90
ROMANI AN STANDARD
STAS 10107/090
Classification index G 41
Supersedes:
10107/076
Previous editions:
1967;1976
CIVIL AND INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CONCRETE, CONCRETE STEEL
AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
CONSTRUCTII CIVILE SI INDUSTRIALE
CALCULUL SI ALCATUIREA ELEMENTELOR STRUCTURALE
DIN BETON, BETON ARMAT SI BETON PRECOMPRIMAT
CONCTRUCTIONS CIVILES ET INDUSTRIELLES
CALCUL AT CONCEPTION CONSTRUCTIVE DES ELEMENTS DE
RESISTANCE EN BETON, BETON ARME ET BETON
PRECOTRAINT
Validation date:
19901201
CONTENT
1 GENERAL
1.1 Scope
1.2 Classification of structural elements and of their reinforcements...
1.3 General principles of design and calculation
2 MATERIALS...
2.1 Concrete
2.2 Reinforcement..
3 CALCULATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS
3.1 Limit states.
3.2 The calculation of stressed bent, eccentrically compressed and eccentrically elongated
elements in the limit resistance state of normal sections
3.3 The calculation of limit resistance states in inclined sections
3.4 Special cases for verification of transversal reinforcements
3.5 The calculation of elements in the limit resistance state exposed to twisty bending stresses ...
3.6 The calculation of unitary stresses in concrete and reinforcements during the II
nd
work
phase, on elements exposed to bending, with or without axial
stresses
3.7 Verifications in the limit fatigue state
3.8 Verifications in the limit state of concrete cracking
3.9 Verifications in the limit deformation state
3.10 Additional specifications for the calculation of precast elements
4 CALCULATION OF SIMPLE CONCRETE ELEMENTS
4.1 Necessary verifications..
4.2 Calculation eccentricity
4.3 Utilization requirements.
4.4 Eccentric compression with a high degree of eccentricity
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ASOCIAIA DE STANDARDIZARE DIN ROMNIA (ASRO),
Adresa potal: str. Mendeleev 2125, 70168, Bucureti 1, Direcia General: Tel.: +40 1 211.32.96; Fax: +40 1 210.08.33,
Direcia Standardizare: Tel. : +40 1 310.43.08; +40 1 310.43.09, Fax: +40 1 315.58.70,
Direcia Publicaii: Serv. Vnzri/Abonamente: Tel: +40 1 212.77.25, +40 1 212.79.20, +40 1 212.77.23, +40 1 312.94.88 ;
Fax : +40 1 210.25.14, +40 1 212.76.20
ASRO
Entire or partial multiplication or use of this standard in any kind of publications and by any means (electronically, mechanically,
photocopy, micromedia etc.) is strictly forbidden without a prior written consent of ASRO
STAS 10107/090
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4.5 Eccentric compression with a low and medium degree of eccentricity..
4.6 Slenderness influences.......................
4.7 Cross force verificationsing
4.8 Local compression verificationsing
5 CALCULATION OF PRESTRESSED ELEMENTS
5.1 Necessary verifications
5.2 Determination of unitaryary stresses in concrete and prestressed
reinforcement
5.3 Calculation of prestressed concrete elements in the limit resistance state
5.4 Calculation of prestressed concrete elements in the fatigue state
5.5 Calculation of prestressed concrete elements in the state of concrete cracking
5.6 Calculation of prestressed concrete elements in the limit deformation state
5.7 Calculation of transfer areas
6 EXECUTION REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS
6.1 Thickness of the concrete coat covering layer of reinforcements
6.2 Reinforcement anchorage.
6.3 Reinforcement binding..
6.4 Additional specifications for pillars.
6.5 Additional specification for beams
6.6 Additional specifications for plates
6.7 Data that shall be included in the execution projects of reinforced concrete elements
7 EXECUTION REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS.
7.1 General specifications
7.2 Technical details and requirements that shall be included in the execution projects of
prestressed concrete elements
7.3 Specific specifications for elements with prestretched reinforcements
7.4 Specific specifications for elements with poststretched reinforcements
7.5 Reinforcement of transfer areas..
ANNEX A: ACTIVE WIDTH OF COMPRESSED FOUNDATION BOTTOM FOR TSHAPED
SECTIONS..
ANNEX B: SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE IN THE CALCULATION OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE ELEMENTS EXPOSED TO AN INCLINED ECCENTRICAL
COMPRESSION IN THE LIMIT RESISTANCE STATE
ANNEX C: DATA FOR THE CALCULATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS
IN THE LIMIT STATE OF CONCRETE CRACKING
ANNEX D: TERMS SPECIFIC TO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE.
ANNEX E: SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION OF CONCRETE LONGTERM UNITARY
DEFORMATION
ANNEX F: THE CALCULATION OF CONCRETE LONGTERM UNITARY
DEFORMATION
ANNEX G: TRANSMISSION AND ANCHORAGE LENGTH OF THE PRESTRETCHED
REINFORCEMENTS..
ANNEX H: CALCULATION OF STRESS LOSSES WITHIN PRESTRETCHED
REINFORCEMENTS
ANNEX I: MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRESTRESSING PROCEDURES IN THE
CASE OF POSTSTRETCHED REINFORCEMENTS.
ANNEX J: CALCULATION POSITIONS AND LENGTHS OF POTENTIAL PLASTIC PARTS
FOR STRUCTURES IN LAPPED FRAMES, EXPOSED TO SEISMIC
PRESSURES, DESIGNED FOR CALCULATION SEISMIC AREAS, FROM A
TO E
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STAS 10107/090
3
1 GENERAL
1.1 Scope
1.1.1 This standard settles the specifications with respect to the calculation and execution procedures of concrete,
reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structural elements used in civil, industrial and agrozootechnical
constructions made of concrete with either heavy aggregates (normal concrete) or light, with compacted structure.
Provisions of specific technical regulations apply to elements made of cell concrete, concrete from higher
classes than those stipulated in this standard, and concrete with rigid reinforcements (metallic profiles), and to elements
executed by means of special technologies, which influence their characteristics and behavior.
In case of extensively used elements and structures, which are provided with specific technical regulations
(examples: precast concrete products for industrial plants, structures with monolithic diaphragms or made of precast
panels for storied buildings, platforms, foundations, bins, tanks, chimneys etc.), those details concerning the execution,
calculation and reinforcement requirements shall also be considered.
In case of constructions located in environments with temperatures from 50
o
C to 80
o
C, when stresses depend
on concrete contraction or slow flow, or on the relaxation efforts of prestressed reinforcements, calculation instructions
stipulated within specific technical regulations with respect to the influences that high temperature has on these
distortional features shall also be considered.
This standard does not apply to constructions that are condeformationed to heavy exploitation conditions, such
as those systematically exposed to temperatures over 80
o
C or below 35
o
C.
1.1.2 Superior insurance measures as well as special prescriptions can be adopted in case of extremely important
constructions, pointed out as being so by authorized institutions; projects as such receive the approval of legal
authorities.
1.1.3 When designing serial precast products, other calculation procedures and other execution prescriptions than the
ones mentioned in this standard can be also applied provided they have been theoretically proved and experimentally
confirmed.
1.1.4 Exposure to humidity and bad weather conditions, environmental aggressivity and specific factors of
exploitation shall be considered when designing concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete elements, in
order to guarantee their resistance over time. The following are settled in accordance with the abovementioned features
and the specific technical regulations:
 the class of the concrete;
 the technical conditions imposed on concrete structure (type and minimum cement dosage, type of
aggregates, degree of impermeability or frost cleftness, maximum A/C ratio);
 the structure of construction elements;
 potentially necessary additional measures of safety.
1.2 Classification of structural elements and of their reinforcements
1.2.1 Considering their role, reinforcements of structural elements can be classified as follows:
 resistance reinforcements, of which dimensions are analyzed so that they would take over stresses;
 confinement reinforcements, which increase the longitudinal deformation capacity and resistance of
prestressed concrete areas due to limitations of transversal deformations;
 constructive reinforcements, of which dimensions are not mathematically resulted, but which are
necessary for conferring an appropriate behavior to resistance, ductility and fissures by taking over stresses that cannot
be quantified by means of common calculation;
 assembly reinforcements, of which main purpose is to maintain the position of other reinforcements
until concrete consolidation.
The same reinforcement can fulfill more than one of the abovementioned roles.
STAS 10107/090
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1.2.2 Considering the role and quantity of reinforcements, structural elements can be classified as follows:
 elements made of simple concrete (nonreinforced or slightly reinforced, with a reinforcement below the
minimum admitted for reinforced concrete elements);
 elements made of reinforced concrete with resistance reinforcements, which have not been prestressed
and observe the minimum reinforcements requirements provided in this standard;
 elements made of prestressed concrete, which are provided with initial stresses by means of prestressed
reinforcements that adhere with the concrete before or after the prestressing effort is transferred.
1.2.3 Considering the shape used in the calculation, structural elements are classified in: linear, surface, or massive.
1.2.4 Considering their behavior to fractures, structural elements can be classified in:
 ductile, which display significant postelastic deformations before breaking;
 slightly ductile;
 nonductile.
NOTE: Structural elements are classified in more detail with respect to the ductility requirements for seismic endurance
within the clause 1.2.5.
1.2.5 Considering their way of taking over seismic stresses, structural elements are classified in three categories, as
described in the subclauses 1.2.5.1 1.2.5.3.
1.2.5.1 Elements which are part of antiseismic structures, in seismic calculation areas from A to E
This category includes elements that have intended to be dimensioned in accordance with their role of
absorbing and dissipating the seismic energy.
For all these elements, execution and calculation prescriptions within this standard and other technical
regulations specific to each type of structure, are provided distinctively for each of the following three classes in
accordance with the estimated amplitude of postelastic activities:
 class a: elements which acquire significant postelastic deformations and consequently, need to be
provided with a ductility degree as required by the antiseismic design prescriptions. For these elements, execution and
calculation provisions are differentiated, when necessary, for potential plastic components (components which are
designed to receive postelastic deformations in case of strong earthquakes) and the rest of areas in the respective
elements.
Determination of potential plastic components and estimation of their calculation length are performed in
accordance with the technical regulations specific to each type of structure.
When it is possible to estimate accurately the position of potential plastic components by means of complex
analyses of the structure in the postelastic field, the remaining components within that structure can be included in the
b class.
 class b: elements which are conditioned to maintain an elastic state under seismic pressures in order to
be rigid enough to function as bonds between different structural components (platforms that function as shields, frame
joints, vertical joints which turn structures made of big panels into monoliths etc.), or as sealing elements (walls of
liquid tanks, gas pressured recipients etc.); these elements are dimensioned and reinforced at a superior assurance
degree than the rest, in conformity with the provisions and specifications of the technical regulations for each type of
structure. This class also includes elements that have been designed to perform in the elastic state by means of a
structural plasticizing mechanism.
 class c: elements which remain in the elastic field during seismic pressures due to the limited stresses
the latter exert upon them; a minimum constructive reinforcement provides the necessary bearing capacity for an
elastically seismic response (example: barely stressed diaphragms in case of buildings with a few floors).
1.2.5.2 Elements which are part of antiseismic structures, in the F seismic calculation area. These elements also
differentiate in the a, b, c classes, as described in the subclause 1.2.5.1.
STAS 10107/090
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1.2.5.3 Elements which are not part of antiseismic structures
This category includes elements that shift when exposed to horizontal stresses without displaying any
deformations (example: precast beams assembled on pillars, such as the main roof beams of industrial plants, sliding
beams etc.). This category also includes elements that are insignificantly influenced by seismic pressures because their
side deformations are prevented by more rigid elements (diaphragms or props).
1.3 General principles of design and calculation
1.3.1 The calculation of concrete, reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete elements is carried out in accordance
with the general calculation principles settled in STAS 10100/075 and STAS 1010275, and consists of verifications
performed in absolute limit states or during normal exploitation.
In case of construction elements which display a different plan of statics, a different active section or different
stresses in the intermediary execution phases (removal of shuttering, control and assembly of precast products, partially
executed construction etc.) than in the final one, calculation is performed in the intermediary phases as well.
1.3.2 Elements which are part of antiseismic structures (classified as shown in the subclause 1.2.5), and can
undergo plastic deformations during earthquakes, shall be provided with a ductile capacity to dissipate the seismic
energy; their ductile capacity depends on the materials used in execution, on structure and on the dimensioning
processes. For this purpose, the following shall be considered when it comes to reinforced concrete elements:
 reinforcements shall be made of ductile steel (PC 60, PC 52, OB 37);
NOTE: Steel with reduced ductility can be used only for elements in classes b and c.
 avoidance of nonductile premature yields in the compressed parts of those elements which are subject
of bending pressures, with or without axial stresses, by setting superior limits of both the reinforcement percentage of
stretched areas and the pressure level of the axial compressive stress (limitation of compressed area within the sections
of elements);
 providing a sufficient confinement for transversal reinforcements of compressed parts with postelastic
deformations;
 avoidance of premature yields in the inclined sections by setting superior limits of the pressure level in
case of cross forces;
 providing an adequate anchorage of the reinforcements within the concrete.
In case of reinforced concrete elements, the calculation and execution provisions with respect to the ductility
requirements are settled in the 3 and 6 provisions of this standard, for both potential plastic parts and the rest.
In case of prestressed concrete elements which are included in the a class (classified as shown in the subclause
1.2.5), ductility is provided in conformity with specific technical regulations.
1.3.3 Elements, which are part of antiseismic structures, shall have an adequate rigidity for side shifts in order to
reduce both structural and nonstructural elements degradations.
2 MATERIALS
2.1 Concrete
2.1.1 Classes of concrete
2.1.1.1 The class of concrete is defined in accordance with the value of the characteristic resistance R
bk
(compression
resistance determined on cubes with sides of 141 mm, 28 days after their execution as described in STAS 127588;
statistically speaking, 5% of the results can display a lower value than that of the compression resistance), in N/mm
2
.
Concrete classes for simple concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete elements are as follows
(according to STAS 362286): Bc 3.5; Bc 5; Bc 7.5; Bc 10; Bc 15; Bc 20; Bc 25; Bc 30; Bc 35; Bc 40; Bc 50; Bc 60.
Classes of concrete made of light aggregates (which demand resistance conditions) range from the Bc 7.5 class
to the Bc 35 class.
NOTE: In special technically and economically legitimate cases, classes Bc 22.5 and Bc 27.5. whose calculation values
are determined by linear interpolation between the values settled in this standard for Bc 20 and Bc 25 classes, respectively
Bc 25 and Bc 30 classes, are also admitted.
STAS 10107/090
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2.1.1.2 Considering apparent density at 28 days after execution, concrete is classified in density categories in
conformity with STAS 362286. Within the light concrete density category (10002000 kg/m
3
), concrete with of light
aggregates are classified in density subcategories as shown in table 1.
Table 1
Density subcategory
Apparent concrete density at 28 days
after execution
kg/m
3
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
15011600
16011700
17011800
18011900
19012000
NOTES
1 In case of construction elements made of light aggregates, density subcategories are indicated in the execution projects.
2 When the own weight of elements is not determined by means of direct measures, the superior limit of the apparent
density corresponding to each density subcategory in table 1 is supplemented with 50 kg/m
3
.
2.1.1.3 Concrete minimum classes for construction elements are presented in table 2.
Table 2
Construction elements Concrete minimum class Exceptions
Elements made of simple concrete, whose
dimensions do not result from a resistance
calculation, and blocks made of simple concrete,
used for foundations with bearing boxes and blocks.
Bc 3.5; Bc 5 In case of elements which
have contacts with the
underground water Bc 7.5.
Elements made of simple concrete, whose
dimensions result from a resistance calculation,
except blocks made of simple concrete, used for
foundations with bearing boxes and blocks.
Bc 7.5 In case of elements which
have contacts with the
underground water Bc 10.
Elements made of reinforced concrete with low
reinforcement percentage, displaying mainly
constructive reinforcements of OB 37 (foundations),
respectively OB 37 and PC 52 (foundations and
elevations).
Bc 10
Elements made of monolith concrete
Precast reinforced concrete elements, exposed to
reduced stresses
Bc 15 In case of elements that are
exposed to water pressures
Bc 20.
Precast reinforced concrete elements, except those
exposed to reduced stresses
Bc 20
PC 90 bars Bc 25 Elements made of prestressed
concrete with prestressed
reinforcements
drawn elements
(wires, strands,
braided wires)
Bc 30 Bc 25 is admitted from time
to time, depending on both
the importance of the
structural element and the
stresses exerted upon it.
In cases such as the following, when technically and economically attested, superior concrete classes than
those mentioned in table 2 can be adopted:
 when class superiority leads to a significant decreasing of the concrete section, or increases the ductility
of the rigidity of the compound;
 when structural elements at the bottom of high storied or overloaded buildings shall have their sections
reduced in order to decrease the weight;
 to uniformalize the concrete class of one floor within a building characterized by a monolithic structure;
 in aggressive environments, for those situations stipulated in the specific technical regulations;
 when required by the exploitation conditions (impermeability degree, frost cleftness, dynamic stresses)
or the exposure regime determined by specific technical regulations.
STAS 10107/090
7
2.1.2 Characteristic and calculation resistances
2.1.2.1 When analyzing concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete elements, characteristic compression
and stretch resistances of the concrete are determined in accordance with the class of the concrete by means of
experimentally deducted relations:
 characteristic compression resistance R
ck
:
 characteristic stretch resistance R
tk
, for heavy aggregates concretes (normal concrete):
 characteristic stretch resistance R
tk
for concrete made of light aggregates:
where is the apparent density of light concrete, determined as described in the subclause 2.1.1.2.
The values of characteristic resistances are provided in table 3.
2.1.2.2 Concrete calculation resistances are determined by means of the following relations:
bc
ck
bc c bc c
R
m R m R
= =
*
(4)
bt
tk
bt t bt t
R
m R m R
= =
*
(5)
where
R
c
, R
t
calculation compression and stretch resistances of the concrete;
m
bc
, m
bt
coefficients of compressed and stretched concrete work conditions;
bc
,
tc
safety coefficients of compressed and stretched concrete.
Those values of the calculation resistances which are determined for m
bc
= 1, m
bt
= 1,
bc
= 1.35,
tc
= 1.50, are
called basic values, marked R
c
*, R
t
*, and provided in table 3 for each concrete class.
Table 3
Class of the concrete
Type of resistance
Sym
bol
Bc
3.5
Bc
5
Bc
7.5
Bc
10
Bc
15
Bc
20
Bc
25
Bc
30
Bc
35
Bc
40
Bc
50
Bc
60
Characteristic resistances of the concrete, N/mm
2
Compression R
ck
3 4.5 6.4 8.5 12.5 16.6 20.5 24.3 28.0 31.6 38.5 45.0
Normal concrete
  0.76 0.92 1.19 1.43 1.65 1.86 2.03 2.20 2.51 2.78
1.6
0.59 0.72 0.93       
1.7
1.8
0.64 0.77 1.00 1.20 1.38 1.56 
Stretch
Concrete
with light
aggregate
s and the
density
sub
category:
1.9
2.0
R
tk
   1.23 1.42 1.59 1.74
Calculation resistances of the concrete, basic values, N/mm
2
Compression R
c
* 2.2 3.2 4.7 6.5 9.5 12.5 15.0 18.0 20.5
22.5
*)
26.5
*)
31.5
*)
Normal concrete
  0.50 0.60 0.80 0.95 1.10 1.25 1.35
1.45
*)
1.65
*)
1.85
*)
1.6
  0.40 0.50 0.65       
1.7
1.8
  0.45 0.55 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00    
Stretch
Concrete
with light
aggregates
and the
density
sub
category:
1.9
2.0
R
t
*
     0.85 0.95 1.05 1.10   
*) Values are multiplied by a supplementary coefficient of 0.95.
Light concrete concrete
STAS 10107/090
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2.1.2.3 In case of prestressed concrete elements, the mean compression resistance on cubes, necessary when
transferring the prestressing force R
b0
, is prescribed within the project draft in conformity with the transfer stresses, the
characteristics of prestressed reinforcement, and the technological execution conditions of the elements, but it will not
be lower than that provided in table 4.
Table 4
Class of the concrete element Bc 25 Bc 30 Bc 35 Bc 40 Bc 50 Bc 60
Minimum admitted value for
the mean transfer resistance on
cubes R
b0
, N/mm
2
25 28*
)
32 35 42 40
*) If the maximum compression unitary stress at transfer does not exceed 0.4 R
b0
, 25 N/mm
2
is also admitted.
Calculation transfer resistances, necessary when verifying the limit transfer resistance, are determined by
means of a conventional class of concrete Bc*, which is depicted from table 5 in accordance with the transfer resistance
R
b0
prescribed in the project draft. For Bc*determined as such, the calculation transfer resistance of the concrete is
depicted from table 3 by means of linear interpolation.
Table5
R
b0
25 28 32 35 38 42 45 49 52
Conventional class of
concrete at transfer Bc*
17 20 24 27 30 33 36 40 42
2.1.2.4 Coefficients of concrete work conditions
2.1.2.4.1 In case of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete elements, appropriate values for the m
bc
and m
bt
coefficients are provided in table 6, in accordance with the concrete casting position.
For all elements made of simple concrete or of concrete with light aggregates from the Bc 30 and Bc 35
classes, the values for m
bc
and m
bt
coefficients result by multiplying the values in table 6 by 0.9.
Table 6
Concrete casting position The smallest dimension of
the section mm
m
bc
= m
bt
< 300 0.75
Vertical, with a casting height > 1500 mm (pillars,
diaphragms, beams walls, walls with recipients etc.,
made of monolithic reinforced concrete), or inclined, with
moulds on all sides.
300 0.85
< 300 0.85
Linear elements exposed to
eccentric compression
(precast pillars etc.)
300 1.00
<200 0.85
Linear elements exposed to
bends (beams, rulers for
joining together the
diaphragms etc.)
200 1.00
Horizontal or vertical,
with a casting height
1500 mm
Plates Any of them 1.00
2.1.2.4.2 When calculating the prestressed concrete elements, transfer the m
bc
coefficient obtained as shown in the
subclause 2.1.2.4.1 is multiplied by:
1.2 in case of precast monoblocks, executed in factories;
1.0 for other elements.
STAS 10107/090
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2.1.2.4.3 For the fatigue calculation, the m
bc
coefficient determined in accordance with the subclause 2.1.2.4.1 is
multiplied by the m
bc
coefficient, which results from the following relation:
(6)
where
b
coefficient of asymmetry, resulted from the relation:
b max
maximum unitary stress within the concrete, in the compressed extreme fiber;
b min
minimum compression unitary stress within the concrete, in the same fiber.
b max
and
b min
values are determined in the II
nd
work phase, and result from the exploitation loadings
corresponding to verifications performed in the limit fatigue state.
For elements exposed to bending, the following can be considered:
where
M
min
E
and M
max
E
are the minimum and the maximum moment of bending, resulted from exploitation loadings
corresponding to the limit fatigue state.
2.1.3 Other calculation characteristics
2.1.3.1 The values of the elasticity modulus in case of common concrete exposed to a E
b
compression for short
duration loadings, are provided in table 7.
Table 7
Class of the
concrete
Bc 7.5 Bc 10 Bc 15 Bc 20 Bc 25 Bc 30 Bc 35 Bc 40 Bc 50 Bc 60
E
b
, N/mm
2
14000 21000 24000 27000 30000 32500 34500 36000 38000 40000
In case of concrete made of light aggregates, the values of the elasticity modulus of the concrete exposed to
a E
bu
compression result from the following relation:
(7)
where
E
b
elasticity modulus of common concrete included in the same class as the concrete made of light
aggregates;
b
,
bu
apparent densities of both common concrete and concrete made of light aggregates.
The elasticity modulus in case of concrete exposed to stretching is considered equal to that of the concrete
exposed to compression.
Coefficient of transversal deformation: = 0.2
Transversal elasticity modulus is G
b
= 0.4 E
b
, respectively G
bu
= 0.4 E
bu
.
2.1.3.2 The coefficient of linear dilatation for concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete elements when
temperature ranges form 35
o
to + 80
o
, can be
t
= 1.10
5
in case of common concrete, and
t
= 0.810
5
in case of
concrete made of light aggregates.
STAS 10107/090
10
2.1.4 diagrams (unitary stress specific deformation)
In the calculation of the sections of reinforced concrete elements exposed to bending, with or without an
axial effort, the following diagrams are adopted in the cases below:
 the second degree curve and the horizontal elevated plane as shown in fig. 1 a are used for compressed
parts of concrete elements, where the limit unitary deformation is
bu
= 3.5 in case of concrete classes up to Bc 35,
respectively
bu
= 3.0 in case of classes above Bc 35;
 the bilinear diagram in fig. 1 b is used for compressed parts of elements made of light aggregates,
 the second degree curve in fig 1 c is used for the stretched parts of concrete elements belonging to any
class of concrete.
NOTE: Diagrams in fig. 1 are valid only if the specifications of minimum reinforcement described in this standard are
observed. These diagrams can be used for potential plastic parts with a transversal reinforcement superior to the
minimum one.
If technical and economic researches lead to a superior confinement degree, the R
c
and
bu
values can be subject of an
appropriate supplementation in accordance with homologated experimental data so that they would suit the more
detailed calculation of the resistance and postelastic deformation capacities.
2.1.5 Total specific deformation
The total specific deformation of the concrete,
bt
, is given by the concrete slow flow and contraction, and
results from the following relation, after deformations are consumed in time:
bd b bt
+ =
0
(8)
where
bo
the initial fraction of specific deformation, which is determined by means of the elasticity modulus at
shortduration loadings E
b
, provided in table 7;
bd
the longduration fraction of specific deformation, which can be determined by a simplified calculation
using the relations provided in ANNEX E. In case a more detailed evaluation is needed, especially when analyzing the
tension losses within prestressed reinforcements (when reinforcement is performed in several stages, for instance),
relations provided in ANNEX F can be used.
STAS 10107/090
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2.2 Reinforcement
2.2.1 Nonprestressed reinforcements
2.2.1.1 The geometrical characteristics (diameters, tolerances, sections) of nonprestressed reinforcements, as well as
the mechanical delivery characteristics (fracture resistance under stress, flowing limit, tensile strength etc.) are
described in STAS 438/1,389 and STAS 438/280.
2.2.1.2 Steel with a superior resistance (in case of rolled bars: PC 52, PC 60) is usually used in executing the
resistance reinforcements of reinforced concrete structural elements or the complementary nonprestressed
reinforcements of prestressed concrete elements, including the crossties whose dimensions result from calculation.
Shaped drawn wire STPB or smooth drawn wire STNB are used as many times as possible in executing the
reinforcement of surface elements (plates, walls) by means of welded nets, as well as the cross bars of the welded boxes
of beams.
NOTE: Instructions for using the STPB and STNB steel in reinforcing elements which are part of antiseismic structures
(reinforcement of vertical monolithic diaphragms or of those made of big precast panels, transversal reinforcements of
frame rulers), are detailed in the specific technical regulations with respect of these structures, correlated with the general
principles of design and calculation as they are presented in the subclause 1.3.2.
OB 37 steel is usually used for either constructive reinforcements or resistance reinforcements, of which
dimensions depend on the conditions of minimum reinforcement percentage, minimum diameters, or minimum spacing
between bars; it is also used in case the reinforcements with superior resistances cannot be efficiently applied due to
some special conditions of normal exploitation.
2.2.1.3 Characteristic and calculation resistances
The minimum values prescribed in product standards for a flow limit of R
p0,2
function as steel characteristic
resistances in case of nonprestressed reinforcements R
ak
.
Calculation resistance R
a
depends on the characteristic resistance, and results from the following relation:
where
m
a
coefficient (or wedge of coefficients) of reinforcement work conditions
a
reinforcement safety coefficient, with an average value of 1.15 for OB 37, PC 52 and PC 60, and of 1.2 for
STNB.
Calculation resistance values for m
a
= 1 are called basic values, and have been marked with R
a
*.
R
ak
and R
a
* values for nonprestressed reinforcements are provided in table 8.
Table 8
Type of steel Nominal diameter mm
Characteristic resistance R
ak
N/mm
2
Calculation resistance
(basic values) R
a
*,
N/mm
2
612 420
1428 405 PC 60
3240 395
350
614 355
1628 345
300
PC 52
3240 335 290
612 255
OB 37
1440 235
210
34 190
4.57.1 440
370
STNB and STPB
810 390 325
NOTE: Resistances provided in table 8 are also valid for some other types of homologated steel, which function as
equivalents of the types mentioned in the table (for instance for PC 60, 25 G2 S steel).
STAS 10107/090
12
Reinforcement calculation resistance R
a
is considered as being equal with R
a
* (m
a
= 1), except when
performing the calculation in the limit fatigue state when the calculation resistance results from the following relation:
where
m
a
0
coefficient of reduction the calculation resistance as a result of repeated stresses;
m
a
5
coefficient of the reinforcement welded joints .
m
a
0
and m
a
5
values are provided in tables 9 and 10, and they depend on the coefficient of skew
a
, resulted
from the relation:
a min
and
a max
are the minimum and
maximum unitary stresses in the considered reinforcement.
Table 9
*) Welded bindings are not admitted when < 0.
Translation NOTE: The figures in Table 9 and Table 10, written with a coma (e.g: 0,30,0,95) are to be read with a dot
(e.g: 0.300.95)
2.2.1.4 Reinforcement elasticity modulus is:
E = 210000 N/mm
2
for PC 60, PC 52 and OB 37 steels
E = 200000 N/mm
2
for STNB and STPB
Coefficient of skew
a
Type of steel
Welding procedure
Coefficient of skew *
a
Type of
steel
Reinforcement welded by
means of end to end pressing,
smoothly polishing the
protuberances; shell weld in a
CO2 environment
Reinforcement welded by
means of endtoend
pressing*. Shell welded
reinforcements within a slag
bath with longitudinal
junctures. Reinforcement
welded by means of displaced
eclipses, or of equal eclipses
and junction welded seams.
Point welded reinforcements.
Overlap welded
reinforcements.
Reinforcements welded by
means of equal eclipses
without junction welded
seams.
Table 10
STAS 10107/090
13
2.2.1.5
a
a
diagrams (unitaryary stress  specific deformation)
The conventional bilinear diagram with elevated plane, represented by means of solid lines in fig. 2 a, is used
for hotrolled steel (PC 60, PC 52, OB 37); the conventional bilinear diagram with consolidation, represented by means
of solid lines in fig. 2 b, is used for drawn wires (STNB, STPB).
In fig. 2 a, the maximum unitary deformation to be used in the calculation has the following values:
au
= 10 for common groups of stresses;
au
= 50 for groups of stresses that include seismic actions.
In case of the potential plastic parts of elements included in antiseismic structures, the bilinear consolidation
diagram, represented by means of dotted line in fig. 2 a, is used in the calculation of rolled steel if estimated that
deformations stressed on elements attack the consolidation of reinforcements as well, and therefore, afflict the
dimensioning process.
In case of drawn wires, the bilinear equivalent diagram, represented by means of a dotdash line in fig. 2 b, is
used in the simplified calculation of the resistance.
2.2.1.6 In case of reinforcements made of some other types of steel than those presented in table 8, calculation
characteristics and their practicability are settled in conformity with the provisions of product standards and of specific
technical regulations.
2.2.2. Prestressed reinforcements for prestressed concrete elements
2.2.2.1 Prestressed reinforcements are made of highly resistant steel, which takes the shape of round smooth wires
(SBP), impressed wires (SPBA), braided wires (LBP), strands (TBP), bars, eggshaped rifted wires.
Wires and strands can group together and form bundles.
Geometric, chemical mechanical and technological characteristics of prestressed reinforcements are in
accordance with the prescriptions of:
STAS 6482/280 for SBP;
STAS 6482/380 for SBPA;
STAS 6482/480 for TBP.
Quality verifications instructions in case of steel wires and wire products for prestressed concrete are in
accordance with STAS 6482/173.
NOTE: This standard includes also provisions for PC 90 and LPB reinforcements.
2.2.2.2 Steel characteristic resistances for prestressed reinforcements R
pk
, are considered with their minimum values as
they are prescribed in the product standards (mentioned in the subclause 2.2.2.1), as follows:
 tensile resistance R
rk
, in case of SBP, SBPA, TBP and LBP reinforcements;
 flowing limit R
0,2 k
, in case of PC reinforcements.
Characteristic resistances for SBP, SBPA, TBP and PC 90 are provided in table 11, and those for other types of
reinforcements are in conformity with the product standards.
STAS 10107/090
14
2.2.2.3 Calculation resistances of prestressed reinforcements result from the following relation
where
p
safety coefficient of prestressed reinforcements with the following values:
p
= 1.25 for SBP, SBPA, TBC, and LBP;
p
= 1.20 for PC 90 reinforcements.
Calculation resistances for SBP, SBPA, TBP and PC 90 are provided in table 11.
Table 11
NOTE: SBP reinforcements which display a diameter smaller than 3 mm is used only in case of special prescriptions.
Translation NOTE: The figures in Table 9 and Table 10, written with a coma (e.g: 0,30,0,95) are to be read with a dot
(e.g: 0.300.95)
2.2.2.4 Calculation resistances of prestressed reinforcements made of highly resistant steel, which display other
attributes than those mentioned in the subclause 2.2.2.3, are settled in accordance with specific technical regulations.
2.2.2.5 Elasticity modulus of prestressed reinforcements is considered as described below:
Ep = 210000 N/mm
2
for PC reinforcements;
Ep = 200000 N/mm
2
for SBA and SBPA reinforcements;
Ep= 180000 N/mm
2
for strands and braided wires.
2.2.2.6 The
a
a
diagram for SBP, SBPA, and TBP steel is used in the calculation as shown in fig. 3, with the
following analytical representation:
 for
p
0.6 Rp
Type and quality of the reinforcement
Wire, bar or strand
diameter
mm
Characteristic
resistance R
pk
N/mm
2
Calculation
resistance R
p
N/mm
2
STAS 10107/090
15
 for
p
>0.6 Rp
A conventional bilinear diagram as shown in fig. 2 a can be used in the calculation of PC steel.
2.2.2.7 The limit unitary breaking deformation of prestressed reinforcement display a
r
= 3 % value. The value of the
limit calculation unitary deformation of prestressed reinforcement, (symbol), is settled in accordance with the
hypotheses mentioned in the subclause 5.3.2.4.
3 THE CALCULATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS
3.1 Limit states
3.1.1 The calculation of the limit resistance states is performed for all reinforced concrete elements.
In case of linear elements, the verifications is performed by means of comparison between the maximum
sectional stresses (axial stresses, moments of bending etc.), resulted from calculation loadings with capable sectional
stresses.
In case of surface elements, which are provided with calculation models in conformity with their behavior as
reinforced concrete elements (beams  walls, diaphragms), sectional stresses are determined on the basis of the above
mentioned models.
In case of structures composed of surface elements (thin curved plates, assemblies of diaphragms which
function as spatial profiles with thin walls etc.), which are deprived of calculation models, the stressing state results
from elasticity theories, and consequently, unitary stresses are provided instead of sectional stresses; under these
circumstances, it is allowed to deduce the sectional stresses from the diagrams of unitary stresses provided they are
summed up on each section.
In case of structures or structural subsets, which make available the evaluation of the global capable stress
(e.g: plane plates) by means of a static calculation in the limit equilibrium state, tests in the limit resistance states can be
performed by directly balancing the calculation stress with the capable one.
When performing a postelastic detailed calculation of the structure, checking in the limit resistance state can
be achieved by imposing requirements not to exceed the limit specific concrete specific deformations (
bu
) and the
maximum ones (
au
), visible within the most stressed parts of the reinforcement.
3.1.2 The influence of the slenderness of eccentrically prestressed elements for the analyses in the limit resistance
states
In case of structures composed of linear elements (bars), it is recommended to settle the general construction
solutions as well as the dimensions of the sections so that the increasing of bending moments due to influences exerted
by the slenderness of prestressed elements (II
nd
degree effects), would not exceed 50 %.
If this limit is observed, the evaluation of the slenderness influence will consist barely of increasing the
bending moments due to II
nd
degree effects; verifications in the limit state of losing the superficial stability (buckling)
are not necessary. Situations that allow the omission of II
nd
degree effects in the calculation, as well as those that permit
their evaluation by means of simplified procedures are described in the subclause 3.2.6.
STAS 10107/090
16
Surface elements with thin walls (diaphragms, curved thin plates, cannular towers), in case of which there are
no II
nd
degree calculation procedures theoretically and experimentally confirmed, can have their II
nd
degree effects
taken into account in a simplified manner, using global coefficients of reducing the concrete calculation resistance.
3.1.3 In case of calculation performed in the limit state of losing the position stability (overturning), the elements
function as rigid solids. When determining the overturning moment, its growth due to 2
nd
degree effects shall be also
considered.
3.1.4 Structural elements exposed to repeated stresses, which can induce a fatigue state, are also checked in the limit
fatigue state, in accordance with the clause 3.7.
3.1.5 The calculation in the limit state of fissure opening is performed in order to secure the reinforcement aspect
and safety against corrosion, and to provide an improved sealing for elements that are directly exposed to water.
3.1.6 The calculation in the limit deformation state is performed in case of elements that can be afflicted by a
potential excess of admitted deformations, which can cause flaws of the operative process, damages of the bulkheads
propped by the respective elements, or unpleasant feelings in traffic (on the platforms, or leathers etc.)
3.1.7 Evaluation of the capacity of taking over seismic stresses in case of structural elements and ensemble
structures as such.
In case of current constructions, it is allowed to test the capacity of taking over seismic stresses by means of
conventional stresses, determined in accordance with specific technical regulations and considered to operate statically
(code stresses). Under these circumstances, the calculation is limited to verificationsing the structural elements in the
limit resistance state, and the rigidity requirements in case of side displacements (limitation of the relative level
displacements), in conformity with the purpose and the importance of the construction. Ductility requirements
corresponding to the values of seismic code stresses will be achieved if the construction and dimensioning prescriptions
provided in this standard with respect to elements that are part of antiseismic structures, are observed.
In case of constructions that display a special significance or a special design, it is recommended to
verifications the capacity of taking over seismic stresses on the basis of a nonlinear dynamic calculation. Tests are
usually performed in case of highly recurrent constructions, which are exposed to significant seismic stresses. The non
linear dynamic calculation is performed on the building as a whole, and consists of comparing the elastoplastic
deformation capacity of the construction with the seismic deformation; in the calculation of both concrete and
reinforcement, mean calculation resistances are also considered as follows:
a
a
c
c
R R
R R
35 . 1
75 . 1
=
=
The
b
b
diagram is as shown in fig. 1 a, replacing R
c
with (symbol).
Simplified postelastic calculation procedures are also admitted if they are confirmed by comparisons with
nonlinear dynamic analyses.
3.2 The calculation of bent, eccentrically compressed and eccentrically elongated elements in the limit resistance state of
normal sections
3.2.1 When analyzing normal sections in the limit resistance state, the distribution and amplitude of unitary stresses on both concrete
and reinforcements are determined on the basis of the following hypotheses:
 the plane sections that maintain their deformation characteristic both before and after the deformation (the hypothesis of
plane sections) (fig. 4)
STAS 10107/090
17
 the contribution of the concrete in taking over tensile stresses is insignificant;
 the
b
b
diagram is considered as indicated in fig. 1.
x
In case of concrete elements, maximum specific deformation in the most compressed extreme fiber when
breaking the section
blim
has the following values (fig. 5, fig. 6, and the subclause 3.2.3)
 in case of eccentric compression, when h x x = 25 . 1
bi
0 (fig. 6, line 1):
blim
=
bu
 in the conventional limit case of centric compression (fig. 6, line 2):
blim
=
bu
= 2
 in intermediary cases, when 2 0 , < < >
bi
h x ,
blim
is determined by means of linear interpolation
between the
bu
and 2 values (fig. 6, line 3).
NOTE: In fig. 6, figures between brackets refer to heavy concrete in a class 35.
In these relations,
bu
has the values prescribed in the subclause 2.1.4, and
bi
represents the concrete specific
deformation in the less compressed fiber of the section.
 the
a
a
diagram is considered as indicated in fig. 2. The maximum operational specific deformation for the
reinforcement
au
is 50
for groups of stresses that include seismic actions, and 10
for the rest.
NOTE: In case of nonlinear calculation of the structures, other values of
blim
and
au
can be also applied if the requirements pointed
out in the subclause 2.1.4 are observed.
STAS 10107/090
18
3.2.2 Definition and delimitation of bending to stress cases, with or without axial stresses, in connection with the
limit interaction curve N
cap
= f(M
cap
), are illustrated in fig. 7, for symmetric sections that have been symmetrically
reinforced.
3.2.3 In case of bent, eccentrically compressed and eccentrically elongated elements with high eccentriciy, a
simplified calculation as shown in fig. 8 is admitted.
 unitaryary stresses on concrete in the compressed area are uniformly distributed on the x height of this
area, and have the R
c
size. The relation between x and x (fig. 4 and 8) is as follows: (mathematical formula);
 the values
0
h
x
b
b
= values corresponding to the balance point in fig. 7 (
a
=
ap
= R
a
/E
a
), can be taken
from table 12;
Table 12
Concrete class
< Bc 35 Bc 35
Type of concrete Type of steel
b
OB 37 0.60 0.55
Common concrete
PC 52, PC 60 STNB 0.55 0.50
OB 37 0.55  Concrete made of light
aggregates PC 52, PC 60 STNB 0.50 
Centric
Compression
N
cap
Compression
N
cap
Elongation
The limit
interaction curve
N
cap
=f(M
cap
)
(Balance
Point)
Pure
bending
Centric
elongation
Case II of eccentric
compression
(
b
ap a
>
<
)
Case I of eccentric
compression
) (
b ap a
< >
Bending
Eccentric elongation with a
high degree of eccentricity
Idem, with a low degree of eccentricity
ap a
=
b
=
STAS 10107/090
19
 the unitary stress
a
in A
a
reinforcements, is  R
a
provided that x 2a . In case x< 2a, it is allowed to
further simplify the calculation, and consider that the resultant of all unitary stresses within the compressed area of the
section (concrete + reinforcements) is concentrated in the load center of A
a
reinforcement. This oversimplification is
valid only for verifications in the limit resistance state, and not for evaluating the sectional ductility as well;
 the unitary stress
a
in A
a
reinforcements is determined in accordance with
b
(fig. 7) and the relative
height = x/h
0
of the compressed area, and results from the following relations (fig. 8):
! if
b
,
a
= R
a
(14)
! if
b
<
0.8,
a
(15)
! if > 0.8,
a
= R
a
(5 4) (16)
 in current cases, the influence of intermediary reinforcements A
ai
(A
a1
A
an
) in determining the capable
moment of the section can be omitted. In case of elements for which this influence is significant and cannot be
neglected (pillars with bigsized sections, diaphragms etc.), unitary stresses
ai
in intermediary reinforcements are
determined separately for each reinforcement, using the following relations:
! if 0.8
! > 0.8
The following condition shall be respected in dimensioning elements subjected to bent:
b
3.2.4 In case of structural elements, which are exposed to seismic stresses included in the a class according to the
subclause 1.2.5, a more restrictive condition than that in the subclause 3.2.3 is imposed for the potential plastic parts in
order to secure the necessary sectional ductility namely is:
lim
, where
lim
displays the following values:

lim
= 0.25 in the extremities of the frame rulers (the A
a
reinforcements are also considered);

lim
= 0.40 in the extremities of the pillars. This value can be exceeded until
b
provided that the
confinement transversal reinforcement is increased in accordance with the (197) relation and the subclause J.2.3 in
Annex J.
The verification on the basis of
lim
values is performed separately for each main direction of the section.
values, which compare to
lim
,
result from the calculation resistances of the concrete and of R
c
, R
a
reinforcements.
NOTES:
1. Some other
lim
values than the prescribed ones can be admitted provided a clear argument is submitted, and they
result from a detailed nonlinear dynamic calculation.
2. In case of diaphragms, the
lim
values depending on the shape of the section are determined in accordance with
technical regulations specific to diaphragm structures.
STAS 10107/090
20
3.2.5 In case of eccentrically compressed linear elements, the e
0
eccentricity of the N stress is increased with an
additional eccentricity e
a
, which takes into account the lack of homogeneity of the section and the execution tolerances,
and has the biggest of the following values:
20 mm or h/30
where h measures the side of the section in accordance with the direction of the e
0
eccentricity.
NOTE: In fig. 7, for a given value of the axial stress N, the net (available) capable bending moment M
cap
Ne
a
results
from the difference between the M
cap
abscissa of the respective point located on the limit interaction curve and the Ne
a
abscissa of the respective point located on the OA line.
3.2.6 In case of eccentrically compressed elements, the slenderness influence (of II
nd
degree effects) is characterized
by the increasing coefficient of the bending moment, resulted from the following relation:
where
M
I
bending moment resulted from a I
st
degree calculation of the structure;
M
II
bending moment resulted from a II
nd
degree calculation of the structure.
In case the subclause 3.1.2 ( 1.5) is observed, it is allowed to consider the EI rigidity modulus of the bars as
being constant, irrespective of the stress, and having the following value in the II
nd
degree calculation of the structure:
where
(EI)
conv
the conventional rigidity modulus of the transversal section, close to the limit resistance state,
including the effect of the reinforcements, of the resting phase of the concrete, and of its slow flowing
deformations;
I
b
inertia moment of the concrete section;
P total percentage of longitudinal reinforcement of the section;
M
ld
I
st
degree calculation moment of bending, which result from pillar long term strains producing pillars
deformation by side displacements of the junction points;
M I
st
degree calculation moment of bending resulted from the total load.
NOTE: In order to determine the values of the coefficient and to place them within the limits prescribed in the subclause
3.1.2, I
st
degree and II
nd
degree analyses use the same values of the (EI)
conv
rigidity modulus.
In case of structures where 1.2, it is allowed to replace the II
nd
degree calculation with the following
relation in order to approximately determine the values of the coefficient:
where
(EI)
conv
as indicated for the (19) relation;
l
fl
buckling length of the element, estimated depending on the nature of its connection with the rest of
the structure.
In case of structures with rigid junction points, the bending moments in the extremities of the rulers shall be
correlated with the bending moments in the extremities of the pillars increased by so that the equilibrium of the
moments around the junction points would be maintained.
STAS 10107/090
21
In case of framed structures with fixed junction points or of structures which side displacements are limited
due to some rigid diaphragms that take over horizontal pressures, the increment of bending moments by applies only
to the middle third part of the pillar height, on each level. Verifications in the middle third part of the height of each
level are not necessary in current situations, when the subclause 3.1.2 ( 1.5) is observed, and pillar reinforcement is
constant on the height of each level.
II
nd
degree effects are neglected in the calculation ( 1) in case of elements whose slenderness coefficient
0
meets the following requirement:
where i is the radius of inertia of the transversal section on the considered direction.
In case of elements that display a rectangular section the abovementioned requirement is as follows:
where h measures the side of the transversal section on the considered direction.
3.2.7 Dimensioning in the limit resistance state of eccentrically or centrically elongated elements, with a low
eccentricity degree (the N stress appears between the A
a
and A
a
reinforcements), is performed considering that:
 concrete does not take over stresses;
 unitary stresses in A
a
and A
a
reinforcements equal R
a
.
3.2.8 Provided that the simplifying procedures described in the subclause 3.2.3 are accepted, the calculation in the
limit resistance state of elements with one symmetric axis, exposed to bends with or without an axial stress, is
performed by means of the relations included in table 13.
Table 13
N axial stress with the sign + for compression; M bending moment
C
G
centroid of the section
a
according to the (17) and (18) relations, with the sign + for elongation stresses
Notations Stress
Application
field
Calculation relations
Bending
(current
situation,
with A
ai
= 0)
Eccentric
compressi
on and
eccentric
elongation
with a high
degree of
eccentricit
y
Eccentric
elongation
with a low
degree of
eccentricit
y
Ab =
x
y y
d b
0
surface of prestressed concrete area
Sb =
x
y
dy y h b
0
0
) ( statical moment of
prestressed concrete area in relation with the centroid of
the Aa reinforcement
Resistance condition
where a is according with the (15) and (16) relations
STAS 10107/090
22
3.2.9 Calculation relations provided in the subclauses 3.2.23.2.6 and in table 13 for eccentrically compressed
elements also apply to band pillars with circular section. The effect of the hooped reinforcement is considered by
introducing an increased value in the calculation of calculation resistance of prestressed concrete:
fs
volumetric coefficient of transversal reinforcement =
s
s
sd
A 4
;
A
s
surface of the transversal section of the hooped reinforcement;
S step of the hoped reinforcement
d
s
diameter of the hooped concrete core;
R
as
calculation resistance of the hooped reinforcement;
e
0
= M/N
with the observance of the superior limit of the compression axial stress:
where A
bs
=
4
2
s
d
is the surface of the hooped concrete core.
3.2.10 The calculation in the limit resistance state for elements exposed to inclined bending, with or without axial
stress, is performed by considering the hypotheses presented in the subclause 3.2.1. Equilibrium equations are
determined in accordance with the inclined position of the neuter axis.
In current situations, it is allowed to perform a simplified calculation using the method presented in Annex B,
based on approximating the variation laws of the capable moment in accordance with the inclination angle of its plan.
NOTE: Other similar methods can be used, as well, provided they are based on parametric researches and a profound
calculation.
3.3 Calculation in the limit resistance state in inclined sections
3.3.1 General
3.3.1.1 Calculation resistance of inclined reinforcements (crossties, inclined bars) in the calculation of the cutting
force results from the following relation:
R
at
= m
at
R
a
(25)
where m
at
is the coefficient of work conditions, and has the following values:
m
at
= 0.8 for reinforcements made of rolled steel (PC 60; PC 52; OB 37);
m
at
= 0.7 for reinforcements made of drawn wires (STNB; STPB).
3.3.1.2 The stress level in case of cutting force is characterized by the following ratio:
where
Q the calculation cutting force;
A
b0
the area of the useful cutting section of the element expose to a cutting force.
In case of rectangular or Tshaped sections:
A
b0
= b h
0
In case of sections where b varies with the height of the section, the value of b is chosen from the neutral axis.
where
STAS 10107/090
23
3.3.1.3 The calculation of transversal reinforcements is not necessary if:
75 . 0 Q for plates;
50 . 0 Q for the other types of elements. (27)
These specifications are also considered in the calculation of the bearing capacity at cutting force of elements
that do not display transversal reinforcements.
3.3.1.4 Concrete sections of elements shall be dimensioned so that the limitation requirement of main compression
stresses is observed:
c Q (c 1 ) (28)
As follows, values corresponding to c are provided for different types of elements and stresses.
3.3.1.5 In case of elements that are part of antiseismic structures, which display potential plastic areas on one or both
extremities, or nearby these extremities, the calculation cutting force Q is associated with the diagram of moments with
capable moments in critical cutting sections (where the reinforcement flow is initiated).
3.3.2 The cross force calculation in the inclined sections of elements exposed to bending (beams, plates with
continuous propping)
3.3.2.1 In case of a section along an inclined fissure, having its position and inclination determined (fig. 9),
verifications are usually performed at the maximum value of the cross force along the entire fissure. If the decrease of
the cutting force on the s
i
length due to the loads exerted on this length is considered in the calculation, the gs
i
reduction
caused by permanent stresses is taken into account, instead of the qs
i
reduction given by the total stress g.
3.3.2.2 In case of frame rulers, which are included in the category described in the subclause 3.3.1.5, the passing on
mechanism which is considered in determining the calculation cutting force is represented by capable moments of
opposite signs, in the two extremities of the opening.
3.3.2.3 Calculation elongation resistance of the concrete R
t
depends on the coefficient of work conditions m
t
as
described below, in order to take into account the effect the stresses exerted on the extremities of the beams have upon
the involvement of the concrete in taking over the cross force:
R
t red
. = m
t
R
t
(29)
where
 in potential plastic areas with , 1 Q
1
2
3
Q
m
t
(30)
 in the rest of the cases, m
t
= 1.
 In case of beams that display a stress level Q >1 at alternative cutting forces in both directions, m
t
= 0
(e.g: rulers for hollowed diaphragm coupling).
STAS 10107/090
24
3.3.2.4 For beams, in the general relation (28):
c = 2 in case of potential plastic areas (31);
c = 4 in the rest of the cases (32).
NOTE: In (31) and (32) relations, Q is determined by means of the (26) formula, where m
t
is not affected by R
t
.
3.3.2.5 Cutting force calculation of elements with a constant section is performed by means of the following relation:
where (fig. 10)
Q calculation cutting force determined in accordance with the subclauses 3.3.2.1 and 3.3.2.2;
Q
b
cutting force, which has been taken over by the concrete in compressed areas, and results from the
following relation:
p=
0
100
bh
A
a
percentage of longitudinal reinforcement in the plane area, along the inclined fissure;
A
ai
aria of the section of an inclined reinforcement, cuttinged by the inclined fissure;
A
c
aria of the transversal section of a cuttingtie arm, cuttinged by the inclined fissure;
n
c
number of cuttingtie arms;
nd s
i
according to fig. 10.
The A
ai
includes only those inclined reinforcements that are crossed by the fissure on the central area, equal
to of the total length of the inclined area.
(33) relation is verified for the most unfavorable inclination of the fissure, which is determined by
conditioning Q
cap
to have a minimum value, within the following limits:
0.5 h
0
s
i
2.5 h
0
(35)
For elements without inclined bars, the requirement for is minimum Q
cap
value is reduced to:
Q
cb
= Q
b
+ n
c
A
c
R
at
= minimum (36)
In current situations, it is allowed to define the most unfavorable fissure of elements with inclined bars in a
simplified manner as well, conditioning Q
cb
, and not Q
cap
, to have a minimum value.
3.3.2.6 In case of elements with a variable section, the calculation cutting force Q, determined as shown in the
subclause 3.3.2.5, is corrected with the Mtg/z term, where:
M,z calculation bending moment and the lever arm of internal stresses in the analyzed section;
angle formed by the directions of the two bottom foundations in the area with variable section.
STAS 10107/090
25
The M tg/z term either diminishes the calculation cutting force Q or increases it depending on whether the
section of the element increases in the same direction or in the opposite direction than the binding moment (fig. 11).
3.3.2.7 In case of coupling the rulers for diaphragms with voids coupling, to which potential plastic areas apply under
seismic stresses, the fissure inclination is considered to be of 45
o
, and the involvement of the concrete in taking over the
cutting force is neglected (Q
b
= 0).
In case of less stressed coupling rulers, which do not display any potential plastic areas in the extremities, the
cutting force verifications in inclined section is performed as described in the subclause 3.3.2.5.
In the cutting force calculation of coupling rulers, specific technical regulations for structures with diaphragms
shall also be considered (special provision for high rulers, correlation between capable moment and cutting force etc.)
3.3.3 Bending moment calculation in inclined sections exposed to bending (beams, plates with continuous propping)
The bending moment calculation is performed considering the hypotheses presented in the subclause 3.2.1, and
verification the equilibrium relation between the moments and the compressed area centroid, where
a
= R
a
in case of
transversal reinforcements:
M A
a
R
a
z + A
at
R
a
z
t
+ n
e
A
e
R
a
z
e
(37)
where
M calculation bending moment in the end of the section of the fissure compressed area;
A
at
, A
e
according to the subclause 3.3.2.5;
z, z
t
, z
e
according to fig. 12.
Verifications by means of the (37) relation are not necessary if the subclause 6.5.2.7 concerning the
determiantion of sections where plane reinforcements can be interrupted or raised (lowered) is observed.
STAS 10107/090
26
3.3.4 Cutting force calculation in the inclined sections of eccentrically compressed elements
3.3.4.1 In case of pillars that are part of antiseismic structures, and one of their extremities display a potential plastic
area, the cutting force calculation is performed accordingly, with the capable moment in the respective extremity, and
the corresponding moment in the opposite extremity. The latter can be determined in a simplified manner, increasing
the moment from the calculation seismic stresses by adding the ratio value between the capable moment and that of
calculation stresses in the extremity of the plastic area.
In current situations, when it comes to the pillars of storied frames, it is allowed, for simplifying purposes, to
determine the cutting force by means of opposite capable moments at both extremities.
The cutting force Q determined in this way shall range between the following limits:
1.5Q
s
Q
s
Q
(38)
where
Q
s
cutting force, resulted from the statical calculation with conventional seismic stresses (calculation),
established in accordance with specific technical regulations concerning the antiseismic designing of
constructions;
reduction coefficient of the effects of seismic stresses, which takes into consideration the ductility of
the structure.
If a detailed nonlinear dynamic calculation of the structure confirms that no potential plastic area appears at
neither of the extremities of the element, the calculation cutting force (Q) is determined as above, and the (38) relation
is reduced to Q 1.5Q
s
(the superior limit is not necessary anymore).
3.3.4.2 The calculation of the pillars is performed by means of the same relations as in the case of bent elements (the
subclause 3.3.2); the influence of compressing axial stress upon the cutting force is also considered by introducing the
following in the (29) relation:
m
t
= 1 +0.5n (39)
where
n =
c
R bh
N
0
N axial effort, in the loading hypothesis which has determined the cutting force.
In case of pillars, in the (28) relation:
c = 2 (40)
NOTE: In the (40) relation, the m
t
coefficient provided in the (39) relation does not influence R
t
.
3.3.4.3 The following simplifications are permitted in the cutting force calculation of continuous vertical diaphragms
and of hallowed diaphragm braces in inclined sections:
 the fissure inclination is considered to have 45
o
;
 the cutting over transferred to the concrete is Q
b
= 0.5 bhR
t
in the potential plastic area at the bottom of
the diaphragm, and Q
b
= 0.7 bhR
t
in the rest of the height.
The general (28) relation applies as follows Q
b
1.5 bhR
t
, considering as well the limitations prescribed by
the (38) relation.
In order to establish the cutting force related to the breaking moment in case of continuous vertical diaphragms
and of hallowed diaphragm braces, specific technical regulations with respect to structures with diaphragms shall also
be considered.
3.3.5 Cutting force calculation of the junction points of frames on levels
The calculation is performed in accordance with specific technical regulations for structures with frames on
levels made of reinforced concrete.
STAS 10107/090
27
3.3.6 Cutting force calculation of eccentrically elongated elements
Cutting force calculation is performed by means of the same relations as in case of bent elements (the
subclause 3.2.2); the influence of elongation axial stress upon the cutting force is also considered by introducing the
following in the (29) relation:
 for eccentrically elongated elements with a high eccentricity degree:
where
0
= e
0
/h (42)
 for eccentrically elongated elements with a low eccentricity degree:
m
t
= 0
3.3.7 Short lugs (l
c
h according to fig. 13)
3.3.7.1 In case of short lugs, in the (28) relation the following is considered:
c = 2
In case of short lugs that prop rolling cantilevers, when overhead cranes are exposed to difficult or severe
operations (group IIIV as prescribed in STAS 10101/2A278), the following requirement shall be respected as well:
where
Q
1
maximum cutting force resulted from verifications in the limit fatigue state, increased by a coefficient of
1.5.
3.3.7.2 2/3 of the horizontal cuttingties placed along the height of a short lug are considered active in the calculation.
The total surface A
a0
of the sections of these cuttingties shall meet the following requirement:
3.3.7.3 In case of lugs that display a medium length (1 l
c
/ h < 1.5), the calculation is performed as for both a short or
long lug, and the most unfavorable hypothesis is considered.
STAS 10107/090
28
3.3.8 Piercing calculation of plates with local propping (on pillars)
3.3.8.1 These specifications refer to the piercing calculation of plates propped on pillars only if the stress that the plate
passes on to the pillar is centric (centric piercing).
In case the joints between the slabs and the pillars do not transmit significant binding moments (examples: raft
foundations, plates of civil buildings on levels with a net load of maximum 3000 N/m
2
, whose horizontal forces are
taken over by diaphragms), it is allowed to consider the load passed on from plates to internal pillars as being centric. In
case of side or corner pillars deprived of perimetric beams, and generally speaking, in case of the platepillar bond
transmits significant binding moments, the piercing calculation, influenced by both vertical load and binding moment, is
performed in accordance with specific technical regulations concerning slab plates.
3.3.8.2 Centric piercing verification is performed in accordance with the design in fig. 14; the active piercing section
is formed by the conjunction of 45
o
planes, raised from the outline of the pillar section, with the median plane of the
plate. The perimeter of the active section results from the following relation:
U
cr
= 2(a + b + 2h
p
)
In case of pillars with a circular section of diameter d:
U
cr
= (d + h
p
)
3.3.8.3 In case of plates without transversal reinforcements in pillars propping areas, verification is performed by
means of the following relation:
Q 0.75U
cr
h
0
R
t
(46)
where
Q calculation piercing force;
h
0
net height of the plate.
STAS 10107/090
29
3.3.8.4 In case of plates with transversal reinforcements in propping areas, verification is performed by means of the
following relation:
Q 0.50U
cr
h
0
R
t
+ A
av
R
at
+ A
ai
R
at
sin 1.2U
cr
h
0
R
t
(47)
where
A
av
sum of the surfaces of all sections of those vertical reinforcements that cutting the theoretical piercing
surface (the inclined sides of the frustrum of a tetrahedron, as shown in fig. 14);
A
ai
sum of the surfaces of all sections of those inclined reinforcements, which form a angle with the
plane of the plate, and cutting the theoretical piercing surface.
3.3.8.5 In case of very thick plates, as those of raft foundations, whose piercing active surface depends on its total
surface, it is recommended to consider in the calculation of the piercing force that stresses exerted on this surface can be
deducted from the total stress the plate passes on.
3.3.8.6 Technical regulations with respect to reinforced concrete surface foundations shall also be considered in the
piercing calculation of the isolated foundations of the pillars.
3.4 Special verification cases for transversal reinforcements
3.4.1 Cuttingtie as suspension reinforcements
3.4.1.1 In case of platform beams, with the plate propped at the level of the bottom of foundation (reversed beams),
cuttingtie dimensioning shall also consider the elongation stresses exerted on them so that they would be able to
transfer stresses from the plate to the upper part of the foundation.
3.4.1.2 In case of level cutting between secondary and primary beams, both monolithic or precast (fig. 16), the
primary beam shall be provided with additionally dimensioned cuttingties in centric elongation, at the length s = 3b + 2
h, in order to eliminate the concentrated load passed on by the secondary beam.
3.4.1.3 In case of elements exposed to bending, with or without axial stress, which display indentation angles in the
elongated area of the section (fig. 17):
 if reinforcements in elongated areas cutting the indentation angles and go further on in the prestressed area
of the section, with an anchorage length determined as described in the subclause 6.2 and measured from h/2 as shown
in fig. 17 a, it is not necessary to perform an calculation of cuttingties as suspension reinforcements, constructively
displayed;
 when indentation angles meet the following requirement tg 0.05, as shown in fig. 17 b, it is allowed to
build the elongated reinforcement over the indentation angle; under these circumstances, the changing direction area of
longitudinal reinforcements is provided with supplementary cuttingties, elongated for the resultant R = 2A
a
R
a
sin /2 of
all stresses within longitudinal reinforcements. In situations as such, intermediary cuttingties are provided so that each
longitudinal bar to be dangled from the corner of a cuttingtie.
Primary
beam
Secondary
beam
STAS 10107/090
30
In both of the situations presented in fig. 17, the length on each side of the indentation angle, measured on the
geometrical axis of the beam where cuttingties function as suspension reinforcements, results from the following
relation:
3.4.1.4 In all situations, suspension cuttingties are closed, and their section, which functions as suspension
reinforcement due to the analytical results, is summed up with that resultant in the cutting force calculation in inclined
sections, as described in the subclause 3.3.2.
3.4.2 Dimensions of transversal reinforcements that function as coupling elements
3.4.2.1 These provisions apply in order to prevent the relative sliding (displacement) in the contact surface of either
two different materials or concrete masses that have been cast in different phases. Examples: the contact surface of a
precast material or a metallic beam and the monolithic overconcreting, cast joints on the platforms of vertical
monolithic diaphragms, or vertical joints on the walls of elements made of big precast panels.
Transversal reinforcements, which cutting the potential sliding plane, and shall prevent displacements along it,
are called connection reinforcements (coupling elements) and can be disposed either perpendicular on or inclined in
comparison with the sliding surface.
3.4.2.2 In the calculation, the sliding resistance capacity is provided by an equivalent friction mechanism. If the
sliding surface is exposed to compression axial stress on regular basis, the frictional force that it generates is added to
that generated by the coupling elements.
The total sliding force L
cap
, which can be passed on along the potential sliding surface, is determined with the
following relation:
L
cap
=
f
(A
ac
R
at
+ N) + A
ai
R
at
(cos +
f
sin) (48)
where
A
ac
sum of the areas of coupling elements perpendicularly disposed on the sliding surface;
A
ai
sum of the areas of inclined elongated reinforcements that cutting the sliding surface;
angle formed by the inclined bars and the sliding surface;
N axial compression stress in the section; if the axial stress is elongation, then N is negative and it is not
multiplied by
f
;
f
equivalent frictional coefficient, with the following values:
f
= 0.7 in case of concrete cast either on metallic plates, previously cleansed of rug, or on
consolidated concrete, previously decontaminated of cement grout, with no special
measures for forming asperities;
f
= 1.0 in case of concrete which has been cast on consolidated concrete, previously
decontaminated of cement grout, with asperities or artificially created protuberances
from 2 to 5 mm in width;
f
= 1.4 in case of concrete which has been cast on consolidated concrete, previously
decontaminated of cement grout, with asperities or artificially created protuberances
with depth 5 mm.
3.4.2.3 The value of the mean unitary stress = L/bl
0
(where b is the width and l
0
is the length of the contact surface),
which shall be passed on along the sliding plane, shall not exceed 4R
t
, where R
t
is the calculation resistance at
elongation of the concrete from the inferior class between the two classes of concrete that meet.
STAS 10107/090
31
3.4.2.4 Coupling elements are distributed as uniformly as possible along the sliding surface, and they are anchored on
both extremities as elongated bars stressed up to the calculation resistance level.
3.4.2.5 When the potential sliding surface is perpendicular on the axis of the element (example: horizontal cast joints of
vertical monolithic diaphragms at the level of the plates), according to fig. 18a, dimensioning of coupling elements
results from the following relation:
Q L
cap
(49)
where
Q calculation cutting force in the analyzed section of the element, and L
cap
is determined from the (48) relation,
with the following specifications:
 for elements which are part of antiseismic structures, in seismic calculation areas from A to E, and N is
a compression stress, its amplitude is multiplied by 0.6;
 A
ac
includes the surfaces of the sections of vertical reinforcements, located in the core and in the
extremities of the elongated end of the section.
3.4.2.6 In case the potential sliding surface is perpendicular to the axis of the element (examples: precast overconcrete
elements), the dimensioning of the coupling elements results from the following relation:
L L
cap
(50)
where
L calculation sliding force, similar in this case with resistance capacity of the element (for instance, if the
sliding surface is located in the stressed area of the section, L is associated with the capacity of the stressed
reinforcement: L=A
a
R
a
), and L
cap
is determined by means of the (48) relation, for N = 0 and with the
following specifications (fig. 18 b):
a) for coupling elements located in the area with negative moment L=A
a
(propping) R
a
, which is uniformly
distributed along the length l
0
=l of the diagram of negative moments, determined in the load hypothesis which produces
the maximum moment at the extremity of the respective bar;
b) for coupling elements located in the area with positive moment L=A
a
(propping) R
a
, which is uniformly
distributed along the length l
0
=l of the diagram of moments from the section that displays a maximum positive moment
as far as the section that annuls the positive moment, both determined in the load hypothesis which produces the
maximum moment on the respective plane. In case of elements with simple propping, l
c
=1/2;
c) in the potential plastic areas of frame rulers that are part of antiseismic structures, in seismic calculation
areas from A to E:
 if plasticity is a consequence of negative moments (which exert elongation stresses on reinforcements
within overconcreting), beams with
medium
= L/bl
r
>2R
t
may have at least 30% of the poise weights within the
overconcreting welded to inclined bars of the same diameter, which come out from the precast part of the beam. The
rest of the sliding force can be passed on by means of vertical cuttingties, uniformly disposed on the length l
r
;
 if plasticity is a consequence of positive moments, it is allowed to perform the coupling barely by means
of cuttingties.
Coupling elements
STAS 10107/090
32
3.4.2.7 The calculation of pedal plates is performed in accordance with specific technical regulations with respect to
this type of plates.
3.5 The calculation of elements in the limit resistance state exposed to twisty bending stresses
3.5.1. In case of elements exposed to wrapped bending stresses, the stress level of shear stress is characterized by the following ratio:
where
Q, A
b0
according to the subclause 3.3.1.2
M
t
calculation twisting moment;
W
t
modulus of twisting resistance, determined as in the case of an ideally plastic section. In case of
rectangular sections W
t
= 1/6 b
2
h(3b/h), where b is the small side, and h is the big side, irrespective of
their direction.
3.5.2 The calculation of supplementary longitudinal and transversal reinforcements essential in taking over the twisting moment is
not necessary if (symbol).
3.5.3 The concrete sections of the elements shall be properly dimensioned so that (symbol), which results from the (51) relation, to
observe the following condition:
c Q
where
c is determined as described in the subclause 3.3.2.4.
In case of frame rulers, which are included in the category described in the subclause 3.3.1.5, the cutting force calculation and
the practical application of the (51) relation are performed in accordance with the subclauses 3.3.2.23.3.2.5.
3.5.4 In case 0.5 < c Q (where c is according to the 3.3.2.4 provision), the reinforcement calculation in order for them to take
over the stresses generated by M
t
, and their summing up with those reinforcements that take over cutting forces are performed as follows:
 the necessary quantity of transversal reinforcement for taking over cutting forces is determined from the relations
presented in the 3.3.2 provision;
 the supplementary quantity of cuttingties to take over twisting moments results from the following relation:
where
A
e
surface of the section of a cuttingtie arm;
a
e
distance between cuttingties;
A
bs
surface of the section of the concrete core, bordered by the internal sides of the perimetric cuttingties.
The diameter of the cuttingties and the distance between cuttingties are settled by summing up the necessary
quantity of transversal reinforcement, resulted from both cutting force calculation and twisting moment. In case of wide
beams, whose cuttingties display more than two vertical arms, the addition is performed barely for perimetric cutting
ties; the internal cuttingties are considered only in the cutting force calculation;
 the supplementary quantity of longitudinal reinforcement for taking over twisting moments is determined using the
following relation:
where
A
at
sum of the areas of supplementary longitudinal reinforcements, disposed on the perimeter of the section;
U
s
perimeter of the concrete core, which has the area A
bs
.
STAS 10107/090
33
For tube or box shaped section elements (fig. 19), A
bs
and U
s
are calculated as for complete section with the
same external contour.
NOTE The calculation relations assume as provided the requirement of cutting nondeformability for element section, by
sufficient thickness of cores and of bottom foundations or, if necessary, by providing cutting stiffening
diaphragms.
3.5.5 In the case of elements with section made of more rectangles (for example Tshaped or doubleTshaped
section), the moment of torsion is distributed to the rectangles component proportionally with their moments of inertia
at torsion, calculated as for homogeneous and elastic elements.
3.6 Calculation of unitary stress in concrete and in reinforcement in II stage of work, for elements exposed
to bending with or without axial stress
3.6.1 The determination of unitary stress in concrete or reinforcement in II stage of work is done in the cases when
verifications are performed for limit opening states of cracks, of deformation or fatigue.
3.6.2 The calculation of normal unitary stress in II stage of work is done by admitting the following hypotheses:
 plane sections before deformation remain plane also after deformation;
 the contribution of concrete is neglected when taking over the tensile stress;
 for concrete or for reinforcements, the relations between unitary stresses and specific deformations are linear.
In calculation relations, the elasticity modulus of concrete is introduced with corrected value:
 for concrete with standard aggregates:
 for concrete with simple aggregates:
where
v proportion between bending moment from long time exploitation loads and the one from total
exploitation loads;
deformation characteristic of concrete in time.
An equivalent (ideal) concrete section is considered in calculation, where the reinforcement quantities A
a
, A
a
interfere multiplied with the equivalence coefficient
STAS 10107/090
34
3.6.3 General relations for the calculation of normal unitary stress in concrete and in reinforcements
a
,
a
(fig.
20):
3.6.3.1 In the case of elements stressed during bending (M
E
bending moment from exploitation loads):
 the position of neutral axis is determined with the relation:
) ( ) ( ) 1 (
0
' '
x h A n a x A n S
a e a e be
= + (57)
where S
bc
=
x
0
b
y
y dy static moment of concrete compressed area in comparison to the neutral axis;
 the moment of inertia of ideal concrete section is determined with the relation:
2
0
2 ' '
) ( ) ( ) 1 ( x h A n a x A n I I
a e a e be bi
+ + = (58)
where I
bc
=
x
0
b
y
y
2
dy moment of inertia of the concrete compressed area in comparison to the neutral axis;
 normal unitary stress in concrete and in reinforcements is determined with the relations:
3.6.3.2 In general, in the case of elements stressed during bending with axial stress, using the same notations as the
ones from subclose 3.6.3.1, the unitary stress in concrete and in reinforcement are obtained by using the relations (60)
and the relations:
where the sign plus corresponds to the compression stress.
3.6.4 The main unitary tensile stress at the neutral axis level is calculated with the relation:
where
b width of the section core;
z lever arm of the inner stress calculated in the II stage of work and which can be taken in a simplified
way z ~ 0.85 h
o
.
For the elements with variable section, the cutting force of calculation from relation (62) is corrected with the
term M tg /z, in the same mode as at subclause 3.3.2.6.
STAS 10107/090
35
3.7 Verification at the fatigue limit state
3.7.1 The verifications of reinforced concrete elements, to which the stresses may lead to the appearance of the
fatigue phenomenon, is done with the condition that:
 normal unitary stresses in concrete and in reinforcement in II stage of work, determined according to
subclause 3.6.3, do not surpass the calculation resistances to fatigue established according to subclauses 2.1.2.2;
2.1.2.4.3 and 2.2.1.3;
 main unitary tensile stresses, determined according to subclose 3.6.4, should be taken over by concrete and
reinforcements.
The unitary stresses are determined for the group of loads appropriate to limit state of fatigue except the loads
given by machines and equipment with fixed location for which are taken in consideration the calculation loads
appropriate to the verifications at resistance limit state.
3.7.2 The stress level to main tensile stress for elements with rectangular section or Tshaped is characterized by the
proportion:
where
1
is calculated with the relation (62).
The calculation of cutting reinforcements is not necessary if
1
0.50.
The concrete sections of elements should be proportioned in such a way that the limitation requirement of main
compression stresses should be respected:
2
1
The main tensile stresses
1
are taken over as follows (fig. 21):
 In the area
1
< 0.50, are taken over by concrete;
 In the area 0.5
1
2:
a) if the loads are not alternating (the asymmetry coefficient =
b
min
/
b max
0) the stresses
1
are taken over
by concrete and cutting reinforcements (clamps and inclined elements or only clamps), the part taken by concrete being
1
= 0.3
b) if the loads are alternating ( < 0), the stresses
1
are taken over only by cutting reinforcements.
In both cases, the part that can be taken over by clamps is determined with the relation:
When the inclined reinforcements result necessary, the their total area (A
ai
) is calculated with the relation:
where A
i
is the part area from the values diagram
1
taken over by inclined reinforcements and is their inclination.
STAS 10107/090
36
3.7.3 The inclined reinforcements are distributed along the beam so that they should be equally loaded in
comparison to the evolutes diagram of maximum values
1
(fig. 21).
3.8 Verifications at the cracking limit state
3.8.1 The verifications at the cracking limit state is done with the condition that under the action of exploitation
loads, in fundamental groups, the medium openings of normal and inclined cracks toward the element axis should not
exceed the admissible limit values.
In special cases mentioned in technical settlements specific to elements and structures, the verifications is done
at the limit state of cracks appearance.
3.8.2 Limit values allowed for medium opening of cracks
Besides the cases where by specific technical settlements other values are provided, the medium calculated
openings (
f
) of cracks should not exceed the following values:
 for elements submitted to liquid or noncohesive material pressure, to which are imposed sealing conditions:
0.1 mm, in the case of centrically or eccentrically stretched elements with low eccentricity;
0.2 mm, for the other cases;
 for other elements:
0.1 mm if are exposed to aggressive environment;
0.2 mm if are exposed directly (unprotected) to the action of bad weather;
0.3 mm for the other cases.
3.8.3 Calculation of medium opening of normal cracks
3.8.3.1 The medium opening of normal cracks is calculated with the relation:
a
a
f f
E
=
where
f
medium distance between cracks;
=
a
am
a
unitary stress in longitudinal stretched reinforcement, by the crack, under the loads stipulated at
subclause 3.8.1.
The establishing of terms values that interfere in relation (65) is done according to annex C.
In the case of the elements submitted to important repeated loads (rolling beams, walls of silo cells a.s.o.), the
values
f
determined with relation (65) are increased with 50 %.
3.8.3.2 For elements with low percents of reinforcing (below 0.3 % for elements stressed during bending, respectively
below 0.4 % for the ones stressed during stretching), is checked additional the cracks opening with the relation:
where
d diameter of reinforcement bars;
a
= 2.4 R
t
for bars with periodic profile;
a
= 1.5 R
t
for level bars;
a
= R
t
for level bars, in wall in slip form of the bins and silos.
The highest value
f
of the ones calculated with the relations (65) and (66) is taken in consideration.
NOTE By additional verifications with relation (66) are taken into account the unsystematic cracks (at random)
characteristic to elements specified at subclause 3.8.3.2.
3.8.3.3 In annex C, at subclause C 5, are shown the cases when the verifications at opening limit state of normal crack
is not necessary.
3.8.4. Calculation of medium opening of inclined cracks
3.8.4.1 The medium opening of inclined cracks is calculated with the relation:
where
f
medium distance between cracks;
i
union work index of concrete with cutting reinforcement;
at
medium unitary stress in cutting reinforcements which intersect the inclined crack.
The establishing of the sizes that interfere in relation (67) is done according to annex C.
3.8.4.2 In annex C, at subclause C 8, are indicated the cases when the verifications at opening limit state of inclined
cracks is not necessary.
3.9 Verifications at deformation limit state
3.9.1 The verifications at deformation limit state is done with the condition that under the exploitation loads, the
total arch or a fraction from it should not exceed the allowed value, stipulated depending on the element destination.
The allowed values of the arches are given in table 14.
NOTES
1 Based on justification it can be allowed other values for arches than the ones from the table.
2 For other types of elements, not included in the table, the maximum values of the arches are established by specific
technical regulations.
3.9.2 The arches value is determined after the calculation regulations of homogeneous elastic structures,
introducing for the modulus of rigidity the value appropriate to II stage of work:
a) in the case of the elements stressed during bending (plates, beams):
EI = E
b
I
bi
where E
b
, I
bi
are calculated with the relations (54), (55) and (58) from subclause 3.6.3;
b) in the case of the elements stressed during bending with compression or tp stretching (with large
eccentricity):
where
curvature of medium deformed fibre (specific rotation);
X, E
b
,
b max
according to subclause 3.6.2 and 3.6.3;
STAS 10107/090
38
c) for the determination of vibration characteristics of the reinforced concrete elements (for example for people
congested floors), the modulus of elasticity of the concrete is taken in consideration with the value from table 7.
Table 14
Type
of
elemen
t
Part of the arch that is
taken in
consideration at the
verifications
Relation of verifications
Characteristics of using
the structural element
Arch (
adm
or
difference of
arch f
adm
)
Floors that sustain or are
attached to some
unstructured elements
which can be
deteriorated due to large
deformations of floors
400
L
f
adm
=
Long lasting arch
ld
from total
exploitation load (q
E
),
minus short period
arch
sd
from
exploitation load
which acts before the
execution of
unstructured elements
(q
E
1
)
sd
E
ld
f q f ) (
(
E
q
1
)
adm
f
Floors that do not sustain
or are not attached to
some unstructured
elements which can be
deteriorated due to large
deformations of floors
250
L
f
adm
=
Compo
nent
elemen
ts of
floors
Short lasting arch
sd
from useful load
produced by
congestion of people
sd
E
sd
f q f ) (
(
E
q
1
)
adm
f
Floors of houses,
including the ones of its
balconies. The steps of
stands.
350
L
f
adm
=
Hand bridge crane
500
L
f
adm
=
Rolling
beams
Total arch from loads
considered in the
calculation to fatigue
) (
0
q f
adm
f
Electric bridge crane
700
L
f
adm
=
NOTE The loads noted with index E represent the exploitation values of loads (for permanent loads are taken the
normalized values and for variable values are taken the normalized values affected by subunitary coefficients n
d
from STAS 10101/0A77).
For simply propped beams and plates and in general for portions of element with bending moment of the same
sign, EI can be considered constant. For continuous elements, at which the values EI calculated for the areas of positive
and negative moment do not differ between each others with more than 50 %, it is allowed to be taken in calculation for
EI a unique value, equal to the semisum of the respective values.
3.9.3 In the calculation of axial deformations of reinforced concrete elements are used the following values for the
modulus of axial rigidity EA:
 for prevalent compression stressed elements:
where E
b
is determined with the relations (54), (55);
 for prevalent tensile stressed elements:
where according to subclause 3.8.3.1.
3.10 Additional provisions for the calculation of prefabricated elements
3.10.1 When designing the prefabricated elements, the design assumptions and diagrams are established in correlation
to the execution technology and to the tolerances stipulated in adequate technical requirements.
In the situations when the avoidance of a noneconomic dimensioning imposes restrictions or conditions
compulsory to the execution technology, these are specified in the design.
3.10.2 According to the provisions from subclause 1.3.1, the prefabricated elements are verificationsed by calculation,
in all the intermediate phases characteristic to the execution: dismantling, storage, transport, handling and assembly,
partially assembled construction. Usually, these verifications are made only at resistance limit state. In the cases when it
is necessary (for example, for prefabricated elements with high overconcreting, which in intermediate phases have
STAS 10107/090
39
sensitive active sections smaller than the finished construction) is also performed the verifications at deformation limit
state, with the condition
sd
L / 250.
For the verifications in intermediate phases of the execution it should be taken into account the followings:
a) for the dismantling, handling and assembly, the elements weight is taken in consideration in calculation
multiplied by a dynamic coefficient. If its value is not determined based on a dynamic calculation, it can be taken, in an
orientated way, equally to 1.5 when the element mass is 2t and 1.35 for masses over 2t;
b) in the dismantling phase, to the unitary weight is added the mould pulling out force, equally to the contact
surface area between the unitary and the fixed sides of the stencil, multiplied by an unitary stress which depends on the
used ointment and the inclination of the stencil sides;
c) the verifications are performed in critical established sections, taking also into account the fact that the static
diagram of the unitary and the loads in the respective phases may differ from the ones of the finished construction;
d) in the situations when due to assembling in the partially assembled construction some connections are
missing, the verifications are performed taking into account that the openings and the effective lengths of some
elements can be bigger than the finished construction;
e) for the elements that are dismantled and handled before reaching the concrete consistency appropriate to the
class of concrete provided in the design, therefore in the calculation for the intermediate phases of the execution it
should be taken in consideration a reduction of calculation consistency of the concrete;
f) by the elements structure and by the execution technology prescribed by the design it should be pursued that,
as many times possible, the verifications in intermediate phases of the execution should not lead to dimensioning in
excess of the concrete and reinforcement sections in comparison to the verifications in the finished construction stage.
3.10.3 For the prefabricated elements with overconcreting, under the circumstances where the union work with over
concreting is ensured by proportioned connectors according to subclause 3.4.2, the verifications under the circumstance
of the partially executed construction and the one of the finished construction is done as follows:
 in the I phase (the prefabricated unitary assembled and the overconcreting performed but still out or work),
the unitary does not benefit by the bearing continuities performed at the overconcreting level: active height of the
section (h
1
) does not include the overconcreting. The calculation is done at the loads q
1
from the respective phase,
including also a useful load from the circulation on the assembled floor;
 in the II phase (the finished construction), if at the overconcreting level are performed bearing continuities,
and the unitary becomes a component part of some structure with rigid joints, the active height of the section is h
2
= h
1
+ h (h is the overconcreting height). The calculation in the field and bearing sections is done for portioned stresses
resulted from the addition of the ones produced by the loads q
1
applied before the achievement of the bearing continuity
(without taking in consideration the useful load from the circulation on the floor during assembling) with the ones
produced by the loads applied after the achievement of the continuity, determined according to the static diagrams
appropriate to these two situations.
According to the condition from subclause 3.10.2(f), the proportion h
1
/h
2
should be chosen so that the
reinforcements should be proportioned by the calculation in the II
nd
phase. In the cases when the I phase proves to be
more unpropitious, it is also analyzed the possibility of using in this phase some intermediate bearings until the over
concreting goes into service.
The calculation at the resistance limit state in inclined sections in the II phase is done for the unitary of height
h
2
, correcting the capable cutting force determined according to subclause 3.3 with the coefficient 0.9.
3.10.4 The support lengths of the prefabricated elements are established in correlation to the tolerances from the
technical settlements, considering the most unpropitious assumption and taking also into account the realization
condition of the necessary anchorage lengths of reinforcements beyond the bearings edge.
3.10.5 Joints of the prefabricated elements
3.10.5.1 For moist joints (realized by monolith processing), the transmission of stresses from the unitary to the bearing
or from one unitary to another is ensured by taking into account the followings:
 the compression stresses are allowed to be transmitted from concrete to concrete, in the limits of the
resistance capacity of the weakest from the two concretes in contact;
 the tensile stresses are transmitted by reinforcements left from the combined, joined elements inside the joint.
The joining system is established taking into account the available space and the condition that the tensile stresses
should be transmitted centrically from reinforcement to another;
 the cutting forces are transmitted, usually, by direct support or rebates. It is not allowed to take in
consideration the adherence input between the prefabricated elements and the monolith processed concrete. For the
joints that transmit tangential stresses horizontally (for example at the floors working as washers) it is also allowed the
transmission by reinforcement catwhiskers joined in the joint.
STAS 10107/090
40
3.10.5.2 For dry joints, with metallic welded pieces which transmit also tensile stresses, it should be ensured the
transmission continuity of these stresses from the metallic combined pieces to the reinforcements inside the
prefabricated elements, after the stress direction.
3.10.5.3 Details regarding the calculation particularities of some joints specific to the different types of structures (for
example of the structures with big panels) are given in the technical settlements and in the respective catalogues of
prefabricates.
4 CALCULATION OF PLAIN CONCRETE ELEMENTS
4.1 Necessary verifications
The plain concrete elements are veried only at the resistance limit state.
4.2 Calculation eccentricity
For the elements stressed during eccentric compression, the calculation eccentricity e
oc
of the compression N is
established taking into account the additional eccentricity, determined according to subclause 3.2.5.
Depending on the size of the calculation eccentricity, the following cases of stress are differentiated (fig. 22);
 large eccentricity, for e
oc
> 0.9 x
o
;
 medium eccentricity, for 1.2 r
s
< e
oc
0.9 x
o
;
 low eccentricity, for e
oc
1.2 r
s
where r
s
the distance from the section centroid until the limit of the core of the cutting section, situated on the same side
with the force N;
x
o
the distance from the section centroid until the most compressed edge of the section.
4.3 Utilization requirements
Usually, it is not allowed the realization of plain concrete of the elements stressed during eccentric
compression with large eccentricity. Make exception the cases where the taking over of some bending moments by non
reinforced sections in the stretched area does not condition the assembly equilibrium (example: the negative moment
areas from the fields of the continuous monolith plates). Moreover, make exception the plain concrete blocks of the
foundations of bearing or block type, for which are applied the provisions from the technical settlements specific for the
design of surface foundations, and also the elements with reduced stress, propped on earth or on another continuous
bearing, whose damage cannot provoke important casualties or material damages.
4.4 Eccentric compression with large eccentricity (e
oc
> 0.9 x
o
)
4.4.1 The verifications at the resistance limit state is done taking in consideration the diagram from fig. 23 and with
the condition:
STAS 10107/090
41
where
M = N e
oc
bending moment of calculation;
N axial compression stress of calculation;
r
s
according to close 4.2;
W
f
modulus of crack resistance of the section, calculated considering the stretched area plasticized integrally
c
pl
coefficient by which it is taken into account the partial plasticization of the stretched area of the section and
whose values are taken from table 15 depending on the section height h (for intermediate values between the ones given
in the table, interpolated linearly)
Table 15
Section height h
mm
100 200 500 1000
c
pl
1.00 0.85 0.70 0.67
4.4.2 For ordinary (heavy) concrete elements, W
f
is determined with the relation:
where I
bc
the inertia moment of the compressed area in comparison to the neutral axis
S
tc
static moment of the stretched area in comparison to the neutral axis;
bt
bc
A
S
h x
2
= height of the compressed area;
S
bc
static moment of the compressed area in comparison to the neutral axis;
A
bt
area of stretched region.
In the case of the rectangular sections or Tshaped it is allowed to be determined W
f
with the simplified
relation W
f
= 1.75 W
e
, where W
e
is the modulus of resistance in classical stage.
4.4.3 For concrete elements with granulite aggregates, W
f
is calculated according to subclause 4.4.2 and is reduced
with the coefficient 0.9.
4.4.4 In sections which represent cast joints, the value of capable moment is determined with the relation (75).
4.4.5 For e
oc
> 3h, the calculation is done as for one bending stressed unitary without axial stress, namely with the
relation (72) where N = 0.
4.5 Eccentric compression with medium and low eccentricity (e
oc
0.9 x
o
)
4.5.1 The verifications at the resistance limit state of the elements stressed during eccentric compression with
medium or low eccentricity, except the ones mentioned at subclause 4.5.2, is done taking in view the diagram from fig.
24 and considering active only the compressed area of the section, with the condition:
c bc
R A N
STAS 10107/090
42
where
A
bc
area of the compressed region of the section, determined with the condition that its centroid
should coincide with the application point of force N.
Expressed in comparison to the bending moment of calculation M = N e
oc
, the relation (74) becomes:
oc c bc
e R A M
4.5.2 In the case of the elements stressed during eccentric compression with medium eccentricity (1.2 r
s
< e
oc
0.9
x
o
), if they get in contact with liquids with corrosive action over concrete, in the place of the relations (74), (75) is
applied the relation (72).
NOTE The definition and delimitation of stress cases to eccentric compression for plain concrete elements and of the
utilization domains of the relations (72), (74), (75) are shown in fig. 25 in comparison to the limit curve of interaction M
cap
= (N
cap
).
4.6 The influence of the slenderness
The utilization of plain concrete is not recommended for the realization of slender elements (l
f
/ h 4, with the
notations from subclause 3.2.6), at which become meaningful the effects of II order.
In special situations when the elements should be made of plain concrete, the bending moment of calculation
from the relations (72), (74) is the moment of II order, determined in accordance with the provisions from subclause
3.2.6, taking in the relation (19) p =0.
4.7 The verifications at cutting force
The plain concrete elements are portioned so that the stress level at cutting force should be:
4.8 The verifications at local compression
The calculation at local compression is done with the relation:
according to the relations(74), (75)
according to the relation(72)
(balance point)
Medium
eccentricity
Low
eccentricity
Large
eccentricity
Bending
STAS 10107/090
43
where
R*
c
calculation resistance of concrete to compression (the basic value according to table 3, not affected by the
coefficient of working conditions m
bc
);
A
l
area of effective surface of application of local load;
A area of some surface with the same centroid and the same symmetric axes as A
l
and defined according to
fig. 26 a ..... f, depending on the distances s and t until the unitary edges;
k
t
=
2
2


.

\

A
A
l
; the values thus calculated should not exceed the ones from table 16.
Table 16
Load diagram from fig. 26
c
A and b
l b l < b
d e and f Class of
concrete
k
l
Bc7.5 1.5 1.5
> Bc7.5 2.0 2.0
1.25 1.25 1.00
If on the same unitary are applied more local loads and the surfaces A appropriate for two adjacent loads,
determined according to the regulations from fig. 26 a.....f, are superposed on a length v, the common surface is divided
according to the diagram from fig. 26 g.
STAS 10107/090
44
5 CALCULATION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS
5.1 Necessary verifications
5.1.1 The elements from prestressed concrete are verified at the limit states of resistance, cracking and deformation;
the elements at which the stress conditions may lead to the appearance of the fatigue phenomenon are also
verificationsed at the fatigue limit state.
Likewise, in all the cases are verificationsed the transmission ways of the prestressing force and the observance
of the conditions prescribed at subclause 5.2.5, 5.2.6 and 5.2.7, for the values of unitary forces from the prestressed
reinforcement.
In technically justified cases, for the same unitary can be applied in different sections or even for the opposed
sides of the same section, technical provisions based on the framework in different verification ways (as plain concrete,
as reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete).
NOTE The main notions specific to prestressed concrete are given in annex D.
5.1.2 The different verifications are performed taking into account, usually, the stresses, the concrete characteristics
and the size of the prestressing force, appropriate to the phase considered of exploitation or of execution (including the
successive stages of prestressing).
In the different verifications, the unitary stresses in concrete and reinforcement can be considered in initial
phase for the calculation under the stresses effect which acts at transfer, transport or assembling and in final phase for
the calculation under the stresses effect which acts in exploitation.
5.2 Establishing of the unitary stresses in concrete and prestressed reinforcement
5.2.1 The calculation in noncracked sections of main and normal unitary stresses in concrete and of unitary stresses
in prestressed reinforcement is performed after the regulations of the materials resistance as for the elastic and
homogeneous materials, the prestressing force, according to subclause 5.2.4, considered as an external force.
If the section is made of concretes with different characteristics, in order to establish the ideal section of
calculation, the concrete portions of various qualities are reduced to one quality by multiplying with the proportion of
the modulus of elasticity.
NOTES:
 When establishing the geometrical characteristics of calculation of the ideal section, are decreased the channel holes
for poststretched reinforcements, even if these ones are filled afterwards with mortar or concrete.
 The coefficient of equivalence has the values:
for prestressed reinforcements n
p
= E
p
/ E
b
for nonprestressed reinforcements n
a
= E
a
/ E
b
5.2.2 The calculation of the unitary stresses in the II stage (with stretched cracked areas) is done admitting the
following hypotheses (fig. 27):
 the plane sections remain plane also after deformation;
 the prestressing force is considered as an external force;
 the stretched areas of the concrete section are not taken in consideration when taking over the stresses;
 the unitary stresses in the concrete of the compressed area are distributed linearly until the value R
c
, further
on having the constant value R
c
;
 the modulus of deformation of concrete is considered constant on the entire compressed area, the coefficient
of equivalence having the value:
) 8 . 0 1 ( v n n
p pII
+ = (78)
 the nonprestressed reinforcement is taken in consideration only A
a
0.25 A
p
, the coefficient of equivalence
having the value:
) 8 . 0 1 ( v n n
a aII
+ = (79)
NOTE When evaluating the size (according to annex E) is considered k
1
= 1.
STAS 10107/090
45
The relations with general character for the calculation of unitary stresses in II
nd
stage, exemplified for the case
from fig. 27, are:
NOTE The sign above N in relations (80) and (81) corresponds to the compression.
5.2.3 The unitary stress from the prestressed reinforcement is considered with the following characteristic values,
taking into account the tension losses:
a) prestretched reinforcement:
 initial phase:
 final phase:
b) poststretched reinforcement:
 initial phase:
 final phase:
The centroid of the area
compressed by concrete
The centroid of the
the concrete section
STAS 10107/090
46
where
tension loss due to frictions on the reinforcement layout;
bp
l
= (99)
where is a subunitary factor which takes into account the union work of the stretched concrete with the reinforcement
on the distance between cracks at the resistance limit state; for are recommended the values:
prestretched reinforcement with periodic profile: = 0.5
prestretched reinforcement from bars of TBP, SBPA, LBP: = 0.75;
poststretched reinforcement: = 1.00
 unitary stress diagram specific deformation of the concrete corresponds to the rectangle parabola diagram
(fig. 1a), but with the limitation of the specific deformation of calculation limit to compression from bending at the
value
bu
= 0.003; it is allowed to consider a rectangular distribution of stresses on the height x = 0.8 x of the area
compressed by concrete, having the value R
c
(fig. 28 b); the active width of the compressed plate at sections T and I is
considered according to annex A;
 the unitary stresses from the stretched area concrete are not taken in consideration;
 the calculation diagram
p

p
of steels of SBP and TBP type is taken according to subclause 2.2.2.6;
 the calculation diagram
p

p
for steels of PC 90 type, and also for nonprestressed reinforcements of PC
60, PC 52 type, is taken according to fig. 2 a;
 the increase of the specific deformation in the prestressed reinforcement
l
is limited to the value 0.01;
 the specific deformation of calculation limit of the prestressed reinforcement
1
(fig. 3) has the value:
01 . 0
0
+ =
l
 in the calculation relations, the prestressed reinforcement situated in the compressed area of the section can
be considered with the unitary limit stress:
if x > 2 a
p
:
po
pl
1 . 1 400
'
= [N/mm
2
] (100)
if x 2 a
p
:
po
pl
1 . 1
'
= [N/mm
2
] (101)
NOTE The relations (100) and (101) cannot be used in the case of the distributed reinforcements on the height of the
compressed area being necessary in this case a calculation which should take into account the variation of the specific
deformation in section.
STAS 10107/090
49
5.3.2.5 Relations with general character for the verifications at the resistance limit state (fig. 28):
 in the case of the compression with large eccentricity:
e =
p b oc
a x h e +
where is taken according to subclause 5.3.2.10.
 in the case of the stretching with large eccentricity:
e =
p b
a x h e + +
0
NOTES
 The unitary stress
pl
appropriate to
l
is obtained from the calculation diagram
p

p
(subclause 2.2.2.6).
 If the prestressed reinforcement is distributed on the stretched area height, the values
pl
should be established
separately for each of the reinforcement lines.
 The above sign of N in the relations (102) and (104) corresponds to the compression.
5.3.2.6 The coefficient of the working conditions m of the prestressed concrete elements for bending, compression or
eccentric stretching with large eccentricity is taken in the relations (103 and 104) with the value:
 for prestressed reinforcements of SBP, TBP type
85 . 0 ) 3 . 0 1 ( 95 . 0 = m (111)
 for prestressed reinforcements of SBP, TBP type, together with complementary nonprestressed
reinforcements of PC 60,PC 52 type, instead of m is introduced the value:
a a p p
a a p p
R A R A
R A R mA
m
+
+
= ' (112)
NOTE In the relation (112) m is taken with the relation (111).
In the case of the prestressed reinforcements of PC 90 type m = 1.
5.3.2.7 For the current cases, where the prestressed reinforcement is not distributed on the entire height of the section
or on the entire contour and at which the centroid of the nonprestressed reinforcement of resistance coincides with the
centroid of the prestressed reinforcement or h
oa
= (0.95 ....1.05)h
op
, it can be used the calculation simplified relation of
the unitary limit stress:
p p pl
R m =
or
where
STAS 10107/090
50
where
k = 0.30 for prestretched reinforcement;
k = 0.60 for poststretched reinforcement.
A
pk
fraction from the prestretched reinforcement situated in the stretched area which equilibrates, in the
calculation to resistance, the compression taken over by the concrete from the portion A
bk
, of width b, of the
compressed area (fig. 29); in the cases a and b A
pk
= A
p
.
b width of the compressed area at the level of the neutral axis.
The relation (114) is applicable for the prestressed concrete elements with prestressed reinforcements from
SBP, SBPA, TBP or LBP, which respect the requirements (93) and (98).
In table 17 are given the calculation relations for bending, eccentric compression with large eccentricity and
eccentric stretching with large eccentricity, in the assumption of the rectangular distribution of the unitary stress of
compression in concrete (fig. 28).
The significations of some symbols from table 17 are the followings;
z
b
distance between the centroid of the reinforcement and of the plate portions area on one side and another of
the core.
NOTES:
1 As in the general case subclause 5.3.2.4, the active width of the plate from the compressed area
b
p
at the section T or I,
is determined according to annex A.
2 In the calculation relations where before N is provided a double sign, the above sign refers to the case where the axial
force is the compression.
3 In the figures where appears the axial force with large eccentricity, the external force N has been represented both for the
eccentric compression case (full line), and for the eccentric stretching case (interrupted line).
STAS 10107/090
51
N
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
s
S
t
r
e
s
s
A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
B
e
n
d
i
n
g
E
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
a
n
d
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
s
t
r
e
t
c
h
i
n
g
w
i
t
h
l
a
r
g
e
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
STAS 10107/090
52
5.3.2.8 For the elements at which the action plan of the exterior bending moment is not parallel to their symmetry
plan, it is allowed to apply the provisions from subclause 3.2.10 taking into account the coefficient of the working
conditions stipulated at subclause 5.3.2.6.
5.3.2.9 For the elements made of prestressed concrete with prestressed reinforcement having R
pk
= R
0.2k
(reinforcements of PC type) can be calculated with the relations for the elements made of reinforced concrete,
considering that the unitary stress from the reinforcement A
p
is equal to R
p
and the unitary stress from the reinforcement
A
p
is equal to
pl
.
5.3.2.10 For the elements stressed during eccentric compression the influence of slenderness (of effects of II order) can
be taken in consideration according to subclause 3.2.6, (EI)
conv.
Being determined with the relation:
It is allowed that the influence of slenderness should be taken in calculation in an simplified way by means of
the relation (20) from subclause 3.2.6, where:
where
max
b(0)
is the maximum unitary stress of compression produced by the prestressing force.
The influence of flexibility can be taken in consideration if l
f
/i 35.
5.3.3 The calculation at the resistance limit state in normal sections, for the elements made of totally prestressed
concrete and partially prestressed concrete with limited prestressing and moderated prestressing, stressed during centric
stretching or eccentric stretching with low eccentricity.
5.3.3.1 The elements stressed during centric stretching are calculated with the relation:
For linear elements (rods, stretched bars of the braced girders) is used the relation:
5.3.3.2 The elements stressed during eccentric stretching with low eccentricity (the force acts between the centroid of
the reinforcements A
p
and A
p
) are calculated with the relations:
For the linear elements (rods, stretched bars of the braced girders) the relations become:
5.3.4 The calculation at the resistance limit state in normal sections for the centric or eccentric compressed elements
with low eccentricity
STAS 10107/090
53
5.3.4.1 The elements made of totally prestressed concrete and the ones made of partially prestressed concrete with
limited prestressing and moderated prestressing provided to be stressed at centric compression are calculated as
eccentric stressed elements, with minimum eccentricity according to the provisions of subclause 3.2.5.
5.3.4.2 The Eccentric compression with low eccentricity is considered in the cases where the requirement (98) is not
respected.
5.3.4.3 The calculation of the capable stress at the resistance limit state can be done by linear interpolation between
the ideal case of the centric compression and the limit case appropriate to requirement (98). The coefficient of the
working conditions of the prestressed concrete elements is considered with the values:
 for prestressed reinforcements of SBP, TBP type, m 0.85;
 for prestressed reinforcements of SBP, TBP type, together with complementary nonprestressed
reinforcements of PC 60, PC 52 type:
In the case of the prestressed reinforcements of PC 90 type m = 1.
The calculation relations are given in table 18.
In the case of considering the deformations compatibility in section, the limit deformation of the concrete to
compression is limited to the value of 0.002.
5.3.4.4 The taking in consideration of the flexibility is done according to subclause 5.3.2.10.
5.3.5 Calculation at the resistance limit state to transfer
5.3.5.1 The calculation is performed with the relations for the elements made of reinforced concrete or plain concrete
stressed during eccentric compression under the action of the prestressing force and of the possible simultaneous
external loads.
NOTES:
 The additional eccentricity is not taken in consideration in the case of the prestressing force.
 The calculation resistance of the concrete R
c
is considered as for reinforced concrete for the elements with pre
stretched reinforcement and for the elements with poststretched reinforcement, having nonprestressed reinforcement
in minimum percent as reinforced concrete and plain concrete for the elements with poststretched reinforcement with
or without nonprestressed reinforcement, but below the minimum percent as reinforced concrete, inclusively in the
joints of the sectioned elements.
 For the precompressed prefabricated elements, manufactured in factories, the values R
c
are increased by multiplication
with the coefficient m
bc
= 1.2, according to subclause 2.1.2.4.2.
5.3.5.2 The prestressing force can be determined with the relation:
Table 18
Notations Stress Application
requirements
Calculation relations
N
lim
capable axial force for the limit case
appropriate to the requirement
M
lim
capable bending moment towards the
section centroid for the limit case appropriate
to the requirement
A
lim
area of the concrete compressed zone for
the limit case appropriate to the requirement
S
lim
static moment of the area A
lim
in
comparison to the reinforcement A
p
centroid
S
p
static moment of the reinforcement A
p
in
comparison to the reinforcement A
p
centroid
e
oc
eccentricity of calculation
coefficient according to subclause
5.3.2.10
Eccentric
compression with
low eccentricity
lim
0
>
h
x
STAS 10107/090
54
NOTE For the elements with poststretched reinforcements at which is taken in view the reinforcement A
p
prestressing,
after the reinforcement A
p
prestressing, is necessary the effectuation of the calculation also under the action of
5.3.5.3 In the calculation relation (123) the unitary stress from the prestressed reinforcements to transfer is considered
conventionally with the values:
 for prestretched reinforcements:
 for poststretched reinforcements:
5.3.5.4 The flexibility effect under the action of the prestressing stress to transfer is taken in consideration only in the
case of the elements with poststretched reinforcements, placed in the exterior of the section or in channels having the
diameter bigger with over 20 mm than the minimum values recommended by the technical settlements specific to
different categories of constructions.
5.3.6 Calculation at the resistance limit state in inclined cracked sections
5.3.6.1 The calculation in inclined cracked sections at bending moment is done based on the assumptions from
subclause 5.3.2.4. For the current cases, in which the reinforcement is not distributed on the entire height of the section
or on the entire contour, it can be used the simplified calculation relation of the unitary limit stress
pl
, according to
subclause 5.3.2.7.
5.3.6.2 The relation for the calculation of the capable stress at the resistance limit state in inclined cracked sections at
bending moment (fig. 30):
NOTE:
 The height of the conventional compressed area and the the value of the unitary stress
pl
, in the prestressed
reinforcement is determined, usually, in the normal section on the unitary axis, situated at the extremity from the
compressed area of the inclined section (fig. 30);
 In the case when the inclined section cuts acutting the prestretched reinforcement on the anchorage length
l
a
, the unitary stress in the reinforcement has the following values:
* for reinforcements of SBPA, TBP type
pl p
a
s
p pla
R
l
X
m =
'
1
(128)
* for prestressed reinforcements of PC type
p
a
s
pl
R
l
X
'
0
= (129)
where
X
s
length of the prestretched from the end till the intersection with the considered inclined section;
pl
unitary stress in reinforcement determined according to subclause 5.3.6.1;
m
p1
additional coefficient of the working conditions for the reinforcement, which has the value:
for A
a
< 0.25 A
p
, m
p1
= 1
for A
a
0.25 A
p
, m
p1
is established based on special specifications.
 The length s
i
of the horizontal projection of the inclined section of calculation, corresponding to the
minimum capable stress, can be determined by tests, starting from the internal edge of the bearing. For s
i
are
taken in consideration values between h/2 and 2.5 h.
STAS 10107/090
55
5.3.6.3 The calculation in inclined cracked sections at the action of the cutting forces (fig. 31) is done with the
relation:
where
m
at
= 0.7 for STNB;
m
at
= 0.8 for other qualities of nonprestressed reinforcement;
p
(
a
) angle between the inclined prestressed reinforcement (inclined nonprestressed reinforcement) and the
unitary axis;
angle between the interior and superior sides of the longitudinal section through the unitary, whose sign
is considered + when the unitary section increases in the same sense with the bending moment;
Q
b
cutting force taken over by concrete according to subclause 5.3.6.4
Q maximum value of the cutting force on the inclined section length.
5.3.6.4 The cutting force taken over by concrete is determined with the relation:
i
t
b
s
R bh
Q
2
0
2
= for standard concrete (131)
i
t
bu
s
R bh
Q
2
0
75 . 1
= for concrete with simple aggregates (132)
where b length of beam (length of core when joining with the compressed foundation in T or I sections);
h
o
useful height of beam;
s
i
projection on the unitary axis of the considered inclined section, which is determined by tests or by means of
the relation:
e
t
i
q
R bh
s
2
0
2
= (133)
q
e
stress taken over by clamps on the unitary of length:
c
a at c
e
a
R m A
q = (134)
a
e
distance between clamps.
NOTE The length s
i
determined with the relation (135) is limited according to subclause 5.3.6.2 to the value of 2.5 h.
In the case of the action of some prevalent concentrated loads, s
i
is not taken bigger than the distance from the internal edge
of the bearing till the first concentrated load.
5.3.6.5 The elements are dimensioned so that they respect the requirements:
STAS 10107/090
56
 elements with prestretched reinforcement
c
bhR Q 25 . 0 (135)
 poststretched reinforcement
c
bhR Q 30 . 0 (136)
NOTES:
 For the elements with inclined prestressed reinforcements, the cutting force given by calculation loads at the resistance
limit state Q in the relations (135) and (136) is reduced with the effect of the vertical component Q
p
of the stress from
these reinforcements:
= sin 9 . 0 po
pi p
A Q (137)
 In the relations (135) and (136) b represents the minimum width of the concrete section.
5.3.6.6 The minimum cutting force which can be taken over by concrete and clamps is determined with the relation:
e t eb
q R bh Q
2
0
8 = (138)
5.3.6.7 The inclined sections for which is respected, on the entire length, the requirement:
t b
R 5 . 0
1
(139)
should not be verificationsed by calculation at the action of the bending moment and of the cutting force, according to
subclause 5.3.6.2 . . .5.3.6.6; the cutting reinforcement is disposed by constructive criterions.
In the case of the elements with poststretched reinforcement at which is provided a cutting reinforcing with
clamps in minimum percent of 0.1 % it is allowed that instead of the requirement (139) it should be applied the
requirement:
t b
R
1
(140)
The values of the main unitary stresses
b1
are calculated according to the provisions of close 5.5, under the
action of the calculation loads at the resistance limit state.
5.3.7 Calculation of mixed elements
5.3.7.1 The calculation of mixed elements is done in two stages:
a) Without taking into account the concrete union work placed afterwards for stresses which acts in the
construction elements during the execution, until the reinforcement of the concrete placed afterwards.
b) Taking into account the entire section, for total stresses given by calculation loads.
5.3.7.2 Each concrete quality is introduced in calculations with the adequate consistency.
5.3.7.3 For the verifications of cutting reinforcements with role of connectors can apply the provisions from subclause
3.4.2.
5.3.8 Calculation of the elements made of prestressed concrete at torsion and at torsion with bending
5.3.8.1 The calculation of the elements of concrete prestressed at torsion and at torsion with bending is performed as
for reinforced concrete according to close 3.5, taking into account the specifications from subclauses 5.3.8.2 and
5.3.8.3.
5.3.8.2 The unitary stress
pl
in the prestressed reinforcement of SBP and TBP type is considered with the value of
0.85 R
p
.
On the anchorage length, for prestretched reinforcements, it is considered that the unitary stress in the
prestressed reinforcement varies linearly from zero to 0.85 R
p
.
5.3.8.3 The selection of the section dimensions is done observing the requirement:
 elements with prestretched reinforcement:
 elements with poststretched reinforcement:
5.4 Calculation of the elements made of prestressed concrete under fatigue conditions
STAS 10107/090
57
5.4.1 For the prestressed concrete elements at which may appear phenomena of fatigue, besides the other necessary
verifications, is also verificationsed to be respected the following requirements in the final phase under the stresses
given by the calculation loads under fatigue conditions:
 the unitary stresses in normal sections should be of compression and bigger than the limit values stipulated at
subclause 5.4.2;
 the maximum unitary stresses in normal sections and the main unitary compression stresses, determined in
accordance with the provisions of subclauses 5.2 and 5.5.7.3, should not exceed the calculation resistances under fatigue
conditions established according to subclause 2.1.2.4.3;
 the main unitary stretching stresses should not exceed the value R
t
.
5.4.2 The limit values for the minimum unitary compression stress in normal sections:
 for elements without assembling joints:
lim
b
is 10 % from the maximum unitary compression stress at
transfer under the action of prestressing, but not more than 1 N/mm
2
;
 for sections from the joints of the assembled elements from prefabricated panels:
2 lim
/ 1 mm N
b
=
5.4.3 The coefficient m
o
of loading (or of inaccuracy) of the prestressing force is considered with the value 0.9.
5.5 Calculation of the elements made of prestressed concrete at cracking
5.5.1 The prestressing degree
after the prestressing degree K, defined by the proportion
E
s
s M M
) (
0
) ( / , the prestressed concrete elements
classify in:
 prestressed concrete elements with total prestressing, for which:
K > 1
 partially prestressed concrete elements with limited prestressing, for which:
 partially prestressed concrete elements with moderate prestressing, for which:
where
0
) (s M moment of decompression, which cancels the moment produced by the prestressing force
towards the limit of the core of the cutting section opposed to the stretched or less
compressed edge of the section in exploitation and which is determined according to
subclause 5.5.4.4;
E
s
M
) (
moment of total loads of exploitation towards the same limit of the core of the cutting
section;
E
s ld
M
) (
moment of long lasting exploitation loads towards the same limit of the core of the cutting
section;
E
s perm
M
) (
moment of permanent loads towards the same limit of the core of the cutting section.
5.5.2 Assumptions and calculation requirements at cracking limit states
5.5.2.1 The calculation at cracking of the elements of totally prestressed concrete and of the elements of partially
prestressed concrete with limited prestressing and moderate prestressing is performed by verification the following limit
states:
 the closure of normal and inclined cracks towards the unitary axis;
 the opening of normal and inclined cracks;
 the appearance of longitudinal cracks parallel to the direction of maximum compressions in concrete at
transfer.
STAS 10107/090
58
5.5.2.2 The verification requirements at cracking should be respected on the entire opening of the elements.
5.5.2.3 The calculation at cracking is performed both for the initial phase (transfer, transport, assembling) and for
different stress assumptions in the final phase (exploitation).
The unitary stress in the prestressed reinforcement is introduced in calculations with the value adequate to the
respective phase, established by taking into account the tension losses according to subclause 5.2.
5.5.2.4 The loads for which are calculated the external stresses in section are taken with the values and in the
combinations adequate to the verification classes according to subclauses 5.5.3 . . . 5.5.6.
5.5.3 Classes of verification requirements at cracking
5.5.3.1 From the point of view of the verification requirements at cracking, for normal and inclined cracks towards the
unitary axis, there are three classes.
The enclosing in the three classes is done depending on the utilization domains and requirements specified in
table 19.
Verification requirements
Class of
verificat
ion at
crackin
g
Utilization domains
Utilization
requirements
Consider
ed loads
In areas with prestressed
reinforcements
In areas without prestressed
reinforcements
I
Elements of totally
prestressed concrete
with prestressed
reinforcement of any
type
 impermeability
 mediums with
medium
aggressiveness
1)
Total
exploitati
on loads
Closure of normal cracks
according to subclause 5.5.4
Closure of inclined cracks
according to subclause 5.5.5
2)
Normal elements stresses of
stretching determined
considering the noncracked
section is limited to the value
R
t
3) 4), inclusively under loads
which act in intermediate
phases (of execution)
Total
exploitati
on loads
Limitation of normal cracks
opening at 0.1 mm; it is
allowed that this
verifications should be
performed only by limitation
of
p
to the value of 100
N/mm
2
Opening of normal cracks is
limited to the same values as
for reinforced concrete but not
more than 0.2 mm,
3)4)
inclusively under loads which
act in intermediate phases (of
execution)
II
Elements of partially
prestressed concrete:
a) with limited
prestressing and
having prestressed
reinforcements of
SBP, SBPA, TBP
type;
b) with moderate
prestressing and
having prestressed
reinforcements of
SBP, SBPS, TBP
type and
complementary non
prestressed
reinforcements of PC
52, PC 60 type
 mediums
without
aggressiveness
or with very
weak
aggressiveness
5)
 mediums with
weak
aggressiveness
1)
Long
lasting
exploitati
on loads
a) Closure of normal cracks
6)
, according to subclause
5.5.4.
b) Limitation of normal
cracks opening at 0.03 mm;
it is allowed that this
verifications should be
performed only by limitation
of
p
to the value of 30
N/mm
2
and by applying the
provisions from subclause
7.1.7
a) and b) Closure of inclined
cracks
2)
according to
subclause 5.5.5.
III
Elements of partially
prestressed concrete
with moderate
prestressing having
prestressed
reinforcements of PC
90 type
 mediums
without
aggressiveness
or with very
weak
aggressiveness
 mediums with
weak
aggressiveness
1)
Total
exploitati
on loads
Limitation of normal cracks
opening to the values: * 0.2
mm in mediums without
aggressiveness or with very
weak aggressiveness
* 0.15 mm in mediums with
weak aggressiveness
1)
Opening of normal cracks is
limited to the same values as
for reinforced concrete
3)4)
1) Additional protections are also applied given in special regulations.
2) In the absence of cutting prestressing are taken, by calculation, limitation measures of the opening and development of
inclined cracks according to subclause 5.5.5.
3) In the joints sections between arch bricks are applied the following conditions:
 for the I class: the unitary stresses are only of compression, but > 0.5 N/mm
2
 for the II and III classes: are not allowed unitary stresses of stretching, except the case where is ensured the taking over of
the stretching stresses through reinforcements.
4) For twodimensional prestressed elements in one direction, the cracks opening in the direction on which the prestressing
does not act is limited as follows:
 for the I and II classes: 1 . 0
max
f
mm or are limited the unitary stresses of stretching in concrete in the noncracked
section to the value R
t
for the I class and R
tk
for the II class.
STAS 10107/090
59
 for the III class: 2 . 0
max
f
mm
5) Additional constructive provisions are also applied given in special regulatinos.
6) For the cover elements from prestressed concrete is not necessary to verifications the closure requirement of cracks
under the circumstances where are also taken in calculation assumptions of snow conglomerations. Likewise, for elements for walls
structures is not necessary to verifications the closure requirement of cracks in the case of wind load.
5.5.3.2 The classification can be done differently for the different elements of the same construction, for different
sections of the same element and for the extreme fibres of the same section, depending on the structure mode, and also
on the loads groups and the considered exploitation requirements.
5.5.3.3 In the case of the aggressive environments the provisions concerning the protection measures given in specific
technical regulations are also applied.
5.5.4 Verifications of normal cracks closure
5.5.4.1 The verifications of normal cracks closure is done with the condition that the unitaryary stresses in normal
sections are only of compression and at least equal to the prescribed limit values.
5.5.4.2 The calculation in normal sections is done as for elastic and homogeneous materials, excepting the cases from
subclause 5.5.4.3.
5.5.4.3 If the maximum unitary stress of compression in concrete exceeds 0.8 R
c
under the exploitation loads, then it is
necessary to take into account an nonlinear distribution of the compressions.
Likewise, it is necessary to take into account the reduction of the capable stress at the limit state of cracks
closure, if before the considered phase, in the compressed area of the section the cracking was allowed, with the
limitation by calculation of the cracks opening.
5.5.4.4 The elements stressed during bending, compression and eccentric stretching which are calculated according to
subclause 5.5.4.2, can be verified in normal sections with the relation:
lim
) (
0
) (
b
i
E
s
s
b
W
M M
=
and the elements stressed during centric stretching with the relation:
where
b
minimum unitary stress of compression from section at the less compressed edge;
M
0
(s)
moment of decompression, which is determined with the relation:
N
0
prestressing force in final phase;
e
op
eccentricity of prestressing force (towards the section centroid);
r
s
distance from the limit of the core of the section till the section centroid, which is determined with the
relation:
i
i
s
A
W
r =
W
i
and A
i
modulus of resistance, respectively the area of the ideal section;
M
E
(s)
moment produced by external loads given in table 19, towards the limit of the core of the section
opposed to the less compressed edge of the section;
N
E
axial force given by external loads indicated in table 19.
5.5.4.5 For the cases mentioned in subclause 5.5.4.3 it is allowed, in a simplified, way to perform the calculation
according to subclause 5.5.4.4, considering for r
s
a value reduced with 20 %, respectively:
i
i
s
A
W
r 8 . 0 =
5.5.4.6 Limit values for the minimum unitary stress of compression in normal sections:
 for elements without assembling joints:
lim
b
= 10% from the maximum unitary stress of compression at transfer under the action of prestressing, but
not more than 1 N/mm
2
;
 for sections from the elements joints assembled from prefabricated sections:
) ( 0
0
) (
s op
s r e N M + =
STAS 10107/090
60
2 lim
/ 1 mm N
b
=
5.5.5 Verifications of the inclined cracks closure
5.5.5.1 The verifications of the inclined cracks closure is done only for elements for which the cutting prestressing
applies with the condition that the main unitary stresses should be only of compression and at least equal to the
prescribed limit values.
5.5.5.2 The limit value for the main unitary stress in the section:
2 lim
/ 5 . 0 mm N
bl
=
no matter the execution mode of the monolith or assembled construction.
5.5.6 Verifications at the normal cracks opening
5.5.6.1 The verifications at the normal cracks opening in the areas where there is the prestressed reinforcement is done
by limiting the size of the average opening of these cracks.
The general calculation relation:
p
p
f fm
E
=
where
p
increase of the unitary stress in the prestressed reinforcement in comparison to the decompression
stage ( po p
p
= ). The value of
p
is calculated in cracked section according to subclause
5.2.2.
For the elements made of partially prestressed concrete with moderate prestressing having prestretched
prestressed reinforcements of PC 90 type the calculation is performed considering
m
and with the relations given in
Annex C for nonprestressed reinforcements with periodic profile. In relation (C5)
a
is replaced with
p
.
For the elements made of partially prestressed concrete with limited prestressing having prestressed
reinforcements of SBP, SBPA, TBP type, both prestretched and poststretched, in elements having clamps at usual
distances a
e
= 150...300 mm, it is allowed to perform the calculation considering
m
= a
e
. The value is taken = 1 for
poststretched reinforcements and = 0.8 for prestretched reinforcements.
5.5.6.2 The verifications at the normal cracks opening in the areas where there are no prestressed reinforcements is
done, usually, by limiting the cracks opening as for reinforced concrete elements stressed during eccentric compression,
the prestressing force being considered as an external stress. This verifications is not necessary if the unitary stretching
stresses, calculated considering the noncracked section (subclause 5.2.1), do not exceed the value 1.5 R
tk
for
calculations in initial phase, respectively R
tk
for calculations in final phase and if are provided in the stretched area non
prestressed reinforcements in minimum percent according to the provisions from clause 7.
5.5.7 Verifications at the opening limit state of the inclined cracks
5.5.7.1 The verifications at the inclined cracks opening is done indirectly by limiting the main unitary stresses under
the exploitation loads and by providing a minimum cutting reinforcement as for reinforced concrete elements (close 6).
The main unitary stresses are calculated, usually, at the level of the section centroid and in the modification
points of the section width; the main unitary stresses at the section edge are determined only in the case of the
simultaneous action of some moment of torsion.
In the calculation of the main unitary stresses are taken into account the unitary stresses in perpendicular
direction on the unitary axle, due to some eventual prestressed cutting reinforcements and also it should be taken into
account the local stresses of compression which appear by the bearings at continuous structures, of the application
points of permanent concentrated loads, of the anchorage points in the section of the poststretched inclined
reinforcements.
For the sections of the elements with prestretched reinforcement, included in the transmission area l
z
, defined
according to subclause 5.7.1, the size of the prestressing force is reduced appropriately taking into account the
provisions from subclause 5.2.3.
When establishing the tangential unitary stresses are taken into account the eventual moments of torsion and
also the reduction of the cutting force from the section due to the vertical component of the stresses from the prestressed
reinforcements with curvilinear or polygonal route; also, the in the calculation relations is taken in consideration the
influence of the height variation of the element section.
For the elements with poststretched reinforcements, the calculation is done for a section of the core damaged
through the channels for reinforcements.
STAS 10107/090
61
5.5.7.2 The main unitary stresses of stretching,
b1
, should meet the requirements:
I
st
class:
II
nd
class:
III
nd
class:
where
b1
main unitary stress of stretching;
b2
main unitary correspondent stress of compression.
In the relations mentioned above all the unitary stresses and resistances are considered with absolute value.
5.5.7.3 The main unitary stresses in concrete are determined with the relation:
where
b
normal unitary stress in section (with the sign  stretching);
b
tangential unitary stress.
NOTE: If in the calculation section acts some unitary stress,
by
, for example the unitary stress produced by prestressed
clamps, the calculation is done by means of the relation:
5.5.7.4 The tangential unitary stresses in concrete are determined in normal sections on the unitary axis as follows:
a) for elements with constant height, by means of the relation:
where
S
i
static moment of the portion from the ideal section A
i
situated above the fibre in which is determined
b
in comparison to the axle which passes by the ideal section centroid;
I
i
moment of inertia of the ideal section;
b
net
net width of the section by the fibre in which is determined
b
; for poststretched reinforcements
b
net
= b 0.6 d
channel
Q
E
c
corrected cutting force, equal to the difference between the cutting force due to the action of external
loads and the vertical component Q
p
of the stresses from the prestressed reinforcements with
curvilinear and polygonal layout, given by the relations:
p
E E
c
Q Q Q = (154)
= sin
pot pi p
A Q (155)
po t
unitary stress from the prestressed reinforcement in the considered phase;
angle between the unitary axle and the tangent to the prestressed reinforcement in the respective
normal section
STAS 10107/090
62
b) for elements with variable height, it can be used the relation:
where the minus sign corresponds to the case where the moment produced by external loads M
E
and the lever arm z of
the internal stresses increase or decrease in the same direction.
NOTES:
 In the case of the simultaneous action of some moment of torsion is also taken into account the value of the tangential
unitary stress from the torsion.
 The lever arm z corresponds to the unitary stresses calculated only under the action M
E
.
5.5.8 Verifications at the appearance of longitudinal cracks
5.5.8.1 The verifications at the appearance of longitudinal cracks parallel to the direction of the maximum compressions
in concrete at transfer is done by limiting the unitary stresses of compression in concrete.
5.5.8.2 The limit values of the unitary stresses of compression at transfer are given in table 20.
Table 20
Class of concrete Bc 25 Bc 30 Bc 35 Bc 40 Bc 50 Bc 60
Limit values of the unitary
stresses of compression at
transfer, N/mm
2
14 16.5 19 21 25 29
NOTE The limit values can be increased with not more than 10% based on technical and experimental justifications
(under circumstances of strict control of accomplishing the prescribed consistency of concrete and of accomplishment of
permanent loads at intervals as far as one month from the transfer).
5.5.8.3 The main unitary stress of compression in concrete under the stresses due to exploitation loads does not exceed
the values of the calculation resistances at compression given in clause 2. table 3.
5.6 Calculation of the prestressed concrete elements at the deformation limit state
5.6.1 The modulus of rigidity (EA) or (EI) of the elements made of totally prestressed concrete and of the elements
made of partially prestressed concrete with limited prestressing having prestressed reinforcements of SBP, SBPA and
TBP type is calculated by means of the relations from table 21.
Table 21
Modulus of rigidity
Character of loads
Axial stresses Bending moment
Short lasting temporary loads
in initial phase
in final phase
(EA)
s
= 0.85 E
b0
A
b
(157)
(EA)
s
= 0.85 E
b
A
b
(158)
(EI)
s
= 0.85 E
b0
I
b
(160)
(EI)
s
= 0.85 E
b
I
b
(161)
Long lasting permanent and
temporary loads
(EA)
d
=0.85 ) 159 (
2
1
+
b b
A E
(EI)
d
=0.85 ) 162 (
2
1
+
b b
A E
deformation characteristic in time of concrete determined according to Annex E.
E
bo
E
b
modulus of elasticity for the conventional class appropriate to R
min
bo
(table 4) or for the nominal class of concrete for
transfer at 28 days.
5.6.2 The modulus of elasticity of the bent elements made of partially prestressed concrete with moderate
prestressing, having prestressed reinforcements of SBP, SBPS, TBP type and complementary nonprestressed
reinforcements (of PC 60, PC 52 type) or having prestressed reinforcements of PC 90 type, is determined as follows:
 under the action of a bending moment which does not exceed the value of the moment of decompression M
0
s
apply the relations for bending moment from table 21;
 under the action M
E
M
0
(s)
applies the relation:
STAS 10107/090
63
(EI)
II
=
2
0t at a
h A E
where
h
ot
useful height of the appropriate section A
at
coefficient which depends on the relative height of the concrete compressed area:
0
h
x
= and
0
h
z
= are determined based on the hypothesis in 5.2.2;
according to subclause 5.5.6.1
5.6.3 For bent elements at which the crack is allowed in the concrete area in which there is no prestressed
reinforcement (table 19), the values of the modulus of rigidity calculated according to subclauses 5.6.1 and 5.6.2 are
reduced with 15% in the respective portions.
5.6.4 The deformations of the prestressed concrete elements under the stresses given by the exploitation loads in
initial and final phase are limited to the values indicated in table 14.
Limitations of the deformations can also be established, including of the counterarches, in final phase or
intermediate phases, in the cases where such limitations are necessary in special occasions.
5.7 Calculation of the transmission areas
5.7.1 The transmission areas at elements with prestressed reinforcements provided with anchorages at the ends are
verificationsed at:
 local compression under each anchorage;
 cracking in every prestressed reinforcement plan;
 cracking between anchorages.
5.7.2 The transmission areas at elements with prestressed reinforcements tied by adherence are verified at:
 cracking in every prestressed reinforcement plan;
 cracking between reinforcements or groups of prestressed reinforcements.
On the length of the transmission area are not allowed cutting cracks appeared under technological
circumstances by the prestressed reinforcements.
5.7.3 The length of the transmission area for the entire unitary l
z
, measured starting from the end of the prestressed
concrete unitary can be considered with the following values:
 in the case where the prestressed reinforcements anchorage is done by end anchorage:
l
z
= h (167)
 in the case where the prestressed reinforcements anchorage is done by adherence:
2 2
t z
l h l + = (168)
where
h height of the beam cutting section at the distance l
t
from the end;
l
t
lenght of transmission of the prestressed reinforcement, which is established according to the provisions
from annex G, without taking in consideration the augment of 25% for sudden transfer.
STAS 10107/090
64
5.7.4 For verification the induced stress under the action of each reinforcement or group of reinforcements is taken
in consideration a transmission area, which is defined for each case in part by the cutting calculation surface (area A of
a, b dimensions) and the length l
zi
.
The calculation surface is considered rectangular, symmetric towards the axis of the prestressed reinforcement
or of the group of prestressed reinforcements and limited to the clausest edge of the section, respectively to the center of
the distance towards the reinforcement or the group of adjacent reinforcements (fig. 32).
Fig. 32
The length of the transmission area for every prestressed reinforcement, measured from the unitary end can be
considered with the following values:
 in the case where the anchorage of the prestressed reinforcements is done by end anchorages:
l
zi
= a with a > b (169)
measured starting from the reinforcement anchorage;
 in the case where the anchorage of the prestressed reinforcements is done by adherence, for a reinforcement
or a group of reinforcements:
2 2
t zi
l a l + = with a > b (170)
measured starting from the element end.
5.7.5 The transmission areas should respect the constructive provisions from clause 7.5.
5.7.6 The verifications at local compression, under each anchorage, is done with the relation:
1.1A
p
c as as c pk
R A R A R A
0 0
2 + (171)
where
R
c
calculation resistance to compression at transfer;
coefficient by which is taken into account the increase of the capable stress in the case of stress to
local compression
2
0
2


.

\

=
A
A
(172)
STAS 10107/090
65
A
0
= a
0
b
0
area of the effective support surface (of anchorage or distributor plate) on concrete;
A = a b area of the calculation surface defined at subclause 5.7.4;
R
as
the calculation resistance of the supplementary transverse reinforcement, which is calculated the same
as for OB 37 regardless of the type of used reinforcement;
A
as
the conventional area of the section of supplementary transverse reinforcement disposed in
compliance with the specifications at subclause 7.5, determined as follows:
 in the case of mesh reinforcement:
s
b A a A
A
a a
a
0 2 0 1
1
+
= (173)
A
a1
the area of the reinforcing of a mesh, corresponding to the effective bearing surface and parallel with
its side a
0
;
A
a2
the area of the reinforcing of a mesh, corresponding to the effective bearing surface and parallel with
its side b
0
;
s the distance between meshes;
 in the case of hooped reinforcement armoring:
d
s
the diameter of the core of wire bound concrete
A
s
the area of the hooped reinforcement transverse section
s
f
the pitch of the hooped reinforcement
The adoption, within the relation (171), of the repartition board surface as effective bearing surface A
0
, is
admitted only for repartition boards that comply with the construction specifications given in Annex I and for a concrete
resistance at the date of precompression R
b0
of at least 40 N/mm
2
; otherwise the bearing surface of the anchorage is
taken into account.
5.7.7. The cracking verification in the projection of each prestressed reinforcement is done as follows:
The maximum transverse stretching unitaryary effort is determined according the formula:
zi
by
al
Z
K
1 . 1
= (175)
Where
Z = 0.3 
.

\

a
a
A
pk p
0
1 for poststretched reinforcements (176)
Z = 0.3 
.

\

a
a
A
p p
0
0
1 for prestretched reinforcements (177)
a
0
the dimension on the respective calculation direction of the effective bearing surface; a
0
= 0
for the prestressed reinforcements without anchorage at the extremity;
a the dimension on the respective calculation direction of the calculation surface A;
l
zi
the length of the transmission area for each prestressed reinforcement;
K = 1.5 for poststretched reinforcements
K = 1.0 for prestretched reinforcements
If the requirement is not respected:
tk by
R 2 for poststretched reinforcements, respectively (178)
tk by
R 5 . 1 for prestretched reinforcements (179)
STAS 10107/090
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the dimensions of the element transverse section in the transmission area or the disposal of the prestressed
reinforcements are reanalyzed.
If:
tk by
R for poststretched reinforcements, respectively (180)
tk by
R 65 . 0 for prestretched reinforcements, the transverse reinforcement around the prestressed
reinforcement is disposed during construction in compliance with the minimum specifications from subclause 7.5. (181)
If:
R
tk
<
tk by
R 2 for poststretched reinforcements, respectively (182)
0.65R
tk
<
tk by
R 5 . 1 for prestretched reinforcements (183)
the necessary reinforcement that needs to be disposed on the length lzi is determined by the formulas:
 in the case of mesh reinforcing
 in the case of hooped reinforcement reinforcing
where
the indicators in compliance with subclause 5.7.6
n
1
the number of meshes on the length lzi;
1 and 2 indicators marking the directions on which Z is determined, respectively A
a
is disposed.
The previous verification is not necessary for prestretched reinforcements made of SBPA or TBP if the
reinforcing during construction specified at subclause 7.5 is disposed.
5.7.8 The verification at cracking limit stage between anchorages, respectively the groups of prestretched
reinforcements, as well as outside them, is done according to the formula:
provided that
n
2
A
a1
the area of the reinforcements disposed on the considered direction (perpendicular on the direction of
the probable crack), comprised within the first twothree meshes n
2
disposed at the extremity of the
element at maximum distances of 5 cm, in compliance with the specifications of subclause 7.5 and on
the width corresponding to the considered calculation surface;
Z
3
the stretching force which can be calculated according to the formula:
not only the integral but as well the sums ranging from the extremity of the element to any level y at
which Z
3
is calculated (drawing 33);
N
i
the values of the forces from the poststretched reinforcements or from the groups of prestretched
reinforcements;
N
i
cos
i
N
i
sin
i
the longitudinal and transverse components of the forces from the prestressed reinforcements
inclined by angle
4
against the longitudinal axis of the element, the positive sign being the one that
corresponds to the track of the forces from drawing 33;
STAS 10107/090
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b
the normal unitaryary stresses in concrete in the section from the extremity of the transmission area ??
(fig. 33);
R
as
the calculation resistance of the transverse reinforcement, which is calculated the same as for OB 37
regardless of the type of utilized reinforcement.
NOTES:
 The determination of the stretching force Z is done through the elasticity theory methods
 In the case that the reinforcement necessary for the test of the formula (189) disposed within the first twothree meshes at
the extremity of the element leads to the use of bars with the diameter bigger than 14 mm, then the calculation takes into
account also other meshes situated on a length of l
z
/4 from the extremity of the element.
5.7.9 If the prestressed reinforcements are anchored at the opening, a supplementary not prestressed reinforcement
is attached in the transmission area, disposed in parallel with the longitudinal axis of the element and dimensioned
according to the formula:
where
the angle between the reinforcement and a parallel to the longitudinal axis of the element in the
anchorage point (fig.34).
This reinforcement is disposed upon the height h/4 next to the anchorage and is extended on the length h/2 on
each side of the anchorage (fig. 34).
Poststretched reinforcement
Prestretched reinforcement
STAS 10107/090
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6 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELEMENTS MADE OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE
6.1 The thickness of concrete covering layers of the reinforcements
6.1.1 The concrete covering layer shall ensure favorable adherence conditions for the reinforcements and their
protection from the action of physical and chemical agents of the environment where the construction element is
situated. Its thickness is differently calculated, according to:
 the element type (linear, surface or massive);
 diameter of the reinforcements;
 the conditions of exposure to adverse weather and high humidity;
 the conditions of exposure to environments with chemical aggresivity;
 the class of concrete;
 the degree of fire resistance specified for the construction.
Out of these factors, the requirements that shall be respected related to the influence of the chemically adverse
environments, including the humid salty atmosphere from the Black Sea coast area, are stated within the specific
technical regulations.
6.1.2 Regarding the conditions of exposure to the action of adverse weather and high humidity, within environments
considered without chemical aggresivity, the construction elements are classified in four categories.
The category I includes:
 the elements situated in enclaused areas (the interior sides of the structural elements from the civil
buildings, including those within the sanitary rooms and kitchens from apartments and enclaused
industrial halls, with relative interior humidity values 75%);
 the elements in contact with the exterior, if they are protected through plaster or other equivalent
protection layer.
The category II includes:
 the elements situated in open air, unprotected, with the exception of those exposed to freezing and
thawing in humidified stage;
 the elements situated within enclaused areas with relative humidity exceeding 75% : industrial
halls with humidity over this limit, the roofs of the reservoirs and basins, the sanitary rooms and
kitchens in public buildings, the unheated building basements etc.
The category III includes:
 the elements situated in the open air, exposed to freezing and thawing in humidified stage;
 the elements situated in enclaused areas in the industrial halls with technological condensation
(halls with steam release etc.);
 the sides of elements in contact with water or other liquids without chemical adversity (examples:
the walls and bottom of the reservoirs, basins and water tanks);
 the sides in contact with the ground of the prefabricated elements and of the form cast monoliths
(beams, pillars, walls etc.) or on leveling concrete.
The category IV includes:
 the sides in contact with the earth of the reinforced concrete monoliths directly cast in the digging
(foundations, support walls etc.).
6.1.3 For concretes of class Bc 20, the thickness of the concrete covering layer of the resistance longitudinal
reinforcement shall comply with the minimum values given in table 22, but shall equal at least 1.2d (where d is the
diameter of the reinforcements) but not over 50 mm. In the case of the concretes class Bc 10 and Bc 15, the values in
the table are increased by 5 mm for the elements in the categories II, III and IV.
STAS 10107/090
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Table 22
Element category (according to subclause 6.1.2)
I II
Monolith
or precast
on the site
Works
prefabricated
Monolith or
precast on
the site
Works
prefabricated
III IV
Type of element
The minimum thickness of the concrete covering layer, for concrete elements class
Bc 20
mm
Curved and plain sheets,
compact ribs with width
<150 mm of the platforms
10 10 15 15 20 
Structural walls 15(30) 10 20(30) 15 30 45
Beams, Pillars, bulbs of the
structural walls (diafragms)
25 20 30 25 35 
Foundations, bottoms of
reservoirs and water tanks
    35 45
NOTES:
 For plates and walls, the minimum thickness of the concrete covering layer gineu in table 22, provided that 1.2d
s
, as
well as the specification in subclause 6.1.7 are compared to the reinforcements on the first row.
 The values in brackets are given for the thickness of the concrete cover for the resistance reinforcement for the walls
casted in distant form
 For the elements in category IV, the values given in table 22, refer also to the case when the respective elements are in
contact with underground water, if this does not have chemical aggresivity
 For the structural elements (beams, pillars, wall etc.) in the categories I and II, based upon an underground portion which
is included in the III
rd
category, the same thickness of the concrete covering layer can be maintained on this portion, the
same as in the underground portion, obtaining the difference in thickness of the cover layer, necessary in the
underground portion through plastering, with cement mortar marked M 100.
 The thickness of the concrete cover for the large prefabricated faade depending on the type of finiching work and of the
thermoinsulating works is established according to specific technical regulations for constructions made of large
prefabricated panels.
6.1.4 In the case of the elements from category III which come in direct contact with liquids, if the contact side with
the liquid is protected through plaster or through tile plating, the thickness of the concrete covering layer can be reduced
by adopting the values given in table 22 for elements in category II.
6.1.5 The covering with concrete of the transverse reinforcements (clamps, the transverse bars of the welded cases)
shall be of at least 15 mm for the elements in categories I and II, 20 mm for the ones in category III and 25 mm for the
ones in category IV. For the works prefabricated elements from category I the decrease to 10 mm is accepted.
6.1.6 For the elements in category II the minimum values of the concrete covering thickness given in table 22 are
increased by 5 mm if they are made of concrete with light aggregates.
6.1.7 The thickness of the concrete covering layer for the longitudinal reinforcements shall be, as a rule, multiple of
5 mm, and is obtained through the positive rounding or through the negative rounding (at the most 2 mm) f the value
determined according to subclauses 6.1.3 6.1.6.
6.2 The reinforcement anchoring
6.2.1 The anchoring of the longitudinal reinforcements
6.2.1.1 For the hot rolled bar reinforcements the necessary anchoring length, besides the section where maximum
value is requested, is calculated according to the formula:
l
a
= d
a
(191)
Where
d the reinforcement diameter
0 a
t
a
anc a
R
R
n + = (192)
The values of the coefficients n
anc
and
0 a
are given in table 23, according to the adherence and stress requirements
specified at subclause 6.2.1.2
STAS 10107/090
70
Table 23
Adherence and stress conditions:
Good adherence, normal
stress conditions
Severe stress conditions or
unfavorable adherence
conditions
Steel type
PC 60
PC 52
OB 37
PC 60
PC 52
OB 37
Reinforcements stressed at:
n
anc
0 a
stretching 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.12 12
compression 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.07 10
In the cases when unfavorable adherence conditions are cumulated with severe stress conditions, the values in
table 23 are increased by 20%.
6.2.1.2 The following are considered to present severe stress conditions:
 the reinforcements of the elements with antiseismic resistance role from the seisimic areas of calculation
A F, only in the potentially plastic areas;
 the reinforcements of the elements solicited by important concentrated forces, situated at distances lower than
40 d from the interior extremity of the bearings;
 the reinforcements of the elements calculated under fatigue conditions.
The following are considered unfavorable adherence conditions:
 the reinforcements having a horizontal position during cast (or an inclination lower than 45
o
C from the
horizontal), placed in elements with height h 300 mm and situated in the upper part of the element;
 the horizontal reinforcements from the vertical elements of the resistance structures with big height and
thickness 300 mm (structural walls, walls of reservoirs and storage bins etc.);
 justified in special cases other reinforcements for which the reinforcingconditions, the technological concrete
cast conditions or other causes can influence unfavorably the achievement of a good adherence in anchoring areas (for
example, for the structures executed in sliding forming).
6.2.1.3 For the stretched reinforcements of the elements made of regular armored concrete, in the current cases,
a
from the formula (191) can be directly determined from table 24
Table 24
Steel type
PC 60 PC 52 OB 37
Concrete class
Bc 15
Bc 20
Bc 25
Bc 10
Bc 15
Bc 20
Bc 25
Bc 10
Bc 15
Bc 20
Bc 25
Adherence and stress
conditions
a
Good adherence, normal
stress conditions
35 30 35 30 40 35
Severe stress conditions or
unfavorable adherence
conditions
45 40 45 40 50 45
Severe stress conditions
cumulated with
unfavorable adherence
conditions
55 50 55 50 60 55
STAS 10107/090
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6.2.1.4 For the elements made of concrete with light aggregates, in the case of using the OB 37 steel for
reinforcements whose dimension results from the calculation, the anchoring lengths are increased by 50% in
comparison with those specified at subclauses 6.2.1.1 6.2.1.3 for elements made of regular concrete.
6.2.1.5 The necessity of introducing hooks at the extremities of the reinforcement bars and the manner in which they
are taken into account in the determination of the necessary anchoring length l
a
are established as follows:
 for the reinforcements made of PC 60 and PC 52 steel the introduction of hooks is not mandatory; if hooks
are yet introduced, their unfolded length is included in l
a
calculated through the formula (191);
 for the reinforcements made of OB 37 steel that are stressed at stretching, hooks are introduced at the
extremities whose length does not include l
a
calculated through the formula (191); hooks are not introduced for the bars
with role of assembling reinforcement;
 hooks are not introduced for the reinforcements used as welded meshes and for those in a random charge
group can be stressed at compression.
The shapes of used hooks are (fig. 35):
 with bending at 180 for the OB 37 steel bars;
 with bending at 90 for PC 60 and PC 52 steel bars.
6.2.1.6 For the rod reinforcements and in general in the situations when the stretching stress in the reinforcements is
transmitted mostly at the extremities of the element (example: beamswalls) the anchoring is recommended to be
achieved through enlarged diameter bundles, and if the dimensions of the elements do not allow the achievement of
such bundles, anchoring with transverse bars welded to the longitudinal ones shall be introduced.
6.2.1.7 The anchoring length of the meshes welded from smooth drawn wire is established taking into account that the
anchoring is done only through the joggle effect of the transverse reinforcements in concrete.
For every mesh knot (fig. 36) a force F can be transmitted from the reinforcements to the concrete, determined
according to the formula:
F = 15d
t
l
l
R
t
(193)
Where
d
t
the diameter of the transverse reinforcement;
l
l
the distance between the longitudinal reinforcements (for which the anchoring lengths are
determined) but not exceeding 30 d
t
.
The section by which the anchoring length
is measured
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6.2.2 The anchoring of the transverse reinforcements
6.2.2.1 For clamps and clips the anchoring is done with hooks (fig. 37 a) bended at 135 or at 180 in the case of the
clamps in OB 37 and only 135 in the case of those in PC 52 and PC 60.
The curved parts of the hooks shall be continued by rectilinear parts of length equal to at least 5 d (d = the
diameter of the clamp) and at least 50 mm, on the exception of the cases mentioned at subclause 6.4.4.3.
6.2.2.2 The transverse bars of the welded cases are anchored through welding to longitudinal bars (fig. 37 b). The
anchoring is considered accomplished if on the anchoring area the transverse bar of diameter d is welded on:
 two longitudinal bars of diameter equal with at least the one of the transverse bar;
 a longitudinal bar, of diameter equal with at least 1.4 d.
6.3 The joining of the reinforcements
6.3.1 The selection of the joining system
6.3.1.1 The joining of the reinforcements is usually done in overlap without welding or through welding.
The joining through welding is mandatory in the case of bars with diameters 32 mm and is recommended
also for the bars with diameters 25 mm. The bars with the diameter under 10 mm are not joined through welding.
In the potential plastic areas of the elements included in the antiseismic structures the joining of the
reinforcements is avoided; in the cases when it cannot be avoided, the joining of all bars with diameter 16 mm is done
through welding. In the case of the vertical resistance elements of the leveled buildings (poles, curtains), this
specification is applied only for the basement level.
6.3.1.2 The longitudinal bars of the elements requested for centric stretching or for eccentric stretching with low
eccentricity (rods, the flat foundations of the farms etc.) are usually joined through welding. The annular reinforcements
of the cylindrical or angular recipients are an exception (reservoirs, storage bins etc.) for which the overlap joining is
permitted, within the following conditions:
 the reinforcements shall be made of round profile bars (PC 60, PC 52);
 the diameter of the reinforcement shall be 20 mm;
 the joining areas shall be displaced so that no more than 25% of the bars shall be joined wthin the
same area;
 the overlap length l
s
shall be 1.5 l
a
(for storage bin walls l
s
2 l
a
and l
s
60 d + 200 mm).
6.3.1.3 The welding is not permitted for the joining of the steel reinforcement whose physical and mechanical
properties have been improved through a mechanical procedure (drawn wire). This restriction does not refer also to the
spot welding from the welded hatches of the industrially produced meshes.
6.3.1.4 The joining is usually disposed in the areas with minimum stress in the reinforcement. At the vertical elements
(pillars, diafragms) the joining above the level of each floor is admitted. If these elements are included in antiseismic
structures, the specifications at subclause 6.2.1.2 and the restrictions regarding the basement level stipulated at
subclause 6.3.1.1 shall be taken into account.
6.3.2 Overlap joining
6.3.2.1 For the reinforcements made of hot rolled bars the necessary overlap length is determined through the formula:
l
s
= k
s
l
a
(194)
STAS 10107/090
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Where
l
a
according to formula (191);
k
s
= 1+ 0.5r
i
for reinforcements in plane areas;
k
s
= 1+ 0.25r
i
for reinforcements in compressed areas;
r
i
the ration between the area of the joined reinforcements in section i and the area of all the
reinforcements in the same section.
The reinforcements are displaced so that the conditions r
i
0.25 for the reinforcements in OB 37 and r
i
0.50
for those in PC 60 and PC 52 are respected.
6.3.2.2 For the streched reinforcements of the elements stressed during bending or eccentric compression (stretching
with high eccentricity), on the exception of the bands and poles included in antiseismic structures, if on the length of an
overlap joining the stress in the reinforcement is decreased so that at one extremity
a a
R 25 . 0 in the formula (194)
k
s
= 1 is admitted.
Instead of the
a a
R / ratio, the ratio between the bending moments from the respective sections can be taken
into account in a simplified manner.
6.3.2.3 For the reinforcements joined in the areas that under any charge group remain compression stressed, the
overlap joining length shall be of: 30 d for the elements made of concrete class < Bc 25 and 20 d in the case of those
made of concrete class Bc 25.
6.3.2.4 The joining of the welded meshes made of STNB following the direction of the resistance reinforcements is
done in overlap on the length of two loops plus 50 mm. The vertical joining of the welded meshes of monolith curtains
in the multileveled buildings is done in compliance with the technical specifications for the design of the structures with
monolith curtains.
6.3.2.5 For the elements made of armored concrete where the section dimension does not allow the insurance between
the bars to be joined of a space with thickness 1.2 d and at least 25 mm, they are permitted to be interposed without
interspaces and connected between themselves with wire on the length of the joining.
6.3.3 Welding joining
6.3.3.1 The joining of the reinforcements through welding is done through regular welding procedures, in compliance
with the technical specifications regarding the welding of the reinforced concrete reinforcements, where the minimum
necessary lengths of the welding belts are also indicated.
6.3.3.2 The welding belts are usually disposed symmetrically towards the reinforcement to be joined in order to
provide the centric transmission of the stress between the bars to be joined. The welding belts disposed asymmetrically
(on only one side of the reinforcement to be joined) are admitted only for the elements whose composition and
transverse reinforcing allow the taking over of the local supplementary stresses generated by the eccentric transmission
of the stress.
6.3.3.3 The sizing of the welding belts and of the strap bands is done according to the same procedure as for the
welded joining of the metallic constructions.
6.3.3.4 At the calculation test of the welding from the joining of the prefabricated elements included in antiseismic
structures the increase of the calculation stress shall be taken into account for unfavorable stress concentration from the
seismic activity, in compliance with the technical specifications for antiseismic design of the buildings.
6.3.3.5 At the setting of the distances between the bars of the longitudinal reinforcement the supplementary spaces
covered by the strap bands, metal molds etc. shall be considered, according to used joining system.
6.3.4 Other joining systems
6.3.4.1 The use of other joining systems than the ones described at subclauses 6.3.2 and 6.3.3 (for example, the joining
through mechanical devices, through metallic and thermic sleeves or through compression, through overlapped bundles
at the joining of the prefabricated elements etc.) is admitted based upon specific technical regulations or on
gomologated theoretical and experimental grounds.
6.3.4.2 At the joining through bundle, the internal bending angle of the bundles shall be at least equal to:
4 d for the bars of OB 37 with d < 20 mm;
6 d for the bars of OB 37 with d 20 mm;
6 d for the bars of PC 52, PC 60 with d < 20 mm;
8 d for the bars of PC 52, PC 60 with d 20 mm.
STAS 10107/090
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6.4 Supplementary specifications for pillars
6.4.1 These specifications refer to the pillars with significant axial stress
The reinforcing specifications are given differently for the following group of pillars:
 group A: the pillars being part in antiseismic structures included in class a from the category in
subclause 1.2.5.1 in the calculation seismic areas A E
 group B: the pillars being part in antiseismic structures included in class b and c from the
category in subclause 1.2.5.1 in the calculation seismic areas A E and in class a and b from the
category in subclause 1.2.5.2 in the calculation seismic area F;
 group C: the pillars not taking part in antiseismic structures, included in the category in
subclause 1.2.5.3 and pillars from class c included in the category in subclause 1.2.5.2 in the
calculation seismic area F
6.4.2 The concrete section
The dimensions of the section sides for the pillars with section of rectangular or other orthogonal shape (L, T,
cutting) shall be multiple of 50 mm.
The minimum sizes: 250 mm for the monolith pillars (for those with circular section D 250 mm) and 200
mm for the prefabricated ones with reduced stresses.
The ratio between the section sides is usually established h/b 2.5 (for the pillars with L, T, cutting shape
sections the limit refers to the ratio between the maximum dimensions on the two directions). The exceptions are the
pillars of the industrial halls with running pathways that have breaking portal and of other buildings for which on one
direction rigid bracing elements are included on the pole alignment, in which case increased values for the h/b ratio
derive. Furthermore, the pillars of the tall buildings structures of perforated tube type are also an exception.
6.4.3 The longitudinal reinforcements
6.4.3.1 The minimum and maximum diameters of the reinforcements:
 minimum diameters: 12 mm for bars of PC 60 and PC 52, 14 mm for bars of OB 37. For the pillars cast in the
plaster of the structures with mobile walls, these diameters can be decreased by 2 mm. For nonstructural pillars the
minimum diameter: 10 mm;
 maximum recommended diameters: 28 mm for pillars made of regular concrete and 22 mm for those made of
concrete with light aggregates.
6.4.3.2 Minimum and maximum distances between bars:
 the minimum free distance between bars: 50 mm;
 the maximum axistoaxis distance: 250 mm (fig. 38) The reinforcing is admitted only with four
bars disposed at the corners of the pole section, the sides of the section being 350 mm in the
case of the pillars in group A and 400 mm in the case of those in groups B and C. For the pillars
with circular section the minimum number of bars is six.
STAS 10107/090
75
6.4.3.3 The total percentage of longitudinal reinforcing p
p = % 100
) (
bh
total A
a
(195)
and the reinforcing percentages for each side shall be comprised within the following limits:
 the total reinforcing percentage shall not exceed 2.5%;
 the total minimum reinforcing percentages, according to table 25;
Table 25
Pillargroup
A B C
Longitudinal reinforcing made of steel type:
PC 60 PC 52 PC 37
PC 60 PC
52
PC 37
PC 60 PC
52
PC 37
Pillar type
Total minimum reinforcing percentage p, %
Internal 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.6
Marginal 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.7
Corner 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.8
0.4 0.5
NOTE:  For the onelevel buildings, with roof beams articulated on pillars (example: industrial halls with structures made
of prefabricated elements), for all the pillars, including the marginal and corner ones, the minimum reinforcing percentages
for internal pillars given in table 25 are valid.
 the minimum reinforcing percentage for each side of the section 0.20%.
In the cases when due to reasons of ensuring the necessary rigidity, for side displacements or for other justified
reasons, the concrete section of the pillars is increased compared to the one imposed by the sizing at eccentric
compression, so that the longitudinal reinforcement derives as constructively dimensioned, the total reinforcing
percentages can be decreased by 20% compared to the minimum values given in table 25, provided that the reinforcing
percentage for each side shall not go under:
 0.15% for pillars in group A;
 0.10% for the pillars in group B and C.
6.4.3.4 The maximum admitted slope for the deviation of the longitudinal reinforcements on the band height at the
section exchange of the pillars is 1/6.
6.4.4 The transverse reinforcements
6.4.4.1 The distance between clamps on the pillar height shall be 15 d (d  the minimum diameter of the longitudinal
reinforcements) but at the most 200 mm for pillars in group A and the most 300 mm for the pillars in group B and C.
6.4.4.2 For the pillars in group A, clamps are introduced at reduced distances compared to the ones stated at subclause
6.4.4.1, in the following cases:
 in the potential plastic areas from the lower extremities of the pillars included in the resistance structures of each level,
in all cases;
 in the potential plastic areas from the upper extremities of the pillars included in frames of the multileveled current
structures, of each level, if
n = 3 . 0
0
c
R bh
N
 in the potential plastic areas from the upper extremities of the pillars included in frames of the resistance structures,
whose shape allows the development of certain significant plastic deformations and in these areas (examples: the frames
with solid plaster filling, where the local displacement of the plaster from the pillars under powerful seismic actions can
transform the respective area of the pillar in short pillar or the pillars of the structures where, at certain levels, the
structural walls are interrupted for functional reasons).
The positions and the length of the potential plastic areas l
p
are determined according to the specifications at
subclause J.2 from the Annex J.
On the length l
p
, the distance between clamps a
e
shall comply with the conditions a
e
Sd (dthe minimum
diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement) a
e
5 / h (h the dimension of the big side of the pillar section) and
a
e
100 mm.
STAS 10107/090
76
6.4.4.3 For the pillars in group A , the straight segments from the extremities of the clamp hooks shall be of 10 d,
instead of 5 d as stated in subclause 6.2.2.1 and fig. 37.
6.4.4.4 On the overlap joining lengths of the longitudinal reinforcements, for all pillar groups, the clamps shall be
compacted, respecting the same conditions as for 6.4.4.2.
In the case of the joining at the pillar bottom from groups A and B, compacted clamps are introduced starting
from the upper side of the foundations on the distance to the extremity of the segment of length l
p
measured from the
upper side of the floor tiles.
6.4.4.5 For the pillars in group A where the ratio between the free height and the biggest side of the transversal section
is H
s
/h 3 (short pillars) the clamps are compacted according the specifications stated at subclause 6.4.4.2 for the entire
height of the respective level.
6.4.4.6 The diameter of the clamps shall be of the maximum diameter of the longitudinal reinforcements, but at
least 6 mm, on the exception of the diameter of the perimeter clamps of the pillars in group A that shall be least 8 mm.
6.4.4.7 The necessity of using nonperimeter clamps is established taking into account the following:
 at the pillars in group A, each longitudinal bar shall be usually connected to a clamp corner or to a clip (fig.
39a).The longitudinal bars are permitted to be connected only to every two clamp corners or to the clip (fig. 39b) if the
distance between two of their consecutive branches is 200 mm. Also, at the pillars of the constructions in the
calculation seismic area F only perimeter clamps are permitted to be introduced, besides the potential plastic areas, on
the sides sized 400 mm, with three bars per side;
 at the pillars in group B and C nonperimeter clamps are introduced when they have over 3 longitudinal bars
per side, if the size of the big section side is > 400 mm and when they have over 4 longitudinal bars per side, if the size
of the big section side is 400 mm.
6.4.4.8 The transversal reinforcing on the direction of side b of the pillar section is calculated according to the
formula:
(%) 100
b a
n A
p
e
e e
e
= (196)
Where
A
e
the section area of the clamp arm;
n
e
the number of clamp arms intersected by a plan parallel with the b side;
a
e
the distance between clamps on the pillar height.
NOTE the marking A
e
and n
e
refer also to the clip.
On the direction of each side the transversal reinforcing ratio shall be:
 for the pillars in group B and C: p
e
0.10 %;
 for the pillars in category A:
o outside the potential plastic areas;
p
e
0.15 %
o in the potential plastic areas:
STAS 10107/090
77
if 4 . 0
( ) n
R
R
p
a
e
e
+ 4 . 0 10 (197)
if 0.4 <
b
( ) ) 4 . 0 ( 50 . 0 4 . 0 10 + + n
R
R
p
a
e
e
(198)
where
n according to subclause 6.4.1
b
, according to subclause 3.2.3
6.4.5 In the case of hooped pillars, in the forming of the transverse reinforcement (hooped reinforcement) the
following shall be respected:
 the pitch of the hooped reinforcement shall comply with the requirements:
50 mm s 80 mm and s d
5
1
Where d
s
has the significance from subclause 3.2.9;
 the diameter of the hooped reinforcement 6 mm;
 the longitudinal reinforcing ratio, compared to the area of the band concrete core shall be:
% 5 . 0 100
4
) (
2
=
s
a
d
total A
p
6.5 Supplementary specifications for beams
6.5.1 At the sizing of the concrete sections of the beams the following conditions shall be taken into account:
 the average reinforcing ratio, compared to the operational section of the core (bh
0
) shall usually be comprised within
the following economic limits: for the monolith beams 0.8 1.8 %, at the prefabricated beams 1.0 2.0%;
 the stress level for cutting force are comprised within the limits stipulated at subclause 3.3.2;
 the deformations shall be comprised within the limits stipulated at subclause 3.9;
 in the case of the prefabricated beams and of the monolith beams, with the compressed foundation not transversally
reinforced, the transverse stability shall be ensured during execution and for the finished construction.
At the establishment of the transverse sections dimensions of the frames bands included in antiseismic
structures, the requirements for ensuring a sufficient stiffness towards the pillars shall be taken into account, in
compliance with the detailed stipulations from the technical specifications for structures with multileveled frames.
6.5.1.2 For the beams stressed under bending with torsion for which the ratio between the torsion moment and the
bending moment is bigger than 1/3, the ratio between the section sides is recommended to be b/h 0.5.
6.5.1.3 For the monolith beams, the dimensions of the transverse section are usually set as multiple of 50 mm for
h 800 mm and multiple of 100 mm for h > 800 mm.
6.5.2 The longitudinal resistance reinforcements
6.5.2.1 The minimum diameter for the longitudinal resistance reinforcements: 10 mm. For the beams made of light
concrete, the bars with diameter over 12 mm shall be of periodic profile steel.
STAS 10107/090
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6.5.2.2 The spaces between bars (fig. 40) shall be at least equal to the diameter of the bars and at least equal to 30 mm
for the reinforcements in the upper side (the side through which the concrete is casted) and of 25 mm for the
reinforcements in the lower side. One of the spaces between the bars in the upper side (preferably in the beam axis) is
increased by at least 50 mm, in order to allow the introduction of the previbrator.
The reinforcements are recommended to be disposed on at the most two layers. In the special situations when
reinforcements are necessary also on a third layer, these are disposed as seen in fig. 40, at axistoaxis distances,
doubled in comparison with the ones admitted for the bars within the first two layers.
The distance between the axis of the bars in flat areas shall as a rule be of max. 200 mm.
6.5.2.3 The maximum permitted reinforcing ratios derive from the compliance with the specifications at subclause
3.2.3. The minimum reinforcing ratios within the flat areas are given in table 26.
Table 26
Type of beam Minimum reinforcement
percentage in the plane areas,
p
min
%
Beams not representing frame rulers eith the reinforcement percentage resulted
from calculation is p 0.10%
0.05 p
min
= 1.15p 0.10
For the
reinforcements
ment to take over
the negative
moments on the
bearings
0.45
AE
For the other
stretched
reinforcements
0.15
Participating to anti
seismic structures in the
seismic calculus areas
F 0.10
Frame rules
Nonparticipating to antiseismic structures 0.10
Concrete cast
direction
STAS 10107/090
79
6.5.2.4 In the bearing sections of the bands of frames included in the antiseismic structures, the ratio between the
reinforcing quantity from the lower part and the one from the upper part shall be of at least 0.3 in constructions within
the seismic calculation areas D and E and at least 0.4 in the ones within areas A, B and C. The anchoring and the joining
of these reinforcements is ensured as for bars stressed under stretching, even if from the calculation at the conventional
seismic forces according to the technical specifications they derived as stressed only under compression. For the
anchorages on bearings of the reinforcements at the lower part the forming from fig. 41 is recommended.
6.5.2.5 In the case of reinforcing with individual bars forming wireconnected cases inclined bars can be used. The
inclination angle is usually 45. The inclined reinforcements shall have at extremity a flat segment with a length of at
least 10 d in the compressed areas and of at least 20 d in the areas where stretching stresses can occur. The use of
inclined reinforcements under the form of floating bars, as seen in fig. 42, is not admitted.
In the inclined sections of the bars, the flat and the inclined areas are joined through a curve with the compass
10 d.
6.5.2.6 At all categories of beams provided with inclines bars, at least a third of the field reinforcements are kept
straight up to the bearings and are anchored beyond the bearings as bars stressed under stretching if other conditions do
not occur (significant positive bending moments in the bearing areas, or within the situations described at subclause
6.5.2.4) that demand the necessity of maintaining a larger amount straight bars up to the bearings.
6.5.2.7 In order to establish the sections from which the longitudinal reinforcements can be interrupted or inclined, the
equivalent of a section in which a bar is used at the maximum is the section in which the bar is entirely necessary from
the dimensioning at bending moment, measured as in fig. 43a, on the folding diagram of the peak bending moments,
prolonged (expanded) by the length h/2. The supplementary distance h/2 serves to ensure and to take over the bending
moments in inclined sections.
STAS 10107/090
80
A longitudinal bar (fig. 43b) can be interrupted beyond the section where it is used at the maximum (I) at a
distance l that shall comply with the requirements:
a
l l where l
a
is determined according to subclause 6.2.1;
II I
l l
,
where section II is the one where the bar is no longer necessary from estimation.
On the length l it is admitted that the stress from the bar is decreased until zero.
For an inclined bar (fig. 43 c) the inclination can begin from section I and the stress is considered to decrease
until zero on the length l
i
of the inclined side, whose extremity shall, consequently, go beyond section II. If the inclined
bar is necessary from calculation for overtaking the cutting force, th condition shall be additionally complied with (fig.
43 d):
a
i
l l
l
+
2
2
where l
2
is determined according to subclause 6.5.2.5.
Expanded diagram
Folding diagram of
the max. moments
M
m
a
x
(
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
)
STAS 10107/090
81
6.5.2.8 For the beams where the inclined bars derive as necessary from calculation, the first inclination section starting
from the bearing shall be disposed at a distance of at the most 50 mm from the extremity of the bearing. The distances
to the next inclination sections are established on the grounds of the cutting force test, respecting the condition that any
inclined crack intersects the transversal reinforcements necessary in overtaking the cutting force in the respective area,
in compliance with the specifications at subclause 3.3.2.5. The distance between the first and the second inclination
section starting from the bearing is recommended not to exceed the height of the beam.
6.5.3 Assembling longitudinal reinforcements
6.5.3.1 In the areas where the beams do not require resistance longitudinal reinforcements at the upper part,
assembling reinforcements are provided, namely a bar at each clamp corner.
For the beams with height exceeding 700 mm, intermediary assembling reinforcements are provided on their
lateral sides, at distances of at the most 400 mm on the beam height, connected among themselves through transverse
clips, provided for every two clamps.
6.5.3.2 The minimum admitted diameters of the longitudinal assembling reinforcements are given in table 27, but are
not inferior to the diameter of the clamps, or of the transverse bars in the case of welded cases.
Table 27
Cases connected with wire, executed from
steel type:
PC 60, PC 52 OB 37
Welded cases
Position of reinforcements
The minimum diameters of the longitudinal assembling
reinforcements
mm
at the upper part of the beam 8 10(8) 6(5)
on the lateral sides of the beam 6 8 5
The values within brackets are given for prefabricated beams.
6.5.4 Transverse reinforcements
6.5.4.1 The minimum diameters of the clamps for wireconnected cases:
 of the maximum diameter of the longitudinal reinforcements;
 6 mm for beams with h 800 mm;
 8 mm for beams with h > 800 mm.
At the welded cases, in the establishment of the diameters of the transverse bars, besides the conditions of
resistance to cutting force, the factors that shall be taken into account are the possibility of achieving a corresponding
welding regime and the necessity of ensuring the nondeformability of the case during transport and assembling as well
as during the concrete cast of the beam. The minimum admitted diameter: 4 mm.
6.5.4.2 For beams with width over 400 mm clamps are provided with at least four arms.
6.5.4.3 Claused clamps are provided:
 on the entire length of the independent beams, without plate at the upper foundation;
 in the areas where resistance reinforcements are provided and at the upper part of the beams included in the
floors, or have a plate at the upper foundation (Tshaped sections).
6.5.4.4 The maximum admitted distances between clamps and between the transverse bars of the welded cases a
e
:
 on the segments where compressed reinforcement is provided resulted from the calculation: a
e
15 d for the
beams made of regular concrete and a
e
10 d for those made of light concrete (where d is the minimum diameter of the
longitudinal reinforcements from the compressed area);
 in the potential plastic areas of the bands of the frames included in antiseismic structures on the lengths
determined according to subclause J.3 from annex J: a
e
200 mm; a
e
h/4
 in the rest of the cases: a
e
300 mm; a
e
h.
STAS 10107/090
82
6.5.4.5 At the beams included in antiseismic structures, designed for calculation seismic areas A..B the ration of
transverse reinforcing(with clamps) p
c
in the potential plastic areas shall be p
c
0.20%.
6.5.4.6 The necessity and forming of the transverse reinforcements of the ribs in the floors with compacted ribs, with
or without filling unitarys, are stipulated in the technical specifications for such type of floors.
6.5.5 The reinforcing of the beams stressed under bending with torsion
6.5.5.1 These stipulations refer to the beams for which from the stress during torsion the supplementary
reinforcements derive in addition to the ones necessary for overtaking the bending moments and the cutting forces.
6.5.5.2 The supplementary longitudinal reinforcements necessary for taking over the torsion moments, determined
according to relation (53) are distributed as evenly as possible on the section perimeter and first of all at the four corners
(fig. 44). These reinforcements are anchored and joined according to the specifications for bars stressed during
stretching.
6.5.5.3 The transverse reinforcement for overtaking the stress moments, determined according to formula (52) is
achieved through the supplementation of the perimeter clamps.
All the perimeter clamps are provided as seen in fig. 44 with the upper horizontal arms overlapped on the
entire length of the beam but at least on a length equal to l
a
6.5.6 The reinforcing of the short console
For the short asymmetric console (fig. 45a) the reinforcements for taking over the bending moment shall be
anchored at extremities by the length l
a
determined according to the relation (191).
The distance between clamps shall be of max. 150 mm.
STAS 10107/090
83
6.6. Supplementary specifications for platforms
6.6.1 The thickness of the platforms
6.6.1.1 At the sizing of the thickness of the platforms the following conditions shall be taken into account:
 as a rule, the average reinforcing ratio shall fit within the following economic limits: under 0.8% for platforms
reinforced on one direction and under 0.5% for those reinforced on two directions;
 the deformations shall fit within the limits admitted at the subclause 3.9;
 for the civil buildings the necessary mass shall be ensured for the achievement of insulation towards aerial noise,
stipulated within technical specifications;
 for the industrial, multileveled buildings and in general for the platforms with large concentrated loads, as well as for
platformd leaned directly on pillars (without beams) the piercing resistance shall be ensured in compliance with the
specifications at subclause 3.3.8.
6.6.1.2 The minimum admitted thickness: 60 mm for the monolith platforms, 30 mm for the prefabricated ones, in the
conditions when the thickness of the concrete covering layer of the reinforcements determined according to subclause
6.1 the minimum one of 10 mm derives. Any necessary increase in the thickness of the concrete covering layer in
comparison with this value according to specifications at subclause 6.1 is added also to the minimum admitted thickness
of the platform.
The minimum admitted thicknesses for the floor platforms in cabinets, floors with compacted ribs, tile
platforms, semicircular floors, rafts etc. are stipulated in the technical specifications of the respective types of
structures.
6.6.1.3 As a rule, the thicknesses of the platforms shall be multiple of 10 mm.
6.6.2 Reinforcements
6.6.2.1 The platforms can be reinforced with welded meshes or with bars mounted individually forming wire
connected meshes. For the works prefabricated platforms, including for the ones of the prefabricated ribbed elements,
the reinforcing is usually achieved from welded meshes. The use of welded meshes is recommended also for the
monolith or yard prefabricated platforms, with the compliance with the technical specifications regarding the use
procedure of the industrially produced welded meshes.
6.6.2.2 The minimum diameters of the resistance reinforcements:
 for the bars of the wireconnected meshes: 6 mm for the flat bars at the lower part of the platform, and for the
inclined ones or disposed at the upper part, 6 mm if they are made of PC 60 or PC 52 and 8 mm if they are made of OB
37;
 for the welded meshes: 5 mm for the elements made of monolith reinforced concrete, 4 mm for the
prefabricated elements.
6.6.2.3 In the flat areas, the minimum number of bars per meter according to the thickness h
p
of the platform:
 for h
p
300 mm: 5 bars per meter;
 for 300 mm < h
p
400 mm: 4 bars per meter;
 for h
p
> 400 mm: 3 bars per meter.
The maximum amount of bars in the field and on bearings: 12 bars per meter.
6.6.2.4 The minimum reinforcing ratios are the ones given in table 23 for the case of the beams that do not represent
calculation bands.
6.6.2.5 In the case of reinforcing with wireconnected meshes, it is not recommended to use inclined bars except for
the continuous platforms with openings over 2 m. The inclination sections are placed at large enough distances from the
extremity of the bearings (usually 1/5 of the free light of the platform in the respective opening), so that the inclined
bars can be efficiently used in taking over the negative moments from the bearings.
At platforms with high loads (for example, radiation), in special cases when Q> 0.75 and therefore the use of
the inclined bars is necessary for taking over the cutting forces, the inclination sections are provide starting from the
immediate proximity of the bearings.
STAS 10107/090
84
6.6.2.6 The reinforcements from the upper part of the platform for the taking over of the negative moments on bearings
are prolonged on both sides of the bearing so that they cover the entire area of negative moments. If an estimation of the
necessary length l
c
is not done (fig. 46) l
c
= is considered for each side of the bearing, out of the biggest of the freee
lights l
0(1)
and l
0(2)
?? of the adjacent openings.
6.6.2.7 At the platforms with temporary high loads in comparison with the permanent loads, for which negative
bending moments can occur in fields, corresponding lengths l
c
are provided bigger than the ones provided at subclause
6.6.2.6, a continuous reinforcing at the upper part of the platform being possible to be achieved. The reinforcing at the
upper part is admitted to be provided only for the segments where the negative field moments overpass the capable
moment of the nonreinforced section, calculated according the relation (72).
6.6.2.8 At the plates reinforced only on one direction (fig. 47), the following constructive reinforcements are provided
on the perpendicular direction on the one of the resistance reinforcements:
 in the plane areas in the field and on the bearings, a repartition reinforcement having the section, per meter, equal with
at least 15% of the section, per meter, of the resistance reinforcement for the regular floors and 25% at the ones with
large concentrated loads, but at least 4 bars 6 mm, per meter, in the case of reinforcingwith wireconnected meshes,
respectively at least 5 bars 5 mm, per meter, at the welded meshes;
 for the taking over of the local encasing moments on the continuity bearings from the direction of the large side (l
1
),
riders are provided (individual or welded bars) which shall comply the specifications given at subclauses 6.6.2.2
6.6.2.4 for the resistance reinforcements, prolonged on both sides of the bearing by l
2
/4.
6.6.2.9 At the prefabricated platforms (panels, semipanels etc.) local supplementary reinforcements are provided for
the processing of the requests within the transport and assembly stages, according to the positioning of the hanging
points.
6.6.2.10 In the case of the prefabricated platforms through overconcreting of the type of pretiles, the specifications for
execution and reinforcement provided for by the specific technical regulations for pretiles shall also be taken into
account.
6.7 Data to be included in the execution projects of the elements made of reinforced concrete
6.7.1 In the execution projects of the elements made of reinforced concrete the following shall be specified:
 the concrete class and the concrete type in the case of special concretes (with light aggregates, with small
aggregates etc.);
 the concrete mark if special concretes are needed;
 the steel type for each reinforcement;
 the thickness of the concrete covering, if these do not explicitly derive from the clamps quotas.
STAS 10107/090
85
6.7.2 For the prefabricated elements the following are supplementary specified in the projects (in the case of type
elements, in catalogues):
 the geometrical tolerances;
 the minimum necessary dimensions of the bearing surfaces;
 the connecting parts for lifting, manipulation and assembling;
 the potential special conditions for manipulation, storage, transport and assembling;
 if stability ensuring measures are necessary during assembling.
6.7.3 For prefabricated type elements, intended to the industrial production, the necessary data for the periodical
quality tests are moreover specified in the catalogues: the loading scheme, the load size, the sizes to be measured
(arrows, crack openings, etc.).
7 SPECIFICATIONS REGARDING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ELEMENTS MADE
OF PRECOMPRESSED CONCRETE
7.1 General
7.1.1 In the selection of the transverse and longitudinal sections of the elements as well as for the minimum
dimensions, the execution, transport and assembling technology shall be also taken into account. In this context, the
emphasis shall be laid on avoiding the solutions for which during execution significant unfavorable demands can occur
(for example from the filling of the elements in forming during precompression).
7.1.2 The constructive specifications regarding the bearing of the element or the connections with the structure
where it is included shall correspond to the calculation schemes adopted for the execution and service stages. Therefore,
at the elements for which the specific weight is considered to enter into operation during precompression a non
compactable bearing at the extremities of the element shall be provided in the project. If this condition cannot be
applied, devices to allow the gradual descintrare of the element during precompression shall be provided.
Measures also shall be taken to ensure the integral transmission, over the concrete element of the pre
compression stress developed by the prestressed reinforcements, for which the element bearings shall allow the free
shortening during precompression.
7.1.3 In adopting solutions, the succession of several technological stages shall be monitored not to lead to large
time intervals between the mounting of the prestressed reinforcements and their protection after prestress. Within the
contrary situation, the stipulation in the project of the reinforcement temporary protection on the grounds of special
specifications is necessary.
The contact of the prestressed reinforcements with parts made of other metals is forbidden.
7.1.4 The prestressed reinforcements shall comply with the technical specifications indicated at subclause
7.3 and 7.4.
7.1.5 The complementary not prestressed reinforcements or those with constructive role (passive) in the elements
made of precompressed concrete shall comply with the specifications at clause 6, with the following notes:
a) The minimum ratio not prestressed reinforcement disposed on the same direction as the prestressed
reinforcement is 0.05%. In the areas with prestretched reinforcement the minimum reinforcing ratio is permitted to be
respected by the sum of the prestressed and not prestressed reinforcements.
At the construction elements that have to provide impermeability, the minimum ratios are increased according
to the stipulations within the technical specifications.
b) In the flat areas of the section where prestressed reinforcements estimated as necessary are not to be found,
and where unitaryary stretching stresses in concrete over 0.5 R
t
are admitted, not prestressed reinforcements are
provided within the following minimum ratios, compared to the concrete flat surface area:
 0.15% for reinforcements with periodic profile and welded SNTB meshes with loops of 10 cm;
 0.20% for other types of reinforcement.
c) The reinforcing of the transmission areas is done according to the stipulations at subclause 7.5.
STAS 10107/090
86
7.1.6 The not prestressed reinforcement of type PC 60 or PC 52 can be used as complementary reinforcement for
the prestressed reinforcements of type SBP, SBPA, TBP, for elements made of partially precompressed concrete with
average precompression that fits within the test specifications of class II, according to table 19 with the following
recommendations and notes:
 the minimum diameter of the complementary not prestressed reinforcements is of 8 mm, and the minimum
distance between them is of 15 d;
 in the case of curved elements, the placement of prestressed and not prestressed reinforcements at different
levels is recommended, the not prestressed reinforcement being placed as clause as possible to the stretched working
extremity of the section;
 at the reinforcing of elements with short bearing lengths, the not prestressed reinforcing is provided upon
necessity on the entire length of the element or only locally, but with an anchorage according to subclause 6.2.1.
7.1.7 Out of technological considerations the elements can be obtained from prefabricated blocks assembled through
precompression.
The separation joints between unitarys are recommended to be pale and perpendicular on the direction of the
precompression stress.
If the angle between the joint surface and the direction of the precompression stress decreases under 70, the
joint is toothed, having one of the sides perpendicular on the direction of the precompression stress within the section.
The disposal of the joints in the sections with maximum stresses is recommended to be avoided.
In the case that the reestablishment in the joint of the not prestressed reinforcement continuity is stipulated,
the joint dimensions in the respective areas shall allow the achievement of the reinforcement joining and concreting
within appropriate conditions.
It is recommended to avoid the elements and the structures achieved from unitarys where the same joint is
cuttinged by channels for prestressed reinforcements disposed in several planes and different directions.
The special conditions to be ensured during service shall also be taken into account in the establishment of the
joint shape (for example the impermeability conditions, that impose for the joint shape to allow the application of the
material or of the sealing liner.
In the case of the achievement of the concrete elements successively cast in the definitive placement, the
ensurance of the not prestressed reinforcement continuity in the cast joints is mandatory.
7.1.8 The implementation of one of the following alternatives of joint execution is recommended:
a) the concrete cast in large spaces of 100 200 mm, with additional improvement measures of the joint with
the concrete within the elements (proofprinting of the surface, reinforcement branches, etc.).
Mesh shaped reinforcements are provided in the joints.
The concrete class in the joint shall be equal to the concrete class within the element.
b) the filling with mated cast or injected mortar, within narrow enclosures, the following thicknesses being
recommended: for this purpose:
15 30 mm for elements with height up to 1.5 m
35 55 mm for elements with height over 1.5 m
At the evaluation of the joint thickness the admitted tolerances shall be taken into account for the length of the
elements unitarys.
The resistance of the binder in the joint shall correspond to the concrete class in the element. For the joints
with thickness up to 25 mm, the resistance per cube at the transfer of the binder in the joint can be decreased by up to
30% in comparison to the one of the concrete, but shall be at least 20 N/mm
2
.
c) The fixing of the brocks or panels with epoxidic resins, the thickness of the joint shall be of maximum 1
mm; for this purpose the perfect pitching of the surfaces shall be achieved.
In all the cases the constructive solution to ensure the continuity and sealing of the joint channels shall be
introduced within a project.
7.1.9 For the mixed elements, the joined work of the prefabricated parts of precompressed concrete with the
subsequently cast concrete shall be ensured.
The constructive details for the insurance of the joined work, as well as for the reinforcement of the
subsequently cast concrete, are stipulated according to technical specifications or according to experimental conclusive
data.
STAS 10107/090
87
7.1.10 At the establishment of the precision class of the element and of the forming, the specifications of STAS
6657 / 189 shall be taken into account.
7.1.11 At the design of the special elements of precompressed concrete, for example of the elements with wide and
slim platform (for roofs), of reduced dimensions or with high stresses in the proximity of the bearings, the additional
constructive conditions given in the technical specifications shall be also complied with.
7.2 Technical details and requirements to be included in the execution design for prestressed
concrete elements
7.2.1 The quality of the steel for prestressed and not stressed reinforcements, as well as the indication of the
respective specifications.
7.2.2 The connection radii in the deviation points, the quotation of the tangential points and of bending change.
7.2.3 The execution manner of the channels, as well as the sealing at the coats joining and at the cuttinging of the
channels through the joints between the brocks.
7.2.4 The placement points of the injection and air evacuation holes, as well as the details for their constructive
execution.
7.2.5 At prestretched reinforcements, the special measures that shall be taken in the case when the distances
between anchorages derive lower than the values specified within the regulations of the used prestress technological
procedure (the deviation of the reinforcements, the anchorage overlapping etc.).
7.2.6 The placement points and the details for the constructive execution of the devices ensuring the maintenance of
the correct positioning of the prestressed reinforcements, as well as the maximum admitted deviations compared to
their designed position.
7.2.7 The assembling order of several components of the reinforcement, the concrete class, the test resistances
during transfer and potentially during other stages (of forming, manipulation, delivery, etc.), as well as the brand of the
airplaced binder, respectively the protection concrete class.
7.2.8 At the assembled elements within the unitarys, the shape and size of the joints, the treatment manner of the
contact surface within the joint, the bearing manner of the brocks and the filling manner of the joints, the brand of the
binder within the joints, as well as its minimum resistance admitted in the precompression moment, the details
necessary for the execution, the bearing and the monolith transformation process of these elements.
7.2.9 At the mixed elements, the treatment manner of the contact surfaces of the prefabricated parts, the bearing
manner of these parts during execution etc.
7.2.10 The constructive measures to be taken in order to ensure the entering into operation of the specific weight of
the element at the ending of the precompression operation.
7.2.11 The prestress program of the joints, including:
 the constructive measures to be taken in order to ensure the static scheme considered at design for the pre
compression stage;
 the prestress order of the reinforcements;
 the size of the test unitaryary stress and the limits of the elongations for each prestressed reinforcement (for
the case of the post stretched reinforcements);
 the indication of the packs to be simultaneously prestressed;
 in the case of gradual prestress of the reinforcements, the minimum resistance of the concrete, the amount of
stretched reinforcements and the test unitaryary stress corresponding to each stage;
 the size of the technological stress losses taken into account; for the elements with prestretched
reinforcement it is recommended for the technological losses to be indicated both for the execution on portable printer
and for fixed support.
7.2.12 The responsibility of verification through direct measurements at the precompression of the first elements of
construction, of the effective diagram forceelongation for the pack, of the real stress losses due to the fictions on route,
as well as of the local displacements in anchorages, according to the execution regulations, in order to finalize the pre
stress program defined at subclause 7.2.11.
STAS 10107/090
88
7.2.13 The responsibility to announce and to establish through mutual agreement with the design engineer the
measures to be taken in the case that at the prestress of the poststretched reinforcements, the elongations do not fit
within the limits stipulated through the prestress program defined after the tests ad evaluations undergone on the
construction site.
7.2.14 The maximum time period between prestress and the execution of the reinforcement protection coating and
the requirement, if necessary, that during the execution and the hardening of the prestressed reinforcement protection
coating, the element shall be exposed with a given load ( for example the cement layer for the protection of the
reinforcements at recipients).
7.2.15 The bearing, lifting and storage manipulation procedure, the transport and assembling of the prefabricated and
precast elements.
7.2.16 In the case of elements placed in adverse environments, the special terms that shall be ensured during
execution, the protection solution of the surfaces of elements in contact with the adverse environment, the mandatory
conditions for their permanent maintenance during service.
7.2.17 In the case of stipulation of tests, loading schemes and the test values established according to the concrete
resistance at the test date, to the reinforcement resistance and to the stress losses within the prestressed reinforcement
occurred until the test moment.
7.2.18 The execution stages about which the design engineer shall be announced
7.2.19 The tolerance requirements during execution regarding the dimensions of the elements, the positioning of the
reinforcements, the size of the joints, the concrete coatings (taking into account the potential surface treating as for
example the bush hammering of masonry).
7.2.20 Specific reception conditions of the prefabricated elements.
7.2.21 The breviary of the calculation notes
7.2.22 Special measures of labor safety
NOTE: The data stipulated at subclause 7.2.1 7.2.22 are not restrictive, the design engineer having the duty to further
specify any other data necessary for the appropriate construction execution, insurance of security and normal construction
operation.
7.3 Specific specifications for elements with prestretched reinforcement
7.3.1 For the elements directly exposed to adverse weather conditions or to the action of aggressive environments,
the use of prestressed reinforcements is recommended, with a minimum diameter of 4 mm in the case of individual
wires and of 3 mm in the case of stranded wires. For aggresive environments additional specifications given in special
regulations are applied.
7.3.2 The details regarding the adopted prestress procedure are established in compliance with the indications of the
issuer of the respective procedure. For the prestress of the reinforcements with length lower than 6 m, the use of
procedures leading to reduced values of the displacements in anchoring (max. 3 mm) is recommended, as well as their
appointment within a variation field as limited as possible.
7.3.3 It is recommended to stipulate that the transfer shall be done slowly, especially for the elements stressed by
loadings leading to the fatigue phenomenon.
For the elements where the transfer is done suddenly (through the reinforcement cutting) the prescribed cutting
order shall not lead to the exceeding of the individual stresses admitted during transfer.
7.3.4 At the deflecting of the reinforcements the deviation angle is recommended not to exceed:
25 for SBP and TBP
15 for reinforcements of type PC with the diameter 20 mm;
10 for reinforcements of type PC with the diameter 20 mm.
The deflection is adopted only in cases well justified from the technical and economical perspectives.
7.3.5 The minimum distance (the light) between the reinforcements placed at the lower part (in comparison with the
concrete cast direction) is taken as equal with the highest of the values:
 the nominal diameter of the reinforcement;
 15 mm;
 the maximum size of the aggregate (d
agr
) + 5 mm.
STAS 10107/090
89
Based on conclusive experimental verifications, other disposals within the section of the prestretched
reinforcements can also be chosen (for example, reinforcements clause to certain areas).
For the reinforcements at the upper part, the minimum distance is established according to the cast and
compression procedure for the concrete that shall not be lower than the one stipulated at the first subclause.
7.3.6 In the case of the partially prestressed concrete elements with average prestress the reinforcement of type
SBPA, TBP is recommended to be distributed in continuous manner along the lateral edges of the flat area at distances
not exceeding 6 d. For a more strict delimitation of the crack opening, especially for the cracks remaining under the
long term loading during service at the level of the prestretched reinforcement the disposal of certain prestressed
reinforcements with periodic profile and reduced diameter is recommended in the proximity of the prestressed
reinforcements, towards the lateral edges of the section.
7.3.7 The use of systems for decrease of the adherence between the reinforcements and concrete, on certain areas or
for its improvement, can be done only according to special instructions or significant experimental tests regarding the
stability of the parameters within the current production.
7.3.8 The minimum thickness of the concrete coating of the prestretched reinforcements from the elements placed
in nonaggresive environments is considered equal to:
 15 mm for SBP and SBPA reinforcements in platforms with thickness 100 mm;
 20 mm for SBP and SBPA reinforcements in the other elements;
 20 mm for TBP reinforcements in platforms with thickness 100 mm;
 25 mm for TBP reinforcement in the other elements;
 d (nominal diameter) but at least 15 mm for prestretched reinforcements of PC type, in platforms with the
thickness 100 mm;
 d (nominal diameter) but at least 20 mm for prestretched reinforcements of PC type, in the other elements.
The minimum thicknesses aboveindicated shall be correlated with the minimum coatings of the not pre
stressed reinforcements from the current section and from the extremity areas.
Taking into account the state within these areas the increase of the coatings is recommended so that a good
reinforcement anchorage is achieved.
7.3.9 In certain special situations the minimum coating of the prestressed reinforcements (subclause 7.3.8) is
modified as follows:
a) for the unprotected elements subject to aggresive weather conditions, the minimum coating is increased by 5
mm;
b) for the elements that are in contact with the ground the minimum coating shall be of 50 mm, no matter the
reinforcement type.
7.3.10 The increase by 5mm of the coating is recommended (resulted according to subclause 7.3.8 and 7.3.9 towards
the cast side of the element in the case when this one is not subsequently protected.
7.3.11 The coating stipulated at sublauses 7.3.8 and 7.3.9 can be reduced by 5 mm (without going under 15 mm) if
the element is to be found in any of the following cases:
 the areas where the prestressed reinforcement is to be found are protected with plaster (min. M 100) having
the thickness of minimum 15 mm;
 the concrete compacting is done through centrifugation.
7.3.12 In the case of action of aggresive environments, of fire, of abrasion etc. the minimum coating is increased
according to the technical specific regulations.
7.3.13 The coatings exceeding 40 mm shall be mandatory provided with not prestressed reinforcements. For coatings
bigger than 60 mm, the not prestressed reinforcements shall comply with the terms at subclause 7.1.6.
7.3.14 In the case that monolith transformations are not specified at the extremities of the elements with prestretched
reinforcements, the branches of the reinforcements coming out of the concrete section are protected by the application
of a binder layer indicated at subclauses 7.38 and 7.3.9 or through the application of layers of protection materials
(asphaltic plastics), on the grounds of specific technical regulations.
7.4 Specific regulations for elements with poststretched reinforcements
7.4.1 The characteristics of the prestress procedures with poststretched reinforcement are established through
specific technical regulations.
In the Annex I the main constructive properties are given for the prestress procedures with reinforcement of
type SBP and TBP.
STAS 10107/090
90
The properties of the pre stress procedures with bars of type PC as well as of the prestress through folding
procedures are considered in compliance with the specific technical regulations.
7.4.2 At the establishment of the reinforcement with poststretched fascicle, their decrease shall be attempted by
using fascicles and choosing an economical height of the section regarding the steel consumption.
Long and sinuous routes shall be avoided for which the losses through friction are large. For the parts from a
direction the fascicles deviation in several planes or the cuttinging of the fascicle shall be avoided.
The number of part types is decreased to the minimum, avoiding the use of several stress devices, implying
organisational difficulties sand error risk.
Furthermore, the solutions imposing the simultaneous stress of a large number of fascicle shall be avoided.
7.4.3 The use of PVC or polyethylene pipes is permitted only for elements that are not calculated under fatigue on
the condition that during service the temperature shall not exceed 40 C.
Furthermore, the thermic treating for the concrete hardening is not used.
7.4.4 The achievement of the channels with extracted pipes is recommended to be used only for the prefabricated
elements.
7.4.5 In the case of the channels achieved from the extraction of pipes from plastic material the angular deviation for
the fragment of extracted pipe shall not exceed 20. Furthermore, the length of the extracted pipe is recommended not to
exceed 9 m for an angular deviation up to 5 and 7 m for angular deviation up to 20.
7.4.6 For the channels provided with coatings achieved from joined rectilinear fragments the reinforcement
deviation angle is recommended to be of max. 30.
The bending radii shall be of at least 4 m for the channels with diameter up to 40mm and of 5 m for the
channels with diameter over 40mm
7.4.7 The minimum values of the distances between channels and of the concrete coatings are considered according
to the data from Annex I. The coatings given in the table are valid for the case of the environment without aggresive
conditions or of the bad weather conditions. In aggresive environments the coatings are increased according to the
stipulations of the specific technical stipulations.
7.4.8 The anchorages with bundle and arbor are recommended to be introduced in special forming filled with
concrete or protection binder, over which monolith transforming concrete is applied which shall be well anchored at the
edge of the element and appropriately reinforced. The anchorage with bundle and arbor is not permitted for the elements
placed within highly aggresive environment.
7.4.9 Concrete anchoring solutions can be adopted for the reinforcements (under bundle, fan shape etc.) at one
edge of the part based on experimental data grounds.
7.4.10 The bearing surface of the anchoring shall be perpendicular on the reinforcement axis at the element end;
furthermore, the reinforcement axis shall coincide with the anchorage axis on at least 0.4 m.
7.4.11 The reinforcement is recommended to be anchored at the extremity of the element or in the compressed areas
stressed under exploitation.
In the case of anchoring in plane areas, the reinforcement is extended by l
zi
but minimum 0.5 m beyond the
regular section or the extremity of the bended section where it is no longer necessary from the resistance or crack
verification.
7.4.12 For maintaining of the correct position of the reinforcements during concrete cast and stress, appropriate fixing
details are provided within the design (cases or welded meshes, riders, diaphragms, displacers or concrete supports, oil
steel reinforcements, consoles etc.).
The distance between the support points of the coatings within the forming or pattern is established based on
execution specifications. This is r3commended not to exceed 1.5 m on the rectilinear fragments or with high bending
radii and 0.5 m on the fragments with low bending radii; fixing points are compulsory provided at the ends and on the
route of the curved fragments respectively in the points of changing the slope.
The distance between the fixing points of the extracted pipes can be increased by up to 0.2m.
7.4.13 In the points of direction shift of the prestressed reinforcements the concrete of the element is verified at the
local stresses , if needed steel concrete reinforcements being provided under the shape of claused clamps, welded
meshes or hooped reinforcement.
7.4.14 The repartition metallic platforms shall be molded in concrete and be provided with welded points 10. 14
mm. The use of the common platforms is recommended for several proximity anchorages.
STAS 10107/090
91
7.4.15 The stress order of the reinforcements is chosen not to lead to exceed the admitted unitaryary efforts at
transfer.
The technologies leading to the necessity of elements displacement before the channels injection shall be
avoided.
7.4.16 In order to achieve the protection through injection for each channel at least two openings are provided placed
at the extremities.
In the fascicles for continuous beams openings are provided and in all the upper points (on the bearings).
The stress resistance of the injection mixture determined on cubes with the side of 70.7 mm or 100 mm shall
be of minimum 30 N/m
2
at 28 days.
7.4.17 The reinforcements placed inside the section are protected against corrosion through cementing or concreting.
The class of the cemented concrete or of the protection concrete shall be at least equal with 80% of the one of
the element and minimum Bc 20. Furthermore it is recommended that the impermeability de gree shall not be lower
than P6 (STAS 351976).
It is necessary for a best joined work to be ensured between the binder or protection coating concrete and the
element concrete through connecting clamps left as cast branches or cuttinged subsequently through holes left during
cast in the concrete of the element.
These measures can be aborted for the wrapped reinforced elements (pressure tubes, tanks) or if the
reinforcement is placed in channels left when casting in the concrete of the element.
The application and the hardening of the coating is recommended to be done on the element requested by the
service loadings or an important part of these. Furthermore, measures shall be stipulated to avoid the cracks within
contractions.
The coating of the poststretched reinforcements in nonaggresive environments shall be of minimum
20 mm for cement mortar;
30 mm for concrete.
Within aggresive environments the coating as well as necessary supplementary measures are considered in
compliance with the regulations in the specific technical requirements.
In the case of a coating with a thickness exceeding 50 mm, this is provided with a wire mesh.
7.4.18 The metallic parts of the anchorages are protected with a concrete coating having the minimum thickness of 30
mm.
For the prefabricated monolith elements on bearings the protection is achieved through the concrete in joints.
7.5 Reinforcement of transmission areas
7.5.1 In the transmission areas at the extremities of the elements a bidirectional reinforcement is usually provided.
7.5.2 Reinforcement elements provided with anchorages at the extremities
In the proximity of each anchorage two or three reinforcement meshes are disposed with at least four bars for
each direction, the first mesh being situated at 30 mm from the side of the repartition platform and the distance between
meshes being of 50 70 mm. The diameter of the reinforcements forming these meshes shall be of 614mm and the
mesh loops of 60 100 mm. The meshes are achieved either from continuous reinforcements (fig. 48 a,b ), either from
welded wires; the use of the tied meshes achieved from independent bars is not permitted (fig. 48 c).
STAS 10107/090
92
On the rest of the length of the transmission area l
z
(for the considered reinforcement) at distances of 100 150 m
reinforcement meshes achieved as described within the previous subclause are provided.
The meshes are recommended to be shared for as many anchorages as possible.
In the place of the first meshes, reinforcement hooped reinforcement can be achieved 6 up to 10 mm, the
diameter of the band core being at least equal with the maximum size of the surface on which the anchorage stress is
exercised and the hooped reinforcement pitch 50 80 mm.
On areas on which hooped reinforcement are used or if the reinforcement meshes do not cover the entire
transverse section surface of the element, claused clamps are additionally provided with the minimum diameter of 8 mm
at distances of maximum 150mm.
At the extremities of the elements (bearing areas) longitudinal bars are provided appropriately anchored or
metallic parts with points to avoid the occurrence of cracks or deformations in the diverse stages of execution (transfer,
manipulation, transport etc.) or from local stresses during service.
7.5.3 Elements with prestretched reinforcements
At the extremity of the element on the length of from the transmission length of the reinforcement l
t
are
disposed at equal distances 3 5 additional transverse reinforcements (claused clamps, cases, hooped reinforcement,
rakes).
If the prestressed reinforcements are achieved from bars type PC with the diameter 16 mm on the length 10
d around each bars oil steel hooped reinforcement are compulsory provided with the diameter of 6 8 mm, with the
pitch
30 50 mm.
On the area where hooped reinforcement are used or if the rakes do not cover the entire surface of the
transverse section, claused clamps are additionally provided with the minimum diameter of 6 mm at distances of
maximum 150 mm or welded meshes.
On the rest of the transmission area l
z
transverse reinforcements are provided (claused clamps)with the
minimum diameter of 6 8 mm at distances of maximum 150 mm or welded meshes.
NOTE For the elements of large series made of prestressed concrete with transverse section with reduced dimensions,
with reinforcement perstretched of SBPA1 it can be given up on the grounds of experimental tests significant in the
provided transverse reinforcements.
STAS 10107/090
93
ANNEX A
THE ACTIVE WIDTH OF THE COMPRESSED FOUNDATION BOTTOM FOR
TSHAPED SECTIONS
A.1 The active width b
p
of the foundation which is taken into consideration in the estimation of the Tshaped
section elements, with platform in the compressed area, equals the real width of the platform, but at the most the width
derived by adding at the b width of the core on each side 6 /
c
l b = (fig. 49), where l
c
is the distance between two
consecutive sections of null bending moment and which can be determined as follows:
 for simply supported beam l
c
= l;
 for beams with one builtin extremity and one simply supported extremity l
c
= 0.8 l
 for double builtin beams l
c
= 0.5 l
 for continuous beams:
o in the extremity openings l
c
= 0.8 l
o in the internal openings l
c
= 0.6 l
and l is the calculation opening of the element.
The following conditions shall be also observed:
a) for independent beams, where the compressed foundation bottom comes out in the console against the core:
 if h
p
/h 0.10
p
h b 6
 if 0.05 h
p
/h < 0.10
p
h b 3
 if h
p
/h < 0.05 0 = b
b) for beams being part of the platforms, not reinforced through transverse ribs or for which the distance between
these ribs is bigger than the distance between the longitudinal beams:
 if h
p
/h < 0.10
p
h b 6
 if h
p
/h 0.10 b is not limited by other requirements
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c) for beams being part of the platforms, reinforced through transverse arch ribs:
b half of the free light of the platform between the transverse ribs;
p
h b 6
In cases when the platform is equipped with haunches, the theoretical width of the haunch
'
v
b (fig. 50) is added
to the values b determined as per the abovementioned subclauses a, b and c, having the smallest of the values b
x
and
3h
x
.
A.2 In special cases (elements with large openings) more exact methods can be used to determine the active width
b
p
, taking into account the deformation property of the platform.
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95
SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE REINFORCED
CONCRETE ELEMENTS STRESSED TO COMPRESSION WITH OBLIQUE
ECCENTRICITY AT THE LIMIT RESISTANCE STATE
For the variation curve of the capable moment M according to the inclination of its action plan in comparison
with the Ox axis of the transverse section when N is provided, the ellipsoid shape of degree is included (fig. 51):
Where
ycap xcap
M M
,
the components of capable moment M on the directions Ox and Oy of the main axis
of the transverse section;
0 x
M the capable moment for given N, when M
y
= 0
0 y
M the capable moment for given N, when M
x
= 0
The recommended values for the coefficient are given in table 28.
Table 28
The disposal manner of the reinforcingbars
Four bars, disposed at
corners
More than four bars
A
ax
A
ay
More than four bars
Aax=(1.52)Aay c
bhR
N
n =
coefficient
0.1 1.60 1.70 1.75
0.2 1.35 1.60 1.50
0.3 1.25 1.55 1.40
0.4 1.20 1.50 1.35
0.5 1.20 1.45 1.35
0.6 1.35 1.45 1.40
0.7 1.55 1.50 1.50
0.8 1.75 1.60 1.60
NOTE: The values of the coefficient from table 28 can be detailed or extended on the grounds of parametric studies in
comparison with rigorous calculation.
The test at the resistance limit stage is done according the formula:
where
M
x
, M
y
components of the calculation bending moment after the directions Ox and Oy;
M
x0
, M
y0
as in the relation (B.1)
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ANNEX C
DATA FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS AT
THE LIMIT CRACKING STATE
C.1 The average distance between cracks
f
in the relations (65) and (67) are calculated according to the relation:
t
f
p
d
A s c + + = ) 1 . 0 ( 2 [mm] (C.1)
Where
d the diameter of the reinforcements, in millimeters;
c the thickness of the concrete covering layer of the reinforcement, in millimeters;
s the distance between the axis of the reinforcing bars, in millimeters, but at the most 15 d. In the case
of elements stressed during centric or eccentric stretching with low eccentricity, for which the
distances between the axis of the reinforcing bars differ upon the two directions (fig. 52), the biggest
among these is taken;
A coefficient with values seen in table 29;
(%) 100
bt
a
t
A
A
p =
A
bt
area of reinforcing inclusion, defined in fig. 53 and which in the case of the elements stressed during
bending shall not exceed of the concrete section area;
A
a
area of the stretched longitudinal reinforcements.
Table 29
Elements stressed during:
Bending, eccentric compression or
eccentric stretching with high
eccentricity
Centric or eccentric stretching with
low eccentricity
Steel type
Coefficient A
OB 37 10.0 20.0
PC 52, PC 60 6.5 10.0
In the relation (C.1), in the case that the reinforcing bars have different diameters, the following are replaced:
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C.2 In the case of the platforms with reinforced welded meshes made of SNTB, the distance between cracks is
equal to an integer n
t
of distances between the transverse reinforcing bars, to be calculated according to the relations:
t l
t
p
t
d forl
d
h
n 30
30
(C.3)
t l
t
l p
t
d forl
d
l h
n 30
900
2
(C.4)
Where
h
p
the thickness of the platform;
l
l
the distance between the longitudinal axis of the reinforcements;
d
t
the diameter of the transverse reinforcements.
C.3 For the coefficient from the formula (65) the approximate values given in table 30 can be taken into
account, which are calculated upon the relation:
) 5 . 0 1 ( 1 ) 5 . 0 1 ( 1 v
A
R A
v
a a
tk bt
=
(C.5)
Where
= 0.3 for reinforcements made of OB 37 and 0.5 for reinforcements made of PC 52 and PC 60;
v the ratio between the sectional stress (N, M) of long term exploitation and the total one
Table 30
(%) 100
bt
a
t
A
A
p =
0.5 0.51.0 1.01.5 1.52.0 > 2.0
Type of steel v
OB 37 0.78 0.85
P 52, PC 60
< 0.5
0.65 0.83
0.90 0.92 1.00
OB 37 0.85 0.90
PC 52, PC 60
0.5
0.76 0.88
0.93 0.95 1.00
For the reinforced platforms with welded meshes made of STNB = 0.8 if n
t
2 and v 0.5, respectively = 1 for
the other cases. For elements stressed under fatigue, =1.0
STAS 10107/090
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C.4 The values
a
from the relations (65), (66) are established according to subclause 3.6.3 for the element taken
into consideration in the II
nd
working stage. The following is admitted to be considered in a simplified manner :
aef
anec
a a
A
A
R 85 . 0 (C.6)
Where
A
anec
the reinforcement section area, necessary from calculation at the resistance limit state;
A
aef
the reinforcement section area provided effectively;
C. 5 The values of the ratio p
t
/d (d in millimeters) from which the verification by calculus of the normal cracks
opening is not necessary, are given in table 31
Bending, eccentric compression or eccentric
stretch with high eccentricity
Stretch, centric or eccentric with low
eccentriciy
mm
fadm
2 . 0 = mm
fadm
3 . 0 = mm
fadm
2 . 0 = mm
fadm
3 . 0 =
Type of steel
p
t
/f
OB 37
PC 52
PC 60
0.071
0.092
0.135
0.039
0.043
0.056
0.142
0.142
0.208
0.078
0.066
0.086
For reinforced platforms with welded weshes of STNB, to which the limit requirement of the cracks opening is
0.3 mm, the verification by calculus of the normal cracks opening is not necessary, if the requirements in table 32
are met.
Table 32
In table 32:
h
p
thickness of the platform
d
l
, l
l
diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement bars and the distance between their axis.
d
t
, l
t
diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement bars and the distance between their axis.
C.6 In the relation (67), the coefficient
i
is taken:
i
= 0.8(1+0.2v) for clamps made of OB 37;
i
= 0.7(1+0.3v) for clamps of PC 52 or PC 60 (C.7) (C.7)
i
= 0.9(1+0.1v) for the transversal bars made of STNB of the welded cases
C.7 It is admitted for the relation (67) to have simplified
at at
R 9 . 0
C.8 The verification by calculus of the inclined cracks opening is not necessary in the following cases:
3 . 0 =
fadm
mm
2 . 0 =
fadm
mm, when 5 . 1 Q
STAS 10107/090
99
ANNEX D
TERMS SPECIFIC TO THE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
No Notion Definition
1 Precompression Action through which distortions and initial stresses are introduced
within a construction element
2 Prestress The introduction action of the stretching stress within the high
resistance reinforcements
3 Prestressed reinforcement The high resistance reinforcement on which the precompression is
achieved. There are two types of prestressed reinforcement:
 prestretched
 poststretched
4 Prestretched reinforcement Reinforcement presstressed and fixed with blockages before the
casting of the element, between fixed points, on abutments (on stands)
or on rigid cast forms, capable to take over up to the transfer the stress
in the prestressed reinforcement; the prestretched reinforcement is
included in the cast concrete that through hardening provides
cooperation with it through adherence. The transfer is made after
reaching the designed concrete resistance, by getting loose the
reinforcements from the blockages, slowly or suddenly (by cutting).
Precompressing takes place by including the concrete in the tendency
of elastic shortening of the aherent reinforcements.
5 Poststretched reinforcement Reinforcement presstressed after casting and hardening of the element;
the poststretched reinforcement is placed either in the channels
provided for inside the element section or outside it. The poststretched
reinforcement is prestressed with special devices that bear directly on
the element, so as the transfer takes place in the same time with the
prestressing. This category includes also the elements and the
constructions for which the precompressing is made by winding the
reinforcement under stress on the hardened concrete (tubes, tanks etc)
After precompressing, adherence and protection against corrosion is
made by injection, concreting or cementing.
6 Blocking The operation made at the end of the prestressing through which the
prestretched reinforcement is fixed with blockages on abutments or
portant metallic casting form, respectively the poststretched
reinforcement is fixed with anchorages on elements.
7 Passive not prestressed reinforcement The nonprestretched reinforcement plazing a main part in the
construction, in precompressed concrete elements.
8 Complementary not prestressed
reinforcement
Reinforcement type PC 60, PC 52 placed on the same direction with
the prestressed reinforcement that participate together with the pre
stressed reinforcement in making up the capable stress necessary for
the limit resistance state having in the same time an essential part in the
meeting of the requirements for verification of fissuring and
deformations.
9 Precompression stress, N
0,
N
p
The compression stress taken over by the concrete and nonprestressed
reinforcement after transfer, representing the effect of precompressing
in the element section.
10 Prestress force N
k
The force exercised over the reinforcement by the devices and
equipment for prestressing.
11 The precompression degree, K The ratio between the decompression stress of the stretched edge
during exploitation of the section compared to the total exploitation
stress
STAS 10107/090
100
No Notion Definition
12 Decompression moment,
) ( 0
0
) (
s op
s r e N M + =
Moment anulling the moment of precompression stress 0 N from the
limit of the central core, opposed to the strethced edge or less
compressed of the section under exploitation. Under the effect of this
moment results a theoretical anullment of the unitary stress at the
mentioned adge of the section.
13 Total precompressed concrete elements Elements for which unitary stresses of stretching in concrete normal
on the direction of placemtn of the prestressed reinforcement are not
admitted, under the total exploitation load.
14 Total precompression Degree of precompressioncorresponding to the elements in the total
precompressed concrete (K > 1).
15 Partial precompressed concrete elements Elements for which unitary stretching stresses are admitted in the
concrete till the fissuring or limited opening of the fissures under the
maximum exploitation load, with or without the condition of closing
the fissures under the long term or permanent loading or with the
severe limitation of the fissures opening under the long term or
permanent loading
16 Limited precompression Degree of precompression for which the decompression moment
0
) (s M is placed between the given max. exploitation loading
E
M and the given long term loading moment
E
ld
M
1.0
E
E
ld
M
M
K >
17 Moderate precompression Degree of precompression for which the decompression moment
0
) (s M is placed between the given long term exploitation loading
E
ld
M and the given permanent moment
E
perm
M
E
E
ld
M
M
E
E
perm
M
M
K
18 Transfer Transmission of precompression over the nonprestressed concrete
and reinforcement element
19 Anchorage of the prestressed
reinforcement through adherence
Anchorage used at the precompressed concrete elements with pre
stretched reinforcement, performed through the adherence of the
reinforcement prestressed to concrete, on the anchorage lenght l
a
20 Anchorage of the prestressed
reinforcement by anchors
Anchorage used at the poststretched reinforcement elements
performed with special fastening parts at the ends of the prestressed
reinforcement that can be metallic or made of reinforced concrete,
included in the concrete mass or placed at the surface of the element
21 Initial stage Stage considered immediately after the transfer
22 Final stage Stage considered after all the stress losses in the prestressed
reinforcement take place
23 Stretched area Area in the section of a precompressed concrete element, where, in
the considered calculation hypothesis, normal stretching unitary
stresses appear.
24 Compressed area Area in the section of a precompressed concrete element, where, in
the considered calculation hypothesis, compressing unitary stresses
appear.
25 Transmission length l
t
The length necessary to transmit the concrete (and to the nonpre
stressed reinforcement), through adherence, the entire
precompression stress from the prestressed reinforcement, at
transfer.
26 Transmission area Portion of a precompressed concrete element on which length lz, the
precompression stress is spread on the entire transversal section and
on which end the local effects of reinforcement anchorage over the
unitary stresses become insignificant, as their distribution can be
considered liniary on the section of the element.
27 Anchoring length l
a
Length necessarz to the anchoring through adherence till breaching
of the reinforcement.
STAS 10107/090
101
ANNEX E
SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION OF CONCRETE LONG TERM SPECIFIC
DEFORMATION
E.1 The specific concrete long term deformation
bd
is calculated according to the relation:
c
b bd
=
0
(E.1)
Where
0 b
initial specific elastic deformation of concrete (subclause 2.1.5);
property of concrete deformation in time;
c maximum specific deformation due to contraction.
E.2 The maximum calculation value of the concrete deformation property in time can be determined according
to the formula:
0 3 2 1
= k k k
Where
0
the basic value of the concrete deformation property in time; for concretes with natural aggregates
(ballast or broken stone) with normal or accelerated through steaming hardening, the size of
0
can be
considered as for the values in table 33; for concretes with light aggregates the basic value of the
property of deformation in time
u
is calculated according to the formula:
0
b
bu
ou
E
E
= (E.3)
Where
0
according to table 33;
E
bu
the elasticity module for the concrete with light aggregates (according to subclause 2.1.3.1)
Table 33
Concrete
class
Bc 10 Bc 15 Bc 20 Bc 25 Bc 30 Bc 35 Bc 40 Bc 50 Bc 60
0
3.70 3.30 3.00 2.80 2.70 2.65 2.60 2.50 2.45
k
1
coefficient expressing the influence of the maturing degree of concrete and is expressed through the
values in table 34;
k
2
coefficient expressing the influence of the stress degree of concrete and is expressed through the
values in table 35;
k
3
coefficient expressing the influence of the relative environment humidity and is expressed through the
values in table 36.
Table 34
Stress stage k
1
1
The precompression force
for
min
0 bo b
R R = (table 4)
for transfer at 28 days
1.3
1.0
2
Permanent loads including precompression, applied after t
days from the concrete cast
T = 28 days
60 days
90 days
120 days
> 180 days
1.0
0.7
0.6
0.55
0.5
For the permanent loads applied before 28 days from the concrete cast, the k
1
values are determined as for the
precompression force.
In the case when the moment of the permanent loads application cannot be estimated, for example, for large
series prefabricates, a 3 months (90 days) interval from the concrete cast is permitted to be taken into account.
STAS 10107/090
102
Table 35
Ratio
0
/
b b
R k
2
5 . 0 1.0
> 0.5 2.0
bo
b
R
Table 36
Relative humidity k
3
40 % 1.3
60 % 1.0
100 % 0.5
R
bo
Concrete resistance to transfer
b
The maximum compression unitaryary stress, in the considered section
NOTES:
1. For concretes made of other materials (other qualities of cements or of aggregates, use of plastifiers etc.)
as well as for hardned concretes or the concretes kept, usually, in special conditions (autoclavised, kept in
temperatures exceeding to 40 C or under 0C), the values corresponding to the property of deformation in
time of concrete are established according to specific technical regulations.
2. In tables 33,34,35 and 36, they are linearly interpolated for intermediate values.
E. 3 The maximum calculation value of the specific deformation due to contraction can be determined according to
formula:
c c
k k k =
4 3
0 (E.4)
Where
c
the basic value of the specific concrete deformation due to contraction, which is expressed through the
values in table 37;
k
3
according to subclause E. 2;
k
4
coefficient expressing the influence of the absolute dimensions of the element section and is
expressed through the values in table 38;
k
5
coefficient expressing the influence of element execution procedure and is expressed through the
values in table 39.
Table 37
Concrete property
c
Regular concretes within regular hardening conditions 0.25
Regular concretes, thermically treated 0.20
Concretes with light aggregates within normal hardening conditions 0.50
Concretes with light aggregates, thermically treated 0.40
Table 38
The smallest dimension of the transverse section k
1
b 300 mm
b < 300 mm
1.0
1.30.001 b
Table 39
Element execution procedure kc
Reinforced concrete
Precompressed concrete with prestretched reinforcements
Precompressed concrete with poststretched reinforcements
1.0
0.8
0.6
STAS 10107/090
103
ANNEX F
CALCULATION OF CONCRETE LONG TERM SPECIF DEFORMATION
F.1 The specific concrete long term deformation
bd
is calculated according to the relation
) , (
2
) ( ) (
) , (
0
0
0
t t
E
t t
t t
b
c bd
+
+ = (F.1)
Where
c
(t, t
0
) the specific deformation due to contraction, determined according to subclause F. 4;
) ( ), (
0
t t concrete unitaryary stresses within time t, respectively t
0
;
) , (
0
t t the deformation property due to the slow flow according to subclause F. 2
NOTE: The calculus according to this Annex is performed only in cases mentioned in subclause 2.1.5. It is not applied to
the calculation of loses of stress
F.2 The deformation property due to slow flow ) , (
0
t t for regular concretes is calculated according to the
formula:
Where
R
bo
the concrete resistance to compression on cube at the load date;
b
R final concrete resistance (on cube) (fig. 54);
d
coefficient of retardant elasticity, equal to 0.4;
) (
0
t t
d
function corresponding to the development in time of the elastic retardant deformation (fig. 56);
2 1 f f f
= coefficient of retardant plasiticity;
1 f
environment depending coefficient (table 40);
2 f
coefficient depending on the fictive thickness b
f
(subclause F.6 and fig. 55);
f
function corresponding to the development in time of the retardant plasticity (fig. 57) and which
depends on the fictive thickness b
f
(subclause F.6);
t the concrete age in the considered moment, corrected according to subclause F.5;
t
0
the concrete age in the load moment, corrected according to subclause F.5;
Table 40
Environment
Relative humidity
%
1 f
1 c
Water 0.8 + 0.00010 30
Very humid atmosphere 90 1.0 0.00013 5
Outside, in general 70 2.0 0.00032 1.5
Very dry atmosphere 40 3.0 0.00052 1
NOTES: The values indicated in the table for
1 f
and
1 c
correspond to concretes, of plastic consistency (workability L
2
according
STAS 362286); for concretes of hard consistency (L
1
) the values are reduced with 25% and for those with soft consistency (L
3
) are
increased with 25%.
STAS 10107/090
104
For concretes with light aggregates the deformation property due to slow flow ) , (
0
t t
u
is calculated
according to the formula:
b
bu u
E
E
t t t t ) , ( ) , (
0 0
= (F.4)
Where
) , (
0
t t according to subclause F.2;
E
bu
the elasticity module for concrete with light aggregates (according to subclause 2.1.3.1)
F.4 The specific concrete deformation due to contraction, to be developed within a time interval (t t
0
) is
calculated according to the formula:
)] ( ) ( [ ) , (
0 0 0
t t t t
s s c c
= (F.5)
days
days
STAS 10107/090
105
Where
2 1 c c co
= basic contraction coefficient;
1 c
the coefficient depending on the environment (table 40); for concretes with light aggregates
the values
1 c
in the table are increased by 50%;
2 c
coefficient depending on the fictive thickness b
f
(subclause F.6 and fig. 58)
s
function corresponding to the development in time of the contraction (fig. 59) and which
depends on the fictive thickness b
f
(subclause F.6).
days
days
STAS 10107/090
106
F. 5 In order to take into account the environment temperature effect upon the concrete hardening course, in the
case that it differs significantly from 20C, the real age of the concrete is corrected through the formula:
where
coefficient which for the concretes used on a frequent basis is considered with value 1.0;
T daily average concrete temperature in C,
i
t amount of days when the temperature has the same average value;
t
i
the concrete real age.
F.6 The fictive thickness of an element is calculated according to the formula:
where
coefficient depending on environment (table 40)
A
b
the concrete section area;
u
a
perimeter in contact with the atmosphere.
STAS 10107/090
107
ANNEX G
TRANSMISSION AND ANCHORAGE LENGTH OF THE PRESTRESSED
REINFORCEMENTS
G.1 In the case of elements with prestressed reinforcement, it is considered that in the situation of slow transfer,
the unitary stresses within reinforcement grow linearly, from value zero, at the end of the element, up to the calculation
value, at the end of the transmission length of that reinforcement.
The transmission length can be established with formula:
d K l
t t
=
where,
K
t
is the coefficient from the table 41, for a unitary stress within the prestressed reinforcement.
p po
R ) 0 . 1 ... 8 . 0 ( =
d is the reinforcements reference diameter
Reference diameter d is considered:
For SBP A I wires nominal diameter
For TBP the diameter of the strand
For PC reinforcements the nominal diameter of the bar
Table 41
Transfer resistance of concrete
25 35 45
Type of reinforcement
K
t
SBP A I 100 80 65
TBP 85 65 55
14; 16 20 15 15
PC
1828 30 25 25
If the transfer occurs suddenly, by cutting the wires under stress, for instance, l
t
transmission length increases,
by adding distance 0.25 l
t
from the end of the element, on which, the reinforcement unitary stress is considered equal to
0.
When the reinforcement unitary stress, determined on the transmission length has a bad effect, K
t
values
reduce with 20%.
In case of other reinforcements, the transmission lengthy is established according to the effective technical
regulations.
NOTE the use of slow transfer is recommended if it is compatible with the prestressing procedure that is used.
G.2 The anchorage length by adherence of prestressed reinforcements is established with formula:
d K l
a a
=
where,
K
a
is the coefficient from table 42;
d is the reference diameter of the reinforcement, according to clause G.1.
Table 42
Transfer resistance of concrete
Bc 30 Bc 40 Bc 50
Type of reinforcement
K
a
SBP A I 170 140 120
TBP 200 160 130
14; 16 35 30 25
PC
1828 50 45 40
NOTES
1. In case of other reinforcement types, the anchorage length is established according to the specific technical regulations.
2. In the case of prestressed reinforcements from the upper side of the support elements, in the casting position, values K
a
from table 42 increase with 25%.
STAS 10107/090
108
ANNEX H
CALCULATION OF STRESS LOSSES WITHIN PRESTRESSED REINFORCEMENTS.
H.1 Stress loss,
t
, caused by concretes thermic treatment.
The values of the stress loss within the prestretched reinforcement caused by the thermic effect, used for
accelecalculation the concretes strengthening, within elements made on the stend can be calculated with formula:
t
t
= 25 . 1 N/mm
2
(H.1)
where,
t is the difference between concretes temperature and the temperature of the elements that take over the pre
stressing force,
o
C.
In case of builtup elements, made in long stends the following relation can be admitted:
2
/ 80 mm N
t
In case of builtup elements, made in heating bearing moulds, with concretes and moulds simultaneous
dilatations, the following relation can be admitted:
2
/ 20 mm N
t
H.2 Stress losses,
f
and
, caused by frictions on the route and as well as by slinging and local
deformations in the blocking anchorages
H.2.1 Stress losses during the prestressing process of the poststretched reinforcement, caused by touting frictions,
in a point situated at distance s from the end that the stretching is started from (fig. 60) is calculated with formula:
pk
r
Lr
ks
f
e
(
(
=

.

\

+
1 (H.2)
where,
pk
is the control unitary stress;
s is the developed length of the reinforcement , from the end where the stretch is performed , up to the point
considered, in m;
L
r
is the length of each curve section of the reinforcements routing, included into length s, m;
r is the corresponding curve radius, m;
is the friction coefficient, in curvilinear sections;
k is the linear friction coefficient.
STAS 10107/090
109
H.2.2 The friction coefficients, and k, for poststretched reinforcements, shaped as wire fascicles or parallel strand,
performed in accordance with Annex I, can be considered by using the values from table 43.
Table 43
inkN A N
pk p k
, =
< 650 6501300 > 1300 Channels achievement mode
k meter
Sheet casing 0.35 0.006 0.004 0.003
PVC casing 0.30 0.004 0.002 0.0015
Channel with concrete walls (made
due to some pipes, extracted from
the nonconsolidated concrete)
0.45 0.004 0.002 0.0015
NOTES:
1. If the fascicles are introduced into the channels, after concreting, coefficients k and reduce with 20%.
2. In case of other types of poststretched reinforcements or channels achievement modes, friction coefficients are
determined experimentally.
H.2.3 Stress loss by friction, for prestretched reinforcements, leaned by deflection is determined on basis of
experimental data. Neglecting this stress loss for rectilinear prestretched reinforcements is admitted.
H.2.4 tress loss caused by local backlashes, within blocking anchorages,
, for poststressed reinforcements is
determined by admitting the corresponding friction coefficients,
and k
1
and
2
are the local area backlashes within anchorages, at the two blocking ends; if blocking occurs at a
single end,
2
=o.
L
p
is the length of the prestretched reinforcement, between anchorages.
NOTEwhen the values of the prestretched reinforcement length, L
p
<6 m, the stress loss, calculated with formula (H.3)
increases with 25%.
H.3 The effect of reinforcements successive stretch.
H.3.1 The oscillation, (increase or decrease) of the unitary stress within poststretched reinforcements, caused by
concretes elastic deformation, generated by the further stretch of ,
s,
of other reinforcements, can be calculated with
relation:
STAS 10107/090
110
where,
bp
i+1, n is the stress within concrete, at that level of the reinforcement i, caused by the further stretch of the
other reinforcements, from i+1, to n.
NOTES:
1. Relation H.4 and the effect of these loads shall be considered if the own weight or other permanent loads act during
the prestressing operations, after the stretching of the considered reinforcement. The influence of the length difference,
between the inner fascicles shall also be considered, if they are shorter with more than 25% than the considered fascicle;
2. The effect of the successive stretch is also considered in the case of wrapped reinforcements, whose precompression
is made progressively.
In case of reinforcements prestressed at equal stresses and grouped in an area relatively restricted, in
comparison to the dimension of the element, the average stress loss can be calculated with formula:
bp p s
n
n
n
2
1
=
where,
bp
is the concretes unitary stress, at the level of the center of gravity of the reinforcement group, under the
action of the total precompression stress.
n is the number of reinforcements, successively poststressed
b
p
p
E
E
n =
H3.2 The average stress loss, caused by the moulds shortening during the successive stretch of prestretched
reinforcements, in the case of builtup elements, made in bearing moulds, can be calculated with formula:
tp t s
n
n
n
2
1
=
where,
tp
is the unitary stress within moulds longitudinal elements, at the level of the centroid of the prestressed
reinforcement, under the action of the total prestressing force:
n is the number of prestressed reinforcements, successively prestressed;
t
t
p
t
E
E
E
n = is the elasticity modulus, for the mould.
NOTES:
1. The effect of the bending deformations, under the prestressing force action against the magnitude of the stress loss shall
also be considered, when calculating
tp.
2. Moulds should be designed so that average stress loss should not exceed 50N/mm
3
.
H.4 Tension loss ,
str,
caused by concretes crushing under wrapped reinforcements
When a continuous reinforcement is wrapped under tension, on elements with a diameter smaller than 3 m, the
tension loss caused by concretes crushing under coils is considered equal to zero.
H.5 Tension loss caused by relaxation.
H.5.1 Tension loss caused by relaxation of the stress from the prestressed reinforcement can be calculated with
formula:
in time t,
Poststretched reinforcements


.

\

=
po
t
rt r
1 (H.7)
Prestretched reinforcements
( )


.

\

+ =
po
t
ri rt ri r
1 (H.8)
permanent
STAS 10107/090
111
Poststretched reinforcements


.

\

=
po
r r
1 (H.9)
prestretched reinforcements
( )


.

\

+ =
po
ri r r ri r
1
where
*
po r
=
(H.11)
=
t rt ri
K
0
(H.12)
where,
K
rt0
is determined for the moment of transfer (subclause H.5.3);
r
is the coefficient that considers the stress decrease within the prestressed reinforcement, in comparison to the
initial unitary stress, ,
po
*
,
, for which ,
r
t (or ,
r
)
,
is determined
,
caused by the acceleration thermal
treatment effect of concretes strengthening and by the elastic shortening of concrete, during the transfer.
r
=1 is considered in case of PC reinforcements.
H.5.2 The final values of tension losses, caused by the relaxation of the prestressed reinforcement (
r
),
according to the ratio between the initial unitary stress within the reinforcement and its normal resistance (
p
*
0
/R
pk
),
expressed by percentage, compared to the value
p
*
0
are shown in table 45.
The initial unitary stress within the reinforcement,
p
*
0
is determined with formulas:
for poststretched reinforcements:
pp po
=
*
for prestretched reinforcements:
Table 45
pk po
R /
*
0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 Type of steel
% /
*
in
po r
=
SBP, SBPA 0 4.5 9.0 14.0
T B P 0 5.0 10.5 16.5
NOTE The values of tension losses caused by relaxation are established on basis of experimental data, in the case of
other prestressed reinforcements.
H.5.3 The coefficient that establishes the relaxation of the reinforcement prestressed at a moment t, compared to the
final value of relaxation (
=
r
rt
rt
K
), can be considered by using the value from table 46, in the absence of
experimental data.
Table 46.
t, hours 1 24 100 120
1000
(42
days)
2.150
(90
days)
8.800
(a year)
10.000
(1 year
and 2
months)
100.000
(11
years)
K
rt
0.21 0.40 0.51 0.53 0.73 0.79 0.89 0.90 0.98
H.5.4 The influence of long duration temperature, with values 40
o
C is considered on basis of experimental data.
STAS 10107/090
112
H.6 Tension loss caused by contraction and slow flow.
H.6.1 Tension loss,
, within prestressed reinforcements and the oscillation of the unitary stress,
a
within non
prestressed reinforcements, caused by slow flow and contraction is calculated on basis of the following formulas:
where,
b
pi
is the regular unitary stress within the concrete fiber, from the level of the gravity center of the
considered prestressed reinforcement, under the effect of permanent stresses, applied within an
established load stage I;
bai
is the regular unitary stress within the concrete fiber, at the level of the gravity center of the
considered nonprestressed reinforcement;
i
is the value of deformation property of concrete, in time, corresponding to the moment when stresss
are applied, during the loading stage I, established in conformance with the provisions of annex E;
b
a
a
p
p
E
E
n
Eb
E
n = = ;
K
, K are coefficients that take into account the influence of the nonprestressed reinforcement (reducing the lasting
deformations of concrete):
When A
a
<0.25 A
p
K=K=1
When A
a
0.25 A
p
NOTES:
1. The greatest of the following values
p
c
bp p
E and n respectively
a
c
ba a
E and n is chosen for the
first stress (transfer) stage. The value c is calculated according to Annex E.
2. The values of slow tension loss are corrected by using coefficient K , from table 17, in case of intermediate calculation
phases.
Table 47
Duration, by days,
from the pre
compression time
2 10 20 30 45 60 90 180 360 1080
(3 years)
K
0.10 0.33 0.37 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.50 0.60 0.80 1.00
H.6.2 In special situations, when a more analytical assessment of stresslosses is necessary, in different stages
of a constructions existence, or stages that can not be assessed according to clause 11.6.1, tension loss
within the
prestressed reinforcements can be calculated with formula:
where,
bp1
is the unitary stress within concrete, at the level of the prestressed reinforcement, under the action of pre
compression, in the initial stage and under the cause of the own weight (acting simultaneously);
bp2
is the unitary stress within concrete, at the level of the prestressed reinforcement, under the action of
permanent loads.
STAS 10107/090
113
) , (
0
t t
c
and ) , (
0
t t are established according to annex F.
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRESTRESSING PROCEDURES IN THE CASE OF POST
STRETCHED REINFORCEMENTS
ANNEX I
Fascicle
no Characteristics
12 5 mm 12 7 mm 24 7 mm 48 7 mm
N
1 Section, mm
2
235 462 924 1846 a
2 Fixed end
Ringcone
or arbor
Ringcone
or arbor
Ringcone or
arbor
Ringcone
with arbor

3
Type of
anchorage
Drawn end Ringcone Ringcone Ringcone
Ringcone
with grooves

4
Coated with case
made in sheet band
or metallic pipes
35 43
67
60
b)
102
80
b)

5
Coated with a case
made in PVC or
polyethylene
34 43
67
60
b)
80
b)

6
Minimum
internal diameter
of the function
channel
according its
performance
mode, mm
Not
coated, obtained by
the extraction of
some
metallic/plastic
pipes
35
50
67
63
b)
102
85
b)

7 Coated channel 30(20)
c)
40
d)
40
d)
40 
8
Minimum
thickness, mm,
of the concrete
covering coating
Not coated channel 40(30)
c)
50
d)
50
d)
50 
9 Coated channel 30 30 30 40 
10
Minimum
distance (light
between
channels), mm in
case of:
Not coated channel 40 40 40 40 
11 Diameter 80 110 160 196 
12
Dimension of the
anchorages , at
the drawn end
height 55 75 80 140 
13 Diameter 40 50 70 100 
14
Dimension of the
anchorages, at
the fixed end
length 100 150 200 300 
15 Isolated 100x100x12 140x140x16 200x200x20 300x300x30 e
16
Minimum
dimensions of
the distributor
platform, mm
Common to several
anchorages
(thickness)
10 14 18 30 
17
Dimensions of arbors bearing disks, on
a distributor platform, mm
35x55x12 45x65x15 60x90x15 100x120x25 
18
Diameters of holes within the
distributor platforms, at the end with
ringcone anchorage
ext.
integrated
case or
extracted
case+2 mm,
but min. 40
and
maximum
50
ext.
integrated
case or
extracted
case+2 mm,
but min. 52
and
maximum
65
ext.
integrated case
or extracted
case+2 mm,
but min. 72
and maximum
80
ext.
integrated
case or
extracted
case+2 mm,
but min. 106
and
maximum
115

19 Height 5053 6265 8486 125128 
20
Dimensions of holes
within the distributor
platforms of the channel,
at the arborend, mm
Width 3442 4252 8486 91112
b
,f
STAS 10107/090
114
Fascicle
no
Characteristics
12 5 mm 12 7 mm 24 7 mm 48 5 mm
N
21
Simultane
ous pre
stress of
two
fascicles
230(180) 260(230) 260 400 g
22
Successiv
e pre
stress
130(90) 180(130) 190 270 g
23
Minimum
distance,
between the
axis of two
anchorages for
the following
situation:
A ring
cone
anchorage
or arbor
100(80) 155(100) 170 200 h
24
Minimum distance between
the axis of the anchorage
and the edge of the section,
mm
70(60) 90(80) 120 160
i,
j,
k
,l
25
Arbor
fascicle
800(650) 1150(800) 1150 1500
g
,
m
26
Further
lengths,
necessary for
attaching to
presses and
anchorages,
mm
Fig. from
both ends
1400(1200) 2100(1400) 2100 2650
g
,
m
27
Size of presses at maximum
drive
230x230x1200
(180x180x1000)
260x300x1350
(230x230x120
0)
260x300x1350 400x450x1350 g
28
Free length at the side of the
anchorage, as extension of
the channel, necessary for
attaching the press to the
fascicle
1400 1400 1700 2000 
NOTE:
a) Only even numbers can be used for the fascicles from columns 4, 5 and 6 and multiples of 3, for column 7, within the limit
of the maximum number of wires, provided for fascicles;
b) Channels diameter is connected to the diameter of the distributor platform (no 18), of an approximate 2
0
gradient. The
connection (joint) can be made by using metal sheet trumpets or components with an appropriate shape, recoverable.
c) The values in brackets refer to platforms and walls with a maximum 100 mm thickness
d) The values can be reduced with 10 mm, in the case of builtup elements;
e) The big dimension is perpendicular to the arbors axis;
f) The axis of the arbor and the height of the hole into the distributor platform are oriented at 90
o
;
g) The first values that allow the use of a wider range of stress installations should be adopted
h) The distances from number 23 are available only when the layout of the hole from the distributor platform allows the
placing of the arbor that makes the extension of its axis not cutting the ringcone clause anchorage
i) The values in brackets refer to distributor platforms common to all anchorages;
j) In case of metallic arbor anchorages, the values from number 24 are available only when the arbor is parallel to the clausest
edge of the section. When the arbor is perpendicular to the clausest edge, the minimum specified distance is measured from
the axis of the disk paced under the arbor, situated by the edge of the section
k) When placing the anchorages from the lower side of the section the supporting mode of the element and the installations
size shall be considered;
l) Distances increase in special situations, when the transversal reinforcing conditions, related to the end and concrete
compacting zones are more demanding (eg: anchorage ribs from the prestressed concrete tanks);
m) The values are used as rough guides and are established according to the equipment that is to be found in the worksite.
STAS 10107/090
115
ANNEX J
CALCULATION POSITIONS AND LENGTHS OF POTENTIAL PLASTIC AREAS FOR STRUCTURES
IN FRAMES ON FRAMES, PARTICIPATING TO SEISMIC PRESSURES, DESIGNED FOR CALCULATION
SEISMIC AREAS, FROM A TO E
J.1 General specifications
These provisions, referring to the positions of the potential plastic zones are applied in current situations when
a postelastic exhaustive calculation of the structure, confronted to seismic stresses, to control precisely enough the
plastic deformations within the structure is not made.
J.2 Provisions related to pillars
J.2.1 Potential plastic zones, zones from the ends of the pillars, at each level are considered.
J.2.2 The length of the potential plastic zone, l
p
is measured from the upper side on, respectively the lower side
of the rod and 6 /
s p
H l = is considered (H
s
is pillars free height, at a considered level), but at least l
p
=h (h is the
maximum size of the pillars section) and at least 600 mm.
J.2.3 If, according to the provisions at clause 3.2.4, a value
lim
is admitted, between 0.40 and
b
, for the
dimensioning of the pillar, then length l
p
, determined according to clause J.2.2, is increased with 25%.
J.3 Provisions related to rods
J.3.1 Plastic potential zones, usually the zones from the ends of all rods are considered.
J.3.2 The length of the potential plastic zone, l
p
is considered as equal to 2h (h is the height of the beam).
J.3.3. Usually, length l
p
= 2h is measured from the side of the bearing on (fog. 61 a).
When, by a stronger reinforcing in the proximity of the bearing (fog. 61 b), or by an oscillation of the beams
height (fig. 61 c), the critical section, at the negative moment (section where the maximum bending moment is clausest
to the milling moment) moves away from the rods end, at a distance h, the position of the potential plastic zone is
considered as indicated in figures 61.b and 61.c.
J.3.4 When under seismic action, potential plastic zones occur within the rod field (61.d), length l
p
=2h is
considered symmetrically in comparison to the critical section
_______________
critical section
critical section
critical section
critical section
STAS 10107/090
116
Project accoordinator:
MI.PATDCLPInstitute for research in constructions
INCERC Bucharest
And MI, institute for constructions, Bucharest
Cathedra of reinforced concrete constructions:
Professor.dr.eng.: Radu Agent
Lecturer.dr.eng Tudor Postelnicu
for prestressed concrete:
dr.eng. Augustin Popaescu
Eng. Neculai Gaina
Collaborator: Stefan Enescu
Scientific coordinator:
Professor.dr.eng. Dan Dumitrescu
Final drafting: Romanian Standards Institute
Eng. Magda Ionescu
Collaborators:
Polytechnic Institute from ClujNapoca Faculty of
Constructions;
 Polytechnic Institute from Iasi Constructions College;
 Polytechnic Institute from Timisoara Faculty of
Constructions
Institute for Standardized ConstructionsBucharest
Institute for Project DesignBucharest
Institute For Research And Design in Building Materials
field
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