scribd : http://www.scribd.com/doc/87261390/OLOKUN-SYMBOLS-BY-IRO-EWEKA . Accessed 29 , March 2012.

10

Fortune, Dion. Sane Occultism in Sane Occultism and Practical Occultism in Daily Life. Wellingborough : The Aquarian Press, 1987. 13-119. Isaac Newton in Popular Culture, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton_in_popular_culture . Accessed 29/03/1012. Milarepa. Tibets Great Yogi, Milarepa : A Biography from the Tibetan. Translated by the Lma Kazi Dawa-Samdup and edited by Evans- Wentz, W. Y., ed Oxford : Oxford UP, 1969. Ogbonmwan, SEO Adieu Prince ( Professor ) Iro Eweka. Message #58442 on the Nigerian Identity Yahoo Group, Wed, March 14, 2012; 10:12 PM. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/NigerianID/message/58442 Accessed 16 March 2012. Okonkwo, Juliet Elechi Amadi , Perspectives on Nigerian Literature, Vol. Two: 1700 to the Present. Ed. Yemi Ogunbiyi. Lagos :Guardian Books, 1988.147- 153.162. Otto, Rudolf, The Idea of the Holy. Oxford : Oxford UP, 1958. Pullman, Philip, The Subtle Knife. London: Scholastic, 1997 --------------------The Amber Spyglass. London: Scholastic, 2000. Rosen, Norma, Chalk Iconography in Olokun Worship in African Arts, Vol. 22, No. 3 (May, 1989), pp. 44-53+88. JSTOR : http://www.jstor.org/stable/3336778 . Posted at http://obafemio.weebly.com/uploads/5/1/4/2/5142021/chalkiconographyinol okunworship.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2012. Solanke, Akin, , Email communication. Friday, March16, 2012. Soyinka, Wole, The Credo of Being and Nothingness . Ibadan : 1991 ------------------The Man Died. London :Rex Collings, 1976 , A Shuttle in Crypt. London :Rex Collings, 1972. ----------------- Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1990 . nyat , Wikipedia. Accessed 16/02/12. Three Marks of Existence. Wikipedia. Accessed 16/02/12. Wordsworth, William. Wordsworth's Poetical Works, Volume 3: The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind : An Autobiographical Poem. Composed 1799-1805. 11

Published 1850 . Edited by William Knight.1896. Archived at Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12383/12383-h/Wordsworth3c.html. Accessed 02/04/12.

12