Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Substations Types The main purposes for establishment of a substation are:

Need for connecting a generator to the transmission system: We have already discussed that generators generate electricity at a low voltage mostly below 22 kV. But bulk quantity of power can be transmitted to very long distance only at high or extra high voltage. So generator transformers (GT) are used at the power station to step up the voltage to transmission level. Here the substation is not a separate entity rather it is switchyard of the Power Station. These substations are quite complex. One can find here more numbers of transformers in comparison to other types of substations. To inter-connect two or more transmission lines at two or more different voltage levels: In a transmission system it is often planned or it is required to facilitate power flow between transmission lines at different voltage levels. These are transmission substations. Inter connecting Transformers (ICT) are used for this purpose. The transmission substations operate at Extra High Voltage (EHV). See Figure below. To step down the voltage to a lower level for further transmission (sub-transmission) at an economic rate: Sometimes for shorter distance transmission of comparatively less power, the transmission company may feel that it is economical to transmit at a voltage level in-between the standard transmission and distribution level. Hence the requirement of establishing the substation. To step down the voltage to a lower level for feeding a high voltage distribution network: These are the substations where the voltage is stepped down to a voltage level suitable for forming the major distribution network for a township. Step down to low voltage for supply to consumers: These are area substations, where the voltage is again stepped down to a level suitable for house holds consumption. HVDC substation: There are two main purposes of a HVDC substation. 1) Two dissimilar systems with different frequency can be connected by HVDC link to facilitate power transfer from one side to the other side. 2) Direct current long distance bulk power transmission. HVDC substations have many advantages. Switching substation: These are the substations meant for switching purposes only. The Switching substation does not have a transformer. In a power system these are few in numbers. The switching substations are meant for disconnecting and connecting a part of network and facilitating maintenance works.

Here I reproduce the SLD of a basic imaginary power system where we can see few types of substations and their relative configuration.

A substation may not be exclusively for one of the above purposes. A substation may be established primarily for the purpose of bulk power transmission but at the same time may have another transformer installed for stepping down the voltage to a lower level and distribute locally. Sometimes any combination from the above is adopted depending on the requirements. The substations can be Air Insulated Substation (AIS) or Gas Insulated substation (GIS). It can be over ground or Under ground. The other important major elements usually found in the substation are Capacitor bank and Reactor. A substation has switching arrangements to connect or disconnect these high voltage equipments or elements to the system. Some important functions that are carried out in the substation are controlling the flow of energy, VAR compensation, voltage control, power factor improvement and measurement and recording of system parameters and initiating proper action.

The switching arrangement is chosen as per the requirement. A substation has many equipments, some of these are circuit breaker, isolator, current transformer, potential transformer, surge absorber, measuring and recording instruments, relay and protective devices, batteries, battery chargers, fire fighting equipments etc. The substation transformers can be connected several ways. We have already discussed about transformer connection and Vector Group. We will discuss about all types of substations in future.

We have already discussed in brief about different types of electrical substations. Now we will discuss about the main factors influencing selection of substation. The discussion is mainly for transmission substation which requires many factors to be considered before selecting the site, size etc. The smaller or distribution substation has fewer requirements so only some of the points are required to be considered. A substation is like a junction point in a power system. Many transmission lines at different voltage levels terminate at a substation. Shut down of the substation means shutdown of all the lines terminating at the substation. Clearly a substation is a very important unit of power system. A transmission substation may be comprised of one or more of the following main sections depending on its size and importance. These are Switchyards, Control rooms, Office building and Colony for employees. See the figure at the bottom. The substation planning requires several factors to be considered. A substation which is not properly planned or Ill designed may face several problems, in particular if future expansion or renovation of the switchyard is required. Proper design of substation also enables it to operate in normal state for maximum possible time so avoiding overloading to the maximum. It is true that many substations undergo expansion and renovation with time. So for substation planning future expansion must be considered. Some important primary factors in the design of substation are operational flexibility, supply reliability, secutity and short circuit withstand capability etc. One important factor to be considered first is the site selection. Substation design and some equipment selection depends on site selection. Hence it has a bigger influence on the cost of substation. The orientation of the lines to be terminated at the substation also decides the substation orientation and equipment arrangement. The site should be near the load center keeping in view the future load growth. Some general factors to be considered are listed. It should be remembered that some of the factors are actually interdependent.

Access road to the site for smooth movement of construction machines, equipments and transformers. Good Roadways to construction site and shorter distance to rail head are desired. The site should be chosen to avoid soil filling, earth removal etc. The requirement of soil filling and earth removal takes time and increases total cost of substation Historical data of worst flood is taken into account to avoid water logging of the substation in case of possibility of flood. Flood plains and wetlands are avoided. Atmospheric conditions like salt and suspended chemical contaminants influence selection of equipments and maintenance requirements. Interference with communication signals. The construction company have to take permission from the appropriate authority. Electric and magnetic field strength are of particular concern especially for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) systems at 765 kV,1200 kV or above. Research organisations has shown the impact of strong Electric/magnetic fields due to UHV substations and lines on human health. Such new concerns are also required to be addressed properly Forest land, sanctuaries and national parks are avoided. Almost all governments has laid stringent rules to comply for approval of forest land and wild life sanctuary. The usual process takes time to get approval from the concerned authorities. This process delays the construction activities. Approval is also required from aviation authority. Substation should be away from airport and defence establishments. Water supply and sewage system are the two most important facilities to be given due consideration.

Some other factors related to the general public:

The substation should be located far from the crowded places. Efforts are always made to locate transmission substations outside the city areas. The locals should be made aware of the upcoming substation. To avoid public resentment it is better to involve the local people in the process. If required they should be educated and trained. Many times the local people also plays an important role to check vandalism and theft. Heritage sites and tourist spots are avoided. Electric substation is a source of noise. While charged transformers, reactors and EHV lines are sources of continuous hissing noise, operation of different equipment also emit sudden noise. The design should be adopted to tackle the issues by complying to the standards set by the appropriate authority for reduction of noise pollution and avoid public resentments.

Landscaping should be done to keep the substation out of direct view of common people.

Finally it is safety of man and machine. The safety of the personnel involved both in construction phase, operational safety and safety of public is to be followed as per the safety rules and regulations framed by international bodies and local authorities. These rules are not to be compromised. Moreover the manufacturer instruction manuals, safety procedures and other documents for equipment and machines are to be referred. A substation should have adequate arrangement of fire fighting system. It is the ultimate safety measure of any substation. The fire fighting system should be suitable for dealing with fire due to electrical arc. Usually costly equipments like transformer should have Nitrogen gas or high speed water jet as fire fighting system. In the figure below is a conceptual substation