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Reduplication is a process of creating a new word by repeating the whole word or part of a word.

This seems like English reduplication, but its frequency of use in English is not so popular as in Vietnamese. Using this kind of word formation in Vietnamese can bring users many effects such as either increase or decrease the intensity of the adjective. For example: Mnh -> mnh m, au ->au ing ( increase the intensity of the adjective) Thm -> thm thm, -> o (decrease the intensity of the adjective)

WORD FORMATION IN VIETNAMESE


As mentioned above, Vietnamese belongs to the isolating language where all the words are invariable and each syllable is considered as a separate word. It means that we dont use inflectional endings or affixation as in English to change the internal structure of a word or create a new word. In fact, a new word in Vietnamese is created by three predominant processes: reduplication, compounding, and conversion. REDUPLICATION Reduplication is predominantly used and a specific type of word-formation in Vietnamese. Reduplication is a process of creating a new word by repeating the whole word or part of a word. This seems like English reduplication, but its frequency of use in English is not so popular as in Vietnamese. Using this kind of word formation in Vietnamese can bring users many effects such as either increase or decrease the intensity of the adjective. For example: Mnh -> mnh m, au ->au ing ( increase the intensity of the adjective) Thm -> thm thm, -> o (decrease the intensity of the adjective) Reduplication is also used as a literary device in poetry, compositions and in every conversation. According to Sophana Srichampas research from Institute of

Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University, there are two types of reduplication in Vietnamese: Full reduplication ( ng ng, lng lng)) and partial reduplication (mp mp, phanh phch). Full reduplication can occur with both monosyllabic and disyllabic words for which there is exact reduplication of the syllable. The disyllabic full reduplication follows the AABB pattern (vi vi vng vng, hng hng h h). Partial reduplication can occur with both monosyllabic and disyllabic words. Monosyllabic partial reduplication has the three sub-types: Rhyming (same vowel, same final and sometimes same tone) such as khng khng (same vowel, same final, same tone), chiming (same initial but different vowel, final or tone) as in rng rc , rhyming and chiming (with different tone) as in mn mn . Disyllabic partial reduplication has three sub-types: ABAB reduplication (change of rhyme and tone) ( e.g: v va v vn), ABCD reduplication (change of rhyme) ( e.g: lm nhm lom nhom), ABB reduplication (tr tr tr, nhn nhn nhn). COMPOUNDING Compounding in Vietnamese has the same meaning as compounding process in English. According to Professor Ngo Nhu Binh, there are three kinds of compounds in Vietnamese: coordinate compound (t ghp ng lp), subordinate compound (t ghp chnh ph) and isolated compound. Coordinate compounds are formed by two morphemes or syllables, neither of which modifies the other one, such as qun o (cloths), i ng (go and stand), phi tri (right and wrong). Subordinate compounds are formed by two morphemes or syllables, one of which modifies the other one, such as xe p (bicycle), xe hi (car), xe la (train), kh chu (unbearable), kh nghe (be difficult to hear), hi trng (president of an association), i trng (head of a group), nhm trng (head of a group), t trng (head of a small group). Many morphemes in this type may be regarded as affixes like in English. But actually they arent because they are not bound morphemes. They can stand alone, unlike English. Unlike the coordinate and subordinate compounds, isolated compounds do not form systems. The meaning of one element is clear while the meaning of the other isnt such as tre pheo, ng

s , o xng, m nheo Like English compounds, Vietnamese compounds have three types: compound noun, compound verb and compound adjective. These three types of compounds can occur in coordinate compound, or subordinate compound. n , i ng, n ni (compound verbs coordinate compound); o len, o khoc, o thun ( compound nouns - subordinate compound); vng m, vng ng, vng nht (compound adjectives- subordinate compound), for example. CONVERSION Vietnamese conversion is also as popular as English conversion. Conversion is a type of word formation creating new words based on the existing word without changing its form and meanings of new words have the closed relationships or associations with the old one. Vietnamese language rarely has the conversion of word class like English, for example verb to noun or vice versa. Instead, a word is used in different contexts with the same part of speech ( conversion in this sense means Hin tng chuyn ngha ca t in Vietnamese). Lets take mt for instance in i mt c y tht long lanh, nhng qu na bt u m mt or n in n cm, tu an than, nc n chn. Some others: i, ng, chn, tay also have the same phenomenon. In general, the aim of Vietnamese conversion shares common with English. It can be used as a metaphor in many works and in everyday speech.