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Index Contents:

1. Introduction 2. Definition of Robotics 3. Technologies that make up a Robot 4. Origin of Robots 5. Laws of Robotics by Asimov 6. Components of Robots 7. Types of Robots 8. Advantages 9. Applications 10.Future Scope 11.Conclusion 12.References

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1. INTRODUCTION:

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.

The concept and creation of machines that could operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as we continue to research, design, and build new robots that serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, exploring shipwrecks, and mines.

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel apek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which premiered in 1921.

Robotics is the study of the design, construction and use of robots. Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science that deals with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively; "workers in AI hope to imitate or duplicate intelligence in computers and robots"

1.1 WHO INTRODUCED THE WORD ROBOT?

o The terms robot and robotics are only recently used. The term robot was first introduced by a Czech dramatist, Karel Capek in his 1921 play "Rossum's Universal Robots". He was referring to a perfect and tireless worker performing manual labour jobs for human beings. o Isaac Asimov, coined the word robotics as the science of the study of robots, in his science fiction stories about robots in 1940s.
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o Webster's New World Dictionary, 1988, defines robotics as 'the science or technology of robots, their design, manufacture, application, use etc' o In Europe robotics is defined as 'the science of robotology' and robotology is defined as 'the means by which robot machines are put together and made to work'. o Many people think of robotics as a single area of technology, but in fact robotics encompasses such diverse areas of technology as mechanical, electrical, electronics, systems, computer hardware and software and a host of other advanced technology.

1.2 WHAT CAN ROBOTS DO?

o In the past industrial robots were best suited for repetitive, unskilled or semiskilled, monotonous and burdensome tasks. o There is however, a new move to apply intelligence to robots that will allow them to "think smart" and make decisions. These are what can be termed as autonomous and intelligent robots. o Today the human analogy of an industrial robot is very limited. Robots do not look like humans, and they do not behave like humans. Instead, they are one-armed machines which almost always operate from a fixed location on the factory floor. Future robots are likely to have a greater number of attributes similar to humans, such as having greater sensor capabilities, more intelligence, a higher level of manual dexterity, and a limited degree of mobility. There is no denying that the technology of robotics is moving in a direction to provide these machines with more and more capabilities like those of humans.

It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to be given electronic programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks or actions. It may also have some ability to perceive and absorb data on physical objects, or on its local physical environment, or to process data, or to respond to various stimuli. This is in contrast to a simple mechanical device such as a gear or a hydraulic press or any other item which has no processing ability and which does tasks through purely mechanical processes and motion.

2. DEFINITION:

According to the Robot Institute of America (1979) a robot can be defined as: "A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks". A more inspiring definition can be found in Webster. According to Webster a robot is: "An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human." They can also be defined as an automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human. The vast majority of industrial robots are mechanical arms attached to a fixed base, with some form of programmable control for automatic execution of motion. This is simply because a market exists for such products and current technology is able to provide a product with acceptable performance at an affordable price. Robots are used in an increasingly wide variety of tasks such as vacuuming floors, mowing lawns, cleaning drains, building cars, in warfare, and in tasks that are too expensive or too dangerous to be performed by humans such as exploring outer space or at the bottom of the sea. Robots range from humanoids such as ASIMO and TOPIO to Nano robots, Swarm robots, Industrial robots, military robots, mobile and servicing robots. The branch of technology that deals with robots is robotics. The concept and creation of machines that could operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as we continue to research, design, and build new robots that serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, exploring shipwrecks, and mines.

3. TECHNOLOGIES THAT MAKE UP A ROBOT:


Mechanical Engineering: Design of the mechanism.Understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of the system.

Electronic Engineering: Design of the actuator and sensor systems.

Systems Engineering: Analysis and integration of the overall system. Signal conditioning and Control.

Computer Science: Design of the logic, intelligence or adaptability, networking and interface.

Fig.1. Technologies that make up a robot


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4. ORIGIN OF ROBOTS:

The word 'robotics' was first used in Runaround, a short story published in 1942, by Isaac Asimov (born Jan. 2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). I, Robot, a collection of several of these stories, was published in 1950. One of the first robots Asimov wrote about was a robotherapist. A modern counterpart to Asimovs fictional character is Eliza. Eliza was born in 1966 by a Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Joseph Weizenbaum who wrote Eliza a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. She was initially programmed with 240 lines of code to simulate a psychotherapist by answering questions with questions.

The First Industrial robot Ultimate: After the technology explosion during World War II, in 1956, a historic meeting occurs between George C. Devol, a successful inventor and entrepreneur, and engineer Joseph F. Engelberger, over cocktails the two discuss the writings of Isaac Asimov. Together they made a serious and commercially successful effort to develop a real, working robot. They persuaded Norman Schafler of Condec Corporation in Danbury that they had the basis of a commercial success. Engelberger started a manufacturing company 'Unimation' which stood for universal automation and so the first commercial company to make robots was formed. Devol wrote the necessary patents. Their first robot nicknamed the 'Unimate'. As a result, Engelberger has been called the 'father of robotics.' The first Unimate was installed at a General Motors plant to work with heated die-casting machines. In fact most Unimates were sold to extract die castings from die casting machines and to perform spot welding on auto bodies, both tasks being particularly hateful jobs for people.

5. LAWS OF ROBOTICS BY ASIMOV:


The Three Laws of Robotics are a set of rules devised by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov and later added to. The rules are introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround", although they were foreshadowed in a few earlier stories. The Three Laws are: I LAW: A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. II LAW: A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. III LAW: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws. ZEROTH LAW: A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.

The original laws have been altered and elaborated on by Asimov and other authors. Asimov himself made slight modifications to the first three in various books and short stories to further develop how robots would interact with humans and each other; he also added a fourth, or zeroth law, to precede the others: These form an organizing principle and unifying theme for Asimov's robotic-based fiction, appearing in his Robot series, the stories linked to it, and his Lucky Starr series of youngadult fiction. The Laws are incorporated into almost all of the Positronic robots appearing in his fiction, and cannot be bypassed, being intended as a safety feature. Many of Asimov's robotfocused stories involve robots behaving in unusual and counter-intuitive ways as an unintended consequence of how the robot applies the Three Laws to the situation in which it finds itself.

Other authors working in Asimov's fictional universe have adopted them and references, often parodic, appear throughout science fiction as well as in other genres.

6. COMPONENTS OF ROBOTS:

6.1 Power Source:


At present, mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be:

Pneumatic (compressed gases) Hydraulics (liquids) Flywheel energy storage Organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion) Faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot Stirling engine on how the system would operate) Still unproven energy sources: for example Nuclear fusion, as yet not used in nuclear reactors whereas Nuclear fission is proven (although there are not many robots using it as a power source apart from the Chinese rover tests.[18]). Radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s); to those proposed in movies such as Red Planet.

Some of the Power Sources used in Robotics are follows : 1. Photo Voltaic Cells 2. Batteries 3. Fuel Cells 4. Mechanical 5. Air Pressure 6. Chemical Fuel

6.2 Actuators:
Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air. 6.2.1 Electric motors: The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. 6.2.2 Linear actuators: Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning, particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator). 6.2.3 Series elastic actuators: A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator, to allow improved force control. It has been used in various robots, particularly walking humanoidrobots. 6.2.4 Air muscles: Pneumatic artificial muscles, also known as air muscles, are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside them. They have been used for some robot applications. 6.2.5 Muscle wire: Muscle wire, also known as Shape Memory Alloy, Nitinol or Flexinol Wire, is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. They have been used for some small robot applications. 6.2.6 Electroactive polymers: EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 380% activation strain) from electricity, and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots, and to allow new robots to float, fly, swim or walk. 6.2.7 Piezo motors: Recent alternatives to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per second, cause linear or rotary motion. There are different mechanisms of operation; one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight lineThe advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution, speed, and available force for their size. These motors are already available commercially, and being used on some robots.
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6.2.8 Elastic nanotubes: Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development. The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans.

Fig.2 Actuators - Muscle of a Robot .

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6.3 Sensing:
Most robots of today are nearly deaf and blind. Sensors can provide some limited feedback to the robot so it can do its job. Compared to the senses and abilities of even the simplest living things, robots have a very long way to go. The sensor sends information, in the form of electronic signals back to the controller. Sensors also give the robot controller information about its surroundings and lets it know the exact position of the arm, or the state of the world around it.Sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell are the kinds of information we get from our world. Robots can be designed and programmed to get specific information that is beyond what our 5 senses can tell us. For instance, a robot sensor might "see" in the dark, detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation or measure movement that is too small or fast for the human eye to see. 6.3.1 Touch: Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed, producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects.

6.3.2 Vision: Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from cameras. In most practical computer vision applications, the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task, but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common. Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics.. 6.3.3 Other: Other common forms of sensing in robotics use LIDAR, RADAR and SONAR
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6.4 Manipulation:
Robots need to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the "arm" is referred to as manipulator. Most robot arms have replaceable effectors, each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced, while a few have one very general purpose manipulator, for example a humanoid hand. For the definitive guide to all forms of robot end-effectors, their design, and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers" 6.4.1 Mechanical grippers: One of the most common effectors is the gripper. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it. Hands that resemble and work more like a human hand include the Shadow Hand, the Robonaut hand. Hands that are of a mid-level complexity include i.e the Delft hand,

6.4.2 Vacuum grippers: Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive devices, but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction. Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens, often use very simple vacuum grippers.

6.4.3 General purpose effectors: Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands, like the Shadow Hand, MANUS, and the Schunk hand. These highly dexterous manipulators, with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors.

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6.5 Controllers:
The robot connects to a computer, which keeps the pieces of the arm working together. This computer is the controller. The controller functions as the "brain" of the robot. The controller can also network to other systems, so that the robot may work together with other machines, processes, or robots. As applications become more challenging, some jobs require continuous path control of an End Effector. For this action all articulations must be programmed in speeds appropriate to the particular task. This requires programming for the control of the robot. Robots today have controllers run by programs -- sets of instructions written in code. The program sets limits on what the robot can do. These requirements call into play sophisticated computer-based controllers and so-called robot languages. These languages permit a kind of robot control known as hierarchical control, in which decision making by the robot takes place on several levels.

6.5.1 Feedback (Closed Loop) Control: Feedback control is a means of getting a system (in our case a robot) to achieve and maintain a desired state by continuously comparing its current and desired state. The desired state is also called the goal state of the system. Note that it can be an external or internal state: for example, a thermostat monitors and controls external state (the temperature of the house), while a robot can control its internal state (e.g., battery power, by recharging at proper times) or external state (e.g., distance from a wall). If the current and desired state are the same, the control system does not need to do anything.

Fig. 3 Feedback control

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6.5.2 Open Loop Control: The alternative to closed loop control is open loop control. This type of control does not require the use of sensors, since state is not fed back into the system. Such systems can operate (perform repetitive, state-independent tasks) only if they are extremely well calibrated and their environment does not change in a way that affects their performance.In such a system, the controller determines set points and sub-goals for itself ahead of time, without looking at actual state data.

Fig.4 AVR Robot Controller 6.5.3 Reactive Control: Reactive control is based on a tight loop connecting the robot's sensors with its effectors. Purely reactive systems do not use any internal representations of the environment, and do not look ahead: they react to the current sensory information. Thus, reactive systems use a direct mapping between sensors and effectors, and minimal, if any, state information. They consist of collections of rules that map specific situations to specific actions. If a reactive system divides its perceptual world into mutually exclusive or unique situations, then only one of those situations can be triggered by any sensory input at any one time, and only one action will be activated as a result. 6.5.4 Behavior Based Control: Behavior-based systems (BBS) use behaviors as the underlying module of the system, i.e., they use a behavioral decomposition. Behavior-based systems are not limited in the ways that reactive systems are. As a result, behavior-based systems have the following key properties: 1. The ability to react in real-time 2. The ability to use representations to generate efficient (not only reactive) behavior 3. The ability to use a uniform structure and representation throughout the system (so no intermediate layer).
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7. TYPES OF ROBOTS BY LOCOMOTION AND KINEMATICS:

The robot's application alone does not provide enough information when talking about a specific robot. 1. Stationary robots (including robotic arms with a global axis of movement) 2. Mobile robots 3. Autonomous Robots 4. Remote-control Robots 5. Virtual Robots 6. BEAM Robots

7.1 Stationary Robots:


These are robots that are fixed in position. The diagram below shows a large-scale stationary robot arm. It has mobile joints called 'the wrist', 'the elbow', 'the waist' and 'the shoulder'. Stationary Robots can be described in terms of joints and the directions they move. This is very similar to human anatomy and the direction the arm can move.

Waist: Moves from Side to Side at the Waist Shoulder: Moves Up and Down from the Shoulder Elbow: Move Up and Down at the Elbow Wrist: Move from Side to Side and Rotates around the wrist.

They are not only used to explore areas or imitate a human being. Most robots perform repeating tasks without ever moving an inch. Most robots are working in industry settings. Especially dull and repeating tasks are suitable for robots. A robot never grows tired, it will perform its duty day and night without ever complaining. In case the tasks at hand are done, the robots will be reprogrammed to perform other tasks.

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Fig.5 Stationary Robot of fixed base

7.1.1 Robot End Effectors (tools fitted on the end of a robot arm):

A whole range of tools can be fitted to the end of a robot arm, for example a spray gun, a welding gun, a gripper, etc. Thinking back to the Linn Systems factory,

the robot arms were relatively small, were fitted to the production line and had a tool fitted to enable them to place parts on the circuit boards. This tool could be changed to enable the arm to place a range of different electronic parts on the circuit board.

The Stationary robots include the following types : 1.1 Cartesian/Gantry robots 1.2 Cylindrical robots 1.3 Spherical robots 1.4 SCARA robots 1.5 Articulated robots (robotic arms).

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7.2 Mobile Robots :


Mobile robots are able to move, usually they perform task such as search areas. A prime example is the Mars Explorer, specifically designed to roam the mars surface. Mobile robots are a great help to such collapsed building for survivors Mobile robots are used for task where people cannot go. Either because it is too dangerous of because people cannot reach the area that needs to be searched. Mobile robots can be divided in two categories: 7.2.1 Rolling Robots: Rolling robots have wheels to move around. These are the type of robots that can quickly and easily search move around. However they are only useful in flat areas,rocky terrains give them a hard time. Flat terrains are their territory.

Fig.6 Mars Explorer images and other space robot images courtesy of NASA.

fig.7 Wheel Robot

7.2.2 Walking Robots: Robots on legs are usually brought in when the terrain is rocky and difficult to enter with wheels. Robots have a hard time shifting balance and keep them from tumbling. Thats why most robots with have at least 4 of them, usually they have 6 legs or more. Even when they lift one or more legs they still keep their balance. Development of legged robots is often modeled after insects or crawfish..

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Fig.8 6-leggedWalking Robot

7.3 Autonomous Robots:


Autonomous robots are self supporting or in other words self contained. In a way they rely on their own brains. Autonomous robots run a program that give them the opportunity to decide on the action to perform depending on their surroundings. At times these robots even learn new behavior. They start out with a short routine and adapt this routine to be more successful at the task they perform. The most successful routine will be repeated as such their behavior is shaped. Autonomous robots can learn to walk or avoid obstacles they find in their way. Think about a six legged robot, at first the legs move ad random, after a little while the robot adjust its program and performs a pattern which enables it to move in a direction.

Fig.9 Autonomous Robot

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7.4 Remote Control Robots:


An autonomous robot is despite its autonomous not a very clever or intelligent unit. The memory and brain capacity is usually limited, an autonomous robot can be compared to an insect in that respect. In case a robot needs to perform more complicated yet undetermined tasks an autonomous robot is not the right choice. Complicated tasks are still best performed by human beings with real brainpower. A person can guide a robot by remote control. A person can perform difficult and usually dangerous tasks without being at the spot where the tasks are performed. To detonate a bomb it is safer to send the robot to the danger area.

Fig.10 Dante 2, a NASA robot designed to explore volcanoes via remote control.

7.5 Virtual Robots:


Virtual robots dont exits in real life. Virtual robots are just programs, building blocks of software inside a computer. A virtual robot can simulate a real robot or just perform a repeating task. A special kind of robot is a robot that searches the world wide web. The internet has countless robots crawling from site to site. These WebCrawlers collect information on websites and send this information to the search engines. Another popular virtual robot is the chatterbot. These robots simulate conversations with users of the internet. One of the first chatterbots was ELIZA. There are many varieties of chatterbots now, including E.L.V.I.S.
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7.6 BEAM Robots:


BEAM is short for Biology, Electronics, Aesthetics and Mechanics. BEAM robots are made by hobbyists. BEAM robots can be simple and very suitable for starters. Biology: Robots are often modeled after nature. A lot of BEAM robots look remarkably like insects. Insects are easy to build in mechanical form. Not just the mechanics are in inspiration also the limited behavior can easily be programmed in a limited amount of memory and processing power. Electronics: Like all robots they also contain electronics. Without electronic circuits the engines cannot be controlled. Lots of Beam Robots also use solar power as their main source of energy. Aesthetics: A BEAM Robot should look nice and attractive. BEAM robots have no printed circuits with some parts but an appealing and original appearance. Mechanics: In contrast with expensive big robots BEAM robots are cheap, simple, built out of recycled material and running on solar energy.

Fig.11 BEAM Robot

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8. ADVANTAGES:

The advantages of robotics can be classified into four major categories:

1: Quality/Accuracy/Precision: Many industrial robots are in the form of a robotic arm. The image at the left shows Unimate, the first industrial robot, which has the appearance of a robotic arm. The image in the next section shows a contemporary industrial robotics arm. Due to its mechanical nature and computerized control, a robotic arm can carry out a repetitive task with great precision and accuracy, thus providing improved, consistent product quality. This would apply to quite a variety of production line tasks, like welding, assembling a product, spray painting, or cutting and finishing. 2: Efficiency/Speed/Production Rate: The mechanical nature of the equipment and the computerized control, make industrial robotics technology more efficient and speedy, leading to higher production rates than with human labor. Another aspect of efficiency is that robots can be mounted from the ceiling and have no problem with working upside down. This can lead to a savings in floor space. 3: Ability to Work in Environments that are Inhospitable to Humans: This is an interesting set of advantages of robotics. There are a number of tasks that are too dangerous, too exposed to toxins, or just plain too dirty for humans to conveniently do them. These are ideal robotics tasks. This includes tasks as simple as spray painting, because there is no need to worry about the robot inhaling the paint fumes! It also includes such daunting tasks as defusing bombs and such dirty tasks as cleaning sewers. 4: Freedom from Human Limitations: This set of advantages of robotics is due to the fact that human characteristics like boredom from doing a repetitive task don't interfere with the functioning of a robot. There is some overlap with the first two categories of advantages of robotics, because the lack of interference from boredom leads to greater accuracy, quality, and rate of production. There is more to this set of advantages of robotics, however. Since a robot doesn't need to rest or eat, and never gets sick, a robotic arm can work 24/7, with only limited occasional downtime for scheduled maintenance.

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9. APPLICATIONS:

The Robotics have a very wide range of applications in the present world: Outer Space: Manipulative arms that are controlled by a human are used to unload the docking bay of space shuttles to launch satellites or to construct a space station. The Intelligent Home: Automated systems can now monitor home security, environmental conditions and energy usage. Door and windows can be opened automatically and appliances such as lighting and air conditioning can be pre programmed to activate. This assists occupants irrespective of their state of mobility. Exploration : Robots can visit environments that are harmful to humans. An example is monitoring the environment inside a volcano or exploring our deepest oceans. NASA has used robotic probes for planetary exploration since the early sixties. Military Robots: Airborne robot drones are used for surveillance in today's modern army. In the future automated aircraft and vehicles could be used to carry fuel and ammunition or clear minefields Farms: Automated harvesters can cut and gather crops. Robotic dairies are available allowing operators to feed and milk their cows remotely. The Car Industry: Robotic arms that are able to perform multiple tasks are used in the car manufacturing process. They perform tasks such as welding, cutting, lifting, sorting and bending. Similar applications but on a smaller scale are now being planned for the food processing industry in particular the trimming, cutting and processing of various meats such as fish, lamb, beef. Hospitals : Under development is a robotic suit that will enable nurses to lift patients without damaging their backs. Scientists in Japan have developed a power-assisted suit which will give nurses the extra muscle they need to lift their patients - and avoid back injuries.
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Disaster Areas:: Surveillance robots fitted with advanced sensing and imaging equipment can operate in hazardous environments such as urban setting damaged by earthquakes by scanning walls, floors and ceilings for structural integrity.

Entertainment:: Interactive robots that exhibit behaviours and learning ability. SONY has one such robot which moves freely, plays with a ball and can respond to verbal instructions.

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10 .FUTURE SCOPE:
The future of robotics, includes their usage in home, factories, hospitals and biomimetics. Presently it appears more like fiction, but in the next few decades all this will become fact. General Usage Of Robots In the Future: International experts on robotics are of the view that by year 2020, robots will be capable of observing and performing tasks, talking, and will possess aptitude and intellect. The association of human beings with robots will be ordinary and usual. In the near future, robots will not be a complex machine, but equipment or machinery to be utilized in every day life, including washing, assisting in moving of disabled or injured people, working in factories, etc. Robotic Surgery: Doctors visualize that in the near future advanced robots will be utilized to assist in carrying out long distance medical treatment including surgery, diagnosis, and other medical treatment. This will enable the treatment to be carried out in a shorter time, and it may not be necessary for the patients to travel long distances, which presently may even involve travel from one continent to another. Robots may also assist in carrying out minor medical treatment, instead of advising a pill for certain ailment, a small robot may be introduced in the blood, which will sense the reason of ailment, and subsequently arrange appropriate medicines in the affected part of the body. Improvement In Human Brain: Robots will be introduced into parts of human beings, such as intellectual insertion in the brain, which will enhance memory and improve ideas in the mind. Nano robots will even be injected into the blood to wash and scrub blood vessels. The human mind with the assistance of robotic brains will be able to perform 100 trillion commands per second. Robots In Biomimetics: The next concentration for modern robots will be biomimetics, an area which will concentrate on the manufacture of equipment that obtain guidance from the environment as motivation for their looks and attitude. Presently, broad research is being carried out in this field.

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11 .CONCLUSION:

Today we find most robots working for people in industries, factories, warehouses, and laboratories. Robots are useful in many ways. For instance, it boosts economy because businesses need to be efficient to keep up with the industry competition.

Therefore, having robots helps business owners to be competitive, because robots can do jobs better and faster than humans can, e.g. robot can built, assemble a car. Yet robots cannot perform every job; today robots roles include assisting research and industry. Finally, as the technology improves, there will be new ways to use robots which will bring new hopes and new potentials.

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12. REFERENCES:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

http://www.electronicsteacher.com/robotics/type-of-robots.php http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/33043.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotics#Components http://www.robots.com/articles/viewing/advantages-of-robots/486 http://www.melbpc.org.au/pcupdate/2205/2205article10.htm

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