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"*
1
ON THE
GENERAL INTEGRALS
PLANETARY MOTION
BY
SIMOx\
iIiorKSSIlH
III
NEWT 0MB,
.XITKI, STATKS XAVY.
JIATllKMAilCS
ArCKPIKll
K(1R IMMU.ICATIflV.
(I
CT
II 11
KH
S 7
.(
Pin LA nicM'M
CiJi.hlNs,
a;
nUNTKU.
70q
JAYNK 8TUEET.
ADYEHTISEMENT.
The
N".
submitted to Prof
(J.
^\. Hill, of
Nyuck,
Y., and has received their approval for publication in the " Smithsonian Con
tributions to
Knowledge."
JOSEPH HENRY,
Secretary Smithsonian Institution.
WASiriNOTON,
^^.
0.,
Deccnilx'i', 1874.
(iii)
"''
tiillii
Vfi'
'"iTl.J^
IM{K1'
ACK.
Thk
tiou of
III.
)n'S('iit
iis.
in pnrt,
nn rxtciision
aiul jj;mprnliza</<
two foniicv
the aiitiior:
tiic first
l.iiiir i/ii!.s,ni./
i/iir.'i
/'(iHloii. ih'n
P/anc/cs,
piil)lisli('(l
tome
xvi., 1.S71
and
tlu'
second, Siir
mi.
Thro mm:
</r Mrriiu.ii/iir
Coiiipkfi Jiendits,
tome Ixxv.
tlio snhjirt,
Notwitiistandinj,'
its
ronscions,
Ml his
treatment of
iill
some of tiiese are of snch n natnre tliat tlie reader can readily them, while the remaind(r wonld have led hito long digressions, and tiins caused great delay in the publication of th(> paper. To the fornur class belong
lie believes tliat (1) tJK! analogy Ix'tween
the
expressions for
tlu
rectangular coordinates
and
tlie
all
//,
tlie latter is
former
composed of similar
])rodncts of cosines
and
(,')
the omission of
tinit
growing out of
tlu fact
in ecpiation (1)
all
one value of
/i
vanishes.
To
considera
tions r(>specting
long
period,
arguments,
sati'llites
tiie
such as that
of Jupiter.
known
These subjects
of three of the
consideration whi'U
tlie
motion
in
way
is
midert.dveu.
Xo method
for
tlie
papcn
may be
considered com
plete without
method
to
satisfactory to himself It is true that a large part of the paper is devote<I reviewing the general forms met with in a certain integrating process, but the actual execution of this process, even for a single approximation, may be consid
ered impracticable on account of the enormous labor involved in it. It is shown, by a bird's eye view, that a certain olyect is, in tliV nature of things, attainable
but a practicable
way
of actually reaching
extremely agreeable
fully
to the
it is yct to be point(>(l out. It would be author to learu that abler hands than his were success
working
problem
in its
most general
form.
(
V)
CONTENTS.
PAUU
1.
Introduction
2.
Canonical Transformntioii of
tlic
Equations of Motion
.....
3.
Approximation
in
ft
First
Approximate Solution
.......
tlio
Arbitrary Constants
4.
at),
and lloduetiou of
tlio
Equations to a
11
5.
etc.
G.
Development of
n,
iij,
and Q;
1.
S.
Form
of
Second Approximation
General Tlieoreni
Coellieicuts of
tliu
time, b
b,,
etc.,
considered as
10 10
24
20
i).
Summary
of Llesultd
2H
vii )
ON THE
1.
If
wc examine
tlie
wliiit lius
been done
terms of
ftv
It,
liy
fjfeomefers
towards developinjjf
that
tlie iiio.st
tlie
co
ordinate^ of
pliUiets
in
tlie tlie
i^
time,
we
sliail .see
>,'eiieral
known
that if
we
negleet (piantities
th*?
liie
eccentricities
and
which
iv(>
the
loii<,'itudes
of the periheh'
iid
of
tlie
in
c COS
71
= S,
Xi COS
(r/,Y
f li^)
(1)
sin
^ cos
71
= i\ = Vj Mi cos
(/,,
beiiif,' tlie
number of
aiid
//,
,5, and y^ are angles depending also on the positions of the perihelia and nodes at a given epoch. It is to be nmiarkinl that one of the values of hi is zero, the corresponding (piantities J/ and y depending on the position of tlie plane of reference.
ties at a
The
num(>rical values of these constants for the solar system have been fouiui
'I'he
liy
several geometers.
Jje Verrier
latest
thos(,'
of
and of Stockwell.'
consider the terms
A\ hen
we
commonly
called
])eriodic, that
is,
those wliich
depiMid on the
tion
mean longitudes
of the
i>lan(>ts,
we
differentials of the
//
form
/^?o.
,i
tvher(>
('V
+/71' +;ri
+ ^v +
we put
'
232.
\'ol.
XVJII.
j
October, 1874.
G K S K U A L IN T E G U A L
// ii
V VL
A \KTARY M OTIO N
mean
distances of the two
phinets, devekjpable in
/,
/'
mean
ionyitm'
vs
of
phniets.
;t, 7i'
0, 0'
(,y,
numerical integer
coefficients,
/,' /,
and
in
which
/'
+ +/
/
7i
Tile coefficient
is
0.
*
AtA'Jyci^"'' (1
+ A,c'\it is
/'^'
A.,'"
f etc.),
a coefficient
+'''"')
may be put
in the
form
+'"^'
+ +
cos (/7
^i
('''
(7)
c!"
(.^"^
+>"^'
'''
^'''')
+ '0.
different elements arc time, and w( arc tints led to expressions of the form
hitlierto
But
it is
clear, that
we
if,
instead of using
developnrents in pow(>rs of
wo
substitute
tiie
(1).
n = f "N^^
may
ell'
=z=
v.A^A ^
*"^, (/'/'
f //) is
of
A,"
A,.'^
+ etc.)
Aeie'J'
0*
,?/"
'^^ (^Vr
+fn' +
m + IM).
functions,
its
we sul)stitut(: the preceding ex])oneiitials for the circular product bv ,V^',^V^' in the case of a cosine reduces to half of the sum
(di)> (ciir
(</>)*
Substituting the values of tliese expressions in t(>rnis of the exponentials just given, developing by the polynomial tlieorem, and then substituting for the expo
GRNERAL INTEGRALS OF
a scries of terms, eacli of the form
COS
''sin
in eacli of
('^^'
TLA NETA
II
Y MOTION.
sum
wc
reduces to
+ '^^=+
liavc
'i
+'A.+i,?'.+y2>.'2+
. .
+./X),
which we
+ '^+
Ji+J.+
The
expressions A^e^
r, /',
(ji
+ '=./+/ +./ = +
/
/.'.
+
.
comprising products
sfpiarcs of
and
^,'
by constant
form
cos (/,Xi
+ /A+
/,
+ a +
. .
.j\>.\
+J2A+
.
+i>.'),
in wliich
+ /,+
.+;,+^;+.
=0.
operations and by corresponding ones in the case of sines the expressions to be integrated iiually reduce themselves to tlie form
tlicse
By
m'A
in each of
SU)
('"''
cos
+ +
''
''^^
'""^^
+ii^'i
+i?.',),
mean
distances and of
tlie '2n
quantities A; and
so that
Mi.
By
it
same form,
we may
regard
form
due
to the
all
mean
If we conwe shall introduce no new variable will make mean longitudes in all.
We siiall therefore have, at the utmost, not more than Sii variabk; angles. We may thus conclude inductively that by the ordinary methods of apjjroximation, the coordinates
of eacli of
in planets,
in nearly cirinfi
cular orbits,
and subjected
to their
tlie
mutual attractions,
may
be expressed by an
form
CCS
,i,;
'
('l>.
'2?=
/3?.3)
ii
/;,
being integer
co(>ffici(Mits,
different in each
term
Xi,
?vs
;i2
beinf
/;,
b(>ing
iiii
arbitrary constants,
and
/;,,
h,
h^Jc,
being functions of Su
We
series,
tiiat
sliiill
.r
fnrtiier
is
to tiie
plane of
may be
dev(>loped in a convergent
wiiil(> it
may
be siiown
tiie
form
( /,>.,
( /,>.,
A7,'
+ +
/,>., j/,,X.,
^
f
,;^,?..,j
4
/,>.,)
(=i)
(y,>.i
+.y>j
+/,>..)
GKN K
Tlio letter
/, /,
UAL
N T E G U A L S OF P L A N B T A II Y
AI
OT
used to express the sum of an infinite series of similar terms <S' being and y having the signification just expressed, and each system of values of the integers i and J being subjected to the condition
h
It is evident that
+ h + h+
':,
j\+J2+h+
when
to
>,
i/,
+iu
=
a general one
(3)'
and
z are
same form.
(8)
is
:
W(>
tions,
shall
now proceed
that
is
to say,
if
we make
further approxima
approximation
We
can
make no
'2.
Canonical Trdusformatton of
the EQttationn
of Motion.
If
il,
we
i)ut
 1
bodies, that
is,
the
sum
pair of musses
equations of
motion will be
1) in
oil
vx.
If
we
by the square
A\'e
to
assume
for
all
values
from
of
tlie
tile valiu;
1) etinations
in
terms of the
in the follow
time,
and
\\ V sliidl
now
;//
(liniinish the
Su])pi)S(>
numlier of variables
that w(> have
f,
ii>
to I)e
determined
variables
(It
X
form
;',./)= constant.
Suppose
also that
we have found
,/'(,',, 3'.,
....
)ii
form
,
f/;,{..,, a,,,
r,J\
GRXEUAL
so thiit the
tiic tinio
I,
i:\TEGllALS OF
x can be
I>
LA
XETA
1!
Y
/.
MOTION
variablos
t\ui
oxpirs.siHl as a function ot
arbitrary constants
and
'
iiik variables
si!^2>
. .
i;ik
c.,
^^' its
value X,
we
sliall
have
(U
vl
.'s
ex,
ex,
'"ox,;
By
sions ni terms ot
,_.^.,
,i(l
we
sliall
problem reduced
variables.
luive the
to tlie
integration of
m~k
number of
In
tile
special
//, ;,
ordinates X,
problem now under consid(uation, the and tiieir first dcu'ivatives witli respect to
m
tiic
by winch we
number
Wo
time. Tiie integrals of the variables are those of tiie consliall take for c^, etc., lin.ar functions
chosen
tln'
//
tliat
\ 1
tlie
form.
Let us take
reduced ecpiations shall maintain the canonical linear functions of tlie coordinates .<:
aoao
^0
=+ =
fj(
fXnXi
+
+
,
f
;,^a;
L =oJo+
where wo have put
for
"i'''i
+,i''*'ni
symmetry
w,
= ca
or
Ho,
(6)
being an arbitrary coefficient, while the other coefRrlents urc to bn chosen, so that tlie resnltin;. differential equations shall be of the canonical form Let us represent tiic values of x which we obtain from these equations
c
by
^,
and substituting
for
jji
Its
value,
we
ii;jve
<ii'
Wo
''0
"^
"',
f 'J',
"^
'^w,ex'
If
liy
nplaced by their expressions in , ,. ot,,, obtained solving the equations (5), that is, by tlieir values in (7), we shall have
^, etc.,
we suppose
^1
it
^ mil
becomes
OEN
li
11
A L
NTKG
11
ALS O
V VL
AN ETARY M O
'I"
N.
i/aioafo _i_au,i
I
WiLWia,
."m",,,
o'li
ji
"^V
In Older
tliat tliis
w?o
"^
m,
'^'m,
,,^_
^^.^.
equiitiou
may roducc
f'aii
to the canonical
form
dtit is
^ oil ~ di
,
'
tlnit
the expressions
,
_j_
a>in
1)1,
j2,2
)llo
aja,
111,,
/ is
it is
different
from
be so chosen that
(m
+1/^
quantities
]/
m^
(8)
sliould f(Uni
an ortliogonal system.
The
first line
of coefficients
is
already deter
which
is
to
be determined
7)1,,
+
'
:'+
')
+;:=^'
})!
or,
from (6)
W'o
which gives
'l
+....+ c = y m,
C",
putting
for the
sum of
Having thus
OKX
UAL
]:
11
AL
OP P
[.
AN ETARV
is
M
OT1OX
now
^'*
ii(ii \
1).
The
total niiiii
is
/"J~'\butoneoftliese
'^^
beini,'
ahrady
satisfied
by the quantities in
!)y ii{n
conditions to be satistied
Z
1) quantities,
we have
therefore
quantities
which
in
Jiiay
be chosen at pleasure.
tiie substitution Avhich we have been oonsidering, and tlu! which the orthogonal system just found may be formed, have been developed very fully by lladau in a paper in AmiakH ,h V Kmlc Xoniia/v Supcniun;
f>("iieral
The
theory of
various
modes
TomeV. (18(58).' shall, ther(>foro, at i)resent confine ourselves to a brief indication of the special form of the substituticm whicli has been found useful in Celestial Mechanics. AVe first remtirk that if we form the (/* jequations
1)
We
by giving
in
succession
all
values from
to n,
we
shall
(/< 
1) equations
If
we
we
shall
have from
(.5)
whence,
l)y
z,
and
//,
in the
have
in
terms of
f,
etc. to
"21
\/
111
siHis
IV:
Tlie
as
it
first t(>rm
of this expression
common
.,
represent iiiir,
tlu! c<'ntr(!
It
may, there
fore,
we
seek only
will
of forming
tlie
coefficients
a,j is
to
suppose"^""
/,
of
them
L(>t us first
supimse
a,^
wlienevery>
the
first line, in
which
(I,
be of the form
Siw
DiircivmifUus
ilu In
DviiaiiiNniL'.
l/wio
(10)
<^2()
2I
;
'i/
^,
l/Wo'
0,,
V"','
""
"'II
"2
Then
'
?/;
while
tion
all
the other coefficients in the bottom line will be determuied by the condi'
y/ ?,
Takin the
equation
line
4 ~
/
'
=
_
w<
_, \ af,_,, _,
m_i
'
while the remaining coefficients of the form _,,, will be given hf the equ.itions
m
The
gcMieral values of the coefficients to
which
w. are
ui tlie
loUuwnig way
thus led
may
be expressed
put
.".
'o
+ =
'i
m,.
by which
will
become
,.
Also, suppose
V,
AVe
Vnj
shall
then have
^,2
.^i
_ ^ "/_!
"i
,
It
is
f.dfil
m.
f
l/vr. y
VI.,
UKNIJUAL l.NTKUUALS OF
1'
L A i\
KT A
11
V MOTION.
Wo
.i
pkuisure, rehitively to the sun, multiplied by u func^tion of the masses, while c is efjual to tlic coordinate of tlie second phmet rehitively to the centre of .'ravity'of the sun and first planet multiplied by another function of tlie masses, and so on 1 litse functions t,, when divided by the functions of the masses just alluded to, will (lifter ironi the coordinates of the several planets relatively to the sun only by quantities of the order of magnitude of the masses of the planets divided by that ' 01 tiie sun.
coordinates of the sini or other cencoordinate of the Urst phmet, which may hi. auv one at
ix>i)resi,.iit
to
tlic
r the expressions (3), those quantities will tlu'inselves reduce to expressions of this same form.
and
In what precedes wc have considered only the coordiiiat(s av Of course the other coordinates are to be subjected to the same transformation. If we ivpresent by ri and ^ the corresponding functions of // and ^, and if in the expressions for ^
s
we
substitute for x,
v/,
ami
c,
\ 3.
Approximation
to the Rccpdred Solutions hy the Variations of the Arbitrary Constants in a First Approximate Solution.
By
motion
the transformation in question W(have for the determination of the relative ot the n 1 bodies, 3 differential equations, of the canonical form
vir
d('
or:,'
Jt"c>^,
^^^^
tuted the second members of (11), the two expressions shall differ only by terms multiplied by small numerieal coeffieients. have to show that when' w^ make a further approximation to quantities o the first order relative to these coefiicients the solution will still admit of being expressed in the form (3). To do this we sliall make the further approximation by the method of the variation of arbitrary constants, remarking, however, that the usual formula, of this method cannot l.^^ appli.>d, because they presuppose that the first approximation is a ri.jorous solution of an approximate dynamical problem, while, in the present cas,>, we are not enti
Let us now suppose that we have found approximate solutions of these equations 111 the form (:3), the quantities x, //, z being there replaced by , ^, ami r. that IS, solutions which possess the property that, if, on the one hand, eacli expiv.si.m IS twice differentiated, and if, on the other hand, the values (=}) are substi
We
tled
to
>yords,
we
assume that our approximate solution (3) possesses this quahtv are not entitled to assume that any function riof the quantities
in oth.r
s
"
,,
'
and
.in
rigorously and identically satisfied by the approximate expressions, both with respect to the time, and the G.* constants which the solution contains. C'onse
cannot assume tin, (>xistence of a p,uturbative function, and must emi)loy other expressious iu place of the derivatives of that function. set out, then, with the three sets of equations, having n in each
qn.ntly,
we
We
November, 1874,
set
10
OEiNEllAL
I,
)7,
^,
= = =
^7.;,
*'/.(
cos
si/i
sin (;,X,
f ijXj
+ +
/,a,)
'.m>.i,)
(l^)
+j,,:k,),
in wliich all
arbitrary con
stants
/(
we may
3?i
entire
is
necessary,
we may
represent the
Let us now take the complete second derivatives of (12) with respect
supposing
fulfil
to the time,
all
(in
constants variable.
We
in
shall
Lagrange's conditions,
now 3
number:^
^r,
'scij
dt~^'
jC, ouj at
~
^ "
'
}t,
Siij
dt
~ "'
'
which
will give
dt
dt
'"^*'
From
shall
have
the second derivatives, combined with the differential equations (11), 'Sn equations of the form
wc
i=i vuj at
O^i
iO''
which
it is
required to
satisfy.
The
member
of this
ec^uation corresponds to
when
R is the
perturbative function.
Let us multiply
form
in this
tiiis
equation by
^^^^
may
way by
obtain
substituting for
the values of
',
,;,
and
;'
in succession.
We
may thus
*v
j=i
'
v"" '^^/
'':'*
da^
dt
y;
^d^ _
ddf,
'?
i~i
o^
r/2
^f,
iia,;
/^i da^Oiij
all
values of
this
and C
as wcll as of
'.'
P.
are to be included.
in
equation corresponds to
first
by
by
^y',
and the
and add together the 3h equations which may be thus formed by giving
If
ail its
values.
we
subtract their
sum from
\ou,,
(jiij
dUj
da J
we
shall
have
(".",)'';;'+(..)'';;'
the sign
etc_f _
/
to
>t,
rcsijonding terms in
]})
and
'C,.
giving h
all
6/t,
we
sliall
have a system of
()/*
which
the Km
quantities
iu
for ,
>;,
and
'C,
ties
of which
we
neglect
hand members of tiu'se equations are small quantipowers and products. We may, therefore, after solv
<?,,
etc., iu tlic
second members to
{a,.,
be constant.
to the first
jNIoreover
we
siiall
<i)
only
degree of approximation, and witliin this limit they nuist lu^cessarily conform to the wellknown law of Lagrange of being functions of tlie constants oidy, and not contahiiug the time explicitly. This theorem will materially assist
us in
tlu'ir
formation.
1.
Coefficients ( a,),
and Reduction of
the
a Canonical Form.
/,
llestoring
th(>
we
shall
have three
+ '"A 4+ + JA+JA + +
iA
'.^.
'2^.
y.>.i +,/2>...
6'
iV';
we
sliall
of
f>,
k, luid iV,
Shk
sin
.V
A''
>7',=
^',
SJ>h cos
Sh'k' cos
n,',')
N\
To form
witli
the combination
r,
respect to
and
quantities,
two
series
aj) we must differentiate the equations (1'2) and (15') and substitute the results in (14). Li fbrininT these of terms represented by the sign S of summation are to be
(j.,
a^,
I 1
12
UKN K
II
A L
'I'
Ea
II
T,
1'
PLA N KTA U Y M
be
()
T ION.
it
lu'ccssiiiy to
Kiiinination
wc
to
ii,
tiius
cncouiitcr.
lliiviiifj;
of ciich of
tiic (luimtitit's x,
/,
iiiid
^'
(listiiij,Miislic(l Ity
index
all
iutej^er values
from
quantities h,
/.,
and
X siiould
it
bo affeeted with
/<,
this
same index.
Ihit
it
after iV or
because each
N
as
common to all the 's and >;'s, or to all the i,"s, respectively. Again, we have many values of .Vas there are comltinations of the coefficients / /, etc., which
is
/._,,
enter into
it,
its
corresponding coefficients
/.',
in
number.
"NVo
to be written
fu {'.>
'i,
''a
'V.Ji
while h and
N arc
/'
same
In other
words,
we have
('l,
il.
'"a
'.)
'ii..)
^Vl^
'V
'a
= =
''/'l
'"l''l
+ +
'7'3
''i^i
+ +
V
'3
+ +
iJhn
'M''Su<S'
wi>
we
',
=oc
i,
= OC
/;,)
= OC
),
= OC
To avoid
((,
combination, as
by the symbol
Wu
=n S'= V =
I 1
s.
all
the terms in
all
the
coordicoordi
nates
is
A
/>
and
y;,
^^'e
The
will
(d^, Uj)
A''.
= '%/\u ra = =
i
eos
sin
X^
<V/.'u
'V,
/.',.
X
A"
(Hi)
Ki
sin
;",
X. I.:
sin X,.
da,
V
'^.'^
'
cos X.,
(17)
r)//
da/
sinA^;+Z'^^^'"/cos A, ^s
r)iu
OKXKRAL
d
INTIKJIIALS OF
PLANETARY MOTrON.
13
da
'
(IH)
climiuiiijr , into j in tlio tlnrc equations (17), nnd makinf,' tlic reverse elmiie (IS), HL' liiivo the conipltte expressions necessary to form any term of tlie v\press ion
111
By
We
'i"
A%,,
I
is
,Y) +
,17
+ AT
known
he independent of
the
';
first
(l(>frr,.,>
of approximation,
A=
and
/, we must hav(>, to quantiand A' by the condition that equations, and the coefficient Au,v must
vanish, unless
wo have
^u
iV;= constant.
l)eing
The
co(>fficicnts /*
/,,
],,,,
supposed incommensurable,
this
can only
in
(:{)'
'ly
'V
V=
'V, etc.,
N^^N,,
when
sin
{S\
X^
will
itself
vanish.
Hence,
(,,
,/.)
containinjr
no constant
0.
(19)
?,
A!,Min, differentiating the equations (Ki), the first three with respect to the last three with respect to Jj, we find
and
"'=
Sf^
{JJ.% cos
N'f,
= _ >%
(i/>/,l
cos N,
= S,
= S,
(JJblc),
sin
N,
iJjh'/i'),
sin iV,.
14
!
expressions
it
may be shown
J =().
timt
in tlic
same
liiive
is
{,i^,
We
next to consider
tiie
combiimtions of
tiic
form (u
Ij),
for
which tho
expression
I (!u^
dij
t
i.lj
Oil,
^ A<t
]
*^
r/j
do not
eoiituin
 ^'V.
i
<S"
'S;..v'.
OM), ^^^
0A),
J;l^^
cos i.y,
 A.) A",).
oyn
^^;'^
+ Uj'^h
l'>.
"^'^
'
} ''OS
(x
Tlie only nonperiodic terms in this expression will be those in these terms reduce to
which
/<
v,
mid
or,
by puttnig
fl
we have
(,,/,)=_f^
These
of
(<xi)ressions are
^2)
now
sented by
is
<i3n
(l.>), wliich will then divide into two classes aecordiuy as the derivativetaken with respect to / /, or /,, or with respect to a, or Having regard to equation (20) we find those of the first class to be of the
form
(/, a,)
(/,, ,,,)
+
(JJ, a,)
j^^i.
a.
J "' _ f _
.
v<
.i
f^.
_
ii
If,
in the first
member, we substitute
that
= _(,,
/^.),
and
in
the second
member put
for brevity
da,
or
ill
^ da,
'^
>/t
^"f9,,
^^''
(/<
'^
= il,
(23)
U K >'
!;
It
I,
N T
!;
(1
UA
I,
I' I,
A N KTA
II
V MO
l'
ON
U
of ,,
.,,
Uy
....
poses,
ffiviiijf
all viiliicH in
viiriiitioiis
Niuccssion from
c,,
c.,,
to hi,
we
dctciiiiiiif
tho
of
c,,,,
.<, lire
it
to
l)c
ohtiiiucd
by
tlu>
iin
('(illations ('^1).
will be
more convenient
n.,,
fundamental elements,
c.,
and
to consider
, to be replaced by
in the orijjinal
ecpiations.
The second
"
by
(IJ)),
be represented by
</>
(ft
rd,
the
(il
first
ol'
(:((,~
(.I
iki,~
<:i(ii,\
sliall
member
their values
(W), we
huvo
iiti
ecpiations represented by
dih
ill
i;i,,/t
^
1,
"2
/.,
"^
,"i
\ ft'
in,
"^
""'
}
tliis
Putting
form.
(11,
successively equal to
first
;}</,
we
shall
'''',
have 3m equations of
the second by
'.'",
of these eciuations by
tin
////
cc,
(i\
hy
',
and so on
to the
'iiith,
and add
all
=3ll "
/,,
=+
or
according as
/ is
or
is
Then, by jtutting
we
shall
have
dt
ill,
dt
t
(24)
dl
.111
dl
'^n
which
by (12) originally.
and
(\n
arbitrary constants,
which we have repres(>uted by f / and lio of > 'C, and : could be found such tiiat
i!,'
10
(JKNKRAL INTEGRALS OF
in (2:3)
I'
LA
>' i:
TA
11
MOTION,
we should have
and (24) by
puttinju: li
= il
Liu,
"^
c/j
T).
Fiiiuhniuntal
liilafloii hctuccn
the Ciufficioitx
('i,
of
<tc.
the
vouxhUicI
ax
J'Hiirliaiix "/'
<'j,
In the
pveccdiiijj; section
we haxc found
in ti'rnis of
first
approxi
;J//
u
in wliich tlie
''Jn
'ail
])air
are
coiijiii/ate to
tiie
when
and
Uj represent tiie
we have
C^o)
=+
1.
The
tiiey
we
liave
been investigating
'>]h
is
that
exc(>it
o.
as multiplied
by the
factors
tis
/(,
wliicii
are
functions of the
constants
to
deduce a
c.
fundamental relation between tiie differential tlie first phice, we remark that each c has a />
witli respect to
In
which it stands in a ))eculiar relation, ni that the latter, multiplied by the time, is added to t!ie /, whicii is conjugate Tiie theorem in (pustion is this; each l)eing to c to form the corresponding
'/..
/>
supposed
values of
to
/
be niar!<ed witli
tlie
index of
its
corresponding
c,
we
shall
have
for all
and J from
to 'Sn,
in other
will
be an exact
difl'erential.
theorem
1
may admit
from
fore
tile
been obliged
consider
tiie jirolilem in
coordinates g,
functions of the
Lvi
quantities
,.
II.,
and we have
t\,c.,
just
fj.
shown how to rejiiace the first Wn (pmntities liy the quantities W we add to these the first derivatives of the coordinates (1(5)
GENE
UAL
X TE
(J II
ALU
OE
1' 1.
ANETAUY MOTION
wc
shall have
im
variables, roprt'sentcd
by c
>; f,
of the
G/t (aantities
\Ve
Let us now suppose those equations solved with respect shall tlien have 6/t equations of the form
Ci
= ^i\ K =
,
tlie
r..
if,
'I'i.
whence
Tlie
/,
=
i',
?*/,
(06)
^ and
arc
'P
being functions of
first intef;;rals
etc.
first
and
tliird
of
th(\se rxi)r<'ssions
(ail
tlie
(i/*
of
we may
the
int(f,'nd
rcuiai'
"n
and
let
">
',
us consider the (())" quantities of I'oisson formed from the "eneral ex
pression'
'in
values of
r,,
and
in succession.
Put
expression (14) in
tiie
form
(..,.,)=v;['.'"';':="].
forming by multiplication
V
tiie
jiroduct of
tiiis
expression
l)y
(27), then
puttinj.
the sunuuation
tlie
expression
^
,
1
itjiii
is
ecpial to unity
whenever
find
x
to zero in the
opposite case,
we
an expression which
otlier
(
is
!,
in all
uses.
Oj,
((
Now
suppose
and
may
(>/(
arbitrary constants.
],(t
Cj.
us then
a^ to represent
and
/^ respectively,
and
Uj to
represent
This equa
become
[(, '>]
\
(',> '>)
Oi,
'.) [/,.,
'..]
f (/ ',)V^, r,]
I/npnuip'
purl of
4
(<te.
or
'
It will 1)0
iiiid
reversed, a
;t
pripceeiliiiji; wliicli
on
tlie
llie
wiitor
November,
1874.
>
18
accoichng as
and
^i
repivsent the
(/, c,)
same
or different indices.
tound that
But we
from
/,
liave already
tlie
.>xpressin
vanish(s
whenever
'^^''
becom7
'
'^'"'' "''^''''
""
"'" ''^""^"
different
[A' f,]
=^
1,
[c,, <,]
(28)
vanish.
combinations
[/,,
cj,
[/,, /.]
and
and
first
and
the
t"''"^^^^^
(29)
first
is
different
from
/,
the second
when they
arc
the same.
Let us next consider the combination [f /.] wliich we know must vanish for all vdue^ot I and j. forming the general expression (27) from the integrals (2G), we
[/,,
y=
[<!;,, ,,;.]
y,^^
,,;
.3
y,,^
,,,_,
I
f
 _^
^,
j^^^^ ^^^^
^,
This e,,atioa being identically zero, the coefficient of eacli power of vanish Identically. This gives, in the case of tiie middle term,
(21),
and putting
we
find
'in
p
r,7
L.
_I (,f
By
(2f)) all
first
/,
iu
botho
and
(;j())
now
gives
^/^ __
fihj
(31)
19
Development of D.,
D.J,
Wc
and (^J.
and
n',
have next
which enter
into
the equations
{'2'.i)
and
(24).
In the
first
place
we have
J
n = v;
V{Xi
Wi
111
Xj)
(/A
%) +
>r,
(Z,
Zjf
We
>7,
now
substitute for
a,
y, and
and ^ respectively. By tliis or 'Ct. Hence, wlion wc substitute periodic series, tiie reduced expressions
0)7, jtC,
expressions (9) as linear functions of c, substitution we sliall introduce no terms of tlie form'
for ,
z their
and
C, their
expressions in infinite
In
the forms
^i
r,i
fact, usiu"
= =
iV
^V
<:,=: A7/,sin.V',
we
shall
for brevity
tc.
=*
(jf
2/,
2,
Xj := z=
.'/,
2,'
.S7",j
'S'Z,^
cos iV
sin iV;
sin iV.
tlie
=
(32)
A'/.',.,
Each d<>nominator in
^/
(
will therefore
assume
form
sin
\t>\2 .V'
(,S'A
sin A') f
(A'A'
Wlien
(^u
W(<
+ ^^)
1"
s(iuare
is
in
tii(>
second square.
Hence
we find that every term of th( form // cos destroyed by a corresponding term // cos ( .V I K.) the sum of th(se two squares will only contain ternis
of the form
;,
cos
{N^
X,).
\L
(IT))
of .V
!:
we have
'\
we
sludl
have
in
X^
+ +h+
=h
iV,
sum of
th(>
these coefficients
is
zero,
it
tru(>
of
The denominator
in
question
may
in wiiich
each
A'^ is
of the form
where
.
+ '+
(,
4
+ = 0.
'a
mmmmt^^
J:J..M:^.^d^y,j0^
20
The possibility of developing the reciprocal of this denominator in the usual way depends upon the condition tluit the constant term of *S1 cos N is larger than the sum of the coefficients of all the other terms, a condition which, so far as we
yet
tliis
know,
is
fulfilled
by
all
constant term by
1,^
the planets and satellites of our system. Representing and the quotient of the dum of all the other terms
SI; cos iV
divided by k^ by A, so that
^( 1
+ A)
n=s'';;^(iiA+iAetc.).
When we
form
n = Sh cos
,., ^ while in each term
.
(/,;i,
+
^i
L?.,
1,?.3
( i3,.x,),
(33)
= h + ht, + hn =
il) in (23)
0.
y
To form
+ h + h\ilj
and of
tiate the expressions (12) twice with respect to the arbitrary constants wliich enter into them.
^=*l^l + *'2^3+
b
+hn^3n
= iA \iA\^2
we have
+ HnK,
= Sh^Jci cos N
sin
^< = SIH;
^^,*= or
f
(34)
Sh"k',smN'.
il'j
we have
SI: k,
sinN
^f
Sijki cos
(34)'
.>,'=
SJjl:'iCos N'.
Forming
in 4,
it
tlie
sum
11^,
in the
manner represented
becomes
!jl:)
,
^r
S^S, ^(
{h%,^
sin (N.
+ UjA'i\{f>''l'''<)^{^^n(N',
JV;) N'^)sin(N',\.N'^))\.
(35)
21
S II cos
have
li
0.
In tliis expression it may be worth while to give the complete value of ^corresponding to any value of N. The value of the latter is comphstely determined by
the indices /
i,,
etc.,
which multiply
expression.
Let then
mii'J.i
in (35) all
for whicli we wish to find the corresponding value of by means of (35). The required term will be found by taking combinations of and /i for which we have
/,)
)
iV"
in
N\
byy,,y^, etc., so
we have
+y,?.,
iV, =i,?.,
+ +
+y:,X3.
Then,
sum
.V,
according to
we nmst have
.)>.2
X'^
=
= =
(,"1
'l)'<.
(,2
and
or
(,,
i3)?.3,
^V
^v
?;
('l
i,)>.
4
('2
.?;)>...
I'
(.A
h)^ +  i^h, + a  Q\
A)^.
+ _ (i.
(,
,;)7>,
i.u,)K.
Affecting k and
coefficient IIj{!,,
i
/.,
with the proper indices, as explained in 4, tlie part of the /,) corresponding to any one value of tlie angle N,, will be
)
^Xjljki{lii,^l_,
)7>^
+ J f^jj^^'U^
;/i,(*o,
./='
Wm I ^',(./.'.,.y;.'i,
)/.',(',;
'oi,
)
!.,,
where the values ofh^ anu /^ are those just given. The complete value of //;(/ will be found by taking the sum of all the terms which we can form by giving
ctc.,ji,j.,,
to
that
is,
y in these expressions, all admissible combinations of values, the complete expression will be given by writing before the first line the
symbols
Ui=OC
i"i
A2=0C
!,
Uj=OC
U3
= OC
= oc
= OC
),
22
.2 = cx:
y,=oc
2
,72= oc
/,,
...
.;3,>
= oc
V _
wo have
CM)
By
now assumes
tlie
form
(;57)
(ft
V/jSm.V,
By
(. .)
tlae
, .,
and C are
and
(3(,) all
n neglected
the terms wh.eh are not of the order of those neglected in the """'' ''^"'' ^ '^''' ^' '' '' '''"^ ^" ^' ^'' ^'ities '
Un,^ mdex
we
wUh which
.,
wlurel)y omit
.,
^, Z, and , are
cos
always to be considered as
:^:d,
dc
j'
'i
A
OK
aS"
A
,,
+
'
,V^
sin A^
f'C:
, cc ?:
. r,f,
sm
/:f)
X{tS/,
: vc
,,
cosiV
(iny
The sum of
(:3t)
is
\
l'[ S^,
J^
,0, (^;
 ^) (
^^'>'
ilrA%
_ A^)
at;
 A^;) _ cos
( A^;
+ A^;)
I
(^'^A04^' (sin
(A; a;)
sin (A;
+ A^;)
while by differentiating
(;33)
we
find
.;^=A(.^cosA^_/^.^^six).
Taking the difference of these two expressions, the equations (24)
will
(07)"
assume the
\ji
Sir sin
.V.
(38)
We
used in forming mtegrate the expressions (37) and (3S), and substitute th^
"
OENK
11
L INT K G K A L
<,
OP
PLA N E
'I'
AUY
AI
OTIO X
23
resulting values of
and
/^
we
shall
have
to increase
the quantity
^?.,
,M,
thbi.
(V,,
We
into
tion of (;38),
b?.i.
and
in
(hlji.
We
must next
find the
sum
of
tlie
we have
We
have now
to
in the seeond
dex of
I)
dh
dt
ch
dc,
c/> dc.
Substituting for
'
dh
dh
ch
ih
..
last
member of
(38).
But
it
',
at
!?
dty;",
dl'
^",
lleprcsentina' them, ^
for brevity,
by
t",
and
dcj
dt
_ ~
eq
eij
= i ^ cJi, ,r, t ^
*^
dcj
"^
'^
fV*
'eij
. o^s
^^'efjl
(4)
dt
dcj
^
.
'
'^
'
c;^
'
6cj
we
and
(3(>i, it
becomes
'^''
'J
='^''
^'

(^'"'^''')
^'"
}
^^
+'
+
(^'".A
/''.)
cos ^"
Substituting in the
first
we have
.
V dt'n
Sh
oh
rlh
'v.,+'^,.c,+
+',.e:
[^^'"^
34
GENERAL INTEGRALS OF
We
have next, in
tl>e
PLANt
.\
R Y MOTION.
tlie
expressions for
I.
the derivatives in (37)' nud (37)", nitaininy only the terms multiplied by
gives by substituting for b
b
This
developed expression
ij)i
\LJ)i+
+ K
';.,>
+ ,\^,{:,^ + J^+
+ ,..)}
e^
+
Adding
eacli of
.{.r^',(^^^
+ ^*+
find that the
+i,*.)} .^K.
sum
reduces to a series
ot
we
.ms
which has a
6b,_dhj
By
all
zero.
(39) multiplied by
<
destroy
'
indicating that
;
all
n,
k'
^,
y;,
to o
we
iits h,
k,
and
7.
j
Form of
is
(he
Second Approximation.
:
last
now
as follows
By
iutegratii.j,'
omitted,
Scj
we have
= S^''cosiV
S^''j sin
(,y.)
=_
N.
The
ties
Cj
coordinates ,
y;,
and
and
/j,
we
that
is,
we
are to lind
^^
or, since
= 24^^ + 24^^'
?.<,
we have
replaced
/,
by
K N E
111 (4;J)
UAL
NTK
(J
UAL
O V VLA X
10
TA UY
MUT
ON
25
wc
liuve
hb,=^'p
oc,
= :\n
,'.cj=,S
iV,
>i
ov.
and, integrating,
^^^<
= ('V,)+J'Vv/^
j

3/1
f/'
/(',
(7/
iiu iV,
;
0 cr, I
wo may
represont by
h'/.i
S',7v,
sin iV.
(44)
l)iitting
hci
to ,
>;,
and
^, wl iiir to
vary only
tile
etc.,
being
/
hk cos
'^^
.V
sin
N{IMx
.V(/,,^>.,
+
f
ip...
h = '%
I
.sin
N+ k cos
Uv,.,
+ +
/;A>.;,)
4,S>.,)
[
W(
We
+iJ>.J
I
(^?.
in (44).
We
tiius find
'f
+ ^ ^<.
;i,
i:.
^'
(
),
Z^. (/,/.,
^J
+ /,A, +
;,/.,
+ /,A,x
I
cos
a;
_ ^;)
s\,, I V, (^'
;:J'
),
+ k^ {i,L, +
A,
.;...+ /,z,),
I
sin
(X + X.)
(
+^
5C
^n,..
:^.
(^^
;;' ).
{lA
V
u. +
/:,A),.
sin
I
a;
 X,)
+ N.)
=i
'^%:t.(^'^),
+ ^<(.^Z,+^A,+
+./.Z.J.sin (X',
+i<Z,X
I
1,
+h
^^.
S<
(^'j;
^),l/^J,^ +.^A, +
Since, in iV
sin (A;,
 N,)
we have 'ii=
"
while in
4
^V,
"
ii
= 0,
November.
1874.
it
26
it
all
in t,
and
(12).
inte<,'ration
In the preceding
b,
we have
lint
will necessarily
he
zero,
and
having
.'
JA(//cos jy'=
sin iV,
we must put
fi
The
cient of the vanishing term by
/(",
(It
cos
N=
hi.
Id.
If,
in (3S),
we
we
V
shall
have
=  rj.
is
This adds to
quantity
/(".
'/.
We
tiie
make
terms of
r,,
and
'C,
but also in
terms of
tlie
by quantities of
and (^^', because the change will only second order, which we have rejected throughout.
(V,
affect
them
Making
i
will
+ Ki
be
in
\
'Vi
"il
if
+ K,
second order,
now
As we have made this one approximation without changing tlie form of tlie original integrals, so may we make any number of successive approximations. We may, therefore,
while their Ibrni will
all
= =
,S7.aS7.
cos
sin
(;,?.,
(;,?.i
+ + =
?j?.2
*,?.,
4
(,'
3= S/i sin
(./,Xi \jnX.,
+ +
bA
b^
+ +
/;,?.:,)
l,X,)
+j,n>jJ,
where each
'/>.
is
of the form
?..
'.{
7,
/.',
Jc,
and
3)t
other
fin<l
./i
+ h+ +.h +
to
'),.
+.hn
= = 0,
1,
motion,
This may, therefore, be regarded as the general form of the integrals of planetary
motion.
8.
Geuernl Theorem,
If
irr I'xprpxx
tlir
of
I'li.
Icriiift
of
the ediionlrol
ehnunlx,
time b
b.^,
GKNK
of the
iinj
ilrr! rat! I'll
UAL
d/
N TE
UA LS O V
of
the
PLAN E T A
II
MOT ON
1
27
11 riiKf
Itx corren/iojiiJoi"
canonical element.
Tluit
is
to say,
it'
we
term
the iiviiiy
force
bIiuU
by
V,
and supiiose
we
huvo
h=:
dc.
From
a,
and
tlie
i/
and
z, it
will be seen that the expression for the relative living force is
^\./v,.^' V"'u"'
+ ./nJ'^ V
'
+ ^ivk^^+v<'^
\)
y
etc.
r'
etc.
etc.
corresponding terms in
t', etc.,
and
l,'.
Here the
coefficients of
are those
to
form an ortho
sncii a system,
^''.
+
sin
s'^)
and
^"
 Sbk
t
N
N
be
Shi cos
is
fonnd
to
the;
Compare
b^,
tliis
expression
all
with
of
e,
in {'21).
Multiply each
f,
by
its
corresponding
and add
the
=
:1
If!.,!).,
!J^
 etc.
for ^
and
/;,
aod
'It
We
<'t''. for () =JJt^ \,)A V thus find, from the expression for l''just given,
V=
h^c^
h.f.,
/,c,
+
c^
6;,e,.
and substituting
'
'
for
ccj
re;
have
5fo
f)6,
';!
(46)
of the degree
We
(c
f',,
h is a
homogeneous tunction
3
['"
in
]
*
Aiirify
98
Let us
,
>:,
(:
N K
I!
F,
N T
i: (i
I!
I,
()
1. 1,
a N K T A
i:
M oTIO
Sinro
of
N.
r.>i)r<sn,t
ill'"
the
li
.,,,
vtc.
u,
y, 2, a.ul
s,
Imvr
(.xpirssioiis (1(1)
tlit"
latter
tin,. Nv.. .lifH.rcutiiite th.se xpicssions with resp.Tt to the miiltiply the eoifficieuts by h, u linear liiucticm of /> I,,, cte. Ik'uce
Kv.iy
time
we
= [""\6'^'j.
'I'lic
""
:/;i;:'\:':::;':.."'';r,
'"" '"
'""""'" "''"""'
"
" i
;^f
= ^^
we
must have
K",
or
6'"]
[')],
The
,,
/.
hrinfr
Unrar
in a, is
of the form
express
A,
in terms f r
<
cte.,
we must have
neons functions
now
gives
Substituting in (4G),
we
find
t/c,
the tlieorem enunciated. This theoren. camiot b,. .lirectly employe,. , ohtuin the values of /,, for the eason tl.at 1 cannot be .Ictern.ined as a InnCou c.f the canonical constants until the equations ot motion are completely iiitei.'r .te.i.
is
which
'*
9. Snmmnri/ of
UrmUK
The
following
is
a brief
summary of some
preceding nivestigation.
We first suppose that we have found expressions .uch as ulent.cally satisfy the .lifferential
,",
,,
and ^ of the
forn, (!>),
equations (11).
We
(J
K X
/.
!;
u A
/*
li
!;
ii
i,
i 1,
a > k
ii
y mot on
i
29
(luiuifitifs
t.,,
and
as
cxpn ssed
in
terms of
'in
t'anonical coustauts t
f^, f,
so chosiin
tliat tlio
fxpriNsion
(Cj
f/j.
fc^ i/j
sliall
ffj
ell,
Ninill
kJ,
tinil
is
Cii
(iniintities
r
I,
Tlici'.itn
,
i',,,
/,
/,
substituted tor
si'ries
'I'iien:
by
If,
of
',iit
coordinates represented
r^i
s'l
Cfu ^ve
k
is,
l)y
the coefficient of the time in the correspond injj angle /jXi j I'a?., etc. (that by the corresponding (piantity \ ih^ j etc., ory,/*, \JJ>i \ etc.), and by the
!',<,
coefficient
!j
or
j)
?.'s,
as
>.j,
which
'/.
is
to lie the
same
the
tiiroughout,
then
all
tiie
constants
except
will
r^,
will
sum of
is
all
sum
reduce identically to
of the time,
I'his
theorem
expressed
The
'An coefficients
'
considered as functions
of
ci,
t'a,
etc., fulfil
the
,,
conditions expressed by
vh,
/'''>
where
all
till'
and
./
1
v.,
to 3n.
They
c,.
arc therefore
partial derivatives of
c,,
'J7wuiT)ti 111.
This function
The
sum
etc., as
shown
IV.
c,, Cj
is
equal to the
on the plane of
tlu>
A""!', or,
which
is
the
sum of the canonical areolar same, the sum of the products ob
tained by multiplying the actual areolar velo( ity of each body around any point,
fixed with reference to
This theorem
is
demonstrated as follows
The sum
2 w,(av/,
1=0
is
.r'i2/i)
known
ill
to be a constant
for
:,,
j)ressi()ii ({))
by t!ie principle of conservation of areas. From the exand the corresponding (expression for y introducing the quantity
Uoi as
((S),
we have
('i.'/i
'
illi)
*
y.'.j',
i^j'.kJt
=0* ^
wr,
summing with
respect to
/,
we have
=0
})li
By
sum
in brackets vanishes
ever/
different from
c'y
/,
and
beconi(>s unity
when
whenMore
over in (5)
and
fixed relatively
30
GENK
II
AL
XTKG H A L
OF
PLAN E T A R Y M O T
X.
SuLstitutins for
^, ,,
C',
and
,'
expression heconies
WW.
we a<ld all integrals we have
But
if
the values of
by the
h\h
we
j\+j2+.h
find, also,
+h+ +
:/;
+ ^,,,=1
+;:,=
S'l>/^,
0,
and hence
neon,,, V.Thc constant part of the living force, whicli constant //.n the integral of living forces, nsually expressed
IS
is
itself
eqnal to the
in the forin
represented hy
kV,+6,c,
as already
+&,,<,,),
shown
in
}).
itself is
therefore equal to
V,+ft,r.+
+h,c,.
the preccdii.. ^l.eorv
The equality of // to the constant part of T may be shown by or U may I. easily deduced directly trom the
Jacohi.
I
theorem of lini.g
Lr.
as Jl.own
\or/rsunf/('ii iihrr
Dumimll,;
p.
>[)
>
that the Lagrangiau coefficients ,./,), the sum of thecanonical auH, lar velwcitus and the .l.tterence between ,he potential an.l living force are al constant, give r,se to a nun.bcn of relations b..twe.ii the quantities /, th. <U>nvat.ves w,th respec. to c, which I have not jet t;.n,l of any use \n the o e ^ turns ot integration. I theirtore omit to c.ite them, especially as tluir ,.ompl..,e i<mpi(i(. expressions are rather complex.
The conditions
ad
are those in which it vould be ..xpress.ons for coordinates of th,. planets, if we wished true for all tim,>. The usual expivssious are suici,.utlv cct tor a few centun,s, but fail .ititvlv wh,n w, exten.l the tim,l.von,! citmn bmits But, in the case of th, plaiu.fary system, we are ol.li,..., , :,., , h,.m tor th,^ r..asn that formulas dev..i,.ped in multipl,. of the >;5 in,I..p,.n.l..t a guments o that system w,udd b,. uun.anag,.abl, iu p,.a,.ti,.e. Hut, i ,L ,.,J ot the subsuhary systems, as the Tellurian ami Jovian for instanc,, the scdar
cce.ss,u>
l^e i^nns
to
whi..h
develop
ul
t..
;)/,!.
'.'.^.f"
aKX
vaiiatious of
fails
10 15
AL
N T K (J U A L S O
V V L
AX KTA KY MOTION
31
wen
orbits are so rapid that the apimiximatioii in pow(>rs of tlu< tiino for \ncsvn\ uses, llnicc, tiu lunar theory, eonsidered as a problem
tlic
of
always treated in a manner analogous to that in which the general theory of planetary motion has been eonsidered in the present paper, the three arjrumeiits introdue(<d by the moon being her mean longitude, and the longitudes of her node and perigee. In the theory of Delaunay the analo.ry in (piestiou
is is
His A, ^\
/<',
7/,
to wliicii
represent three of our canonical' elements e he constantly approximates, is the constant part,
of so much of the expression for th(> living force as contains /., Cr, and 7/, by differentiating which with respect to the latter (pmutities, lie obtains the expressimis for the motions of the thriM arguments.
Tlie theory of Jupiter's satellites has been treated
by
^l.
Souillart in such a
contain, instead of the longitudes of the juriioves, the varying angles on which these longitudes de)end. His analytical theory
may
Aiiiialrfi </r /"JCcuIr Xonmtic Sii/u'rieiirc, \o\. '2, INt!,'). he hopiMl that the gen(<ral view of the subject taken in the presint paper will afford a means of introducing a more rigorous system of integration in such cas(>s. One of the special i)rol)Iems growing out of this geiu'ral theorv will !)(< the determination of the coeffici(nts of the time, A /<.,, etc., eitlier in terms of the canoniIS
given in the
It
may
cal constants c
c,, etc.,
m of
th(>
/.
in
These coefHcients
/>
are,
approximately, the
mean
re.;;s
The
(pianlities
of an e(piation of the
'.]u//i
forn.'iig
any expression
.ijiiares
only the
fitted to give ris.> to such an cpiation, excei)t one in which of the (luantities in nuestiou appear.
ril)i.,.,aKl
11V
TIIK
1
.SMITIISOMAN
N U
I'
Ml T
li
T U) N
A a
l>
1)
(
S 7 4
K ! K
M K
II