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Lymphatic System Notes

Lymphatic System - consists of 3 parts 1. Lymphatic Vessels 2. Lymph ( fluid contained in vessels) 3. Lymph nodes

1. Lymphatic Vessels- OVERVIEW a. system of drainage vessels which collects excess proteincontaining interstitial fluid b. returns it back to blood stream c. once fluid enters lymphatics- its called lymph

Characteristics of Lymphatic Vessels/Structure a. vessels form one way system which lymph ONLY flows towards heart. b. transport begins in lymphatic capillaries. i. capillaries weave between tissue cels and blood capillaries in body ii. widespread but ABSENT from: bones, teeth, bone marrow and ENTIRE CNS iii. permeable c. Laceteals i. highly specialized cells which are present in villi of intestinal mucosa. d. Chyle i. fatty lymph ii. delivered to blood via lymphatic system e. Flow of lymph i. flows through larger and thick-walled channels-

ii. first stop- collecting vessels then trunks then ducts f. lymphatic collecting vessels i. thin walled ii. more internal valves and anastomose more iii. lymphatics travel along superficial veins while deep lymphatic vessels of trunk travel within deep arteries, g. Lymphatic trunks i. formed by union of largest collecting vessels. ii. drain large areas of body. iii. Major Trunks - Lumbar, Bronchomediastinal, Subclavian, Jugular and single intestinal trunk h. Delivery of Lymph i. delivered into one of two ducts; Right Lymphatic or Thoracic ii. Right Lymphatic - drains from right upper limb and right side of head and thorax iii. Thoracic Duct - receives lymph from rest of body. V.Cisterna Chyli - collects lymph both trunks and drains lower limbs from intestinal trunk

2. Lymph Transport a. lacks an organ which acts as pump. b. low pressure- sporadic and slow c. TRANSPORT - 1: return excess tissue fluid to blood stream -2: return leaked proteins to the blood -3: carry absorbed fat from the intestine to blood

(through lacteals)

3. LYMPH NODES a. Lymphocytes i. main warriors of immune system ii. mature into either T Cells ( t lymphocytes) or B cells (B lymphocytes) = protecting body against antigens. iii. B cells protect body by producing plasma cells - secrete antibodies into blood V. Macrophages

- crucial role in body protection and immune response by phagocytizing foreign substances to active T Cells. VI. Dendritic cells - spiny cells that capture antigens and bring them back to antigens. VII. Reticular Cells - fibroblast-like cells which protecter stroma ( network which supports other cells in the lymphoid organs & tissues) b. Lymphoid Tissue i. houses and provides proliferation site for lymphocytes. ii. furnishes an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages. iii. consists of reticular connective tissue. 1. Types a. Diffuse lymphatic tissue - few scattered reticular tissue elements b. Lymphoid follicles - follicles are solid and packed tightly with reticular elements. -germinal centers ( b cells in them) c. Lymph Nodes Structure/Function a. cluster along lymphatic vessels. - occur in inguinal axillary and cervical regions b. Functions 1. lymph is transported back to blood stream and lymph nodes act as FILTERS. 2. Help activate immune system c. Structure a. bean shaped less than 2.5 cm b. node is surrounded by fibrous capsule ( trabeculae - connective tissue stands) - divide node into compartments c. Two distinct regions 1. cortex - densely packed follicles, with B cells and germinal centers. - T cells circulate continuously thoughout blood, lymph nodes and lymph 2. Medulla - both types of cells plus plasma cells

- lymph sinuses

OTHER LYMPHOID GLANDS 1. Spleen, Thymus, Tonsils and Peyers patches of intestines. SPLEEN - size of fist & largest of lymphoids - stores breakdown products of RBC for later reuse - stores blood platelets - thought to be site of RBC production in fetus TONSILS - simplest lymphoid organs - palatine tonsils- either side of oral cavity - lingual tonsil- base of tongue - pharyngeal tonsil- wall of nasopharynx - tubal tonsil- openings of auditory tubes of pharynx