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Introduction:

One day I was playing on the computer when my mother entered and said she was bored. I have a great movie for you two to watch it- said my brother, Its name is Human traffic- he continued. At first I wasnt very interested in watching the movie, so I moved on with my chatting on the computer. While my brother was turning on the movie my mum was trying to convince me to watch the movie with her. I rejected, of course, I had a more interesting thing to do at the moment. The movie started. The first twenty minutes I was looking at the screen from time to time, but then I became so interested that I couldnt move my sight of it. I couldnt believe what I was watching. I couldnt believe that those things are happening in the real world too. I saw so many abused women and children, sexual exploitations, kidnappings, smugglings, threats, blackmailing, fear, torture with one word disaster. Then I stopped and said to myself: But this is just a movie!? But who would make a three and a half hours long movie, without a reason, without a point? Many times I caught myself staring at the attic at late night and thinking about those abused women and children, was that true or just another invented story!? I became very interested in this question, so I started exploring on the internet, watching documentaries, reading brochures and collecting every kind of material that could help me learning more about the human trafficking. I went so deep in this issue that in one point I regretted my curiosity. I lost my confidence in people, my fearlessness in walking down the streets and I started seeing the potential human trafficker in every persons eyes. There are many reasons for my decision of making this research paper exactly about the people trafficking. Firstly, I would like to show that not everything in this world is as pink as it seems, there are a lot of black and grey spots in front of which we mustnt restrict our sights and close our eyes. I would be very happy if every second person in this world comes upon one of the many real stories, wrote by victims of the human trafficking that I have read. The human trafficking is a global issue of great concern. Right now, the largest slave trade in history is taking place around the world. This slavery, called human trafficking, is a hidden evil that affects everyone, but especially women and children. People shouldnt be bought and sold, together we could make a difference and together we can stop the people trafficking.
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People trafficking
The modern day slavery, in other words called trafficking in human beings, means recruitment, transportation, transfer, sheltering or acceptance of persons, by means of threats or use of force or other forms of coercion or kidnapping, deception, cheating or abuse of powers or the condition of helplessness or by giving or taking money or benefit, in order to obtain the consent of a person who is in control of another person, for the purpose of exploitation. As a minimum, the concept of exploitation covers at least the exploitation of other persons by way of prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced services, slavery or practices resembling slavery, servitude or removal of organs.1 Human Trafficking is a global issue of great concern. The trafficking is widely recognized as a serious human rights violation. It violates the human rights of freedom, job, education, dignity, equality, health and also the most important right, the right to be alive. This issue mostly occurs in poor countries and countries with unequal gender relations. The most commonly, victims of human trafficking are adult women and girls, but there are also cases of men and boys. The main reasons of human trafficking are: sexual exploitation (prostitution), forced labor, false adoptions, forced and false marriages, forced committing crimes (begging, pick pocketing,
drugs trafficking and cybercrime) and the removal of organs.

The trafficking which is happening out of the countrys borders is named trans-national trafficking in human beings, but it does not always involve the illegal crossing of borders. It can also occur within a country, without crossing any national borders. Moreover, in many cases trafficked persons enter a country legally, for example as tourists, spouses, students, domestic workers or au pairs. To get to their victim, traffickers are using force, threats, bullying, compel, kidnapping and many other ways of forcing. The process of trafficking includes recruitment, cheating, transportation, transfer, acceptance, sheltering and hiding. Every single person could become a victim of human trafficking, no one is an exception. The traffickers can be hiding behind companies as: Model agencies, agencies for working in hotels, restaurants, bars, boats and building grounds, dating agencies, tourist agencies and the most in internet agencies.
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The definition emerges from the UN Protocol on the prevention, suppression and punishment of trafficking in human beings-known as Palermo Protocol

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Trafficking for sexual exploitation


Sexual exploitation is the sexual abuse of children and youth through the exchange of sex or sexual acts for drugs, food, shelter, protection, other basics of life, and/or money. Sexual exploitation includes involving children and youth in creating pornography and sexually explicit websites. The trafficking of women for sexual exploitation is an international, organized, criminal phenomenon that has grave consequences for the safety, welfare and human rights of its victims. Trafficking in women is a criminal phenomenon that violates basic human rights, and totally destroying victims' lives. Countries are affected in various ways. Some see their young women being lured to leave their home country and ending up in the sex industry abroad. Other countries act mainly as transit countries, while several others receive foreign women who become victims of sexual exploitation. Usually victims of sexual exploitation are young women between the age of 18 and 30. Almost all of them struggled with low-income jobs or unemployment and hoped to find better opportunities abroad. Some of them made their own decision to work in prostitution but were deceived about the conditions in which they would work. Others were deceived about the work they would have to do abroad. Some even did not want to migrate and were kidnapped. What they all share is the experience of deceit, violence, coercion and abuse and of being subjected to slavery-like conditions with little or no personal freedom. Women and children from countries, vulnerable developing and from parts of

society in developed countries, are lured by promises of decent into

employment

leaving their homes and travelling away. Victims provided are with often false

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travel documents and an organized network is used to transport them to the destination country, where they find themselves forced into sexual slavery and held in inhumane conditions and constant fear. At first the traffickers are nice and polite with the girls, they promise them better paid jobs, better way of living, fulfillment of their dreams, but the true treatment comes with crossing the borders and leaving miles away from home. In addition of the trafficker, some women take their young children with them, so they are also threaten with their detraction or liquidation. The girls are transported in foreign countries by trains, boats, buses, even with large trucks, just like animals, where they could not speak with the local people, they could not understand them and they cant ask for help. They are traveling with false travel documents and the traffickers have their original passports and identity cards. The victims in fear, obey the traffickers orders because they are threaten that if they do not answer to the traffickers will, they will be left alone and without money in those foreign counties and they will be turned into Immigration which will put them in prison and never let them leave and of course they wont ever see their families. The victims are ignoramus and uninformed so they believe that they will end up in prison because they are the ones who are committing a crime. If the Immigration catches them, they will be sent back in their countries. Although trafficking is widely recognised as a serious human rights violation, support for trafficked persons is still inadequate, only a small fraction of trafficked persons is identified, and an even smaller percentage decides to press charges.

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Trafficking for forced labor


"No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms"2. While people today most likely believe that slavery is a thing of the past, the practice is still thriving wherever poverty, social conditions, and gullability can be exploited. To be a slave is to be controlled by another person or persons so that your will does not determine your life's course, and rewards for your work and sacrifices are not yours to claim. According to Kevin Bales, one of the world's leading experts on contemporary slavery, "people are enslaved by violence and held against their wills for purpose of exploitation.3 The International Labor Organization (ILO) says there are eight main forms of forced labor in the world today. Those are: 1) Slavery - A "physical abduction" followed by forced labor. 2) Farm and rural debt bondage - Workers see all their wages go to paying for transportation, food and shelter because they've been "locked into debt" by unscrupulous job recruiters and landowners - and they can't leave because of force, threats or the remote location of the worksites. 3) Bonded labor - Another form of debt bondage, it often starts with the worker agreeing to provide labor in exchange for a loan, but quickly develops into bondage as the employer adds more and more "debt" to the bargain. 4) People trafficking- Individuals are forced or tricked into going somewhere by someone who will profit from selling them or forcing them to work against their will, most often in sexual trades. Many countries are both "origins" and "destinations" for victims. 5) Abuse of domestic workers - Maids and other domestic servants are sold to their employers or bonded to them by debts. 6) Prison labor - The contracting out of prison labor or forcing of prisoners to work for profit-making enterprises. 7) Compulsory work - People are required by law to work on public construction projects such as roads and bridges. 8) Military labor-Civilians are forced to do work for government authorities or the military.
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Universal declaration of human rights Kevin Bales, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, University of California Press, 1999

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Slavery is not legal anywhere but it happens everywhere! Nowadays there are 27 million slaves in the world. People forced to work without pay, under threat of violence and unable to walk away. Slaves work in fields, brothels, homes, mines, restaurants and anywhere slave owners feed their greed. The average cost of human slave around the world is 90$. Currently, economic instability appears to be the main reason for illegal migration movement throughout the world. Nevertheless, many of the willing migrants undertake the hazardous travel to their destination country with criminal syndicates specialized in people smuggling. These syndicates arrange everything for the migrants, but at a high price. Very often the travelling conditions are inhumane: the migrants are overcrowded in trucks or boats and fatal accidents occur frequently. After their arrival in the destination country, their illegal status puts them at the mercy of their smugglers, which often force the migrants to work for years in the illegal labor market to pay off the debts incurred as a result of their transportation.

The forced labor is quite common in the French, German, Belgian, Portuguese and Spanish colonies in Africa, and, to a lesser degree, in the British colonies (where the inhabitants perform such labor instead of taxation). It also involves people who have been imprisoned without trial in labor reform camps in China and North Korea because of their religious or political beliefs.
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Trafficking for false adoption


Poverty and war are amongst the biggest reasons for children being put up for adoption. It is relatively easy for traffickers to abduct children, as they are often allured from poverty, troubled families or the lack of parental care. Even in cases where parents are present, traffickers often sway them by promising a better life, education and future for their child(ren). Some parents are economically pressured to sell one child just to feed the rest of their family; some are very young girls wanting to hide away from the shame of adolescent pregnancy so they give their baby to traffickers for extremely low prices. However, there are many cases when doctors bring infants from pregnant women and sell them at a profit with an excuse that the child was born dead or it died right after its birth. Worldwide, you can find thousands of children who have been forcibly removed from parents deemed to be inadequate, through alcoholism, drug abuse or political inclination. This kind of trafficking, not only occurs in the poor countries, but in the developed countries too. Babies are stolen from rich and poor families, in the same way. There are a lot of desperate couples that cant have children or ones who do not accomplish the conditions of adoption, so they are ready to adopt a child anyhow, even if its necessary that child to be stolen and paid. Unbelievably some people buy babies to use their body parts in rituals by witch doctors who they believe can make them instant millionaires. Unfortunately, its a very well paid business, so its number is increasing day by day and there are a lot of major baby trafficking rings in the world. Young women, who have left their countries, looking for better way of life and started working as prostitutes, in many cases are victims of trafficking for false adoptions. When they get pregnant, their bosses are determining them, as soon as, they give them their babies, they will be given back their passports and sent home. Because many of these women are working as prostitutes for many years and have been physically and mentally abused, the only way of salvation which they are seeing is exactly in that agreement, so they sell their babies in this way. Stolen or bought children are being transported with trucks like animals and kept in special houses, which usually are hidden far from the civilizations in some abandoned villages or in the mountains, till they are being sold. If you are prepared to pay, then you can shop for a child and choose the one you want.

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Trafficking for forced marriages


Forced marriage is a term used to describe a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his/her consent or against his/her will. It is practice with deep historical roots, and in modern times, constitutes a demand factor for human trafficking. Marriage involving force, coercion or deceit is a global phenomenon, informed by cultural and societal norms about the institution and the role of women. Women are disproportionately affected. Some women get into situations far different from those they anticipated and many are forced into marriage against their will leaving them vulnerable to various forms of exploitation. Even if the forced marriages may seem to belong to the past, actually are still realities in todays societies. Young people, both girls and boys, are being forced to marry someone their parents or family have chosen for them and are not being given the opportunity to say NO. It happens amongst groups of different ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds, the most amongst Muslims. Transporting brides has become a lucrative business for many human traffickers. The girls are bought from all over the world and transported in the countries which are in need of brides. There are many countries where girls are frequently aborted or even killed at birth in attempts to procure a son, meaning, as these men reach the age of majority, the social pressure to marry often culminates in the purchasing of a bride from another country. This kind of trafficking usually is a part of the Islamic world and the Islamic religion. However it is unacceptable for people to tolerate forced marriages as just part of a different culture. In their beliefs, the forced marriages are not crimes but a kind of a religious act. Maybe it is, but some heads of families are going to extreme lengths to get their children to marry, in some instances posing as officials to kidnap runaway brides or paying people to track them down. Here we reveal the act of crime. They are not kidnapping only Muslim girls, but also girls from different religions, with different beliefs and different way of living. The decision that they make about their sons brides is definite. Everything is allowed for them to do, if they want the appropriate girl to become a part of their families, even if she is a minor, black, yellow or white, Christian, Atheist or Buddhist etc. it doesnt really matter the way they will accomplish their goal.

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Trafficking for enforced committing crimes


Many trafficked people are used for committing crimes as shoplifting, pick-pocketing, selling of pirate CDs, begging, dealing drugs and even committing assassinations. There are groups of people who are trafficking foreigners, and transferring them from country to country, in order their financial needs to be satisfied. Mostly they are taking abandoned children, putting them in some awful shelters and forcing them to go begging, pick-pocketing or shoplifting for profit all day. They get none of the profit, just the pain. At the end of the day the traffic ants are waiting for their plunder and if they are not satisfied the kids are being beaten or even locked up in solitaries, without food, water or toilets. The drug dealing is also one of the enforced crimes, which must be done by the victims in ordered to stay alive or not to be betrayed to the police and sent to prison. In many situations the victims-themselves are being drugged while committing the crimes. Drugged persons are more controllable, so they could steal, beat or kill someone unconsciously. Beside these kinds of crimes there are victims obligated to commit internet crimes. But these victims, computer experts, not only that are kidnapped and enforced to crimes by individuals or groups of criminals, but also could be trafficked by the estate departments for their own needs. Their brains and capabilities are being used for attacking and endangering humans private lives (especially lives of popular persons, state persons etc.) and for the encroachment of some states by entering in their interior affairs and the secure system of the country, through the internet networks. As we can see there could be many kinds of crimes that could be committed by forcing or drugging people. Even if the crime is uncovered, the trafficker will be protected because of his noninvolvment in the commitment of the crime. The victims are very useful for the trafficker till they get the job done; nevertheless at the end they are being killed as covering up evidence.
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Trafficking for removal of organs


Trafficking in human beings also can be done for the purpose of organs removal. The illegal organs removal is one of the most paid businesses in the world. Recipients of the organs must pay a much higher price than donors receive part of which benefits brokers, surgeons and hospital directors. Unfortunately the need of human organs is one of the many causes for people trafficking. Even though the trafficking of organs alone, separate from the donor, is not allowed it happens a lot. The removal of organs by use of force, for the purpose of selling is very severe crime. It appears in various forms: Trafficking for organs removal by kidnapping, killing and selling of people, especially children. Even though there is no conclusive evidence regarding trafficking in children for the purpose of organ removal. It is noted that many abducted or missing children have subsequently been found dead with certain organs removed. It is medically possible to transplant a childs organ into an adults body. Trafficking for removal of kidneys through deception or coercion. There have been cases where a victim will go to a doctor or hospital for an unrelated illness or accident, but in the hospital, the persons kidney is removed without their knowledge or consent. Trafficking for organs removal where the victim is recruited and taken abroad for an unspecified job that then fails to materialize. Such persons may be kept in safe houses and are psychologically coerced into remaining there. In some cases these victims may be put under anesthetic and wake to find their kidney has been removed. Victims may agree to sell their organ and enter into a formal or informal contract to do so, but they are not paid at all or in full. Usually the ones, who approved the illegal removal of their organs, are poor and unemployed people, people with lack of education, who are just seeking for a way to earn or get money. These people do not care about their health or about the problems they might have after the removal. They do not even think about the act of saving someones live, the only thing they care about is the money they will get for doing this, not knowing that they are becoming partners in committing a crime. Organs are removed from bodies of people who have been declared brain-dead prematurely. Medical norms will not have been adhered to and drugs have been administered to simulate brain death in comatose patients.
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The most active human trafficking countries in the world


The illegal trafficking of human beings is the third largest black-market crime in the world, generating $5 to $9 billion in revenue each year. No statistic can do justice to the immense cost of human dignity and human life brought on by this toxic global plague of trafficking in persons.

The map above indicates that the primary countries of destination for victims of trafficking are the United States, Italy, Japan, Canada, Australia, and other 'advanced nations.'

In Asia, it takes the form most often of forced sex slavery. In Africa, young children are often kidnapped into rebel armies and given guns to fight in wars they don't understand. Some 15,000 people are trafficked into the US each year, with 50% of those being children. Over 800,000 are trafficked globally each year, with an estimated total of more than 20 million trapped in this underground industry.

Purposes of trafficking in human beings in USA


Prostitution 46% Domestic Servitude 27% Agriculture 10% Factories 5% Misc 12%

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Percentage number of victims of human trafficking, by countries of origin.

As you can see from this chart the most active countries in trafficking of human beings are the African poor countries, most of the Asian countries, Eastern European countries and South American countries. The most active of all is Russia with a percentage of 11.4. Russia is mostly a country of origin. Usually, girls from some poor villages who have lack of education, are looking for a better job and better life, but instead of it, are becoming victims of human traffickers because of their naivety. But Russia in many cases is a final destination too. Young women in bright miniskirts and high heels line up to sell themselves in the dingy back streets throughout the Russian capital. Moscow's illegal flesh markets are flourishing, with up to 30 women at each pickup point, standing in order of price for the night. Customers light up the lines with their car headlights and are asked to pay between $100 and $700 for a woman. Moscow is witnessing a surge in prostitution, including forced prostitution, as a result of Russia's booming economy.

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How an individual can stop the human trafficking?


Trafficking is a secretive and underground industry. Legislation has ruled it illegal, but it will take so much more than legislation to eradicate it. What can we do to stop the human trafficking? How can we help in solving this issue? We should excel the prejudices as that could not happen to me, that happens only to the other people, it cant happen in my country or the one who becomes a victim of human trafficking must be stupid . Learn more about Human Trafficking, raise awareness about this important issue amongst family, friends, co-workers, etc.! A person can write to their local Member of Parliament, or national government representative. Let your elected officials know your concern, and raise the profile about Trafficking. If we look for a job in newspaper articles we should avoid the advertisements signed just with name or with mobile number. Dont give your passport or identity card to anyone else except of the border service. If you travel with a group of people get acquainted with at least half of them. Always register yourselves in the local police station in the town you are staying in. If we go to work abroad, our new address and mobile number should always be given to two or three persons in our origin country. Never ever sign a job contract which is saying: your whole earnings will be kept by us till the expiration date of your job contract Do not use prostitute service! If you pay a prostitute, you're financing human trading. Every year, 2,450,000 people become victims of human trafficking, of whom 92% end up being used for human sex. 98% of the victims used by the sex industry are women and children! Do not buy human organs illegally even if you are in desperate situation. With your action a loss of human or even a childs life, may be challenged. If you have conditions and finances help fundraising anti-trafficking projects and activities which will work with advocates, those vulnerable and those who have been, trafficked.

WHEN PEOPLE ACT, THINGS CHANGE!

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Conclusion
No sensible person believes that slavery could happen in the 21st century, far less, on our shores. We couldnt be more wrong! Slave-traffickers around the world have rediscovered how profitable it is to buy and sell people! Each one of the victims could be our mother, father, sister, brother, best friend, neighbor, daughter or son. Beside the fact that we are living in democratic communities and the human rights are more respected than ever, still this business found its own way to exist and increase, day by day. Human trafficking is the modern-day slavery. Trafficking occurs not just in foreign lands but on "the next street over". Human trafficking has emerged as a tragic whiplash of the economic transition that has occurred of the past 12 years in Eastern Europe. The slave-traffickers know how to take advantage of this. "It's the third-largest and fastest-growing crime worldwide (because it combines) high profit and low risk".4 After the illegal sale of drugs and weapons, the most profitable business is the people trafficking. The modern-day slavery is only occurring because we choose to ignore it. Although every federal agency is engaged in addressing the problem of trafficking, the private sector also needs to be involved. The police should work with the travel tour and hospitality industries and the legal community to discourage trafficking and help victims. No matter how difficult this battle is, it is vitally important all countries in the world to keep working together as a team, to battle this merciless criminals. At the same time, we need to create a climate of hope, for their victims. We need to give those victims the idea that their lives are still worth living, without shame, after all the desperation and hardship that theyve been exposed to. We need to form a lot of Transit Centers for Foreigners for sheltering the victims of trafficking in human beings. We need to encourage and protect the victims not to be afraid to turn over the traffickers, which will save a lot of human lives. Perhaps most importantly, we must face the fact, that none of this harm would be possible, if the people-themselves didnt create a demand for it. Lets help to each other, because no one is an exception and every one of us could be a victim of human trafficking one day.

said by Bradley Myles, deputy director of the Polaris Project, a Washington, D.C.-based organization that works to combat human trafficking internationally.

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References
Kevin Bales Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy University of California Press, 1999 PRACTICUM on the combat against trafficking in human beings and illegal migration, made by: IOM International Organization for Migration The movie: Human Trafficking, Director: Christian Duguay, 24 October 2005 (USA) www. gaatw.wordpress.com www.humantraffickingawareness.org www.icmpd.org www.interpol.int www.lastrada.org www.traffickingproject.blogspot.com www.redcross.org.mk www.stophumantraffic.com www.stopthetraffik.org www.squidoo.com www.utrechtlawreview.org www.unodc.org www.coe.int

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