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chemistry notes

# p r e l im in a r y c o u r s e

module one:

t h e

c h em ic al

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1.

The living and non-living mixtures

components of the Earth contain

construct word and balanced formulae equations of chemical reactions as they are encountered identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of: solids of different sizes solids and liquids dissolved solids in liquids liquids gases

assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials, identifying the differences in properties which enable these separations describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced in the laboratory identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are encountered

construct word and balanced formulae equations of chemical reactions as they are encountered 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Reactants are the chemicals that are allowed to react. Write them on the left-hand side of the arrow. Products are the chemicals produced in the reaction. Write them on the right-hand side of the arrow. Write the word equation for the reaction. Use the valency rules to write the chemical formula under each reactant and product. Check each side of the equation for atom conservation. If the atoms are unbalanced, place coefficients in front of each formula so that they are balanced. Re-check that the atoms are now balanced. Use standard abbreviations to write the physical state next to each reactant and product: (s) = solid; (l) = liquid; (g) = gas; (aq) = aqueous or dissolved in water. Example: Combustion of methane 1. Reactants: methane gas, oxygen gas 2. Products: carbon dioxide gas, liquid water 3. Word equation: methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 4. Write the correct formula for each substance. (Remember: CH4 is a compound containing one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.) CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O 5. Check for atom conservation (number of atoms of each element). Reactants: C = 1; H = 4; O = 2 Products: C = 1; H = 2; O = 3 Therefore, atoms numbers do not balance. 6. Insert coefficients to balance the atoms; for example, the 2 in front of H2O represents two molecules of water. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O 7. Re-check atom balance. Reactants: C = 1; H = 4; O = 4 Products: C = 1; H = 4; O = 4 Atom balance has been achieved. The equation is balanced. 8. Insert physical states. CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)

identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory

Homogeneous matter: matter which has a uniform composition throughout within the sample. Heterogeneous matter: matter which has a non-uniform composition where foreign substances are present within the sample. A pure substance is one which cannot be separated into two or more substances by physical means and which has constant properties throughout the whole sample regardless of how it is prepared or subjected to purification processes. It also has a constant chemical composition.

An impure substance is a mixture (i.e. a substance contaminated with small amounts of other substances). A sample of matter is a mixture if: o o o it can be separated into two or more pure substances by physical or mechanical means; it displays the properties of its constituent pure substances; and its composition, i.e. relative amounts of each pure substance present, can be varied. homogeneous mixture: a mixture in which all the particles are uniformly distributed throughout. heterogeneous mixture: a mixture in which the particles are not uniformly distributed throughout.

Mixtures can either be a: o o

An element is a pure substance which cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. A compound is a pure substance which can be decomposed into simpler substances (e.g. simpler compounds and/or elements).

identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds

Biosphere: Mixtures: wood, blood, sugarcane. Compounds: carbohydrates (or sugars), proteins, fats and vitamins. Elements: [ present in living cells ]

Lithosphere: Mixtures: metal ores, sandstone, granite. Compounds:

Elements:

Hydrosphere: Mixtures: sea water. Compounds: carbon dioxide, and sodium, calcium and magnesium chlorides and sulfates. Elements: [ present in sea water ]

Atmosphere: Mixtures: air. Compounds: water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Elements: nitrogen, oxygen and argon.

identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of: Sieving Vaporisation (evaporating or boiling) Distillation Fractional distillation Filtration Decantation (using a separating funnel) Sedimentation and decantation Magnetic separation Crystallisation solids of different sizes solids and liquids Separation Method dissolved solids in liquids liquids Property used in separation Difference in the size of the particles. The liquid has a significantly lower boiling point than the solid. Big difference in boiling points of the two liquids. Significant but small difference in boiling points. One substance is soluble in a chosen solvent while the others are insoluble. The components of the mixture are immiscible liquids. Where there is one solid and one liquid, and the liquid is carefully poured off, leaving the solid behind. One component is magnetic, the other is not, and so the mixture is passed through a magnetic field to separate it. One component has a lower solubility in the selected solvent than the other component. As the solvent evaporates, the less soluble component forms crystals first. A solution is a homogenous which results when solute crystals break up into related units which become uniformly dispersed throughout the solvent. Separating solids and liquids: Filtration a solvent is added to the mixture and the solution is filtered. The liquid that passes through the filter paper is called a filtrate while the suspended solid remains on the top of the filter paper. Sedimentation is the process in which solids settle to the bottom of a container. Decanting or decantation is the process of carefully pouring off the liquid and leaving the solid undisturbed at the bottom of the contained. Separating dissolved solids in liquids requires vaporizing the liquid. This can be done by either evaporating to dryness or boiling. All liquid evaporates leaving the particles behind. This can also be achieved through simple distillation whereby the solvent is evaporated and separated from the soluble solid as the distillate. Distillation is a method of separating liquids from solutions or of purifying one liquid. It involves boiling the material and condensing the resulting vapour back to a liquid in a different part of the apparatus. The liquid collected from a distillation is called a distillate. Volatile means able to be converted to a vapour. If a mixture of a volatile liquid with non-volatile impurities (solid or liquid) is distilled, the distillate is a pure liquid. If a mixture of two liquids of comparable volatility (similar boiling points) is distilled, the distillate is generally richer in the more volatile liquid. To separate liquids by distillation when their boiling points are fairly close together, we have to use fractional distillation. Separating immiscible liquids: Two liquids are said to be immiscible if when they are mixed, they do not form a homogenous liquid but instead stay as drops of one liquid dispersed through the other liquid. gases

Such liquids are generally separated by using a separating funnel. Liquids which mix to form a homogenous liquid are said to be miscible i.e. one liquid dissolves in the other. To separate, use distillation.

Separating based on solubility: Mixtures of solids can be easily separated if one solid is soluble in a particular solvent while the others are not. A solvent is added to the mixture to dissolve the soluble component. The insoluble component is then filtered off and this filtrate is then evaporated to dryness to recover the soluble component. The substance dissolved is the solute; the liquid which does the dissolving is the solvent. A suspension is a dispersion of particles through a liquid with the particles being so large on the molecular scale that they settle out on letting the mixture stand.

assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials, identifying the differences in properties which enable these separations

describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists Gravimetric analysis is an analytical method used by chemists. It involves separating the components of the material and accurately determining their mass. The percentage composition of the material can then be calculated. Gravimetric analysis can be used to determine the: composition of a mixture using physical separation techniques percentage composition of a compound using chemical and physical separation techniques. percentage by weight of ingredients (sugar, fat, fibre) in food. This analysis is recorded on the packaging. purity and composition of alloys used for building construction extent of heavy metal pollution in river water and human food percentage composition of new compounds produced by chemical and medical research.

It can be used to determine the:

apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced in the laboratory Metal - non-metal binary compounds The metal is written as the first name and the abridged non-metal + ending -ide is the surname. Examples: Na2S, sodium sulfide; KCI, potassium chloride; ZnO, zinc oxide. lf more than one compound of the metal exist, their oxidation numbers are used. Examples: FeCl2, iron (II) chloride; FeCl3, iron (lll) chloride. Two non-metal binary compounds The first name is the more electropositive element and the other non-metal is given the -ide ending for the surname. The prefixes di, tri, tetra and penta are used to show the proportions of each element. Examples: N2O3, dinitrogen trioxide; SO2, sulfur dioxide. The prefix mono is used only when there is more than one compound of the two elements. Examples: CO, carbon monoxide; CO2, carbon dioxide. Note: In the case of MnO2; either manganese dioxide or manganese (IV) oxide is correct. Certain hydrides have special names Examples: H2O, water; NH3, ammonia; CH4, methane. Compounds containing composite ions (radicals) are named by writing the positive ion as the first name and the negative ion as the surname. Examples: NH4Br, ammonium bromide; NaOH, sodium hydroxide; (NH4)2SO4, ammonium sulfate. Acids a. Halogen acids Examples: HCl(g) is called hydrogen chloride. HCl(aq) is called hydrochloric acid. b. Acids containing oxygen If only one acid exists, the ending -ic is used. Examples: CH3COOH, acetic acid; H2CO3, carbonic acid. If two acids exist, the lower oxidation state is -ous and the higher is -ic. Examples: H2SO4, sulfuric acid; H2SO3, sulfurous acid.

identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are encountered

Carbon atoms can bond covalently to each other in three different ways: single covalent bonds double covalent bonds triple covalent bonds. Stems for naming hydrocarbons

Alkanes Alkanes are compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms with single bonds between the carbon atoms. The general formula for all members of this homologous series is C nH2n+2. The homologous series for alkanes begins with methane (CH4). Model IUPAC Name methane Structural Formula Chemical Formula CH4

ethane

C2H6

propane

C3H8

butane

C4H10

pentane

C5H12

hexane

C6H14

heptane

C7H16

octane

C8H18

Alkenes Alkenes are compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms with one double bond between a pair of carbon atoms within the hydrocarbon chain. The general formula for all members of this homologous series is C nH2n. The homologous series for alkenes begins with ethene (C2H4). Alkenes are named according to: the stem number the location of the double bond in the hydrocarbon chain (i.e. the locant). This is done by first numbering the longest chain from the end that gives the alkene functional group the lowest locant number possible. The preferred IUPAC method (2005) of naming the alkene is to place the locant number of the first carbon of the double bond in front of the -ene suffix (e.g. hept-2-ene). Example:

Butene is an alkene which as a chemical formula of C4H8 and occurs in two forms: but-1-ene and but-2-ene (1butene and 2-butene respectively). These forms of butane are known as isomers (compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae). Alkynes Alkynes are compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms with one triple bond between a pair of carbon atoms within the hydrocarbon chain. The general formula for all members of this homologous series is C nH2n-2. The same naming rules and conventions apply for alkynes as alkenes. The homologous series for alkenes begins with ethyne (C2H2). Examples of alkynes are:

2.

Although most elements are some elements are found uncombined

found in combinations on Earth,

explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing as an uncombined element classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical properties account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties

explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing as an uncombined element Reactivity is a chemical property that is related to the electronic structure of the element. As a result of this: Unreactive elements can exist as free elements in nature. Reactive elements combine with other substances in the environment to form compounds.

Examples of highly reactive metals include Group 1and 2 metals such as potassium and magnesium. Examples of less reactive metals include gold, copper and titanium. Examples of highly reactive non-metals include oxygen and fluorine. Examples of inert non-metals include helium and radon which belong to Group 8 (noble gases). The more reactive an element is, the less chance there is of finding it in the Earth as an uncombined element.

classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical properties

Note: Other properties of elements include state of matter (i.e. solid, liquid or gas) whereby metals and semi-metals are generally found as solids and non-metals can occur as any state of matter.

account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties The uses of elements are directly related to their physical and chemical properties. Physical properties such as malleability, density (high or low density), melting point, strength (tensile, compressive, or shear strength), lustre, ductility, thermal conductivity, heat conductivity and strength may be considered as properties which allow elements to be suitable to an intended purpose. Chemical properties such as reactivity (high or low reactivity), being chemically inert or resistant to corrosion may be considered as properties which allow elements to be suitable to an intended purpose. For example: Copper is used to make wires because it is ductile and has a high electrical conductivity. Argon is used as an atmosphere of welding since it is inert and hence will not react with the welded metal. Silicon is used in electrical circuits because it is a semi-conductor.

3.

Elements in Earth materials are present mostly as compounds because of interactions at the atomic level

identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons apply the Periodic Table to predict the ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals apply Lewis electron dot structures to: the formation of ions the electron sharing in some simple molecules

describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite charge describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other distinguish between molecules containing one atom (the noble gases) and molecules with more than one atom describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons construct formulae for compounds formed from: ions atoms sharing electrons

identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting Matter can occur as solids, liquids or gases. These states of matter will determine the particle movement and nature of a given substance. The table and diagram below summarises the particle nature in each state of matter. Note: Despite the closely packed particles in solids having a fixed shape and volume, the particles are not still or motionless. The particles vibrate within their fixed positions unless heat is added, whereby the particles will spread out, depending on the amount of heat energy added and the nature of the substance (i.e. the substance may melt or sublime). Solids have strong forces of attraction between the particles and thus have a definite shape. Liquids have weaker forces of attraction between the particles and hence do not have a definite shape. There are no significant forces of attraction between the particles of gases because they are further apart and move rapidly.

describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms Within the electron cloud, the electrons in an atom exist in discrete energy levels which we call the first, second, third energy level and so on. Each electron in the first energy level has a certain constant amount of energy; each electron in the second energy level also has a fixed amount of energy but it is greater than that possessed by electrons in the first energy level. Similarly, the electrons in the third energy level have larger amounts of energy still. Each of these energy levels can accommodate only a certain maximum number of electrons. The first energy level can accommodate only two electrons, the second can hold eight and the third eighteen; in general the nth energy level can accommodate 2n2 electrons. Electrons must be in one energy level or another - they cannot have energies that are intermediate between two levels.

describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number Atoms are composed of three types of particles: electrons, protons and neutrons. According to the Bohr model of the atom: The nucleus is at the centre of the atom and is composed of protons and neutrons. It constitutes for 99.95% of the mass of an atom. Protons contain a positive charge and have a mass of 1.007 amu (atomic mass units) and neutrons have no charge and have a mass of 1.008 amu. The atomic number (Z) of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus. The mass number (A) of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The mass number will vary in isotopes of elements (e.g. carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14). Electrons are negatively charged particles. Electrons have a very small mass of 0.00055 amu compared with protons and neutrons. The mass of electrons of atoms are not considered since its relative mass to protons and neutrons is negligible.

describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons Neutral atoms contain an equal number of protons and electrons. However, atoms can become either positively or negatively charged. These charged particles are known as ions, whereby: Cations are formed when an atom loses electrons. Cations are positively charged because electrons have been lost, and hence, there are a greater number of positive charges (protons) than negative charges (electrons). Example: In each ionic half-equation shown, the metal has lost a certain amount of electrons and has become a cation. Anions are formed when an atom gains electrons. Cations are negatively charged because electrons have been gained, and hence, there are a greater number of negative charges (electrons) than positive charges (protons). Example: In each ionic half-equation shown, the non-metal has gained a certain amount of electrons and has become an anion.

apply the Periodic Table to predict the ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals Group 1 metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) all tend to lose one electron and therefore form singly charged positive ions: Li +, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+. Group 2 metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) tend to lose two electrons and therefore form doubly charged positive ions: Be 2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+. Group 3 elements except for boron tend to lose three electrons and therefore form cations: Al 3+, Ga3+, In3+. Group 6 elements (non-metals, O, S, Se, Te) tend to gain two electrons and thus form doubly charged negative ions: O2, S2, Se2, Te2. Group 7 elements (non-metals, F, Cl, Br and I) all tend to gain one electron and therefore they form singly charged negative ions: F, Cl, Br, I. Group 8 elements (non-metals) will not form ions under normal circumstances. The transition metals all lose electrons to form positive ions (for example Cr 3+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Ag+, Zn2+), but it is not possible from a simple look at the Periodic Table to predict just how many electrons any particular atom will lose.

apply Lewis electron dot structures to: the formation of ions Lewis dot structures: Represent the bonding of compounds by showing their valence shell and electrons. There are different conventions for drawing Lewis dot structures for ionic and covalent substances. The formation of ions can also be represented through the use of Lewis dot diagrams. the electron sharing in some simple molecules

The formation of ions

The electron sharing in some simple molecules

describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite charge Cation and anion formation are usually linked. To form a cation, electrons must be removed from a metal atom. This is achieved by non-metal atoms accepting the electrons to form anions. The cation and anion formed attract one another and form a compound. The electrostatic attraction between a cation and an anion is called an ionic bond and is caused by the transfer of electrons. The compound formed is called an ionic compound.

describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other Molecules have previously been defined as the smallest part of a pure substance that can exist separately. Another way of saying this is that molecules are particles that can move independently of one another. Non-metal atoms can bond to other non-metal atoms and achieve stable electronic arrangements and hence, form discrete molecules.

distinguish between molecules containing one atom (the noble gases) and molecules with more than one atom Some molecules are elements and some are compounds. Examples of molecules include: monatomic molecules o o o o o o helium atoms, He argon atoms, Ar oxygen, O2 nitrogen, N2 hydrogen iodide, HI carbon monoxide, CO triatomic molecules o o o o o o ozone, O3 water, H2O sulfur dioxide, SO2 carbon dioxide, CO2 white phosphorus, P4 ammonia, NH3

diatomic molecules

tetra-atomic molecules

describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons Non-metal atoms can achieve electron shell stability by sharing electron pairs with other non-metals. Stable octets are achieved by this process. The sharing of electron pairs between neighbouring atoms is called a covalent bond. There are three types of covalent bond: single bond - One electron pair is shared. (e.g. water - H2O) double bond - Two electron pairs are shared. (e.g. oxygen gas O2) triple bond - Three electron pairs are shared. (e.g. butyne C8H6)

Note: A coordinate covalent bond may occur in some cases whereby both electrons of the shared pair are provided by one atom [ e.g. carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) ].

construct formulae for compounds formed from: ions Writing Formulae for Ionic Compounds atoms sharing electrons

Chemical formulae are formed as follows: i. Write down the correct chemical name of the compound. ii. Write valences above the symbols for the cation and anion. iii. Put brackets around any radicals present. iv. Cross-multiply valencies and omit signs. v. Check that the compound is electrically neutral. To check if an ionic compound is neutral, the sum of positive and negative valencies of the ionic compound must be equal to zero. Example: Calcium hydroxide

(2) + 2(-1) = 0 The chemical formula for calcium hydroxide is Ca(OH) 2. Writing Formulae for Covalent Compounds For simple binary molecular compounds, the sum of the valencies of one element should match the sum of the valencies of the other element. For molecular compounds composed of three elements, the sum of the valencies of the first two elements should equal the total valency of the third element. In molecular formulae, the first element should have the lowest periodic group number or be in a lower period (higher period number) if both elements are from the same group. (Note: There are some exceptions to this rule involving oxygen in molecular compounds with Cl, Br or I.) Example: Nitrogen trichloride N has a valency of 3 and chlorine has a valency of 1. Thus, three atoms of chlorine are required so that the total valency of chlorine matches the valency of nitrogen. 3=3x1 The chemical formula is NCl3.

4.

Energy is required to extract elements from their naturally occurring sources

identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of particles summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference between physical and chemical change identify light, heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released or absorbed during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes occurring in everyday life explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction, or bond, between them

identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of particles Physical Changes A physical change is one which does not lead to the formation of new substances (i.e. the chemical composition of the pure substance(s) have not been altered). Physical changes include: filtration evaporation and distillation do not cause the formation of a new substance(s) Chemical Changes A chemical change is one which leads to the formation of at least one new substance. A chemical change is also known as a chemical reaction (e.g. synthesis, decomposition, acid-base reactions, etc). Signs that a chemical change has occurred are: if a gas is evolved if an odour is produced if there is a change in colour if a solid (called a precipitate) is formed when two solutions are mixed Chemical Changes: form at least one new substance are difficult to reverse require a large input or output of energy if there is a significant change in temperature of the mixture if there is disappearance of a solid which is not merely physical dissolution of the solid in the solvent cutting, hammering and rolling change of state are easily reversible require relatively small energy changes

Physical Changes:

summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference between physical and chemical change Differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water: Electrolysis produces two new substances (hydrogen and oxygen gases), whereas boiling does not produce any new substance (just converts liquid water to gaseous water). Electrolysis is difficult to reverse (need to mix the gases together and ignite them with a high temperature spark), whereas boiling is easily reversed (just cool the vapour and it goes back to liquid). Electrolysis requires much more energy than boiling (electrolysis requires between 20 and 30 kilojoules of electrical energy per gram of water decomposed (depending on conditions used), whereas boiling requires only 2.3 kilojoules per gram of water vaporised).

identify light, heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released or absorbed during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes occurring in everyday life Decomposition Reactions: A decomposition reaction is a reaction which involves the breakdown of a complex substance into its simpler constituent elements and/or elements. A decomposition reaction only occurs if energy is added (i.e. heat, light and electricity). Application of decomposition reaction in the real world: Heat energy is used in our industrialised society to decompose minerals to produce metals in smelters. In nature, ultraviolet light energy decomposes ozone molecules into oxygen gas and oxygen radicals. This process is important in preventing most high-energy UV rays reaching the Earths surface. Lightning initiates decomposition reactions in the atmosphere by providing electrical energy to various gas molecules. Airbags in cars contain the chemical sodium azide, which decomposes by detonation to produce a large volume of nitrogen gas to inflate the airbag during a crash. Examples: 1. Thermal decomposition of gold oxide When a sample of brown gold (III) oxide is heated over a Bunsen burner flame in a test tube, it readily decomposes to produce a sample of lustrous gold. The oxygen is evolved as oxygen gas. gold (III) oxide gold + oxygen gas 2Au2O3(s) 4Au(s) + 3O2(g) 2. Light decomposition (photolysis) of silver bromide Silver bromide is decomposed by light in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum. The white crystals darken as black grains of silver metal form. Bromine vapour is released in the process. silver bromide silver + bromine vapour 2AgBr(s) 2Ag(s) + Br2(g) 3. Electrolytic decomposition of molten lead (II) bromide Lead (II) bromide crystals melt at a relatively low temperature (373 C) to form a clear, colourless liquid. The liquid is heated to 400 C and electrolysed using inert electrodes; air is removed from the apparatus during electrolysis to prevent any other reactions. A brown vapour of bromine is evolved at the positive electrode and silvery globules of lead form at the surface of the negative electrode and sinks to the bottom of the vessel. lead (II) bromide (liquid) lead (liquid) + bromine vapour PbBr2(l) Pb(l) + Br2(g)

Synthesis Reactions: Synthesis reaction: the formation of a compound from its elements or a more complex compound from simpler compounds. Application of decomposition reaction in the real world: Rust is an oxide of iron that forms when iron structures are exposed to oxygen in the air. The ammonia industry synthesises ammonia directly by combining nitrogen and hydrogen gases at high temperatures and pressures over a catalyst. Examples: 1. Synthesis of iron (III) chloride using heat energy Iron wool can be heated briefly in a Bunsen flame and then placed in a gas jar of chlorine gas. The jar rapidly becomes filled with brown iron (III) chloride smoke. Moisture in the jar causes the iron (III) chloride to dissolve rapidly to form deep brown droplets. iron + chlorine gas iron (III) chloride 2Fe(s) + 3Cl2(g) 2FeCl3(s) 2. Synthesis of hydrogen chloride using light Hydrogen gas combines explosively with chlorine gas when the reaction mixture is exposed to light. The light provides the necessary energy to break the chemical bonds of the chlorine molecule. hydrogen gas + chlorine gas hydrogen chloride gas H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g)

explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction, or bond, between them The stronger the chemical bonding in a compound, the more energy is required to break the compound into atoms. Alternatively, the stronger the chemical bonding in a compound the more energy is released when the compound is formed from its atoms. For example, it is difficult to separate the ions in an ionic bond since the electrostatic force is relatively strong whereas it is relatively easy to separate covalent molecular substances since the bond strength is weaker than those present in ionic substances.

5.

The properties of elements and compounds are determined by their bonding and structure

identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds and mixtures describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic or covalent molecular or covalent network distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure of ionic, covalent molecular and covalent network structures

identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds and mixtures
Physical Properties Chemical Properties

Metals (at STP) are/have generally: malleable in solid state ductile in solid state found as solids * good conductors of heat and electricity lustrous a high density a high tensile strength * Exception: Mercury occurs as a liquid at STP. Non-metals (at STP) are/have generally: brittle * dull * found as solids, liquids or gases good insulators of heat and electricity ^ a low density * Exception: Carbon in the form of diamond is strong and lustrous. ^ Exception: Carbon in the form of graphite can conduct electricity since only three out of four valence electrons are involved in covalent bonding. The remaining electron is delocalised and forms an electrical conducting band in the lattice. Semi-metals (at STP): display properties of metals and non-metals have an intermediate density Compounds generally do not show the physical properties of their constituent elements. Ionic compounds: are formed as a result of the electrostatic attraction by oppositely charged ions solid at room temperature soluble are non-conductors of electricity in solid state are conductors of electricity when in molten or in solution have high melting points are hard and brittle Covalent molecular compounds: are non-conductors unless the molecule reacts to form ions have low melting points are soft and brittle Covalent network compounds: are non-conductors in any state of matter are insoluble have very high melting points are very hard and brittle Heterogeneous mixtures: are not chemically combined demonstrate the physical properties of the constituent pure substances Homogeneous mixtures: are not chemically combined demonstrate the physical properties of the constituent pure substances
Elements

Metals: Form positive ions (e.g. Na+) Form basic oxides and occasionally form amphoteric oxides (e.g. Al2O3) Form ionic chlorides (e.g. NaCl). Non-metals: If ions are formed, they are negative. Form acidic oxides. Form covalent chlorides.

Compounds: Demonstrate different chemical properties to their constituent elements. Can be decomposed in certain conditions. Can react with other compounds (e.g. acid and base reactions).

Compounds

Mixtures

Mixtures: Demonstrate the chemical properties of their constituent pure substances.

describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic or covalent molecular or covalent network

distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds A metallic bond is a chemical bond which occurs in the lattices within metals. These bonds are formed as a result of the attraction between the positive ions and delocalised electrons within the structure. These delocalised electrons are as a result of the loss of electrons from the valence shell from each metal atom present. An ionic bond is a chemical bond which is formed between an anion and cation (positive and negative ion respectively). The electrostatic attraction between the two ions forms the ionic bond, which occurs throughout the entire lattice. This is as a result of the donation of electrons between atoms. Unlike metallic bonds, there are no delocalised electrons, and thus, ionic substances do not conduct electricity in solid state. A covalent bond is a chemical bond which is formed between non-metal atoms through the sharing of valence electrons in order to gain stable octets.

describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons Model of a metallic crystal The model of the metallic crystal, shown in below, has the following features. i. Positive metal ions (rather than neutral atoms) are arranged in a regular three-dimensional lattice. ii. A cloud or sea of delocalised electrons moves throughout the lattice. iii. Delocalised electrons have been lost from the valence shell of each metal atom and belong to the lattice as a whole. iv. The attraction between the positive metal ions and the delocalized electron cloud stabilises the lattice. v. The attraction between the metal ions and electron cloud is called the metallic bond. Metallic bonds are strong chemical bonds.

describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions Ionic compounds are characterised by a continuous three-dimensional arrangement of cations and anions. Attraction between oppositely charged ions is called an ionic bond, which are strong chemical bonds. Note that the ions are arranged in several different patterns depending on their size.

explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula The empirical formula of a compound represents its atomic or ionic composition expressed as a simple whole number ratio. This is because ionic compounds do not form discrete molecules as in molecular compounds. Instead, the simplest repeating unit of the crystal (called a unit cell) is taken into account. The simplest ratio of ions present in the unit cell determines the empirical formula of an ionic compound.

identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices Several covalent molecules include: H2, F2, Cl2, O2 and N2 (diatomic gases). Br2 (a diatomic liquid) and I2 (a diatomic solid). Phosphorus and sulfur exist as covalent P4 and S8 molecules respectively.

Several covalent network substances include: silicon dioxide (SiO 2), silicon carbide (SiC), graphite.

explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure of ionic, covalent molecular and covalent network structures Properties of Ionic Substances

Properties of Covalent Molecular Substances

Properties of Covalent Network Substances