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CONCEPTS OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AN INTRODUCTION

WORKSHOP ON TECHNOLOGY IMPERATIVES FOR EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION OF OIL & GAS OIL AND NATURAL GAS CORPORATION LTD.
21st TO 24th DECEMBER - 2009 SIBSAGAR

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY REFERS TO THE SPECIFIC SET OF GEOLOGICAL DISCIPLINES THAT ARE APPLIED TO THE SEARCH FOR HYDROCARBONS DURING OIL EXPLORATION PETROLEUM GEOLOGY IS PRINCIPALLY CONCERNED WITH THE EVALUATION OF SEVEN KEY ELEMENTS IN A SEDIMENTARY BASIN TO OBTAIN AN IDEA OF THE SUBSURFACE AND OVERALL PETROLEUM SYSTEM. Source Reservoir Seal Trap Timing Maturation and Migration

1. EVALUATION OF THE SOURCE This involves quantification and evaluation of the nature of organic-rich rocks so that the type and quality of expelled hydrocarbon in a basin can be assessed by GEOCHEMICAL methods of analysis. STEPS IN SOURCE ROCK ANALYSIS
First establish likelihood of presence of organic-rich sediments deposited in the past on the basis of studies of local stratigraphy, paleogeography and sedimentology of the area. Identification and delineation of area of potential source rock. Determine the type of KEROGEN and state of its maturation. Calculation of thermal maturity and timing of maturation. Finally determine the likelihood of oil / gas generation in the area and calculate the depth of oil window. (Majority of oil generation occurs in the 60 to 120C range. Gas generation starts at similar temperatures, but may continue up beyond this range, perhaps as high as 200C.)

GEOCHEMICAL LOG
H Index
Organic Carbon

Hydrogen yield % wt

Vro

H/C indications

2.THE RESERVOIR It is a porous and permeable lithological unit or set of units that holds the hydrocarbon reserves. The common types include sandstone and limestone. STEPS IN ANALYSIS OF RESERVOIRS First determine the type of lithofacies of the reservoir.
Assessment of their POROSITY (to calculate the volume of in situ hydrocarbons) and PERMEABILITY (to calculate how easily hydrocarbons will flow out of them). Study the Post depositional Diagenetic changes in reservoir. Establish depositional environment and geometry of the reservoirs. Some of the key disciplines used in reservoir analysis are stratigraphy, sedimentology, reservoir engineering and the technique of Formation evaluation using wireline tools. Siesmic attributes of subsurface rocks generated through seismic data processing are used to infer physical / sedimentary properties of the rocks.

RESERVOIR ROCK

CC#21

CC#20

RESERVOIR ROCKS

3. THE SEAL OR CAP ROCK It is a unit with low permeability that impedes the escape of hydrocarbons from the reservoir rock. Common SHALE. seals include EVAPORITES, CHALKS and

Analysis of seals involves assessment of their thickness and extent, such that their effectiveness can be quantified. 4. THE TRAP It is the stratigraphic or structural feature that ensures the juxtaposition of reservoir and seal such that hydrocarbons remain trapped in the subsurface, rather than escaping and being lost. The common types are Structural, Stratigraphic and Combination Traps.

SURFACE Oil accumulation in trap

OIL SEEP

SOURCE KITCHEN AREA

A structural trap, where a fault has juxtaposed a porous and permeable reservoir against an impermeable seal. Oil (shown in red) accumulates against the seal, to the depth of the base of the seal. Any further oil migrating in from the source will escape to the surface and seep.

TYPES OF TRAPS
STRUCTURAL TRAP: Here the trap has been produced by deformation of the beds after they were deposited, either by folding or faulting. STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP: Here the trap is formed by changes in the nature of the rocks themselves, or in their layering, the only structural effect being a tilt to allow the oil to migrate through the reservoir. COMBINATION TRAPS: Here the trap is formed partly by structural and partly by stratigraphic effects, but not entirely due to either. HYDRODYNAMIC TRAPS: These Traps is due to water flowing through the reservoir and holding the oil in places where it would not otherwise be trapped.

COMMON TRAP TYPES


Structural Structural

Structural

COMMON TRAP TYPES

5. ANALYSIS OF MATURATION
It involves assessing the thermal history of the source rock in order to make predictions of the amount and timing of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

6&7. THE TIME AND NATURE OF MIGRATION


Finally, the careful studies of reveal information on how hydrocarbons move from source to reservoir and help quantify the source (or kitchen) of hydrocarbons in a particular area.

Extreme Global Warming gave excessive Algal Growths

90 & 150 million years ago

Organic debris

Rifts formed as the Continents moved apart

And then came the rains

Chemical reactions converted organic debris into oil when buried & heated

Rifts filled by sediment washed in from borderlands

Generation Migration Entrapment

Gas Cap Oil

Entrapment Accumulation

Water

Seal Rock Reservoir Rock

Migration
Critical 120 F
Source Rock

Generation
JMA JMA

Temperature 60-120 0C 350 F


24803

ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM FORMS Petroleum is derived from the remains of living things which contains a material called kerogen. Before dead organic matter becomes petroleum with time, the kerogen matures into an assortment of hydrocarbon molecules of all sizes and weights. The lightest (small) hydrocarbon molecules waft away as natural gas, and the heavier ones make up an oily liquid. Petroleum source rocks are of terrestrial and marine origin. Terrestrial source rocks are deposited in lakes, delta and river basins having woody plant matter, algae etc. Marine source rocks contain dead planktons, algae, organic remains etc. In both the settings, the mixture is buried under conditions of no oxygen. The kerogen are classified as type I,II & III as per their origin and are capable of producing oil or gas or both.

Under the anaerobic conditions, the kerogen is transformed into a flammable substance called bitumen by the action of heat and anaerobic microbes in the sediment and natural catalysts. Most of the bitumen is eventually cooked into tarry asphalt releasing hydrocarbon molecules (as well as water and carbon dioxide) out of the source rock as it heats. Heavy oils form first, then light oils. As temperatures rise to and above 100 C, source rocks produce more gas. Being lighter than rocks, petroleum tends to rise upward through fractures and the pores of coarse sandstone beds. A small fraction of that leakage, perhaps 2% is preserved in large pools having an impermeable cap / seal over it.

CHARACTERISTICS OF PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS A reservoir is sponge-like rock with open space between its grains -porosity. The porosity may be primary or it might be secondary as groundwater dissolves pores in the rock or as minerals undergo alteration or may have formed due to tectonic activities. One source of porosity is the transformation of calcite to dolomite by fluids rich in magnesium, which takes up less space. Besides porosity, there must be high permeability ie. the connectedness of pores that allows fluid to move easily through the reservoir rock. Permeability, porosity in combination with geologic structure are all of interest to petroleum geologists as it provides sites of hydrocarbon accumulation under favourable conditions.

BASIC POROSITY TYPES

POROSITY TYPES IN LIMESTONE Moldic porosity

Matrix porosity

EXPLORATION CYCLE IN A SEDIMENTARY BASIN

Geological Field Mapping / Remote sensing Gravity Magnetic Surveys

Seismic Data API (2D/3D) Prospect Identification

Drilling

Well Logs & VSP

BHS & Simulation

Reservoir Studies Production

EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES IN A SEDIMENTARY BASIN GEOLOGICAL MAPPING : REGIONAL MAPS GEOCHEMICAL PROSPECTING: ANOMALY MAPS GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING GRAVITY MAGNETIC SURVEY: MAPS SEISMIC SURVEY 2D & 3D : ISOCHRON MAPS PROSPECT IDENTIFICATION ESTABLISHING STRATIGRAPHY : Age determination DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS: Facies modeling SOURCE ROCK GEOCHEMISTRY: Maturation SYNTHESIS AND ATTRIBUTE MAPPING STRUCTURE AND TECTONIC MAKEUP PREPARATION OF ISOCHRON-STRUCTURE MAPS DRILLING AND SYNTHESIS OF SUBSURFACE DATA RESERVOIR MODELLING & DEVELOPMENT SCHEME

GEOLOGICAL MAP AND CROSS SECTION OF AREA Geological map

Geological section

GEOCHEMICAL MAPS
Etah area, Ganga Basin

Isochron map at the base of Tertiary

Geochemical anomaly map

BEAS FAULT

RESIDUAL GRAVITY MAP OF NORTHERN PART OF PUNJAB PLAINS

MAGNETIC ANOMALY MAP (VERTICAL COMPONENT)


Pathankot

N
DINANAGAR HIGH

Batala
HI

lt au sf ea

UK ER IA ND

Jalandhar

W LO TR
ND GH E TR

AS UY AH

GH HI
D EN TR
AM AD

EN

SH I

AR PU R

LO

D D DG EN N RI T TR R E EN GH T EM N D HI W AS E LO R B TR PU O W
E

10000

20000

30000

40000

Scale (meters)

after Goha et al

Punjab Plains

Seismic Acquisition

Seismic Data Acquisition Geometries


Shot 1

Geophones

Seismic Energy Source

PROCESSED SEISMIC SECTION

INTERPRETED SEISMIC SECTION

Eocene K/T Kumbakonam ridge Turonian Albian Tranquebar Sub-basin Karaikal ridge

PROBABLE TRAPPING MECHANISM FOR HYDROCARBONS IDENTIFIED BY SEISMIC SURVEY

PROSPECT IDENTIFICATION
GS-15-9

GAS SAND

GS-46-1

UT IO C PL MI O

PRESENT DEPTH

TARGET DEPTH

RANDOM SEISMIC LINE THROUGH PROSPECT GS-15-9

DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT

AND ITS CHARACTERISTIC LITHOFACIES

SPITI-ZANSKAR KAREWA

SEDIMENTARY BASIN MAP OF INDIA


AREA 3.14 Million Sq. Km.

HIMALAYAN FORELAND

RAJASTHAN

GANGA

DAMODAR

ASSAM SHELF ASSAM-ARAKAN FOLD BELT

CAMBAY KUTCH VINDHYAN


SOUTH REWA

SAURASHTRA

SATPURA NARMADA BOMBAY OFF.

BENGAL

CHATTISGARH BASTAR

KORICOMORIN DEEP OFF.

DECCAN SYNECLISE

BAY OF BENGAL MAHANADI PRANHITAGODAVARI

LEGEND
CATEGORY - I BASIN CATEGORY - II BASIN CATEGORY - III BASIN CATEGORY - IV BASIN DEEP SEA BASIN PRE-CAMBRIAN BASEMENT / TECTONISED SEDIMENTS

BHIMAKALADGI

KRISHNA GODAVARI

CUDDAPAH KERALA - KONKAN -

85 E DEEP OFFSHORE

ANDAMAN NICOBAR

NARCODAM DEEP OFFSHORE

CAUVERY After Jokhan ram et-al.

GLACIAL-ALLUVIAL FANS-FLUVIAL-LACUSTRINE-DELTA AND MARINE DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

ALLUVIAL FAN DEPOSITS

TIDAL DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT

DEEP WATER DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEEP WATER SEDIMENTS.


Basin: Cauvery Age : Eocene FORMATION : KAMALAPURAM Bathymetry: Bathyal Interpretation: SLUMP FACIES
PG CO

CO con S

Core photograph of segments in enlarged view from (CC-2 &3) KMP-19. A (1966-1966.25m), B (1974.85 -1975.0m) represents, convolute bedding (CO). Photos C & D are from CC-2&3 of KMP-35. C (1868.60-1868.90m) show slump (S) and convolute layer and at bottom with parallel oriented clasts (C ) in laminar flow (l) with primary glide plane (PG). D (1872.75-1873.10m) shows two freezing flow (f) with contact (Con). Liquefied slump (s) towards the top of bottom flow.

INTEGRATION AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPTS OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY IN INDIAN SEDMENTARY BASIN LED TO DISCOVERY OF SIGNIFICANT HYDROCARBON DISCOVERIES.
1967: Rajasth an Basin 1958: Camba y Basin 1974: Mumbai Offshor e 1889: Assa m Shelf * 1973: A&AA FB 1980: KG Basin 1985: Cauve ry Basin

UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPT OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS AND WE NEED YOUR PARTICIPATION TO HAVE MORE SUCH DISCOVERIES