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The United States Sommelier Association, Inc.

Advanced Wine Course

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Table of Contents
Introduction The Evolution of Modern Wine The Vine How Wine is made The Aroma Wheel Training Techniques Tasting Techniques Viticulture Vinification The Influence of Oak White Varietals Red Varietals Correct Wine Service Wines of France Champagne America The Wines of Italy Spain Germany Lesser-known Wines of the world Fortified Wines Appendix Glossary

The Evolution of Modern Wine

Up to the start of the 17th century wine was in the unique position of being the one and only wholesome and, up to a point, storable beverage. It had no challengers. Water was normally unsafe to drink, at least in cities. Ale without hops very quickly went bad. There were no spirits, nor any of the caffeine-containing drinks that appear essential to life today. Europe drank wine on a scale it is difficult to conceive of; she must in fact have been in a perpetual fuddle. It is hard to have confidence in the descriptions of wine, which survive from before about 1700. With the exception of Shakespeares graphic tasting notes: a marvelous searching wine, and it perfumes the blood ere one can say Whats this? They tend to refer to royal recommendations or miraculous cures rather than to taste and characteristics. In the 17th century all this changed; starting with chocolate from Central America, then coffee from Arabia and finally tea from China. At the same time the Dutch developed the art and commerce of distilling, turning huge tracts of western France into suppliers of cheap white wine for their stills; hops turned ale into more stale beer and great cities began to pipe the clean water they had lacked since the Romans. The wine industry was threatened with catastrophe unless it developed new ideas. It is not coincidence that we date the creation of most of the wines we consider classics today from the second half of the 17th century. But these developments would never have succeeded without the timely invention of the glass wine bottle. Since Roman times wine had spent all its-life in a barrel. Bottles, or rather jugs, usually of pottery or leather, were used simply for bringing it to table. The Early 17th century saw changes in glassmaking technology that made bottles stronger and cheaper to blow. At about the same time some unknown thinker brought together the bottle, the cork and the corkscrew. Bit by bit it became clear that wine kept in a tightly corked bottle lasted far longer than wine kept in a barrel, which was likely to go off at any time after the barrel was broached. It also aged differently, acquiring a bouquet. The vin de garde was created and with it the chance to double and triple the price of wines capable of ageing. It was the owner of Chteau Haut-Brion who first picked up the idea of what we might call reserve wines; selected, later-picked, stronger, carefully made and matured. In the 1660s he opened Londons first restaurant under his own name, Pontacs Head, to publicize it. In Champagne the great oenologist monk Dom Prignon proceeded with the same idea, of perfecting by blending a drink so luxurious that the aristocracy would beg for it. By accident, or rather by the inherent nature of the wine of the region, once bottled it started to sparkle. The oenologist disapproved; the clientele did not.

In the early 18th century Burgundy changed its nature too. The most delicate wines, Volnay and Savigny, were once the most fashionable. Now these vins de primeur began to give way to the demand for long-fermented, dark-colored vins de garde, especially from the Cte de Nuits. The wine that benefited most from this treatment was the fiery port the English had started to drink in the late 17th century not out of choice but because the duty on their preferred French wine was raised to prohibitive levels by wars. They had doubts about it at first, but as the century and their bottles, grew older, their opinion of it rose sharply. The trend is graphically illustrated by the way the port bottle changed shape within a hundred years. The old carafe model would not lie down, so its cork dried out. The slimmer bottle is easy to bin horizontally in heaps. Before long the benefits of bottle-aged were beginning to change the style of all the best wines of Europe.

The evolution of the port bottle from 1708 when it was a carafe to 1812 when it had its modern proportions is a record of the emergence of vintage wine. With the discovery that bottled wine improved with keeping, bottles were designed to be laid down. In 1866 A Julian published the figures for the alcoholic strengths of recent vintages. By todays standards the Burgundies are formidable: Corton 1858, 15.6%; Montrachet l858, 14.3%; Clos de Bze l858, 14.3%; Volnay l859, 14.9%; Richebourg l859, 14.3%. In contrast Bordeaux wines of the same two years ranged from 11.3% (St-Emilion Suprieur) to 8.9% (Chteau Lafite). The low natural strength of the Bordeaux wines explains what seems today a curious habit of the old wine trade. Up to the mid-century the wines for England which was most of the best of Bordeaux were subjected to what was know as le travail langlaise. One recipe called for 30 liters of Spanish wine (Alicante or Beni-carlo), 2 liters of unfermented white must and a bottle of brandy to each barrel of claret. The summer after the vintage the wine was set to ferment again with these additives then treated as other wines and kept several years in wood before shipping. The result was strong wine with a good flavor, but heady and not suitable for all stomachs. It fetched more than natural wine. Todays preoccupation with authenticity, even at the expense of quality, makes these practices seem abusive. But it is as if someone revealed as a shocking practice the addition of brandy to port. We like Douro wine with brandy in it; our ancestors liked Lafite with Alicante in it.

German wines of the last century would be scarcely more familiar to us. It is doubtful whether any of todays pale, intensity perfumed, and rather sweet wines were made. Grapes picked earlier gave more acid wine, which needed to mature longer in cask. Old brown hock was a recommendation. Champagne was sweeter and fuller in color and flavor although otherwise very like it is today. Port and sherry had both been perfected. There was much more strong sweet wine: Malaga and Marsala were in their heydays. Madeira, Constantia and Tokay were as highly regarded as modern Trockenbeerensausleses. The wine trade was booming. In the winegrowing countries an unhealthy amount of the economy rested on wine: in Italy in 1880 it was calculated that no less than 80% of the population more or less relied on wine for a living. This was when the world phylloxera struck. At the time, when it caused the pulling up of almost every vine in Europe and the New World it seemed like the end of the world of wine. The last 90 years have seen wines Industrial Revolution. More particularly in the last 40 years the scientific background to winemaking has become so much clearer that many things, which were thought impossible, have become easy. Quality table wines from warm climates of the New World became possible in the 1940s, with refrigeration. The very lack of tradition and convention in Australia and California made these the places where wine science and experiment moved faster than ever. The number of options available embarrasses the modern winemaker. At the same time have come temptations to lower the standards of the best, to make more wine at the expense of quality. In due course the Old World began to learn new tricks. Todays great danger is the insidious trend towards using a limited palette of grapes to make familiar, safe wine, without local character, to please every taste. Winegrowers are anxious for a new market, and technology has shown them how to control what they make. It is essential for wine drinkers to demand individual wines with all their local character intact. It is up to us to see that the most enthralling thing about wine its endless variety survives.


Identification Tasting Plan

APPEARANCE Brightness Gas evidence Hue aging Rim variation alcohol Limpidity Crystals YOUR FINDINGS star bright, day bright, brilliant size of bubbles shades of color colors, waterline clarity, flocculation tartaric acids Fermentation, cosmetic Grape type Legs or tears the wine Alcohol viscosity alcohol content Body of Vinosity WHICH LEAD TO age of wine, quality quality, acidity age, varietal, wood Power scale age, wood aging, Wood aging faults, bacteria Fruitiness cold stabilization in Sugar smells SMELL Soundness

YOUR FINDINGS good or badfaults style: fruit flavored earthy attack: low, medium, high bouquet fruit flavors sweetness levels flavors, aroma, bouquet components of wine Low medium high strength born quality Sort of dirt (earth)


YOUR FINDINGS salivation, Side of mouth low medium high level of sweetness bitterness, back of tongue Astringency flavor recognition Strength of aromas Low medium high size of bubbles flavors Short medium long Low medium high Full medium light measure components WHICH LEAD TO cool vs. warm climate varietal recognition Dry vs. Sweet wine varietal, age, maceration wood exposure varietal old world vs. new world faults, balance quality, acidity, faults varietal recognition quality balance, geography, body alcohol, ML, wood aging quality levels, value acid, alcohol, tanning, flavors

TASTE Acidity

old world vs. new world Sugar (closed aroma) Tannin varietal Old world vs. new world Flavor / Fruitiness wood vs. steel varietal recognition Dry vs. Sweet wine varietal name (s) strength/ closed wine light bodied vs. full bodied

Vinosity Gas Grape type Length Alcohol Body / texture Balance

Proper Techniques of Wine Tasting & Identification

TASTING / CONDITIONS Wine tasting is quite subjective to the individual taster. There are certain variables in setting the scene for proper tasting that must be set before you can seriously judge a wine. These are the most important: 1. The Glassware: The standard tasting glass used should be clear and relatively thin. It should have the exceptional quality of being suitable for tasting all kinds of drinks: champagne, sparkling wines, all reds and whites, ports and other fortified wines, and eaux-de vie made from wine, fruit and grain. The tulip form of this perfect and universally applicable glass both retains the bouquet within the glass and also enables the processes of oxidation and oxygenation to take place through contact with the surrounding air. The foot and stem make it possible for tasters to hold it without warming the liquid; it is also an easy form to handle during the various actions, which precede the tasting proper. The Taster: Should be in good physical shape, a cold or flu makes tasting impossible. The palate must be fresh, and have had no recent contact with spicy dishes, chocolate, mint, strong drink or cigarettes. The best time for tasting is thought to be 10 or 11 am. The Setting: The setting is also very important. Ideally, the room should be quiet, well lit and well aired, to banish any lingering smells; needless to say, no odor or perfume, tobacco or cooking should be allowed to seep in. The room should have light walls and a table with a white cloth. The temperature should be 68 to 72 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity 60-70%. These conditions are about standard for any dining room in which fine wines are to be drunk. Wine Condition: The wines used for a tasting should be stored at approximately 58 to 60 degrees for technical tasting and at the usual prescribed temperature of 45 degrees Fahrenheit for white and 60 degrees Fahrenheit for red for informal gatherings. The rule of thumb is that lighter wines are chilled cooler and fuller bodied wines slightly warmer. Unless you are showing a faulty wine in your tasting the storage of the wines are important to be able to show the wine at its best.




Tasting Technique

Deductive Dissective process

A. B. C. Slight = appearance Smell = aroma and bouquet Taste & touch = flavor + tactile sensations

4-step process: A through D Imperative to follow IN ORDER

A. B. C. D. Take in sensory information Pick up clues: What the data is telling you? Which clues are useful and relevant primary conclusion Decision about wine: Good or Bad final conclusion

Appearance / Sight / The Eye Maturity and Quality Clues

The first of the multi-step process to distinguishing a wine is the sight. It is necessary to fill the glass with approximately two to three ounces of wine. Even though it is nowadays rare to find wines possessing faults, which the eye can see alone, all tasting must begin visually by the inspection of the following characteristics. First some basic rules: A. White background to be able to see clearly. Sound wines are clear and bright: 3 levels Star bright brilliance Day bright Brilliant Color = age: whites darken, reds lighten Intensity: can be a hint as to varietal Varietal recognition can be narrowed down by color and brilliance Wood aging: steel fermented vs. barrel fermented, an orange to brick tinge on the meniscus can be an indicator in red wines. 8

B. C. D.

Smell: Single most essential step

A. B. C. D. E. F.

Nose fatigues: 5-6 seconds / 3 quick sniffs First sniff: trigger some recognition and or (Fault Factor) Does it follow through from sight? Which elements overlap? Swirling: release esters and aldehydes, making it easier to detect the various elements such as new vs. old world and fruit flavors. Divide smell into FEW: earth, wood influence, & fruit Physical characteristics perceivable in nose: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tannin = bitter most notably in Red wines Sulfur = burn out of balance Alcohol = burn in back of nose out of balance Acidity = salivation in mouth cooler climates, addition of acid


Should start to come up with some preliminary ideas Cool vs. warm climate Old world vs. new world North vs. South Countries

Tasting: final confirmation 1. 2. Sweet tip/first flavor tasted / short hit Acid sides / second flavor / medium hit a) (1) Acetic: vinegary (2) Citric: lemon, lime (3) Malic: apple stainless steel fermentation (4) Lactic: cream / yogurt malolactic fermentation


Bitter back and throat / last flavor / long hit 9

a) 4.

Tannin = leathery quality (soft to hard type) varietal recognition, extended maceration

Alcohol: how perceived a) b) c) Sweetness of flavor Weight of wine / viscosity Burn in throat full bodied vs. light bodied


Look for tactile / physical attributes 1. 2. 3. Coat your mouth and taste buds Mouth weight or mouth feel Finish and length


Taste LAST palate gets confused going back and forth

Initial conclusions A. B. C. D. Old world vs. new world Cool vs. warm climate Country Grape type (s)

Final Conclusions A. B. C. Vintage (specific range) Quality levels/ price value Specific area and grapes


Other Important considerations: White wine colors have two primary origins: the skin of the grapes that comprise the wine, and the effects of oxygen on the grape juice or the wine after it's finished fermenting. To list a few of the main influences: Varietal recognition: The Grape types: Almost all the juice/must from white grapes is fermented free of significant contact with the their skins. Individual varieties have their own genetic set of pigments that are transferred, in part from the skin into the juice when the grapes are crushed or pressed. Referencing white wine, the color of the wine and the color of the grape skins are not really white, but run the a wide variety of shades from very light to straw and sometimes grayish. This is because particular varieties, such as Trebbiano, are very lightly pigmented, while others, like Gewurztraminer, are deeply concentrated and have darker skins. The Climate (Terrior considerations): Cool weather (such as is prevalent in Germany's Mosel-Saar-Ruwer) make white wine grapes struggle to fully ripen and, depending on the variety, there's often some green color remaining on the skins at harvest, which can find its way into the wine. In warm to hot conditions (which prevail, for instance, in much of Portugal) the grapes get riper, the skins thicken, and the coloring pigments deepen. So the ripeness, and sometimes over-ripeness, conferred by warm to hot conditions tend to produce deeper colored white wines. Rainy weather can also have an effect on color. Regions where the air is moist and humid in the fall before harvest (grapes could be infected by botrytis) the grape juice might be exposed to oxygen, which leads to a darkened color. 3 The Fermentation Technique that's used: Wines which are fermented very cold in stainless steel tanks, with the addition of liberal doses of the antioxidant and general antiseptic sulfur dioxide, will have a much lighter color than wines fermented at high temperatures in open vats, or in barrels. A controlled stainless steel fermentation insures that there is no contact with oxygen, while vilification in wood, which is porous, generates deeper colors as the air mixes with the juice. The degree of SO2 added to the juice help determines how pale it will be. Fermenting white wine on the grape skins, which is done rarely today, will, on the other hand, increase color saturation, as the alcohol dissolves pigments and other organic compounds directly from the skins into the wine. 4 The Maturation or Aging Techniques: Just as wines fermented in wood take on deeper colors, so do wines aged in barrels before bottling have a different appearance than those stored in tanks, and for the same reason - exposure to oxygen. If the wine is moved from barrel to barrel during cellar maturation in a manner that further exposes it to air, the colors will be that much darker. Some wines, aged in contact with the dead yeast cells that have carried forward the fermentation, the so called yeast "lees", tend to have a bleached look, particularly if this is done in an inert storage container. For wines aged on the yeast in barrels, the two effects somewhat counteract one another, but the color will still be far deeper than a wine that's never been exposed to oxygen. 5 The Age, or state of maturity, of the wine: White wines deepen in color as they age, changing from whatever their intended natural color is to deeper gold, ambers and browns. A very dark colored white wine is said to be "Maderized" or, like Madeira, a deliberately oxidized fortified wine of dark hue.



The Sensations of the


How Do I Use It? The Aroma Wheel


Wooden Barrel Aroma Wheel


White Wines - Red Wines Sparkling Wines Defects The purpose of the wine aroma wheel initially was to facilitate communication about wine flavor by providing a standard terminology. The requirements of words included in the wheel was very simply that the terms had to be specific and analytical and not be hedonic or the result of an integrated or judgmental response. Floral is a general but analytical descriptive term, whereas fragrant, elegant or harmonious are either precise and vague (fragrant) or hedonic, and judgmental. The wheel has very general terms located in the center, going to the most specific terms in the outer tier. These terms are NOT the only terms that can be used to describe wines, but represent ones that are often encountered. 16


Sensory Evaluation Identification Tasting Plan

APPEARANCE Brightness Gas evidence Hue Rim variation Limpidity Crystals Legs or tears SMELL Clean / dirty = Soundness Sort of dirt (earth) Power scale Sugar smells Grape type Fruitiness Wood aging Alcohol good or bad style: fruit flavored Earthy (closed aroma) attack: low, medium, high sweetness levels flavors, aroma, bouquet fruit flavors, bouquet strength born quality old world vs. new world varietal Old world vs. new world Dry vs. Sweet wine varietal name (s) varietal recognition wood vs. steel light bodied vs. full bodied YOUR FINDINGS star bright, day bright, brilliant size of bubbles shades of color colors, waterline clarity, flocculation tartaric acids viscosity WHICH LEAD TO age of wine, quality quality, acidity age, varietal, wood aging age, wood aging, alcohol faults, bacteria cold stabilization in Fermentation, cosmetic alcohol content Body of the wine


TASTE Acidity Sugar Tannin Flavor Fruitiness Vinosity Gas Grape type Length Alcohol Body / texture Balance

YOUR FINDINGS salivation, low medium high Side of mouth level of sweetness bitterness, back of tongue Astringency flavor recognition Strength of aromas Low medium high size of bubbles flavors Short medium long Low medium high Full medium light measure components Acid, alcohol, tanning, flavors

WHICH LEAD TO cool vs. warm climate varietal recognition Dry vs. Sweet wine varietal, age, maceration wood exposure varietal old world vs. new world faults, balance quality, acidity, faults varietal recognition quality balance, geography, body alcohol, ML, wood aging quality

Identification by clue analysis only Primary evidence based on above evidence only Old world vs. new world Age range Cool vs. warm climate youthful, moderate, developed, old Country Grape type Final conclusion based on your personal previous tasting experience of similar qualities Vintage (specific range) 1 3 years old Quality level: average vs. very good vs. excellent Village level, premier cru, Grand Regional wine vs. Cru Bourgeois vs. classified growth Price point: $5-10/ $10 20/ $20 30/ $30 + wholesale cost Specific area/ geography: France Burgundy Cote Nuit Chambertin France Bordeaux Paullac Chateau Lafite California Napa Carneros Acacia Food Recommendation 19

Tasting Technique Tasting Methodology

1. APPEARANCE * Clean (Yes or No) Brightness (DEFINE LEVEL) * CO2 (Yes or No) Flocculation (Yes or No) * Hue (define specifically. ..qualify (bright, pale etc) (If a white wine any green?) (If a red wineany rim variation?) * Intensity level (high, medium, low) * Legs (slow, medium or fast) indicating WHAT? 2. NOSE * Clean or faulty * F.E.W. * Power scale / intensity * fruity vs. vinous * Physical markers: - Alcohol - Acid 3. MOUTH * Acid level (1-10 rating) Acid balance vs. sugar (dry, off dry, sweet) * Body weight (light/medium/medium full/full), texture * CO2 comment (if appropriate) * Flavors (consistent? Any additional?) * If red.. tannins (fruit vs. wood, hard vs. soft) * length (short, medium, long..) * Overall balance 4. INITIAL CONCLUSION * Old world vs. new world * Cool vs. warm climate * Country * Grape type (s) * Age range (youthful, moderate, developed, older..) 5. FINAL CONCLUSION * Specific Geography * Specific age bracket (1-3 years) * Quality judgment * (In a restaurant, setting food recommendations) * Banker Factor identifying indicator, for sure

Define the fruit, earth, wood with specifics (consistent with appearance?) (consistent with appearance?) - Tannin - Sugar


Color Scale





















Wine Components
ACIDITY: AROMA: BALANCE: BODY: BOUQUET: DRYNESS: SWEETNESS: FINISH: gives wine its lively taste. Natural acidity is essential to a well-balanced wine. reflects the part of smell of wine derived from the grape, the distinctly varietal character. says all the elements of the wine are in harmony. describes the weight of wine in the mouth; medium or full-bodied. reflects the part of smell of wine derived from the method and style of fermentation, aging, oak contact, and time in the bottle. means the absence of natural sugar. the opposite of dryness. Generally, wines will be dry, off/dry or sweet. describes the lingering after-taste that remains after swallowing the wine.

Aromatic, Assertive, Astringent, Austere, Big, Bitter, Bold, Bright, Brilliant, Buttery, Chewy, Clean, Clear, Complex, Crisp, Delicate, Depth, Distinctive, Distinguished, Dry, Earthy, Enjoyable, Exotic, Flat, Flowery, Fragrant, Fresh, Fruity, Full-bodied, Gentle, Graceful, Hearty, Intense, Interesting, Intriguing, Light, Lingering, Lively, Luscious, Memorable, Mature, Musty, Neutral, Noble, Oaky, Rare, Rich, Robust, Rounded, Satisfying, Sharp, Silky, Smokey, Smooth, Soft, Spicy, Sturdy, Subtle, Superb, Sweet, Tannic, Tart, Understated, Unique, Watery, Well-aged, Well-balanced, Well-bred, Zesty.


Experience in Wines
EXPERIENCE IS THE KEY The more you taste, the better your understanding of wines and the better you become at articulating what you see, smell and taste.

EVALUATE THE APPEARANCE Hold the glass by the stem and to the light. Describe the COLOR with one of the following: WHITE WINES: Pale yellow Straw yellow Yellow-gold Gold Old gold RED WINES: Purple Ruby Garnet Red Brick red Red-brown Evaluate the wines CLARITY. The wine should be brilliantly clear without a hint of haziness

EVALUATE THE NOSE-AROMA & BOUQUET Hold the glass by the stem, swirl the wine to release the aromatic components, bring the glass to your nose and smell. Describe the nose in general terms: Is the wine FLORAL, SPICY, FRUITY, HERBACEOUS, OR EARTHY? Can you define the nose further; is the wine: Rose, Violet, Jasmine, Anise, Clove, Mint, Cinnamon, Pepper, Apricot, Cherry, Muscat, Orange, Lemon, Blackberry, Apples, Banana, Pineapple, Black Current, Strawberry, Coffee, Smoked, Musk, Truffle, Mushroom, Butter, Cocoa, Carmel, Pine, Honey, Vanilla, Walnut, Almond, Hazelnut

EVALUATE THE TASTE Take a reasonable mouthful of wine, draw in air over palate, roll it round the mouth and swallow. Describe the flavor, mouth feel, finish and overall quality. Was there an intense flavor? Was it a lingering or short aftertaste? Did you like the wine?


The science of growing grapes for the purpose of making wine & the science of making wine from fruit.

Major regions of the world VITICULTURE & VINIFICATION


Before we go into our modules we would like to provide you with a short overview on the major wine growing regions of the world. This brief introduction to these countries will assist you in understanding the evolving styles of growing grapes that are both of European origin and also of local indigenous cultivation. Whether old or new world, all grape growing countries fall between 30-50 degrees longitude or latitude. That is the climate that supports the cultivation and production of the best wines.

Argentina is the world's fifth largest wine producing nation, with most of it consumed within the country. The majority of the vineyards are situated in the foothills of the Andes mountains where they have access to water for irrigation from the melting snow. Although many vitis vinifera grape varieties are planted that were brought from Europe, its the MALBEC variety that has drawn much international attention for its distinctive taste and high quality produced in mostly the MENDOZA region.

Australia is the 11th largest wine producer in the world. Australians have the highest per capita wine consumption in the English-speaking world. Australian whom were always known for the beer consumption have developed at taste for easy drinking, fruit forward styles of wine. Warm climates allow for higher ripening and flavor extraction. Wine is affordably priced and positioned as an everyday beverage.

Wine making in Chile dates back to the settlement of the Spanish. Recent developments in vineyard management and wine making have produced excellent results in this country. The Cabernet Sauvignons and Merlots that are produced are excellent quality considering their inexpensive price, and some of the estate wines can compete on a worldwide basis. With full upfront fruit the style of wines produced here are exactly what we are looking for from 'New' world producers and as the country continues to invest in its wines they can only improve. As more and more consumers are looking for value in their wines Chile has gained many new consumers buying their wines which are generally less expensive than there American and European counterparts.

To say that France is the standard by which all other wine countries are measured would not be an overstatement. France is a leader because of ideal geography and climate for growing good grapes, rich 24

enological history dating back to Roman times, passion for food and sheer diversity of wine-producing regions and wine styles. The major regions of France: Champagne was a region long before it was a sparkling wine. The region lies at a crossroads of northern Europe the river valleys leading south to the Mediterranean and north to Paris, the English Channel and Western Germany and thus has been the setting of many dramatic events in the history of the French nation. We owe a lot to Dom Prignon as any inventor owes those who have come before him. He is not however the inventor of champagne as is often thought. The bubbles in the wine are a natural process arising from Champagne's cold climate and short growing season. Of necessity, the grapes are picked late in the year. This doesn't leave enough time for the yeasts present on the grape skins to convert the sugar in the pressed grape juice into alcohol before the cold winter temperatures put a temporary stop to the fermentation process. With the coming of Spring's warmer temperatures, the fermentation is again underway, but this time in the bottle. The refermentation creates carbon dioxide, which now becomes trapped in the bottle, thereby creating the sparkle. He was not able to prevent the bubbles, but he did develop the art of blending. He not only blended different grapes (Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, Chardonnay), but the juice from the same grape grown in different vineyards. Not only did he develop a method to press the black grapes to yield a white juice, he improved clarification techniques to produce a brighter wine than any that had been produced before. To help prevent the exploding bottle problem, he began to use the stronger bottles developed by the English and closing them with Spanish cork instead of the wood and oil-soaked hemp stoppers then in use. Dom Prignon died in 1715, but in his 47 years as the cellar master at the Abby of Hautvillers, he laid down the basic principles still used in making Champagne today. Alsace is located in the northeastern part of France, just across the Rhine River from Germany. The region is about 110 kilometers long, one to five kilometers wide. Alsace lies on the western flank of the Vosges Mountains, the climate is dry and temperate with long days; soils are varied, including chalk/marl, granite and limestone. There are two Alsace appellations, Alsace AC and Alsace Grand Cru AC. Loire Valley has a variety of soils and climate, from continental in the east to maritime in the west, and can produce any number of wines. The region is roughly divided into four areas: Pays Nantais, at the mouth of the river and home of Muscadet, Anjou, Touraine and the Central Vineyards. No special classification exists, even the smallest areas with a distinctive style have their own appellations. Bordeaux is one of France's largest and most diverse wine regions. A great variety of wines are made here: red, dry white and sweet white. The red wines of Bordeaux, all made of a blend from three and sometimes five permitted red grape varieties, are arguably the world's most famous reds. Sauternes, the archetypal sweet white wine is made from a blend of Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle, as are other dry white wines. Burgundy has five distinct regions: from north to south they are: Chablis, Cte d'Or (divided into the Cte de Nuits in the south and Ctes de Beaune in the north), Cte Chalonaise, Maconnais and Beaujolais. The Cte d'Or has 28 different wine-producing villages or communes, surrounded by a total of 20,000 acres of vineyards. Burgundy is known for many expressions of two great varietals: Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. In addition, there is fruity, lively Gamay from Beaujolais and lemony-tart Aligot, planted in lesser vineyard sites. The term Domaine is commonly used in Burgundy to refer to a vinegrowing and winemaking estate. Rhne Valley wines have been made in the Rhne Valley since the time of the Romans, who left behind the ruins of aqueducts and amphitheaters. The Rhne Valley stretches for 140 miles from Lyon to Avignon and is divided into two regions: north and south. Southern France encompasses an enormous region, from the Atlantic coast along the Mediterranean to the borders of Italy and Switzerland. Grape vines first arrived in France at the Greek city, Massalia (later Marseilles) in 600 BC. From there, viticulture spread north into the Rhne Valley and east until it reached Bordeaux in the 3rd century BC. 25

Vineyard sites run the gamut, from high in the Pyrnes Orientales and hard against the Spanish border, to the hot, dry plains of Languedoc-Roussillon, to the fields of Provence, to the Alps of the Savoie.

Germany has 13 separate wine growing regions, each of which produces its own style of wine, often from the same varietals. Generally, the lightest and most elegant German wines are produced in the Mosel-Saar-Ruwer and Ahr regions. Slightly fuller wines are made in the Mittelrhein, Nahe, Rheingau, Rheinhessen, Saale-Unstrut, while the fullest German wines tend to come from the regions of Pfalz, Hessische Bergstrasse, Sachsen, Wurttemberg and Baden. Germany produces the loveliest, lightest, most delicate white wines in the world. Low in alcohol and exquisitely balanced, they are wines of charm and subtle nuances. Germany has nearly 100,000 hectares (240,000 acres) of vineyards. About 87 % of this area is planted in white grape varieties; only 13 % in red grape varieties. By contrast, the worldwide ratio of white to red wine cultivation is almost exactly the opposite. If at least 85 % of a wine is made from one kind of grape, the name of the variety may be indicated on the label. This tells you what to expect with regard to the color, taste, aroma and acidity of the wine. Because Germany has such a cool climate, grape ripeness at harvest is a crucial quality factor. (Less ripe grapes yield lighter wines of modest character; fully ripe or overripe grapes produce fuller, more finely flavored wines.) As a result, the German government has established separate categories for German wines according to grape ripeness. These same categories are identified on the label, providing a useful indication of wine style in purchasing German wines and pairing them with food. Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebeite (Q.b.A.) - Literally, quality wines from specific regions. The largest category of German wines. Because these are chaptalized (legally regulated amounts of sugar are added to the grape must to add body), Q.b.A.s are often fuller than Kabinett wines from the same vineyards. Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (Q.m.P.) - Quality wines with special attributes. These are among Germany's greatest wines, listed here in ascending order of ripeness. Kabinet and Spatlese are the most commonly produced. o Kabinett - Light, elegant wines made from fully ripened grapes. o Spatlese - Wines made from grapes picked at least one week after normal ripeness. These are fuller, more flavorful wines. o Auslese - Auslese means "selected picking;" these are wines made from selected ripe and overripe grape clusters. The wines are full and ripe to the taste, and often have residual sweetness. o Beerenauslese (BA) - Wines produced from selectively harvested, overripe grapes. The consequent wines are concentrated in character and flavor; sweet but well balanced. o Eiswein - Wine produced from naturally frozen grapes. The grapes are harvested and pressed while frozen, resulting in extremely fresh, crisp, yet richly flavored sweet wines with remarkable briskness and racy acidity. o Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) - Wines produced from hand-selected, dried, over ripened grapes, which look virtually like raisins. TBAs are extremely rich and intense in flavor, sweet and honey-like to the taste.

Italy is a world wine leader, producing and consuming more wine than any other country in the world. There are 1.2 million Italian growers, and per capita consumption is 26 gallons per person. Like the French, the Italians have a system of wine laws to regulate the industry. These modern wine laws were established in 1963 to give structure to an unregulated wine industry. Italy produces wine in every part of the country from north near the borders of France, Austria and Slovenia to the tip of the boot and Sicily. 26

Much of the best wines come from the northern regions: Piedmont (northwest), Tuscany (North-Central) and three regions (Tre Venezie) in the northeast. Basic laws regulate yields, grapes used for specific wines, area restrictions for growing, and maximum and minimum alcohol strengths these categories are. Vino da Tavola, or table wine, typically, but with some exceptions, everyday wines-simple and inexpensive. DOC wines (initials stand for Denominazione di Origine Controllata ), a translation of the French Appellation d'Origine Cntrole. There are about 330 DOC zones, and approximately 700 Italian wines bearing this classification. However, only a small percentage of these have any commercial viability. Twenty DOCs account for close to 45% of the country's total DOC production. DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines, first classified in 1980 with the intention of adding a quality classification to the top of the wine pyramid. The 29 DOCG wines indicate the highest quality (wines not only "controlled" but "guaranteed"). DOCG wines include such famous names as Barola, Barbaresco, Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano the original five regions named. Additional wines are petitioning for DOCG classification, so the existing group of 29 will continue to grow. In 1992, among many changes made, the Goria laws were passed to bring greater flexibility to production, and add a broad new category. IGT (Indicazione Geografica Tipica), became a new classification under law, replacing vini tipici as the base of the quality pyramid.

New Zealand
New Zealand wine industry dates back to 1819 but has evolved dramatically during the past fifteen years. Now considered by many to be one of the world's finest producer of Sauvignon Blanc, it also produces world class Chardonnays and is achieving success with Pinot Noir. The main wine producing regions are Hawke's Bay, Gisborne, Auckland and Waikato on the North Island and Marlborough, Nelson and Canterbury on the South Island.

While the country is famous for its namesake, Oporto and Maderia, the fresh, light white wines and fullbodied reds should not be overlooked, especially good for serving with oily food. The best known regions are Do - making big full bodied red wines; Bairrada - tannin highly acidic red wine; Madeira - see below; Port and Douro - ports;Setubal - sweet, fortified wine production and Vinho Verde - in the northwestern part of the country, Vinho Verde refers to the youth of the wine, not the color it can be red or white.

Wine has been made in Spain for centuries and the size of the Spanish wine acreage is huge. There are a number of regions including, the Navarra - north of Rioja, where Garnacha Tinta (Grenache), Cabernet and Merlot are the red grapes grown; Rioja - the home of soft, blended red wine aged in American oak and young fresh white wines; Jerez - sherries; Peneds - the leading wine region in Catalonia. Spanish sparkling wines when made in the champagne method are called Cava, approximately 95% of them come from around Barcelona with Frexinet and Cordonu being the largest. The world's most widely planted white grape, Airn, is grown in Spain.

South Africa
South Africa is the world' s eighth largest producer of wines and the industry here is more than three hundred years old. Almost all South Africa's wines are produced in the Western Cape region. Since the end of apartheid the entire industry has undergone a rapid revolution. An official Wine of Origin scheme was only established in 1972, when legislation in this regard was formulated. This new scheme would not only protect wines of origin but also wines made from a specific cultivars or vintage. Certain basic principles were taken into consideration when the system was formulated. It was, for example, necessary to comply with EU regulations because a great deal of South African wine was exported to Europe. Principles such as honesty in business, factual terms, titles, adaptability, local marketing truths and free participation were addressed. 27

South Africa's Wine of Origin certification scheme was officially instituted in 1973, in accordance with the Wine, Other Fermented Beverages and Spirits Act of 1957 White wines are grown in much greater number than reds, mostly by Chenin Blanc , which accounts for about 30% of the white wine production, with Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc production increasing annually. Riesling is also grown in small quantities. Historically Cinsault and Pinotage have been the most popular red grapes, however, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir and Merlot are gaining popularity. The wine region is around Cape Town. With the opening of trade between the rest of the world and South Africa, expect to see more wines and improved quality and wine making.

United States of America

The United States now has wineries in 50 of the 50 states in the union. The major regions within the USA are the Pacific Northwest, California and New York State California in the United States, continues to produce wines across the board from good basic quality bulk wine to very exclusive varieties. Here are the major regions in California. o Napa Valley is perhaps the best-known wine region in the whole of America. The valley itself runs from the city of Napa northwest to Calistoga. o Sonoma County is a very important wine-growing region, north of San Francisco, with many different climates, this able to successfully produce a wide array of wines. While many varieties of grape are successful here, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Zinfandel and Cabernet are perhaps the best. o Sonoma Valley, situated between the Mayacamas Mountains to the east and the Sonoma Mountains to the west, is home to some of the best-known wineries in California. o Alexander Valley is situated along the Russian River in northeastern Sonoma County, California, approximately 80 miles (130km) north of San Francisco. Twenty miles in length, Alexander Valley varies in width from 2 - 7 miles and produces some excellent wines of high quality. o Lake County, situated to the north of Napa Valley and east of Mendocino, this region dates back to the late 1880s. Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon are widely planted throughout the region. The Guenoc Valley is part of Lake County, as are Clear Lake and Benmore.. o Mendocino is the most northerly wine-producing region in California. A number of premium varietal wines are grown including Chardonnay and Cabernet. Fetzer winery has spearheaded organic farming in this region, and McDowell the production of Rhone style wines. o Anderson Valley is known for good sparkling wines and cool climate varieties such as Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. o Central Coast area includes the Santa Cruz Mountains, San Benito and Santa Clara Valley to the north, Carmel, Monterey and Paso Robles in the middle and San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara Santa Maria and Santa Ynez- to the south. The influence of the ocean is significant, producing fogs and cooling winds which encourages quality wines to be produced from Chardonnay, Cabernet and Pinot Noir.


What is viticulture?
Viticulture also referred to as viniculture. Both are defined as the growing of grapes for the purpose of making wine. It is defined in Websters dictionary as noun, (vit kul cher) cultivation of grapevines. The word is derived from the Latin word vitis, which means vine. Important notes: o Grape growing + winemaking = winegrowing o The grape = most important part of equation/art of wine Other factors winemaker skill, luck Of all advances in wine industry since prohibition, most advances have been made in vineyard. Viticulture practices can range from the practice of Biodynamic farming techniques eschewed by Rudolf Steiner to Organic Farming or variations of this such as the commonly referred to practice in California of Sustained Farming. Chemicals are still widely used where necessary to reduce mold and retarding disease. The practices wine makers and viticulturists employ range from night picking to leaf pulling to cutting back buds at flowering to other needed experimental practices that come from years of experience and with dealing with the elements of that seasons climate during the growing season. In many instances local wine growing laws dictate to the wine makers whether they can irrigate their crops or use any additives. Laws can tell you where you can plant a varietal, when, how much per hectare and other determining factors.

The home Where the vines are planted

A. B. C. Vineyard site is the most important factor. Broad specific areas: 1. France and Germany have harsher more unpredictable climates 2. California and coastal Mediterranean are milder and more predictable Climate 1. Can vary widely in even a small area 2. EX. California has a general climate 3. EX. - Northern has a Macroclimate Microclimate 1. Ex. Napa Valley has a microclimate 2. Ex. Winery Lake Vineyard has a microclimate Ex. Napa Valley 1. Temperature increases from south to north 10 20 2. Rainfall increases from south to north 20 35 average 3. Temperature increases from west to east ocean influence Wrong weather at the wrong time can bring dramatic results 1. Drought 2. Rain, especially during set and harvest 3. Frost, especially at bud break 4. Cool weather at flowering pollination problems 5. Too little sun underdeveloped fruit 6. Too much sun cooked fruit Soil 1. 2. 3. Test the soil before planting for composition Listen to the land after grapes are being harvested Soil can vary greatly within a single vineyard 29

D. E.



The Foundation Rootstock

A. B. C. D. Rootstock selection Propagating new vines Spacing with closer spacing, production per plant decreases Grafting changing the type of grape growing on a vine 1. 2. A. B. The new type is grafted onto the established rootstock Takes 2-4 years of vineyard to produce again

The Umbrella Vines, canes and leaves

Canopy management to BALANCE fruit to leaf growth Trellising The way the canes/leaves are held up/arranged 1. 2. Determines shade and light to vine ratio EX. - Techniques to enhance sun exposure a) Divide the canopy into separate rows b) More vertical aspect to trellis 1. 2. Cutting back canes in winter (when sap is least vulnerable to loss) to keep growth manageable Fruit and or leaf pruning during development to control quality by limiting the quantity, effects of frosts.


Pruning reduce quantity of growth to increase quality

Keeps vines off the ground originally and now to assist in the controlling the rate of ripeness.


Clay vs. sandy loam, vs. calcareous, vs. Alluvial, vs. Volcanic, vs. Mountain side

1 meter planting = standard before higher quality / 2 3: meter planting = now used = increased quality


Dictated by climate and sun exposure.

The Fruit
A. Varietal type selection 1. Need to choose the right grape for all of the above factors, especially climate and soil. 2. Chardonnay: Thrives in cooler climates; warm climate chardonnay almost always proves to be lacking in the delicate flavors defining its varietal character. 3. Sauvignon Blanc: Does well in a myriad of temperatures, however as it gets cooler, the varietal proves to taste vegetal and grassy. It proves better in warmer climate areas where the warmth can burn off the green flavors in lieu of complex melon, citrus fruit and floral types. 4. Pinot Noir: Another cool climate grape; the most fickle to grow, it requires the perfect conditions: too cool and its stemmy; too warm and its pruny. 5. Merlot: A mid-season ripening grape that does well in a diversity of climates. Most important with merlot is the right weather at the right time (i.e. bloom and set). 6. Cabernet Sauvignon: Prefers warmer conditions to excel. It can grow cooler conditions but suffers the same stemmy qualities of pinot noir. A dry soil is better in a cooler district. Irrigation 1. Moisture level in soil, therefore that available to plant is important a) Too LITTLE = sunburn dehydration, poor color, bitterness, raisin qualities, overripe flavors, poor balance. b) Too MUCH = diluted flavors, late and uneven ripening, poor color, thin tannin and overall structure, low acid, questionable aging potential. 2. Right amount of water TO ADD varies with soil conditions a) Texture of soil (fine, coarse, varied) 32

The Fine-Tuning Helping Mother Nature


B. C.

b) Composition of soil (clay, sand, loam, rocks) c) Location (valley floor, hillsides, mountaintop, etc.) d) Natural rainfall, including drought problems 3. Types of irrigation a) Drip b) Overhead 4. Illegal to irrigate in France 5. Research Measuring water, which comes from plant, as opposed to water in the soil. Fertilization lime usage? Other fertilizers? Pest control organic farming, biodynamic farming

Mold Control: A. Pierces disease B. Odium molds C. Every Rot D. Phylloxera



Weeding February Bud-break March to April Foliage and shoots April to May _____________________________________ Average 100 days Flowering May to June Fruit set June to July Veraison (red color change) July to August Grape ripening August Harvest August to October _______________________________________ Botrytis harvest Eiswein November to December November to January



Basics of Vinification: White Wine
A. B. A. B. C. D. Final product only as good as beginning ingredients (GRAPES) Wine: The resultant product of naturally fermented juice of grapes or other fruits. Table wine 14% alcohol and less (1.5% leeway) Sparkling wine 14% alcohol and less (average 12.5%) Fortified wine over 14% but less than 24% alcohol Aromatized wine 15.5 to 20% alcohol (vermouth)

Types of Wines

Factors contributing to quality of wines

A. The grapes 1. The soil and location of the vineyard 2. Climatic conditions Viticulture practices can range from the practice of Biodynamic farming techniques eschewed by Rudolf Steiner to Organic Farming or variations of this such as the commonly referred to practice in California of Sustained Farming. Chemicals are still widely used where necessary to reduce mold and retarding disease. B. Vinification (science of making wine from that fruit) 1. standards of the winery 3. Skill of the winemaker Intangibles - luck The concept of Wine Growing

C. D.

Process of making white wine

(This also applies to the base wine, or cuvee for sparkling wine) A. PICKING Decision to Harvest Made by vineyard manager & winemaker together Whites best picked at 20 to 23 degrees Brix, pH = 3.4; acidity @ 0.8 to 1 % and varietal aroma of concern 1. Mechanical harvesting machine harvesting Used on large vineyards A force is applied to one or more parts of the vine in order to remove the fruit from the clusters. o Lateral Strike Harvesters that shake the vine canopy so that the berries will fall off. Advantages o Harvesters can operate 24 hours a day but usually work at night and / or early morning. o Not many people needed, 1 machine can do the work of 20 to 30 pickers. 35


o Maximizes breaking of the berries so better for reds because skin contact is desirable. Disadvantages are (focus on whites): o Might limit vineyard design reference, pruning methods o and canopy types. o Enzymatic oxidation of flavors & colors o Berry Breakage o Increase fungal growth o Premature fermentation by wild yeast 2. Manual Harvesting - Hand picking Used in smaller vineyards and for more thin-skinned cultivars. Best treatment of the grapes NO breakage Permits rejection of poorer clusters Can select for level of maturity Very labor intensive and expensive Not done 24 hours per day TRANSPORT TO WINERY


1. Done as quickly as possible so as to minimize the time at elevated temperatures. 2. Sometimes dry ice added to reduce presence of oxygen 3. Moving will cause a loss of water, which results in evaporative cooling. 4. Should be covered. CRUSHING

Stemmer-crusher (usually) separates the stems and breaks the berries.


Bladder press (most often used) airbag. a) Screw press old fashioned b) Basket press Champagne various parts of the world and smaller wineries 2. Done gently and quickly, to limit oxygen contact, and usually to minimize skin contact SETTLING 1. Unfermented must (skins, seeds, pulp, juice, etc) is put in large temperature controlled tanks to allow the juice to settle and the solids separate out. Tanks are called unimatic. 2. Takes place at a low temperature to prevent fermentation from starting (settling process lasts generally from 2-24 hours) Fermentation temperature range = (32 78) 36



The juice is now separated from its solids and is somewhat clarified.



FERMENTATION 1. Sugar + yeast = CO2 + ethyl alcohol (+ heat) 2. Must is put into a fermentation vessel a) Either a wood barrel (large or small), or jacketed stainless steel tank (with temperature control) or in older style methods epoxy lined cement tanks b) Often, the wine will be fermented in a tank and then subsequently be transferred into barrels. 3. INOCULATION Wild yeast is usually killed in the initial phases, so a strain of controlled live yeast is now added to the unfermented must. b) Fermentation will occur as the must is kept at a temperature essential for the enzymes reactions needed to cause fermentation. Range: 1 = cooler effects vs. 2 = warmer effects c) Yeast needs specific conditions for wine production (1) Proper temperature (2) Sugar to burn (3) Sufficient oxygen d) Unfermented must contains approximately 24% natural grape sugar, together with various acids, cream of tartar, protein, tannin (varying in degree with varietal and amount of skin contact initially). 4. This process which is regulated by the winemaker can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. 5. Longer fermentations (at lower temperatures) are generally favored by winemakers as more flavors are extracted and fruit flavors retained. 6. Alcohol present in the new wine at the end of the fermentation is approximately 50% of the natural sugar. 24 brix = 12% alcohol RACKING After fermentations completion, the new wine is transferred from one container to another, leaving the solids behind If the fermentation occurs in the barrel as a vessel, sometimes the wine is left to rest on the resultant dead yeast cells (lees) to pick up flavor and complexity. Different winemaker styles include stirring the wine on for years, for complexity battonage



AGEING The new wine needs to develop and mature before it is finished and subsequently bottled. The amount of time and in what type of a container will vary from varietal and by style. a) Small or large wood barrels b) Neutral stainless steel tanks. The wine will now continue to develop in an ageing container for from three to eighteen months (or longer for red wine). H.


TOPPING OFF 1. Barrels often lose wine due to evaporation, and need to be filled with the same wine, which is in the barrels. 2. This is often done twice a week for the first two months and then every other week for a few more months. MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION (ML) This is a secondary, non-alcoholic fermentation of wines during which the harder sharper malic acids (think of green apples) are transformed into softer lactic acids (the acid in dairy products). In white wines, the winemaker usually makes a conscious decision whether or not to induce ML, although it will occasionally occur spontaneously. ML softens the wine and adds both a rich mouth-filling texture and buttery flavor compounds. BLENDING


After the ageing is finished in various batches or lots of wine, the wine is then blended to maximize the potential of the final wine. K. COLD STABILIZATION 1. 2. 3. L. In temperature-controlled tanks, the temperature is dropped to below freezing where the cream of tartar forms crystals and falls out. White wines which are not cold stabilized risk formation of tartaric crystals in the bottle and on cork. Although this is strictly a cosmetic problem, it can be confusing to the consumer, and potential problem in the restaurant.

FINISHING Once the wine is blended and finished, it can be filtered for one final time and then is bottled, case aged and ultimately distributed to the market.

Dessert Wines (higher sugar)

A. B. C. Grapes picked at higher natural sugar levels Yeast can not metabolize all sugar = residual sugar Fermentation sometimes stopped with low temperatures.



Vinification of Red Wines

Types of wines
A. B. C. D. A. Table wine 14% alcohol and less (1.5% leeway) Sparkling wine 14% alcohol and less Fortified wine over 14% but less than 24% alcohol. Aromatized wine 15.5 to 20% alcohol (vermouth) The grapes 1. The soil and location of the vineyard. 2. Climatic conditions 3. Viticulture practices Vinification (science of making wine from that fruit) 1. Standards of the winery 2. Skill of the winemaker Intangibles luck The concept of Wine Growing

Review of factors contributing to quality of wines

B. C. D.

Steps different from white wine process

PICKING Decision to Harvest o Reds best picked at 22 to 24 degrees Brix; pH = 3.4; acidity @ 0.6% and color of concern. A. CRUSHING Certain styles 1. Carbonic Maceration (alternative styles of fermentation) of red wines, whole clusters thrown into a tank without crushing. Weight of the grape matter crushes the fruit and allows for the needed liquid for fermentation to begin. b) Allowing the grapes to ferment slowly in the presence of carbon dioxide and some oxygen results in a deep color as the grapes ferment inside their skins and strong fruit flavors are extracted. FERMENTATION 1. Takes place BEFORE skins are separated 2. Unfermented must is moved into a tank, usually stainless steel, for fermentation. 3. Fermentation temperatures generally higher than white wines give range? a) Purpose is to extract color and tannins b) 4. 5. Low temperature isnt needed to retain fruit flavors. Usually lasts 5-15 days. ROS a) Made by leaving the juice on the skins just long enough to extract a little color. b) Blush wines often left just a few hours c) Ros wines left for a day or two a)



AGEING 1. After fermentation, red wine is racked off of solids and put into ageing container: most often wood barrels, or in the case of certain light reds like Gamay, into stainless steel vats. 2. Red wines do not benefit from lees contact, which often adds bitter components 3. As a rule ageing reds will be racked into fresh barrels three times during the first year, and then transferred into a final ageing barrel. 40


BARRELS a) Open-grain wood vs. tight-grain wood b) French oak vs. American oak effects c) French barrel-making methods vs. American (1) Split staves vs. sawed (2) Air-dried vs. Kiln-dried (3) Fire-bent vs. Steam-bent



d) Amount of char or toast MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION 1. Most red wines are inoculated to go through ML. 2. Wines are softened and generally made more drinkable. 3. If ML happens spontaneously later in the bottle, it can result in a stinky nose. CLARIFICATION a) FINING a) A substance is stirred into the wine, and an interaction with suspended solids causes them to settle out, clarifying the wine. b) Materials used: egg whites, bentonite. c) FILTRATION a) Prior to bottling a final filtering is often done to remove any microscopic particle, which might later cloud the wine appearance or result in excessive sediment. d) The advisability and even the necessity of filtering is a matter of debate between winemakers.

The Benefits of Oak on Wine Composition

Oak barrels contribute to wine composition in three ways: They improve the maturation process flavor from the oak are extracted which enhance the aroma and flavor complexity and intensity. They provide controlled oxidation during storagetannins are softened, color and wine stability is increased and various aroma compounds are produced by the oxidative process. Barrel fermentation provides additional benefits during fermentation strong reducing actions further enhance wine aromas and flavors.

Oak is essentially composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, tannins and lignins, with the last three actually influencing the wine during contact. The hemicelluloses do so indirectly they are not odorous by themselves but are transformed chemically through toasting, and thus serve as a base for other odorous compounds. 41

The important compounds entering the wine by simple diffusion are oak lactones which have a coconutlike aroma, aldehydes (particularly vanillin), phenolic ketones which augment the vanillin aroma, volatile phenols such as eugenol which have clove and carnation aromas, furanic derivatives from toasting, and a range of other compounds. The extractable constituents of oak fall largely into the broad class of volatile phenolics, which derive mainly from the oak lignin comprising between 25 and 35 percent of the dry weight of the wood. The most important compounds derived from oak lignin are vanillin (vanilla), eugenol (spicy and clove-like), and guaiacol (smoky). These become a small but important part of the overall phenolic composition of wine. When the oak is toasted the amounts of vanillin (vanilla), guaiacol (smoky and medicinal), 4-methyl guaiacol (smoky and clove-like), syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde in the wine are increased. The amounts of oak extracted from the wood into the wine depend upon: the aging time (the longer the time the greater the extraction) the type of oak (American oak provides a stronger intensity than French) the method of drying the wood (prolonged air drying is necessary for wine) the size (the larger the barrel the less surface of oak to volume of wine, and thus less extraction) and previous use of the barrel (new oak provides the greatest extractive yield).

Calculations based on the barrel surface area per liter of wine shows that for each millimeter that wine penetrates into the barrel, it extracts about 7.6 grams of oak extract for a 200 liter barrel and 5.6 grams for a 500 liter barrel. The diffusion of oak components into wine will change somewhat as the surface becomes exhausted, as larger molecules will take longer to diffuse. Because large oak chips have been found to provide many of the same benefits to wine as oak barrels, they have become a popular method of increasing the oak extract levels in previously used barrels. Primarily, oak chips are used during the fermentation and bulk storage of wines as an economical means of obtaining characteristics, which, in many ways, are similar to barrel.


White Wine Varietals

Primary white wine varietals are:
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. A. Chardonnay Sauvignon Blanc Riesling Semillon Muscat Gewrztraminer Chenin Blanc GROWN 1. America a) California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino, Monterey, Bay Area b) Pacific Northwest: Oregon, Washington, Idaho c) New York: Long Island, Finger Lakes d) Texas, etc.


B. C.

2. France: Burgundy, Champagne, Loire Valley (Touraine) 3. Italy: Tuscany, Piedmont, North Western (Friuli Alto Adige) 4. Australia, Spain, New Zealand, Chile INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood, type, barrel fermentation, malolactic fermentation FLAVORS Lemon, lime, grapefruit, peach, nectarine, pear, apple, pineapple, guava, melon, banana, smoke, steel, cream, vanilla, butterscotch, toast, chalk, yeast, mint, honey. GROWN 1. America California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South) Mendocino, a) Monterey, Bay Area, Amador b) Oregon, Washington, 2. France: Loire (Sancerre, Pouilly Fume), Bordeaux (Graves, Sauternes) 2. New Zealand, Australia, Chile INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood, blended or 100%, sweet or dry FLAVORS Grapefruit, lemon, lime melon, grass (cut), hay, straw, alfalfa, bell pepper, asparagus, green olive, artichoke, stemmy, honey, smoke, apricot (in sweet styles, also pear and peach), mint, menthol. GROWN 1. America California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Monterey, a) Bay Area, Mendocino Washington, Oregon, Idaho b) 2. France: Alsace 3. Germany: Rhine and Mosel river areas, other areas 4. Australia, Italy (Friuli and Alto Adige) 43

Sauvignon Blanc

B. C.


B. C.

INFLUENCES Sweet vs. dry style, wood ageing (minimal), sparkling FLAVORS Apricot, peach, nectarine, honeysuckle, geranium, rose, licorice, petrol, asphalt, smoke, cream, earth GROWN 1. America California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino a) Washington State France: Bordeaux (sauternes), Southwest 2. 3. Australia INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood, sweeter vs. drier style, blended vs. 100% FLAVORS Peach, pear, melon, fig, cream, honey, cinnamon, vanilla, apricot (in sweeter styles) GROWN 1. California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino, Monterey, Bay Area, Amador 2. France: Midi, Provence, Rhone, Alsace 3. Italy: (Piedmont-Asti) 4. Spain, Madeira, Portugal, South Africa, Cyprus INFLUENCES Dry vs. sweet, sparkling FLAVORS Apricot, lychee, almond, earth, tangerine, raisin, pepper (light) toffee, lemon. GROWN 1. California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino, Bay Area France: Alsace 2. 3. Italy, Austria, Germany, USA (Oregon) INFLUENCES Dry vs. off dry, wood or no wood FLAVORS Apple, pear, clove, cinnamon, honeysuckle, geranium, pepper, orange, earth, rubber, smoke, sauerkraut, pine, anise. GROWN 1. America a) California, Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino, Monterey, Bay Area b) Texas 2. France: Loire Valley (Vouvray, Saumur, etc) 3. South Africa, Australia INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood, dry vs. off dry vs. sweet, sparkling vs. still FLAVORS Apple, peach, pineapple, guava, chalk, lemon, vanilla, cream, apple blossom, chamomile 44


B. C.


B. C.


B. C.

Chenin Blanc

B. C.

Basic Red Wine Varietals and Styles of Wines

Primary red wine varietals are: A. Cabernet Sauvignon B. Pinot Noir C. Merlot D. Zinfandel E. Syrah F. Gamay G. Granache

Cabernet Sauvignon
A. GROWN 1. America a) California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino, Monterey, Bay Area b) Pacific Northwest: Oregon, Washington, Idaho c) New York, Finger Lakes, Long island d) Texas & other states 2. France: Bordeaux, Loire Valley (Touraine, Anjou), S. West Italy: Tuscany, Piedmont 3. 4. Australia, Spain, New Zealand, Chile INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood, type, size and age of wood, blended or not. FLAVORS Blackberry, black, raspberry, black currant (cassis), bell pepper, eucalyptus, mint, black olive, green olive, earth, mushrooms, chocolate, molasses, smoke, plum cedar, tobacco, licorice GROWN 1. America a) California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino, Monterey, Bay Area b) Oregon 2. France: Burgundy, Champagne, Alsace 3. Germany, Italy (Lombardy), E. Europe, Australia, New Zealand INFLUENCES Still vs. sparkling, Old vs. new wood, wood vs. no wood, (esp. char treatment of oak) FLAVORS Cherry, raspberry, strawberry, prune, plum pomegranate, coffee, spice, coriander, ginger, clove, cinnamon, earth, smoke, mushroom, farm yard, caramel, allspice, violets, lavender, jasmine, cocoa, sausage GROWN 1. America a) California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Monterey, Bay Area Sierra Foothills. b) Washington State c) New York, Texas 2. France: Bordeaux (Pomerol, St. Emilion) S. West 3. Australia, E. Europe, Italy (N. East) 45

B. D.

Pinot Noir

B. C.


B. C.

INFLUENCES Type, size and age of wood, wood vs. no wood, blend or not, vinified like Cabernet Sauvignon? FLAVORS Similar to cabernet sauvignon but softer, rounder when very ripe, focus on herbal and green flavors GROWN 1. California, Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino, Monterey, Bay Area, Amador, Sierra Foothills, Central Valley Italy / primitivo 2. 3. Australia (Western) INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood, age, size and type of wood, blend or not FLAVORS Blackberry, raspberry, jam, pepper, cherries, port, plum, chocolate, olives, bell peppers, cloves, black pepper. GROWN 1. America; California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Bay Area, Amador, Monterey France: Rhone, Midi 2. 3. Australia, New Zealand INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood; age of wood, type of wood, and size of wood, blend or not. FLAVORS Blueberry, blackberry, cassis (black currant), black raspberry, black plum, pepper (white and black), cinnamon, anise, prune, oak, soy, chocolate (cocoa), smoke, sausage (meat) toast/char, violet. GROWN America a) California: Napa, Sonoma, Monterey, Bay Area, Central Valley b) Oregon 2. France: Beaujolais INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood, age, type and size of wood barrels, vinification style carbonic maceration) FLAVORS Raspberry, strawberry, cinnamon, clove, rose petal, jasmine, violet, cranberry GROWN 1. America a) California: Napa, Sonoma, Central Coast (North and South), Mendocino, Monterey, Bay Area Amador, Central Valley b) Texas 2. France: Provence, Midi, and Southern Rhone 3. Spain, N. Africa, Australia INFLUENCES Wood vs. no wood, age, type and size of wood, blend or not. FLAVORS Raspberry, jam, berries, cinnamon, prune, tea, soy, pepper, violet, rose petal 46


B. C.


B. C.


B. C.


B. C.

Correct Wine Service

A. Perfect wine service will vary depending on the restaurant. 1. Does one need a sommelier? 2. Restaurant is small and informal 3. Restaurant is large, formal and employs sommeliers 4. Restaurant is semi formal, choose to highlight wines but not with sommelier Perfect wine service is different than very good and proficient service. 1. If you take away the theatre, its all the same! 2. Its a chance to show your stuff White wines: chilled but not cold 1. Often Served TOO cold. 2. Ideal range 45-55/57F Warmer temperatures for more complex delicate dry whites, especially Chardonnay 3. 4. Roses and med-light whites 45-50F 5. Dessert wines: 41-46F 6. Sparkling wines 50F Red wines: cool, cellar temperature, NOT room temperature. Often served TOO warm 1. 2. Room temperature You should think of it as the room the WINE likes to live in, i.e. CELLAR temperature Will vary with weight and structure of wine. 3. 4. Ideal range 55-65F 5. Light reds (fruity and low tannin) 50-57F 6. Fuller bodied reds 55-62F STORAGE All bottles of red wine should be stored label up so that one knows on which side the sediment would settle. TRANSPORTING Remove bottle from the bin GENTLY. Either place in a cradle/basket, or move it slowly to a vertical position and allow the sediment (if any) to tumble slowly down the side of the bottle. From this point on the bottle should be kept in an upright position. APPROVAL Present the bottle from the right of the person who ordered it. Upon approval, place the bottle down gently on the corner of the table on a coaster or plate with the label facing the guests. SIDE STAND You may use a side stand or adjacent table if it is convenient, but make certain that you are in full view of the guest. WHITE WINES - should be opened either on the table on a coaster or plate where room permits, or in an ice bucket. IN-HAND opening is not acceptable for a white or red wine. Sparkling wines are permitted in a bucket. NEVER open an older bottle of red wine in the air on any occasion. FOIL REMOVAL - Do not turn the bottle and do not pick the bottle up off the table if you have started it there. Cut the foil below the lower lip. The cut should be neat and complete! Pocket the foil. WIPING BOTTLE White wines being removed from an ice bucket should be wiped so as to not drip on the table. WIPING LIP Make sure you wipe the lip thoroughly both before and after you remove the cork. Never touch the mouth of the bottle or lip with your fingers. 47


Correct serving temperature



Opening and serving a bottle of wine

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I.

J. K. L. M. N.



NAPKIN USE If you must remove a stray piece of cork or tartar deposits, use the corner of a napkin. Always make certain that when you put it back on your forearm that any soiled spots are folded back, not visible to the guests. PULLING CORK insert the point of the corkscrew off center in the cork to ensure the auger goes down the center of the cork. Screw it down until all the turns have disappeared (without penetrating the cork) and lever the cork out of the bottle. THE CORK The cork should be placed without fanfare to the right of the taster. It is appropriate to place the cork on some sort of holder/plate, but not necessary. TASTING Pour an ounce or two for tasting. Stand back to the hosts right and make certain the label is clearly in view. Wait for the tasters approval. POURING The following are general guidelines, although space, logistics, style of restaurant etc.. may all dictate variances. 1. If there is a guest of honor, he or she is poured first regardless of seating proximity to the host. 2. If a couple, the other person should be served first, then the host/person who ordered. 3. If a group situation, then one should move clockwise around the table serving women first, then the men. 4. The host is always served last, regardless of gender. FILL LEVEL Glasses should be filled no more than half to two-thirds full (particularly with red wines as glasses are often larger). Rule of thumb: the larger the glass the less you pour. 1. When in doubt, short pour, especially if you have concern that the bottle would not otherwise make it around the table. 2. Make sure that the pouring level is consistent from one glass to the next. If you have difficulty gauging from a close up position, back up a step from the table after each pour to get a sense and your bearings. BOTTLE PLACEMENT In the case of a red wine, place the bottle back on the table to the right of the host and within range, should he or she choose to pour for them, and always with the label facing the host. Make sure the wine is on a coaster or small plate. It should never come in contact with the table. Ask about white wine temperature 1. Perhaps a chiller is more appropriate than a bucket. 2. It may be too cold. Napkin placement on a wine bucket 1. Wrapping is inappropriate. 2. A thin rectangle draped across the bucket. 3. Bucket should be placed to hosts right, within reach. When pouring additional amounts: pour host last, regardless. Ask if you can bring another bottle and bring a fresh tasting glass. Do NOT assume refills automatically always allow the option of refusing. Remove glassware of people not drinking; it can confuse both you and others who may be working your table.

Service goes beyond opening and pouring



C. D. E. F.


1. WHY? a) To separate the clear wines from any of its sediment or residue. b) To allow the wine to breathe more effectively. c) To remove the wine from a cold bottle to a room temperature vessel to bring the wine to a more appropriate temperature. d) Theatre HOW? a) TRANSPORTATION Wine is transported to the table as described earlier. b) TOOLS Upon bringing the wine to the table, the tools for decanting should be there already or brought immediately thereafter: candle, decanter, small plate for cork if appropriate, etc c) If opening the bottle in an upright manner, proceed as above, opening always on a guerdon or the table. d) CRADLE If in a cradle, the bottle should be grasped firmly as one inserts the auger of the corkscrew so as to insure a clean centered entry. After cork removal, the cradle is no longer of use and the bottle should be delicately removed from the cradle for the actual decanting process. e) In both situations, be careful not to agitate the bottle as you extract the cork. f) CANDLE After presentation of the cork and lip wiping, light your candle. The candle should be lit with matches rather than a lighter, and upon both lighting the match and extinguishing it, one should have his or her back at an angle from the guest to help shield the sulfur odors. Extinguish the match and place on candleholder. g) DECANTING Place your palm over the label of the bottle (so you will be holding it in bin position) and grasp the neck of the decanter with your other hand. (1) Position the neck of the bottle 4-6 inches above the candle and slightly behind, so it does not smoke. (2) As you begin to pour the wine from the bottle into the decanter, your eyes are focused where the shoulder of the bottle joins the neck, so the remaining foil will not be in the way (although it is NOT incorrect to remove the entire foil for a wine that will be decanted). (3) You should not rest the neck of the bottle against the decanter; the wine should flow down the side of the decanter without fanfare or noise. (4) Pour in one continual, slow, steady motion, Keep your eyes focused. You may let the wispy residue pass. (5) As the snake of heavier dark sediment approaches, raise the bottle gracefully to stop the flow. h) Have the host taste the wine as usual, and when all guests have been poured, the wine decanter is placed in front of the host with the empty bottle behind the decanter until the wine is consumed or unless the host requests you to do otherwise. In the case of several decanted bottles, the wine bottle can serve as identification of which wine is in which decanter. 49


Procedures for Opening a Bottle of Still Wine

1. Disp lay bottle to hostlabel first with a folded napkin underneath 2. Cut foil under the lip and place foil in your pocket 3. Inse rt worm into the cork after wiping the top of the cork with dam p cloth 4. Sl ow ly rem ove the c ork with out popping. Make sure the worm has n ot penetrated the bottom of the cork. 5. W ipe the inside of the bottle neck to rem ove any residue from the cork. 6. Pour a 1/2 ounce sam ple in a glass and evaluate for soundness 7. Serve one (1) ounce sam ple to host for final approvals


Sparkling Wine Service

A. Preliminaries 1. Never open a non-chilled bottle (even if guests are impatient). It WILL almost always explosively foam over. 2. If not pre-chilled, 10-15 minutes in ice from cellar temperature should be adequate. 3. Ice bucket mixture: 50/50 crushed ice and water. 4. Both opening in hand and in bucket are ok. B. In-hand opening 1. Hold the bottle firmly in your hand, grasping the upper shoulder of bottle. 2. With your hand or thumb firmly over the cork (and napkin over the cork) untwist the wire cage and loosen the wire gently without removing the foil. Do NOT remove the cage. 3. Grasp the napkin cork firmly in one hand, holding the bottle at 45 angle. 4. Twist the bottle with your other hand to loosen the cork. Do not pull at the cork. 5. Resist the pressure of the cork as it dislodges itself from the bottle, and allow it to ease out very slowly. There should be no pop, rather a light hiss or sigh. 6. After the cork is removed from the bottle, let the bottle remain at 45 for a few seconds, to prevent overflow. 7. Dislodge the cork from the wire cage and present it to the host as you would any other. 8. Hold the bottle to pour as you would any other. The thumb-in-the-punt position is acceptable, but considered affected by many. 9. The wine should be tasted as usual. 10. Correct champagne service is performed in one or two pours, but if two pours, pour one glass at a time. Letting the mousse subside in between. In flute glasses. Leave at least an inch from the top. 11. The bottle should then be placed in either a bucket or cooler and left with a clean, unwrinkled napkin. In bucket opening A. B. The bottle in the bucket is already at 45-degree angle. Remove the foil and proceed in opening the bottle as above. After removing the cork for presentation, slowly remove the bottle from the bucket, wiping it clean of any water and moisture that might drip on the table or guests.


Wines of France Alsace

GEOGRAPHY A. B. C. 110 KILOMETERS LONG one to five wide Produces 1/5 of all French AOC wines * Location (central east) 1.Western flank of Vosges Mountains 2.Rain shadow effect mountains block rainfall 3.Dry climate/long days (late sunsets) 4.Soils are varied: chalk/mari- granite and sandstone- sand-alluvium D. Alsace appellations The easiest in France! 1.Alsace AC 2.Alsace Grand Cru AC THE WINES A. All Alsatian wines are 100% varietal NO blends, EXCEPT 1.Edelzwicker Is a permitted blend of legal varietals 2.Sparkling wine Referred to as Cremant dAlsace B. All Alsatian wines are bone dry with two exceptions 1.Vendage Tardive similar to Late Harvest 2.Selection des Grains Nobles Select Late Late Harvest (very expensive) C. Varietals: Planted only since 1925 (after World War I became part of France again). 1.Gewurztraminer 2.Riesling 3.Tokay-Pinot Gris (now known only as Pinot Gris due to EU laws) 4.Sylvaner 5.Pinot Blanc 6.Muscat 7.Pinot Noir (only Red Varietal) REGULATIONS A. Grand Cru System: Established in 1975 1. Grand Cru grapes can only be wines of (4 varietals) Muscat, Riesling, Pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer 2. 26 named originally but more than 50 currently 3. Grand Cru Vineyards range dramatically in size 66 75.75 hectares Must pass a board annually to carry Grand Cru on label. B. C. D. All wines must be bottled in region of production Must be in Alsatian bottle - flute Cooperatives make over 50% production Highest Coop standards in France 52

The Vineyard with Seven Grapes

Surprising diversity Overturns Conventional Thought
Contrary to other French wine regions, the wines of Alsace are not named after the villages or vineyards from which they come, but after the grape variety: Alsace wines are made from seven varieties: Sylvaner, Pinot Blanc, Riesling, Muscat dAlsace, Tokay Pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer and Pinot Noir. All must by law be bottled in the region of production, in the traditional slender Alsace bottle. Muscat dAlsace is dry and very different from the sweet Muscats of the South of France. It is very aromatic and reveals the true flavor of the fresh grape. Sylvaner is a remarkably fresh and light wine with a delicate flavor. Refreshing and easy to enjoy, it is lively and sometimes vivacious. Pinot Blanc, well rounded yet delicate, combines freshness and softness, representing the happy medium in the range of Alsace wines. Tokay Pinot Gris develops a characteristic roundness and opulence. Rich, full-bodied and with a long finish, its complex aroma is reminiscent of woodland and is sometimes slightly smoky. Pinot Noir is the only Alsace variety to produce red or ros wines, characteristically fruity with hints of cherry. Vinified as a red wine it can be aged in oak casks, which adds grater structure and complexity to its aromas. Riesling is dry, refined and delicately fruity, with an elegant bouquet of mineral or floral notes. Acknowledged as one of the finest white varietals in the world, it is a gastronomic wine par excellence. Gewurztraminer, full-bodied and well structured, is probably the best-known Alsace wine. Its intense bouquet displays rich aromas of fruit, flowers and spices (gewurz=spicy). Powerful and seductive, sometimes slightly sweet, it can often age well. Klevener de Heiligenstein, is a less aromatic variety derived from the old Traminer or Savagnin rose, also greatly appreciated with food. It is produced exclusively in and around Heiligenstein.



Appellation d'Origine Contrle Alsace or Vin d'Alsace is the oldest and best known. The label of an A.O.C. Alsace wine will generally show the name of the grape variety used. It may also show a brand name or the word "Edelzwicker" if the wine is made from more than one white grape variety. A.O.C. Alsace Grand Cru status is given only to wines, which satisfy particularly strict quality standards. They must come from specific vineyards, have a certain degree of natural ripeness and must pass a tasting test by a panel of experts.
The label must show the grape variety (only Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Tokay Pinot Gris and Muscat are permitted), the vintage and the name of one of the fifty defined vineyards, which are entitled to Grand Cru status. The character of the terroir as much as that of the grape variety makes each A.O.C. Alsace Grand Cru wine unique A.O.C.

Crmant d'Alsace is the name given to the sparkling wines of Alsace. Delicate and lively, they are made by the traditional method (as in Champagne), mainly from Pinot Blanc, but also from Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Riesling or Chardonnay. Crmant d'Alsace is now the market leader in France. Crmant Ros, more rare, is made from the Pinot Noir. Pressure is the same as champagne (6 x atmospheric pressures).

ALSACE: AN EXCEPTIONAL SITE Exceptional soils and a generous climate unite to produce remarkable wines
Protected from oceanic influence by the Vosges Mountains, Alsace enjoys practically the lowest rainfall in France (400-500mm per year) and is blessed with a semi-continental climate, sunny, hot and dry. This climate is ideal for slow, extended ripening of the grapes, giving wines with elegant, complex aromas. The geology of Alsace is a genuine mosaic, made up of granite, limestone, gneiss, schist and sandstone. Such varied soils bring out the best in each different grape variety. The vineyards extend for one hundred kilometers from north to south along the eastern foothills of the Vosges, at 200-400m of altitude, covering an area of 14500 hectares in production.


The 50 Grand Cru vineyards and their geographic situation

6. Kirchberg de Barr. 7. Zotzenberg (Mittelbergheim). 8. Kastelberg (Andlau). 9. Wiebelsberg (Andlau). 10. Moenchberg (Andlau et Eichhoffen). 11. Muenchberg (Nothalten). 12. Winzenberg (Blienschwiller). 13. Frankstein (Dambach-la-ville). 14. Praelatenberg (Kintzheim). 15. Gloeckelberg (Rodern et Saint-Hippolyte). 16. Altenberg de Bergheim. 17. Kanzlerberg (Bergheim). 18. Geisberg (Ribeauvill). 19. Kirchberg de Ribeauvill. 20. Osterberg (Ribeauvill). 21. Rosacker (Hunawihr). 22. Froehn (Zellenberg). 23. Schoenenbourg (Riquewihr et Zellenberg). 24. Sporen (Riquewihr). 25. Sonnenglanz (Beblenheim). 26. Mandelberg (Mittelwihr et Beblenheim). 27. Marckrain (Bennwihr et Sigolsheim). 28. Mambourg (Sigolsheim). 29. Furstentum (Kientzheim et Sigolsheim). 30. Schlossberg (Kientzheim). 31. Wineck-Schlossberg (Katzenthal et Ammerschwihr). 32. Sommerberg (Niedermorschwihr et Katzenthal). 33. Florimont (Ingersheim et Katzenthal). 34. Brand (Turckheim). 35. Hengst (Wintzenheim). 36. Steingrubler (Wettolsheim). 37. Eichberg (Eguisheim). 38. Pfersigberg (Eguisheim et Wettolsheim). 39. Hatschbourg (Hattstatt et Voegtlinshoffen). 40. Goldert (Gueberschwihr). 41. Steinert (Pfaffenheim et Westhalten). 42. Vorbourg (Rouffach et Westhalten). 43. Zinnkoepfl (Soultzmatt et Westhalten). 44. Pfingstberg (Orschwihr). 45. Spiegel (Bergholtz et Guebwiller). 46. Kessler (Guebwiller). 47. Kitterl (Guebwiller). 48. Saering (Guebwiller). 49. Ollwiller (Wuenheim). 50. Rangen (Thann et Vieux-Thann).

1. Steinklotz (Marlenheim). 2. Engelberg (Dahlenheim et Scharrachbergheim) 3. Altenberg de Bergbieten. 4. Altenberg de Wolxheim. 5. Bruderthal (Molsheim).

Two Rare, Special Classifications

Late-harvest Vendanges Tardives and Slection de Grains Nobles. These two rare and highly respected classifications may be given to A.O.C. Alsace or A.O.C. Alsace Grand Cru wines, in exceptional vintages and according to very strict criteria. Vendanges Tardives (Late Harvest) wines are made from the same varieties as those authorized for Grand Cru's. Grapes are picked when over-ripe, often several weeks after the official start of the harvest. The aromatic character of each variety is further enhanced by the concentration and development of noble rot (Botrytis Cinerea).


Slections de Grains Nobles

(Selection of Noble Grapes) wines come from grapes affected by noble rot, harvested in successive pickings. The character of the grape variety is overshadowed by the concentration; giving powerful wines with great complexity and exceptional length on the palate, true masterpieces in fact.

Alsace Food and Wine Matches

Apritifs Apritifs and Cocktail parties: Crmant dAlsace, Muscat dAlsace, Gewurztraminer. To end a fine meal with a flourish: Vendanges Tardives, Slections de Grains Nobles. Outside the meal (convivial moments, parties): Crmant dAlsace, Muscat dAlsace, Gewurztraminer, Vendanges Tardives, Slections de Grains Nobles. Warm Starters Classic salads, charcuterie, eggs: Sylvaner, Pinot Blanc. Shellfish, seafood: Sylvaner, Riesling, Pinot Blanc. Fish terrines, raw fish (Sushi): Sylvaner, Riesling, Pinot Blanc Spicy salads (Mexican, Moroccan, Indian): Gewurztraminer Foie gras: Tokay Pinot Gris and Gewurztraminer, especially Vendanges Tardives Cold Starters Quiches, meat pies, souffls: Sylvaner, Pinot Blanc. Snails: Sylvaner. Asparagus: Muscat dAlsace, Pinot Blanc Fish and Poultry Grilled: Riesling Cooked in butter or in cream: Riesling and Riesling Vendanges Tardives, Tokay Pinot Gris Cooked with stronger flavored or spicier ingredients: Tokay Pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer. Roast poultry: Pinot Blanc, Riesling, Pinot Noir Poultry in sauce: Riesling, Tokay Pinot Gris Roast pork or veal: Tokay Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc Duck, exotic recipes (rich, spicy, sweet & sour): Tokay pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer Meat and Game Red meats: Pinot Noir (especially when vinified as a red wine). Game: Tokay pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, depending on the recipe Cheese Fresh, young, mild cheeses and goats cheese: Pinot Blanc, Riesling Strong-flavoured cheeses (Munster, Pont lEvque, Maroilles): Gewurztraminer Roquefort, and other blue cheeses: Pinot Noir Desserts Pastries, tarts, creams, mousses: Gewurztraminer, also Vendanges Tardives.


Loire Valley

INTRODUCTION A. B. Widest diversity of wines in one region. Three dramatic factors of Loire Valley 1. 2. 3. A. Size Climate consistency Diversity of wines

CENTRAL VINEYARDS Sauvignon Blanc Sancerre and Pouilly Fum: 1600 and 600 hectares 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Originally ALL Pinot Noir Chalk, clay soil base White grapes: Sauvignon Blanc and Chasselas Red grapes: Pinot Noir and Gamay Chavignol in Sancerre- Best Only 30% Sancerre wines are white! Pouilly sur Loire: NOT Pouilly Fuiss! a) b) A. Also: Quincy, Reuilly, Menetou Salon (AOC) Saint Pourcain (VDQS)

THE TOURAINE Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc Vouvray: Diversity of chenin blanc 1. 2. B. Styles and types (petillant) Chalk and tuffa soils

Montlouis 1. Across the river from Vouvray 2. Similar wines and styles Chinon and Borgeuil: Red wines in the Loire! Chinon South Violets CABERNET FRANC CAB. SAUVIGNON Borgeuil North Raspberries



Strawberry Tuffa (Chalk) C.

GAMAY (to 20%)

Light Spice Sandy soil

St. Nicolas de Borgeuil: Within Borgeuil Touraine AOC: Sauvignon whites, Gamay reds Three hillside sub-appellations: a) b) c) ANJOU-SAUMUR A. B. 14,500 hectares Again highly chalky soil (Methode Champenoise) 1. 2. C. 1. 2. D. E. F. G. Red grapes: Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grolleau, Malbec, Gamay. White grapes: Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay. Red, white and sparkling wines Methode Champenoise wines of excellent quality Touraine-Mesland (Red and Rose) Touraine-Amboise (Red, Rose and White) Touraine-Azay-le-Riedau: (rose and white)


Rose dAnjou: French white zinfandel Cabernet dAnjou: can be off dry Cabernet de Saumur: dry reds only Savennieres: dry white chenin blanc 1. Lowest yield 2. Single vineyards: Coulee de Serrant and Roche aux Moins 3. Slate soil/flinty character


Sweet chenin blancs: recognized AOC since 1950 1. Chaume 2. Quart de Chaume 3. Bonnezeaux 4. Coteaux de Layon

PAYS NANTAIS A. B. C. D. E. 11,000 hectares Highest Loire volume Grapes: Muscadet (Melon de Gourgogne) and Gros Plant Muscadet: 20 million bottles plus annually Three classifications of Muscadet 1. Muscadet de Sevre et Maine (St. Fiacre*)


2. Muscadet Couteaux de la Loire 3. Muscadet AOC 4. Sur lie method bottling

The Rhne Valley

BASIC GEOGRAPHY A. 125 miles in length 58,000 hectares of AOC vineyards


NORTH Vienne Hills, slopes, granite THE SOUTHERN RHNE VALLEY A. Ctes du Rhne 1.Frances second largest AOC 2.95% red wine and rest mostly rose! 3. Any of 6 districts and 13 grapes B. Ctes du Rhne Villages 1.16 Villages (17 less Vacqueyras)

SOUTH Avignon Flats, stones, chalk

Syrah (main grape of quality) Grenache (main grape of quality)


VDNs or Vin Doux Naturels are fortified wines using mostly Muscat grape variety best known are Beaumes de Venise and Rasteau Gigondas

1.AOC since 1971 2.Red wine only 3. Maximum 65% Grenache 4. Minimum 25% Syrah/Mouvedre D. Chteauneuf du Pape 1.AOC since 1923 2.Can be blended from up to 13 grapes!! RED Grenache Syrah Mourvedre Cinsault Terret Noir Counoise Vaccarese Muscardin WHITE Picpoule Picardin Borboulenc Clairette Roussane

3. Embossed bottles with the keys of the Castle 4.White Chteauneuf only 5% of production THE MID RHNE VALLEY A. Clairette de Die 1. 2. 3. AC/Methode Champenoise Clairette or Muscat grapes Some made by methode rurale




Saint Peray 1. 2. 3. AOC White wines only Some MC Marsanne and Rousanne grapes


Cornas 1. 100% Syrah 2. No blending 3. 60 hectares (but can expand) 4. Exceptional structure 5. Poor Mans Hermitage


Hermitage 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 130 hectares (300 acres) of AC red/white Direct southern sun exposure Granite soil base 75% planted to Syrah 25% planted to Marsanne/Rousanne Can blend up to 15% white into red Crozes Hermitage 1. 2. 3. 4. 2,320 acres, red and white Mostly cooperative Search out small producers Flatlands, not hill vineyards Saint Joseph 1. 2. 3. 4. AC since 1956 605 acres, red and white Lightest and fruitiest of the north Very trendy in France! Chteau Grillet and Condrieu 1. 2. 3. 7.5/35 acres Grape of choice: Viognier! Grillet is smallest AC outside of Grand Cru Burgundy Cte Rtie 1. 2. 3. 130 hectares Red wines Hill vineyards, The Roasted slope a) Cte Blonde: Sandy, Chalky, Pale Lighter b) Cte Brune: Dark, concentrated Heavier





TRICASTIN, VENTOUX, LUBERON, VIVARAIS A. B. C. 4 regions in South Rhne type wines: Red, Rose and White / Great value wines. Very earthy All AOC except Vivarais (VDQS) 61


INTRODUCTION A. Benchmark of Cabernet based blends in the world. 1. 250,000 acres in production 2. 500 million bottles average annual production B. Largest vineyard area of quality wines in the world 1. Chateau Lafite: 20,000 cases 2. Chateau Haut Brion: 15,000 cases 3. Chateau Latour: 22-30,000 cases HISTORY A. Roman influence 1. 2. B. 1800s Exported wine production to France Imported vs. local grapes


1. Bordeaux wine trade thriving 2. Wide spread expansion with hundreds of new wineries opening and new plantings. 3. Rules needed to maintain the quality and integrity of the wines a) b) Best properties over past 50-100 yrs. selected and brought to Paris. Rated by price over that period in conjunction with present standing and result became the 1855 Classification 1st 5th growths: Still accurate! 61 total Chteaux Selected (60 from the Mdoc and 1 from Graves Pssac Leognan. i. Four (4) 1st Growths selected in 1855 - Chteau Lafite Rothschild, Chteau Latour, Chteau Margaux, Chteau Haut-Brion (only one selected outside of the Mdoc Region) ii. In 1973, Chteau Mouton Rothschild was elevated from second growth to first growth. Only time a wine has changed classification in Premier Cru Class. Fourteen (14) Second Growths selected (plus originally Mouton) Fourteen (14) Third Growths selected Ten (10) Fourth Growths selected Eighteen (18) Fifth Growths selected

BASIC REGULATIONS A. More than 50% light red wines/no classification 1. Grand Cru Class 2. Cru Class 3. Grand Cru Cru Bourgeois created since 1855 a) 1st ranking in 1932, then 1966, 1978 (now revised every two years at VinExpo Bordeaux) 2. Criteria a) Estate produced, oak aged b) Over 240 properties to date Bordeaux vs. Burgundy: Conceptually different Individual properties vs. regions Grapes: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, Petit Verdot, (Carmeniere minimal plantings) Saint Estephe 1. 2. Rural- Hilly, Gravelly terrain No first growths, but several noteworthy classified and many Cru Bourgeois



The Medoc: Left Bank

A. B.



a) Cos dEstournel 2me Cru Class b) Montrose - 2me Cru Class c) Calon Segur - 3me Cru Class 3. Style: Firm, coarse, hearty a) Less perfumed in youth b) Tough and full despite high % of merlot fruit c) Higher percentage of clay in the soil as compared to Pauillac to the south. Pauillac 1. 2. 3. Slightly south, town of same name The Epitome of claret with three (3) first growths Lafite, Latour, Mouton Style: Intense yet balanced fruit a) Striking garnet color with lead pencil/cigar box aromas b) Rarely feminine


Saint Julien 1. 2. Smallest of all the areas 75% Classified Grand Cru Classe Mostly second and third growths o Chateau Leoville-Las Cases (called the Super Second as many think drinks like a first growth) o Chteau Beychevelle (situated right on the Rue de Chteau) 3. Style: Force of Pauillac and elegance of Margaux Best wines from chateaux closest to the estuary Few recognizable names a) Chteau Poujeaux, Chteau Maucaillou, Chteau Chasses Spleen b) Chteau Clarke is an emerging star


Moulis and Listrac 1.


Margaux 1. One of the largest communes 2. Most classified growth wines 3. Lightest, most gravelly soil with a style that is delicate, fragrant Haut Medoc 1. The rest catch all appellation 2. Some very good properties a) Chteau La Lagune; Chteau Belgrave 3. At best an indication, not an assurance of quality. Starts where the Medoc ends and includes Sauternes 60 kilometers long/15 wide Gravelly sandy soil.


The Graves
A. B. C.


D. E. F. G.

Best land is closest to Bordeaux. Modern development threatens it as a wine region Style: vs. Medoc Difference between Glossy and mat print Classified in 1953 1. Revised in 1959 2. YES/NO type 12 for red 3. Everything else is Cru Bourgeois Grapes: Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon SAINT EMILION: Roman ancestry 4th century vines 1. No bridge slowed discovery 2. Cotes vs. Graves areas 3. Classification first done in 1954 Revised every ten years 4. Style: Minty, herbal and cool POMEROL: No classification ONLY one! 1. 2. 3. 4. Total production of area: 400,000 cases Backwater image until WW2 J.P. Moeuix Style: Fleshy, fruity and plump

The Right Bank: Different soils and climates

A. B.


D. E. F. A. B. C. D.

Satellites of Saint Emilion: Up and coming! Fronsac: Emerging star good values Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux, Blaye, Bourg Production focused in South Some white wines made in the Medoc Most made in the Graves and Entre Deux Mers 2. 3. 5. Sauternes is in the Graves too Dry whites: Most made in the Graves Grapes by law: Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Muscadelle de Bordelais Style: Fresh, fruity, tasty Ten Grand Cru Class selected in the 1959 first classification of the region 4. Barrel fermented / aged vs. stainless Sweet whites: the pride of the region a) Sauternes: Five communes (1) Sauternes (2) Bommes



(3) Fargues (4) Barsac (5) Preignac b) c) Grapes: same varietals Botrytis Cinerea (the noble rot) d) e) Sulfur used to prevent re-fermentation of residual sugars in warm weather Today 27 are classified

Classification in 1855 of 21 domains (1) (2) (3) (4) Other nearby regions for sweet wines Cerons Cadillac Saint Croix du Mont Loupiac

Bordeaux Wine Classifications

There is no general classification comparing the 54 Appellation Contrle (A.O.C.) wines of the Bordeaux region. The classifications used means that even the classifications cannot be considered definitive.


It was on the occasion of the Universal exhibition in Paris in 1855 that Napoleon III commanded each viticultural region to draw up a classification. The Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCI) (founded in 1705) fulfilled this mission for the Gironde. The Bordeaux CCI asked the Association of Commercial Brokers at the Bordeaux stock exchange to draw up the classification of red and white wines in the Gironde. Only the red wines of Medoc, the sweet white wines of Sauternes and Barscac and a red wine from Graves figured in this classification which was drawn up according to the reputation of the chteaux and their prices. The Medoc wines were reviewed in 1973, following a competition by the Bordeaux CCI. Today there are: 1 Graves 1st classified growth 60 Medoc Growths embracing 4 first, 14 second, 14 third, 10 fourth and 18 fifth growths. Among the white wines:


27 Sauternes-Barsac growths embracing 1 superior first, growth, 11 first and 15 second growths.


INAO classified the growths of this region in 1953 and again in 1959. The INAO has classified the growths per village and per type of wine (red/white). 16 growths benefit from the words Cru Class. However the classification is not in any hierarchical order nor is there any legal provision for reviewing this classification. This classification is revised every ten years. It has existed since 1955 and the 3rd classification was officially drawn up in 1983 (decree 11/01/84). All wines produced in the Saint-Emilion area may claim one of the two following AOCs: Saint-milion Saint-milion Grand Cru Those wines that fall into the Grand Cru appellation have the right to words Grand Cru Class (great classified growth) or Premier Grand Cru Class (A & B) (First Great Growth) after their official classification. Today 74 chteaux are classified. There are 11 Premiers Grand Cru Classs and 63 Grand Crus Classs.



Today, more than 70% of 430 cru bourgeois who exist are members of the Syndicat des Crus Bourgeois. With a surface area that varies from 17 to 437 acres, they represent more than 17,290 acres of vineyards. To be accepted by their peers who are represented by the members commission of the syndicat they have to satisfy specific technical and qualitative conditions. In return, they benefit from the promotional efforts of this professional group and from the excellent reputation of the title of cru bourgeois, which acts as a trump card in the commercial development of the products of Syndicat members. In 1966, and again in 1978, a syndicated commission classified all members into crus grands bourgeois exceptionnels, cru grands bourgeois and cru bourgeois. However, since 1979, EEC regulations allowed only the mention of cru bourgeois on the labels. In 1989, due to growing concern about protecting the utilization of the title Cru Bourgeois (so as to keep its criteria of privilege and high standing), the Syndicat registered, the collective trademark of Cru Bourgeois at the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI). This was followed by usage regulations in 1990. Registered in Class 42 (services rendered by an association to its members), the title Cru Bourgeois is today a registered trademark of which the Syndicat is the only agent. As such, its mission is to prosecute all those wrongly employing this title or members who do not respect the relevant regulations. The title is reserved for members of the Syndicat who commit themselves to satisfy very specific conditions: produce wines in one of the eight controlled appellations of Medoc from vines which conforms to the instructions of each of the governing decree of the appellations; respect a minimum surface area of 17 acres per property; and finally, vinify and keep wines in their specific properties. However, a small number of producers, defined by a list established in 1932, supervise the right of usage of the title, subject to a certain flexibility while still respecting the ethics issued internally at the syndicat.


Bordeaux Wine: The Official Classification of 1855

FIRST GROWTHS PREMIER CRU) Chateau Lafite-Rothschild Chateau Margaux Chateau Latour Chateaux Haut Brion* Chateau Mouton Rothschild** COMMUNE Pauillac Margaux Pauillac Pessac (Pessace-Lognan) Pauillac FOURTH GROWTHS (QUATRIEMES CRUS) Chateau Saint Pierre Chateau Talbot Chateau Branaire-Ducru Chateau Duhart-MilonRothschild Chateau Pouget Chateau La Tour-Carnet Chateau Lafon-Rochet Chateau Beychevelle Chateau Prieure-Lichine Chateau Marquis-De-Terme FIFTH GROWTHS (CINQUIEMES CRUS) Chateau Pontet-Canet Chateau Batailley Chateau Haut-Batailley Chateau Grand-Puy-Lacoste Chateau Grand-PuyDucasse Chateau Lynch-Bages Chateau Lynch-Moussas Chateau Dauzac Chateau DArmailhac Chateau du Tertre Chateau haut-Bages-Liberal Chateau Pedesclaux Chateau Belgrave Chateau de Camensac Chateau Cos-Labory Chateau Clerk-Milon Chateau Croizet-Bages Chateau Cantemerle COMMUNE Saint-Julien Saint-Julien Saint-Julien Pauillac Cantenac (Margaux) Saint Laurent (Haut-Medoc) Saint-Estephe Saint-Julien Cantenac (Margaux) Margaux

SECOND GROWTHS DEUXIEME CRUS) Chateau Rausan-Segla Chateau Rauzan-Gassies Chateau Leoville-Las Cases Chateau Leoville-Poyferre Chateau Leoville Barton Chateau Durfort-Vivens Chateau Gruaud-Larose Chateau Lascombes Chateau Brane-Cantenac Chateau PichonLongueville-Baron Chateau Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande Chateau Ducru-Beaucaillou Chateau Cos DEstournel Chateau Montrose

COMMUNE Margaux Margaux Saint-Julien Saint-Julien Saint Julien Margaux Saint-Julien Margaux Cantenac (Margaux) Pauillac Pauillac Saint-Julien Saint-Estephe Saint-Estephe

COMMUNE Pauillac Pauillac Paullac Pauillac Pauillac Pauillac Pauillac Labarde (margaux) Pauillac Arsac (Margaux) Pauillac Pauillac Saint-Laurent (Haut-Medoc) Saint-Laurent (Haut-Medoc) Saint-Estephe Pauillac Pauillac Macau (Haut-Medoc)

THIRD GROWTHS TROISIEMES CRUS) Chateau Kirwan Chateau DIssan Chateau Lagrange Chateau Langoa-Barton Chateau Giscours Chateau Malescot SaintExupery Chateau Boyd -Cantenac Chateau Cantenac-Brown Chateau Palmer Chateau La Lagune Chateau Desmirail Chateau Calon-Segur Chateau Ferriere Chateau Marquis DAlesme

COMMUNE Cantenac (Margaux) Cantenac (Margaux) Saint-Juline Saint-Julien Labarde (Margaux) Margaux Cantenac (Margaux) Cantenac (Margaux) Cantenac (Margaux) Ludon (Haut-Medoc) Margaux Saint-Estephe Margaux Margaux

* This wine, although a Graves, was universally recognized and classified as one of the four First-Growths. ** This wine was decreed a First-Growth in 1973.


Sauternes-Barsac: The Official Classification of 1855

FIRST GREAT GROWTH PREMIER CRU SUPRIEUR) Chateau DYquem FIRST GROWTHS (PREMIERS CRUS) Chateau La Tour-Blanche Chateau LafauriePeyraguey Chateau Clos HautPeyraguey Chateau De Rayne-Vigneu Chateau Suduiraut Chateau Coutet Chateau Climens Chateau Guiraud Chateau Rieussec Chateau Rabaud-Promis Chateau Sigalas-Rabaud COMMUNE Bommes Bommes Bommes Bommes Preignac Barsac Barsac Sauternes Fargues Bommes Bommes COMMUNE Sauternes SECOND GROWTHS (DEUXIEMES CRUS) Chateau de Myrat Chateau Doisy-Daene Chateau Doisy-Dubroca Chateau Doisy-Vedrines Chateau DArche Chateau Filhot Chateau Broustet Chateau Nairac Chateau Caillou Chateau Suau Chateau de Malle Chateau Romer-Du-Hayot Chateau Lamothe-Despujols Chateau Lamothe-Guignard COMMUNE Barsac Barsac Barsac Barscac Sauternes Sauternes Barscac Barsac Barsac Barsac Preignac Fargues Sauternes Sauternes

Graves: 1959 Official Classification

CLASSIFIED RED WINES OF GRAVES Chateau Bouscaut Chateau Haut-Bailly Chateau Carbonnieux Domaine De Chevalier Chateau de Fieuzal Chateau Olivier Chateau MalarticLagraviere Chateau La Tour-Martillac Chateau Smith-Haut-Lafitte Chateau Haut-Brion Chateau La Mission-HautBrion Chateau Pape-Clement Chateau La Tour-HautBrion COMMUNE Cadaujac Leongan Leognan Leognan Leognan Leognan Leognan Martillac Martillac Pessac Talence Pessac Talence CLASSIFIED WHITE WINES OF GRAVES Chateau Bouscaut Chateau Carbonnieux Domaine de Chevalier Chateau Olivier Chateau MalarticLagraviere Chateau La Tour-Martillac Chateau Laville-Haut-Brion Chateau Couhins-Lurton Chateau Couhins Chateau Haut-Brion COMMUNE Cadaujac Leognan Leognan Leognan Leognan Martillac Talence Villenave DOrnon Villenave DOrnon Pessac*

*Added to the list in 1960


St. Emilion: 1955 Official Classification (Officially Reclassified 1985)

Premieres Grands Crus Clases
A. Chateau Ausone Chateau Cheval Blanc B. Chateau Beausejour-Duffau-Lagarrosse Chateau Belair Chateau Canon Clos Fourtet Chateau Figeac Chateau la Gaffeliere Chateau Magdelaine Chateau Pavie Chateau Trottevieille

Grands Crus Classes

Chateau LAngelus Chateau LArrosee Chateau Balestard La Tonnelle Chateau Beau Sejour-Becot Chateau Bellevue Chateau Bergat Chateau Berliquet Chateau Cadet Piola Chateau Canon-La-Gaffeliere Chateau Cap De Mourlin Chateau Le Chatelet Chateau Chauvin Chateau Clos Des Jacobins Chateau Clos La Madeleine Chateau Clos de LOratoire Chateau Clos Saint-Martin Chateau La Clotte Chateau La Clusiere Chateau Corbin Chateau Corbin Michotte Chateau Couvent Des Jacobins Chateau Croque-Michotte Chateau Cure-Bon-La-Madeleine Chateau Dasault Chateau La Dominique Chateau Faurie De Souchard Chateau Fonplegade Chateau Fonroque Chateau Franc-Mayne Chateau Grand-Barrail-Lamarzelle-Figeac Chateau Grand-Corbin Chateau Grand-Corbin Despagne Chateau Grand-Mayne Chateau Grand-Pontet Chateau Guadet-Saint-Julien Chateau Haut-Corbin Chateau Haut-Sarpe Chateau Lantote Chateau Larcis-Ducasse Chateau Lamarzelle Chateau Larmande Chateau Laroze Chateau Matras Chateau Mauvezin Chateau Moulin-Du-Cadet Chateau LOratoire Chateau Pavie-Decesse Chateau Pavie-Macquin Chateau Pavillon-Cadet Chateau Petit-Fauarie-De-Soutard Chateau Le Prieure Chateau Ripeau Chateau Saint-Georges-Cote-Pavie Chateau Sansonnet Chateau La Serre Chateau Soutard Chateau Tertre-Daugay Chateau La Tour-Du-Pin-Figeac (Giraud-Belivier) Chateau La Tour-Du-Pin-Figeac (Moueix) Chateau La Tour-Figeac Chateau Trimoulet Chateau Troplong-Mondot Chateau Villemaurine Chateau Yon-Figeac


INTRODUCTION A. B. C. For many the term Burgundy conjures up the most memorable of red and white wines. Much larger than just that small Cote dOr Dont confuse it with American generics!

BASIC GEOGRAPHY A. Covers a much larger territory than just the heart 250 kilometers from Auxerre (Chablis) to just the southern Maconnais B. Major regions within Burgundy: 1. Chablis 2. Cote dOr: Cote de Nuit, Cote de Beaune 3. Cote Chalonnaise 71

4. The Maconnais 5. Beaujolais C. Grapes of the region 1. Reds: Pinot Noir, Gamay 2. Whites: Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Aligote D. Methods of classification 1. Grand Crus and Premier Crus a) Chambertin b) Gevrey Chambertin Aux Combettes 2. Regional Villages (AOC) Gevrey Chambertin 3. General regional a) Cote de Nuits Villages c) Bourgogne E. Greatest complication: Multi-ownership One vineyard many owners Negotiants A. Chablis 1. 130 kilometers northwest of Dijon 2. Very calcareous soil 3. Grape: Whites only Chardonnay 4. Not to be confused with American generics B. Chablis Appellations 1. Grand Cru Chablis: 7 vineyards 2. Premier Cru Chablis: 12 vineyards 3. Chablis Villages (AOC) 4. Petit Chablis (AOC) COTE DOR A. COTE DE NUITS: THE NORTH 1. 19 km long/.5 wide 2. Fixin to Corgolin in South 3. Eastern facing slopes 4. Grapes: Pinot Noir, Chardonnay 5. Almost exclusively reds 6. Chalky soil with powdery clay subsoil 7. Predominant limestone 8. Style: deep, rich, firm long lived, more masculine styles 9. COMMUNES OF NOTE a) Gevrey Chambertin (Chambertin) b) Bonnes Mares (Morey St. Denis) c) Chambolle Musigny (Musigny) d) Clos de Vougeot (Vougeot) e) Vosne Romanee (All DRCs) f) Nuits Saint Georges B. COTE DE BEAUNE: THE SOUTH 1. Corgoloin to Chagny in the south 2. Nearly double the land of north


Grapes: Pinot Noir, Chardonnay Style: a) Reds: Softer, suppler, lighter color, feminine, fragrant b) Whites: Rich, full bodied, complex, silky, mouth filling 5. Soils are pebbly clay with some chalk 6. Rich iron based marl-different! 7. COMMUNES OF NOTE a) Corton (Corton Charlemagne) Grand Cru b) Montrachet (mostly whites, but some red from Chassagne Montrachet) (1) Vineyards of Puligny, Chassagne, Chevalier (Grand Cru), Btard (Grand Cru), Le Montrachet (Grand Cru considered the best chardonnay in the world and the most expensive) c) Pommard d) Volnay e) Beaune f) Meursault SOUTH OF THE CTE DOR A. CTE CHALONNAISE 1. Between Cte de Beaune and Maon 2. Grapes: Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay, Algote 3. Four main areas within a) Rully (whites/sparkling) b) Mercurey (reds) c) Givry (reds) d) Montagny (whites only) B. MAONNAIS 1. 48 kilometer area 2. Grapes: Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay 3. Soil is high in limestone a) Ideal for chardonnay! b) Town of chardonnay here! 4. Main regions within a) Pouilly (1) Fuiss; Vinzelles; Loche b) Saint Veran Some very good values c) Maon (1) Villages (2) Specific village such as Maon Lugny Maon Vire (3) General white or red (4) Passe Tout Grain (2/3 gamay 1/3 pinot noir) very limited exports C. BEAUJOLAIS 1. 10 kilometers south of Macon 2. 60 kilometers long/12 km. Wide

3. 4.


3. 4.

5. 6.

Reds are predominant Grape by law: Gamay Classifications a) Beaujolais b) Beaujolais Superiur c) Beaujolais Villages d) Cru Beaujolais 10 crus in north (1) Saint Amour (6) Morgon (2) Regnie (7) Moulin a Vent (3) Fleurie (8) Brouilly (4) Chenas (9) Cote Brouilly (5) Julienas (10) Chiroubles North and south different a) Granite soil in north Beaujolais Nouveau a) Carbonic Maceration (Closed Cuve) b) Third Thursday in November

I. Cote De Nuits Vins Rouges

COMMUNES FIXIN A.O.C. COMMUNES Fixin Cte de Nuits-Villages LISTE DES CLIMATS CLASSES EU PREMIER CRU Aux Cheusots La Pernere. Le Clos-du-Chapitre. Les Arvelets. Les Harvelets. Les Melx-Bas Au Closeau. Aux Combotles. Bel-Air. Cazetiers. Champeaux. Champitonnois dite Petite Chapelle. Champonnets. Cherbaudes. Cios Prieur. Clos-duChapitre. Combe-auxMoines. Craipillot. Ergots. Estournelles. Issarts. La Pernere. Lavaut. Le Fonteny. Le Clos-SaintJacques. Les Corbeaux. Les Goulots. Les Gemeaux. Les Varoilles. Poissenot. Aux Charmes. Caloueres. Chabiots. Clos-Bussiere. Cte-Rtie. La Riotte. Le Clos-Baulet. Le Clos-desOrmes. Le Clos-Sorbes. Les Bouchots. Les Chaffots. Les Charrieres. Les Chnevery. Les Faonnieres. Les Fremieres. Les Froichots. Les Genevrieres. Les Gruenchers. Les Larrets ou Closdes-Lambrays. Les Mauchamps. Les Millandes. Les Ruchots. Les Sorbes. Maison-Brule. MeixRentiers. Monts-Luisants. GRANDS CRUS



Chamberun Chamberun-Clos de Beze Latricieres-Chamberun Mazoveres-Chamberun Charmes-Chamberun Mazis-Chamberun Griottes-Chamberun Ruchottes-Chamberun Chapelle-Chamberun


Morey-St. Denis

Clos de Tat Clos St. Denis Clos de la Roche Bonnes Mares (une partie)




Aux Beaux-Bruns. Aux Combottes. Derriere-la Grange. Les Amoureuses. Les Baudes. Les Borniques. Les Chatelots. Les Charmes. Les Combottes. Les Fuees. Les Fousselottes. Les Gras. Les Groseilles. Les Gruenchers. Les HautsDoix. Les Lavrottes. Les Noirots. Les Plantes. Les Sentiers. Clos-de-la-Perriere. Le ClosBlanc. Les Gras. Les PetitsVougeot

Musigny Les Bonnes-Mares



Clos de Vougeot



Grands chezeaux chezeaux



Aux Brules. Aux Malconsorts. La GrandRue. Le Clos-de-la-Perriere. Le Clos des-Ras. Les BeauxMonts. Les Chaumes. Les Gaudichots. Les PetitsMonts. Les Suchots. Les Reignots. Aux Argillats. Aux Boudots. Aux Bousselots. Aux Chaignots. Aux ChampsPerdrix. Aux Cras. Aux Crots. Aux Damodes. Aux Murgrs. Aux Thorey. Aux Vignes-Rondes. En La Chaine-Carteau. La Perriere. La Richemone. La Ronciere. Les Aargillats. Les Cailles. Les Chaboeufs. Les Hauts-Pruliers. Les Poulettes. Les Porets. Les Proces. Les Pruliers. Les SaintGeorges. Les Vallerots. Les Vaucrains. Rue-de-Chaux. Perriere.-Noblet. Aux Perdrix. Clos-Arlots. Clos-de-la Marechale. Clos des Argillieres. Clos-desCorvees, Clos les Forets. Le Clos-Saint-Marc. Les Corvees-paget. Les Didiers.

Romanee St. Vivant Richebourg La romanee La Tache La Romanee-Conti


Nuits-St. Georges


Nuits-St. Georges


Cte de Nuits-Villages


II. Cote De Beaune

COMMUNES LADOIX-SERRIGNY ALOXE-CORTON A.O.C. COMMUNES Ladoix (Surtout vins rouges) Aloxe-Corton (surtout vins rouges) Basses-Mourettes. En Pauland. La Coutiere. La Marechaude. La Toppe-auVert. Les Chaillots. Les Grandes-Lolieres. Les Guerets. Les Fournieres. Les Marechaudes. Les Meix. Les Petites-Lolieres. Les Valozieres. Les Vercots. Corton (R et B) Corton-Charlemagne (B) LISTE DES CLIMATS CLASSES EU PREMIER CRU GRANDS CRUS


Chorey Ou Chorey Cte de Beaune Pernand-Vergelesses (R etB) En Caradeux. Creux-de-laNet. Lledes-Vergelesses. Les Basses-Vergelesses. Les Fichots. Aux Cloux. Aux Fourneaux. Aux Gravains. Aux Grands Liards. Aux Guettes. Aux Petits-Liards. Aux Serpenueres. Aux Vergelesses. Aux Vergelesses dit Bataillere. Basses-Vergelesses. La Dominode. Les Charnieres. Les Jarrons. Les Hauts Jarrons. Les HautsMarconnets. Les Lavieres. Les Marconnets. Les Narbantons. Les Peuillets. Les Rouvrettes. Les Talmettes. Petits-Goudeaux. Redrescuts. A lcu. Aux Coucherias. Aux Cras. Champs Pimont. Clos-du-Rou. En Gent. En lorme. La Mignotte. Le Basdes-Theurons. Le Clos-de-la Mousse. Le Clos-desMouches. Les Aigrots. Les Avaux. Les Blanches-Fleurs. Les Boucherottes. Les Bressandes. Les CentVignes. Les Chouacheux. Les Epenottes. Les Fves. Les Grves.. Les Marconnets. Les Montrevenots. Les Perrieres. Les Reversees. Les Sisies. Les Teirons. Les Toussaints. Les VignesFanches. Montee-Rouge. Per-Tuisots. Sur-les-Grves. Tielandry ou Clos Landry.


Savigny-les-Beaune Savigny-Cte de Beaune (surtout vins rouges)


Beaune (Surtout vins rouges)




Clos Blanc. Clos-de-la Commaraine. Clos du Verger. EsCharmots. Derriere-Saint-Jean. La Chaniere. La Platiere. La Refene. Le Clos-Micot. Les Argillieres. Les Argelets. Les Bertins. Les Boucherottes. Les Chaponnieres. Les Chanlins-Bas. Les CombesDessus. Les Croix-Noires. Les Epenots. Les Fremiers. Les Garollieres. Les PetitsEpenots. Les Pzerolles. Les Poutures. Les Rugiens.-Bas. Les Rugiens-Hauts. Les Sausilles. Bousse-d or. CailleretsDessu. Carelles-Dessous. Carches-sous-la-Chapelle. Chanlin. En Caillerets. En Champans. En Chevret. En lOrmeau. En Verseuil. Fremiets. La Barre ou Ciosde-la-Barre. Le Clos-desChnes. Les Clos-des.Ducs. Les Angles. Les Aussy. Les Brouillards. Les Lurets. Les Milans. Les Petures. Les Pitres-Dessus. Les Santenots. Pointe-dAngles. Ronceret. Taille-Pieds. Robardelle. Village-deVolnay. Duresses. La Taupine. Le Cas-Rougeot. Le ChteauGaillard. Le Clos-Gauthey. Le Merx-Bataille. Les Champs-Fulliot. Les Riottes. Les Vignes-Rondes. SurLavelle. Climat-du-Val dit Clos du Val. Les Bas-des-Duresses. Les Bretterins. Les Bretterins dits la Chapelle. Les Dureses. Les Ecusseaux. Les Grands-Champs. Reugne. Reugne dit La Chapelle. Champlot. En Remilly. La Chateniere. Les Castets. Les Combes. Les Creots. Les Frionnes. Les Murgers-desDents-de Chein. Sur Gamay. Sur-le-Sentier-du-Clou. Aux Perrieres. La GouttedOr. Le Poruzot. Les Poruzot-Dessus. Les Boucheres. Les Caillerets. Les Charmes-Dessous. Les


Volnay R


Monthelie R


Auxey-Duresses (R et B)


St. Romain (B et R) St. Aubin (B et R)


Meursault Vins blancs. UN peu de vins rouges Blagny (rouges)


Charmes-Dessus. Les CrasDessus. Les GenevrieresDessous. Les GenevrieresDessus. Les PerrieresDessouts. Les PerrrieresDessus. Les Petures. Les Santenots Blancs. Les Santenots-du-Milieu. PULIGNY-MONTRACHET Puligny-Montrachet Cte de Beaune Clavoillons, Hameau-deBlagny. La Garenne. Le Cailleret. Le Champ-Canet. Les Chalumeaux. Les Combettes. Les Folatieres. Les Pucelles. Les Referts. Sous-le-Puits. Clos-Saint-Jean. Chassagne ou Caileret. En Caillerets. Grandes-Ruchottes. La Boudriotte. La Maltroie. La Romanee. Les Burssolles. Les Champs-Gain. Les Chevenottes. Les Macherelles. Les Vergers. Morgeot. Morgeot dit Abbaye-de-Morgeot. Beauregard. Beaurepaire. Clos de Tavannes. La Comme. La Maladire. Le Passe-Temps. Les Gravires. La Boutire. Le Clos-desRois. Les Maranges. Les Plantes-de-Mranges. Chavalier-Montrachet Batard-Montrachet Bienvenues-BatardMontrachet Montrachet


Chassagne-Montrachet Ctes de Beaune Vins blancs et rouges

Montrachet Batard-Montrachet Criots-Batard-Montrachet


Santenay Santenay Cte de Beaune (rouges et quelques blancs) Cheilly-les Maranges Sampgny-les Maranges Dezize-les Maranges (vins rouges)


NOTE: HOSPICES DE BEAUNE This is not a Controlled Appellation, but the name of an Estate owned by the Hospices de Beaune, a charitable foundation dating from 1443. The wines of the Estate are sold by auction each year on the third Sunday of November. The cuvees offered for sale at this most famous of Charity Sales carry the names of those who have endowed the Hospices. There is no close relation between the very high prices paid for these wines and the general wine trade transactions.


The Wines of Italy


INTRODUCTION A. Global importance of Italy as a wine leader 1. Outsold all other imports combined in the USA in recent years 2. Great exporter of wines to France and Germany too 3. Produces and consumes more wine than any other country 4. Per capita consumption is 26 gallons per person vs. about 2 in USA B. Scope of Italian wines is staggering 1. Sheer quantity of grapes types and styles of wine 2. Growing interest in this variety although it can be confusing! HISTORY A. The vine and wine date back at least 4000 years in Italy 1. Prehistoric tribes made it by accident 2. The Greeks expanded it into the south 3. Etruscans were early on perfecting it 4. The Romans continued growth of wine a) Not only in Italy b) All over their empire and throughout Europe B. 17th and 18th centuries saw tremendous growth C. 19th century showed incredible advancements 1. Use of corks and bottles allowed for increased exports 2. Taking advantage of great wine weather and their emerging role as a leader more and more wine was being made 3. Unfortunately quality suffered for quantity and the image of Italian wine began to suffer

Italys New Quality Pyramid

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vineyard Estate Micro-Zone

Locality Commune

Sub-Zone DOCG DOC IGT Vino Da Tavola


THE ITALIAN WINE LAWS A. In 1963, the modern wine laws were established giving structure and quality to an often haphazard and unregulated industry. 1. New renaissance of Italian wine 2. Basic laws laid down a) Yields b) Grapes used for specific wines c) Area restrictions for growing d) Viticultural practices e) Maximum and minimum alcohol strengths 3. Three categories established a) Vino de Tavola b) DOC (over 240 today) Stated area of origin, production practices, specifics about alcohol and viticulture etc c) DOCG (13 with others petitioning) Even more rigid than DOC B. The Gloria Laws. Passed in January of 1992 1. Brings greater flexibility to production while adding a broad new category 2. IGT (Indicazione Geografica Tipiche) replaces vini tipici as base of quality pyramid. Like vin de pays in France 3. Single vineyards may be recognized within a DOC, DOCG, or IGT. EX: Sassicaia within Bolgheri DOC or Regaleali on Sicily may rate an individual appellation. 4. Grape yields and DOC/DOCG wines to be reviewed. Where yields are excessive, they will be reduced. Where certain DOC/DOCG wines are below their potential, the status could be rescinded. 5. Classico can no longer be applied to sparkling wines 6. All Riserva wines must be at least two years old, so wine like Vernaccia Riserva will be changed or eliminated THE REGIONS A. Italy produces wine in all 20 of its regions and can be divided up in four sections 1. Northeast 2. North central and west 3. South and the islands 4. Central

Northwest and Central

A. Piedmont 1. Region producing what most describe as the best red wines 2. Barolo a) Rich and powerful wine made from the Nebbiolo grape and coming from the region of the same name b) Four years of wood ageing is a Riserva c) Five years in wood is a Riserva Speciale


Barbaresco a) Also made from Nebbiolo and named for the town and area b) Slightly smoother and less brash in youth 4. Gattinara a) Also made from Nebbiolo and named for small region b) Lighter style and less strong 5. Barbera a) Made from the grape not an area b) Most widely planted grape c) Fruity and tannic high acid 6. Dolcetto a) Made from the grape of same name b) Best are from Alba (near Barolo) and Asti c) Much like a gamay based wine 7. Asti a) Sparkling wine b) Made generally from Muscat grapes and by charmat method c) New DOCG (effective 1994) 8. Gringolino a) Light, fruity and dry wine (rose) b) Sometimes a bit petillant B. Lombardy 1. Valtellina a) Made from Nebbiolo and very lean in styles b) Can come from one of several demarcated villages 2 Oltrepo Pavese a) Most productive DOC zone b) Good inexpensive red wines made from Barbera and Bonarda grapes. c) Some pinot noir is made here too d) Lots sold off to make spumante 3. Franciacorta a) Small appellation of very high quality b) Most known for methode champenoise sparklers D. Emilia-Romagna 1. Lambrusco a) Can be excellent! b) Most of what is shipped to US is the sweet bulk style c) Can be frizzante or dry and flavorful d) Red and white styles exist made from various grapes of same name (red and white) 2. Albana di Romagna a) DOCG white b) Made from grape of same name c) Dry to semi sweet in style enough said!




Veneto 1.


Extremely important wine region Valpolicella a) Made from Corvina, Rondinella and other grapes b) One of Italys lightest and fruitiest wines c) Recioto is often made using the ripest grapes and made in both dry and sweet styles d) Amarone Bardolino a) Same basic grapes as Valpolicella b) Light and red or pink (chiaretto) a)
b) style


Soave Made from Garganega and Trebbiano di Soave grapes

Although generally dry and still, exists sweet (recioto) & spumante


c) Second to Chianti in volume amongst the DOC wines Friuli-Venezia Giulia 1. The best of its wines come from a series of hillsides (colli) a) Colli Orientali del Friuli (eastern) b) Colli Grave del Friuli (western) c) Colli Goriziana (Gorizia hills)
d) Makes whites of Pinot Gringo, Today, Sauvignon Blanc, Gewurztraminer


Makes light reds from Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Nero (pinot noir) 3. Verduzzo, a powerful white wine grape 4. Also have picolit, fragrant white grape known for dessert wines and grappa! Trentino-Alto Adge 1. Northernmost region, bordering Austria 2. Best known for light, structured and perfumed whites of chardonnay, Riesling, Muller Thurgau, pinot gringo and pinot Blanco 3. Makes reds too from cabernet sauvignon, merlot and the local sheave Tuscany 1. Chianti a) b)


Central Italy
A. Italys most popular and well known wine Chianti DOCG made of sangiovese and 10% of other grapes: to include canaiolo with little white trebbiano can now have Cabernet Sauvignon Syrah and Merlot Chianti Classico DOCG (1) Same styles and rough grape proportions






Classico is a defined area, NOT a reserve or superior bottling (3) Chianti Rufina and Chianti Colli Fiorentini are also by demarcated area 2. Brunello di Montalciono DOCG a) From town of same name b) Brunello is local terminology for sangiovese c) Limited production and superior quality d) Not blended with white wine 100% Brunello grape 3. Rosso di Montalcino is from the same region but either young vines or slightly inferior fruit 4. Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG a) From town of same name b) Made from same grapes (and basically same blend) as Chianti c) Can be excellent was first DOCG! d) Some white wines are made here too (1) From Trebbiano and Malvasia grapes (2) Both dry and sweet styles exist (Vin Santo) 5. Vernaccia di San Gimignano a) White wine made from grape of same name b) Full bodied and dry The Marches 1. Verdicchio a) Made from grapes of same name 2. Although produced throughout the region, the best is from astelli di Jesi 3. Can be superb Umbria 1. Orvieto a) Named for town of same name b) Originally was sold in only a semi sweet style c) Now it is dry and crisp d) Must be at least 50% trebbiano 2. Torgiano a) A fine red wine appellation of the same name b) Some white wine is made (similar to Orvieto) c) Grapes are of Tuscan Chianti genre d) Riserva recently made a DOCG Latium 1. The region around Rome is known for two specific wines a) Frascati (1) Dry white wine (2) Again, trebbiano etc b) Est!! Est!! Est!! (1) Wine of importance due to story and fable more the wine quality!!



(2) E.

Made from trebbiano and malvasia (like Orvieto but not nearly as good)

Abruzzi 1. Fairly straight ahead wines: only three types! a) Montepulciano dAbruzzo (1) Big red wine made from grape of same name (2) Do not confuse the grape here with the town in Tuscany b) Cerasuolo Cherry red wine (lighter) made from same grape c) Trebbiano dAbruzzo White wine made from trebbiano

The South and Islands

Apulia 1. In sheer quantity of wine, Italys #1 2. Big, rich and alcoholic is the rule 3. Grapes are primarily Aleatica and to a lesser extent Malvasia Nero B. Campania The high quality appellation of the south 1. Lacrima Christi a) Red, white and sparkling in style b) Most often seen as a golden colored white 2. Greco di Tufo Grape is Greco, and of old Greek ancestry 3. Taurasi Full bodied red wine made from the aglianico grape C. Sicily Although most known for Marsala, produces quantities of still table wines 1. Corvo is a state controlled winery not DOC Good quality and ever improving 2. Moscato Passito di Pantellaria & Malvasia delle Lipare a) Excellent dessert wine of muscat b) Amber color, rich and very sweet! CONCLUSION A. With choice of wines available, it is often hard to decipher your way through the maze 1. A lot of high quality boutique wines 2. A lot of cooperative plonk B. New technology (from California and Europe) continues to pour in and a generation of young quality oriented winemakers adds to the odds! 1. Lots of variation within appellation and styles 2. Like Burgundy, tasting is essential A.


Wines of Spain

INTRODUCTION A. Spain quickly becoming one of the big hitters in wine in the USA 1. Should not be surprising 2. History goes back to Romans 3. Many think ancestor to cabernet sauvignon was found in Rioja! B. Although many wines and regions lesser known, the emergence of Spain as a global wine force is not really a Cinderella story WHY NEW? A. Spanish wines are very unique 1. That fact kept them out of the limelight 2. Wines do not really fit categories as we know them C. Spanish did not care were selling all at home 1. Today, Spain is part of EEC 2. Flood of other inexpensive wines into Spain C. Eyes opened and emphasis starting on export to rest of world - Especially relatively untapped American market DO LAWS A. Since 1933, DO (Spains AOC) have been in effect 1. Laws governing standards for wine quality 2. Updated in 1970 3. For our purposes we will focus in on the primary and visible ones WINE REGIONS A. RIOJA 1. Most prestigious non-Sherry appellation 2. Located in province of Longrono Extends for 120 km along river Ebro (and its tributary the Rio Oja, hence Rioja) 86


Three growing districts a) Rioja Alta (1) Cool climate-high rainfall (2) Finest and most finesse (3) Ageworthy (Bordeaux like) (4) Grapes: red; tempranillo, garnacha tinta, mazuelo white; viura b) Rioja Alavesa (1) Middle area-southern exposure slopes-chalky soils (2) Very fragrant, smooth and lush (3) Quicker to mature (Burgundy like) (a) Rioja Baja (1) Warmest and driest-most southern (2) Mostly made of garnacha tinta (3) Lots of backbone and tannin (4) Brawny, coarse broad (Rhone like) d) Most wines are blends of all three regions (1) Most producers own vineyards in all three (2) Single region and single vineyards new e) Wines get their vanilla character from the American oak (1) New school is spending less time in oak (2) Less vanilla-stressing the fruity flavors CATALONIA AND THE PENEDES 1. Regions prosper from the benefits of classic wine weather 2. Geographically an extension of Frances Cote de Rousillon 3. Granite soils give wines great acidity 4. Tremendous French influence on wines styles a) The Torres family b) Experimentation with technology and French grape varieties
5. Red grapes: tempranillo (ull de llebre locally), garnacha tinta, carinena and monastrell





6. White grapes: parellada, viura, xarell-lo, macabeo 7. Very important in region is the production of CAVA a) Methode champenoise wines b) High quality production c) Centered around San Sadurni de Noya VALDEPENAS 1. Central area of Spain near Madrid, the plains of La Mancha 2. Quantity production 3. Carafe wines of the country RUEDA 1. Inland plateau near Valladolid and Segovia producing Spains most interesting white wines 2. White only: verdejo grape 3. Stainless steel fermentation etc RIBERA DEL DUERO 1. North of the Rueda on the river of the same name 87

(Duero is the continuation of the Duoro from Portugal)\ 2. Spains most famous wine: Vega Sicilia 3. Many other producers popping up 4. Special region for reds (soil, climate etc..) 5. Grape: tempranillo (tinto fino locally) and often blended with some cabernet sauvignon and malbec 6. DO since only 1982 7. Many new young turks based here! F. NAVARRA 1. Always known as quantity, not quality area (like Valdepenas) 2. New efforts (French influenced) causing new focus 3. Grapes like cabernet sauvignon, merlot, malbec etc G. OTHER WINE REGIONS 1. Somontano a) Close to France near the Pyrenees b) Grape: moristell (like gamay) c) Fresh fruity and light wines 2. Galicia a) Rias Baixas (1) 3 appellations (a) Rosal (b) Condado de Tea (c) Val de Sarnes b) Albarinho grape c) Gallego culture (like Catalan..proud) CLOSING A. With dollar not worth as much abroad and prices of Bordeaux, Burgundy etc.. B. Still great value wines C. Something new and exciting D. Consistent with a Mediterranean focus on food




INTRODUCTION A. Arguably the most under appreciated wine region in Western Europe. B. Superb world class wines C. The role model for great Johannisberg Riesling, the grape Hugh Johnson calls the worlds most noble D. Rich and illustrious history 1. Roman conquests in 100 BC 2. Religious cultivations starting in the middle ages 3. Church ownership severed with Napoleonic conquest, and vineyard lands divided amongst private land owners GEOGRAPHY AND BASICS A. 240,000 acres of planted vineyards (not including East Germany) 1. 87% whites wine grapes 2. 13% red wine grapes 3. Dichotomy of world wide plantings B. Primary grape varietals: White 1. Muller Thurgau a) Most widely planted in Germany b) 24% of all vineyards c) Cross of Sylvaner and Riesling 2. Riesling a) 21% of all vineyards b) Finest grape in Germany c) Slow ripening (Oct./Nov.) 3. Other grapes to note: a) Sylvaner b) Kerner c) Rulander (Pinot Gris) d) Weissburgunder (Chardonnay) C. Primary grape varietals: Red 1. Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir) Rieslings red counterpart 2. Other red grapes a) Portugieser b) Trollinger c) Dornfelder CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHY A. Most northern vineyards B. Many are on steep south facing slopes 1. Rivers reflect sun back onto vineyards 2. Slate in hills maintains heat WINE GROWING REGIONS A. 13 total form Germanys wine country (including Eastern Germany) B. Between lake Constance on the Rhine to the Mittel Rhine near Bonn C. Thirteen regions are divided into at least two sub-regions: Bereichs (total: 34)


Ahr and Rhinegau have all vineyards in their one district, hence exceptions D. Each bereich contains several vineyard areas 1. Larger ones, made up of several vineyards, are called grosslagen (total: 152) 2. Single vineyards are called einzellagen. (total: 2,600) E. The more specific the appellation, the more unique the flavors THE THIRTEEN PRIMARY REGIONS A. Ahr (northernmost and one of smallest) Mostly red, some white B. Mittelrhein (just south of Bonn, to 60 m. south) Mostly whites, mostly local wines C. Mosel-Saar-Ruwer (Starts at Trier) 1. Amongst Germanys best! 2. Slaty/flinty soil provides unique flavors 3. Great Riesling: benchmark style 4. Many noteworthy Bereichs: a) Bernkastel b) Piesport c) Wehlen d) Graach e) Zeltingen D. Rheingau (Most centrally located region) 1. Some of worlds oldest vines 2. One long hillside: Hochheim to Lorch 3. Incredible Riesling: The other role model 4. First location to discover botrytis cinerea 5. Kabinett originated here too! 6. Full bodied reds too of Spatburgunder 7. Many noteworthy bereichs: a) Rudesheim b) Hochheim c) Hattenheim d) Johannisberg E. Nahe (west of B the Rhinehessen, bordering Mosel) 1. Various soil types: diverse wines 2. Whites are dominant 3. Emerging star region F. Rheinhessen (between the Nahe and the Rhine) 1. Mainly known for Liebfraumilch a) Blended wine from Rhinehessen, Rhinegau, Rhinepfalz, the Nahe b) Must be of QBA level 2. Some noteworthy bereichs a) Nierstein b) Oppenheim c) Nackenheim


d) Dienheim G. Pfalz (Largest production area) 1. Also referred to as the Palantine 2. Mostly whites wines, with some reds 3. Noteworthy bereichs: a) Wachenheim b) Forst c) Deidesheim d) Ruppertsburg H. Franken (Easternmost wine growing region) 1. Medium dry to dry wines 2. Come in flat-sided bocksbeutels 3. Super food wines I. Hessiche Bergstrasse (smallest wine region) 1. Rare and generally not exported 2. Whites: Riesling, Muller Thurgau J. Wurtemberg (Neckar river and tributaries) 1. Mostly red wines, largest red wine region 2. Again, rarely for export K. Baden (southernmost wine region) 1. Red, whites and roses too! 2. Third in production of all regions 3. Area is adjacent to Alsace 4. Largest per capita consumption! L. Sachsen (East Germany) M. Saale-Unstrut (East Germany) WINE CATEGORIES A. Tafelwein: table wine (look for Deutcher) B. Landwein: (higher quality than tafelwein) C. Qualitatswein: two distinctive categories 1. QBA: Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete a) From one of 13 regions b) Approved grape varietals c) Sufficiently ripe: Oechsle 2. QMP: Qualitatswein mit Pradikat a) As above but with special attributes b) 6 in ascending order of ripeness/sweetness (1) Kabinett (2) Spatlese (3) Auslese (4) Beerenauslese (BA) (5) Eiswein (6) Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) READING THE GERMAN WINE LABEL A. The vintage B. Appellation of origin (location)


Official quality control number: A.P. # 1. Birth certificate of wine 2. Blind tasting panel: flavor, color etc 3. Quality level (A.P. # only for QMP, QBA) D. Measured ripeness of vineyards at harvest E. Analysis of alcohol content F. Residual sugar G. Acidity H. Grape variety: must be minimal 85% I. Grower, producer or bottler Not always the same J. Erzeugerabfallung = Estate bottled K. Taste or style: troken or halb-troken L. VDP and Charta Wines OTHER STYLES OF WINE A. Sekt: sparkling wine Generally all transfer method B. Perlwein: slightly sparkling (red or white) CLOSING A. German wines are extremely diverse B. Tasting and experimentation best way to understand C. Unique climate/soil relationship makes German wines a very special gift from the wine-gods!






Washington State


New York - Hudson River Valley

Wineries on the Legend

1. Adair Vineyards, New Paltz 2. Amberleaf Vineyards, Wappingers Falls 3. Baldwin Vineyards, Pine Bush 4. Benmarl Vineyards, Marlborough-on-Hudson 5. Brimstone Hill Vineyard, Pine Bush 6. Brotherhood Winery, Washingtonville 7. Cascade Mt. Winery & Restaurant, Amenia 8. Clinton Vineyards, Clinton Corners 9. El Paso Winery, Ulster Park 10. Magnanini Farm Winery, Wallkill 11. Millbrook Vineyards, Millbrook 12. North Salem Vineyard, North Salem 13. Regent Champagne Cellars, Highland 14. Royal Kedem Winery, Milton 15. Walker Valley Vineyards, Walker Valley 16. Warwick Valley Winery, Warwick 17. West Park Wine Cellars, West Park 18. Windsor Vineyards, Marlborough-on-Hudson


Wines of America
INTRODUCTION A. American wines have become a standard bearer of New World wines and its modern technological applications in wine making.
1. 2.

The worlds number five producer There are now wineries in each of the 50 states. Not surprisingly, California is in the lead with nearly 1,700 wineries, but the majority of U.S. producers are located in other states. California is followed by Washington (323 wineries), Oregon (228) and New York (203). Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas and Virginia all have between 90 and 100. Delaware can only boast one registered winery, while Alaska -- seemingly the least likely place to make wine -- has six. (Wineries that produce wine from fruits other than grapes are included
in these figures.)

i. The number of wineries throughout the United States has jumped more than 15 percent in the past two years, based on the latest figures from the U.S. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax & Trade Bureau (TTB), which tracks winery permits. ii. In the past decade, the number of registered U.S. wineries has doubled to 3,726, with 550 new permits issued since 2002. These totals come from an analysis by Wine America, a winery trade association. The TTB numbers encompass all federal winery permit holders, which can include wineries that are defunct, wineries that are not yet in business and companies that have more than one winemaking facility. Wine America edited the figures to remove wineries' multiple permits.

3. D.

The country continues to export in increasing numbers

The amount of technology and research that originates in the US and influences wine in the world is unquestionable.

HISTORY A. B. C. Varies on a state by state basis, however we should understand the arrival of the vine nationally. Earliest eastern colonists found that there were native grapes. Longed for grapes and resultant wines of their European homelands a) b) D. Attempted to plant vinifera early on with dismal results. Diseases native to America including odium, Pierces disease, etc.

Then came phylloxera vastatrix 1. Is native to the USA 2. Between 1858-1863, Europe imported American vines for experimental purposes and with them, imported phylloxera 3. 1865-1890, it ravaged the vines of Europe 98

4. Most dramatically hurt the vineyards in California where it was introduced around 1880 on contaminated European vines and stocks. E. Desperate to heal, many worked diligently in nurseries to make a rootstock that was resistant 1. 2. Crossing of various grapes, forming hybrids etc. Came up with a resistant stock 3. Began to graft the grapes on to this new hardy stock and replant the vineyards F. Then came prohibition! 1. Timing was very terrible 2. America had just begun to gain worldwide recognition and was placing highly in wine competitions 3. G. As repeal finally set in, America had to start from square one

Vineyards needed to be replanted 1. Opportunity to upgrade production methods too 2. Many set new standards throughout the world

TYPES OF WINES A. Three types of wines in America 1. Generic a) You know these: golden Chablis, hearty burgundy etc. 2. Varietal a) 75% of the varietal to be labeled for vinifera b) c) 51% of the varietal for labruscana If it is labeled as a blend, the percentages must be listed with the grapes unless it is a proprietary blend

3. Proprietary a) Meritage wines b) Brand wines: Thunderbird, Annie Green Springs B. Some laws to be aware of 99

1. State or county designations on labels must have 75% of grapes from that designation 2. Adjoining states must have the percentages listed from each state (or can call it American wine) 3. Vintage wines must have 95% wine from that vintage (true in France too) 4. Proprietor grown or vintner grown must be 100% from that vintners vineyards; no area requirement 5. Estate bottled: 100% grapes must com from an AVA (American viticultural area, (of which there are over 60 in California)), from the winerys own vineyards or from vineyards that are controlled by the winery. All production steps must be done at the winery, even if an state/company has more than one winery. - AVAs must have 85% to carry the name on label.
6. Wines labeled late harvest or late picked must state the sugar content of the grapes and the residual sugar after production on the label.

REGIONS A. California 1. The most impact state overall in wine production 2. Wines labeled from California must contain 100% California fruit (New York for example needs only 75% (the federal minimum) 3. Grapes are vinifera: chardonnay, cabernet sauvignon etc.. - Unlike east coast and south, which will be discussed later 4. Because of states size, tremendous variety of climates and micro climates 5. Two main regions a) Coast region (1) (2) (3) Mendocino to San Diego along coast 15% of total Coastal regions encompasses (a) Mendocino County (b) Includes AVAs of Anderson Valley, Potter Valley and McDowell Valley

Lake County 100


Includes AVA of Guenoc Valley

Sonoma County Includes several well know AVAs: Russian River Valley, Alexander Valley, Dry Creek Valley, etc


Napa County Includes many well known AVAs including Howell Mountain, Carneros (which it shares with Sonoma), Spring Mountain, Rutherford, etc

(e) (f) (g)

Livermore Valley Santa Clara, San Benito and Santa Cruz counties Monterey county Includes such AVAs as Carmel Valley, Arroyo Seco, etc.


San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties. Includes such AVAs as Edna Valley, Santa Maria Valley, Santa Ynez Valley

b) Great central valley (1) (2) (3) (a) Sacramento valley i) Includes Yolo, Colusa, Tehama etc. ii) Coolest of all valley appellations (b) Sierra Foothills Includes Amador county and Shenandoah valley (AVA) Sacramento to Bakersfield down the valley 85% of total Great central valley encompasses

Modesto i) 30% of all California wine made 101

ii) Joaquin (d) Central San Joaquin i) ii) (e) (f) 6. Heat summation

Includes northern section of San

30% of Californias production Fresno, Madera etc

Southern San Joaquin 11% Californias total Southern California Includes the AVA of Temecula

a) Five categories set up by UC Davis to categorize and classify the varied California regions. b) Calculated by (1) (2) (3) Taking the period of April 1 October 31 Each days average temperature is determined With 50 degrees as a base the average number of degree days is determined by taking the days average temperature vs. the 50 degree base Example: the temperature is 65 degrees, so the 15 degrees above 50 would be the number of degree days for that day Add up the degree days for the period and determine the category c) Region 1:2500 or fewer degree days Cooler climates (like Germany) including Monterey, areas of southern Napa etc d) Region 2:2,501-3,000 degree days Slightly warmer (like Bordeaux and N. Italy) and including Saint Helena, Healdsburg, etc Region 3:3,000 3,500 degree days Moderate climate (like the Mediterranean coast) and including Calistoga, Livermore etc 102




f) Region 4:3,500-4000 degree days Warm Regions like Lodi and Modesto best Represent this classification g) Region 5:4000 plus degree days Very warm! Central and southern San Joaquin valleys are representatives Obviously one can have different microclimates and temperature spikes within an overall, so it is not a hard science


Pacific Northwest
A. Oregon, Washington and Idaho form the Pacific northwestern wine regions. 1. 2. 3. B. Oregon 1. Over 5600 acres now under vine in three primary appellations a) Rogue river valley b) Umpqua valley c) Willamette (Tualatin) valley 2. Other Regions a) Walla Walla b) S.W. Oregon c) Columbia Valley (share with Washington State) 3. Over 90 wineries in state 4. Legitimized by combination of Tchelistcheff, Robert Drouhin (France-USA pinot noir competition) 5. More subtle style wines than California a) Like France that way b) Moderate alcohol (cooler) 103 Cooler climate Higher rainfall Latitude of Burgundy (and cooler wine regions)

c) Balanced acidity 6. 7. 8. 9. C. No generic wines No chapitalization (true too in California) 90% varietal requirements (except cabernet at 75%) Pinot noir in particular thrives in Oregon

Washington 1. Principal regions a) Columbia River valley (main) b) Yakima valley (main) c) Puget Sound d) Walla Walla valley e) S.W. Washington 2. The wines made from grapes grown east of the Cascades (Yakima) benefit from long sunny days and cool nights and the vineyards are irrigated 3) sauvignon Many feel this state has the best potential for merlot and cabernet


Idaho 1. 2. Snake River valley Clearwater valley a) Very stressed circumstances b) High altitude-very cool c) Lots of sun and perhaps too much d) High alcohol and high acidity

New York
A. B. C. The most prominent of eastern producing states State ranks number two after California in production Four wine regions 104

1. 2. 3. 4. D.

Finger Lakes (oldest and most established) Long Island Hudson River Lake Erie

Three types of grapes (typical of northeast) 1. Vinifera 2. 1950s: Dr. Constantin Frank (Geneva Experiment Station)

Labrusca (native American) a) b) Mostly for fortified and sparkling wines Labrusca grapes include (1) White Grapes (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (2) Diamond Duchess Elvira Niagara Noah

Black grapes (a) (b) (c) Concord Cynthiana Steuben


Red grapes (a) (b) Delaware Catawba


Hybrids (of vinifera and native American) a) b) Developed and propagated especially for the cold climates winter resistant root stocks Hybrid grapes include (1) White grapes (a) (b) (c) Ravat blanc Seyval blanc Vignoles 105

(d) (2) (a) (b) (c) (d)

Vidal blanc Red grapes Maerchal foch Baco noir Chamourcin Chancellor

Other eastern states are producing very good wines

A. B. C. D. Maryland Rhode Island Pennsylvania Rhode Island

The South
A. B. C. Lots of states Texas (Lubbock county and the Hill Country) Southern states also have presence of a type of American grape that has thrived in the warmer humid climates called muscadines (rotundifolia) Includes most notably scuppernong, carlos and creek.


First identified in France 1868 Rhone River area, source American Vines brought in for research. The insect spread rampantly 75% of vineyard destroyed in 20 years (2.5 million acres) Identified California 1873 Napa and Sonoma Counties, origin probably France. As in France, by the time of identification, insect was wide spread. Biotype B discovered in Napa by accident in 1983. Eleven biotypes currently identified in Europe.

Rootstocks Flooding and chemical compounds (carbon bisulfide) failed to eradicate the insect. Vineyards needed to survive the infestation 1885 to 1900, tremendous effort investigating resistance of American Vitis was going in France From studies done in California in 1911, St. George was favored due to vigor, ease of grafting, ease of rooting, ability to be dry farmed Starting in 1929, Prof Jacobs tested 18 rootstocks in 50 phylloxerated sites in California AXR#1 was favored due to a wide range of adaptability for vineyard soils and yields 1 to 20 times that of St. George Other rootstocks with resistance to Biotyes A & B are currently being tested for vine and wine characteristics throughout the state.

Life Cycle Insects over winters on roots as small nymphs (see diagram) In the Spring, insect feeds and matures Mature forms, females only, deposit eggs (100-200) by asexual reproduction producing several generations (3-8) during summer and fall Many of the larvae (wanderers) leave infested roots arriving at new roots via soil cracks, crawling along the soil surface and/or wind End of September some begin hibernating and by mid December, all forms are hibernating

Biotypes A biotype is an intermediate step between one species mutating into another Biotype A cannot grow and feed on AXR while Biotype B can Bioassay roots from infested vines are taken to Davis, eggs are collected and placed on Cabernet Sauvignon roots and AXR During a 45 day period, the number of eggs/female/day are counted to determine fecundity Biotype A B CS AXR#1

*eggs/female/10 days 5.29 1.63 5.46 7.88

Shorter assays are now a focus for development 107

a) b) c) Injury

25 day bioassay Morphological differences Biochemical differences

Aphid like insect theorized to penetrate root with mouth parts injecting a saliva that liquefies cell contents Possible that insect use a hormone like chemical that causes the root to produce yellow brown swellings Swellings cause root to stop growing and root eventually dies What makes a rootstock resistant to the insect is not known

Spread Spread by putting infested cuttings into a new vineyard


Lesser-Known Wines of the World

The grape vine grows best where the climate is temperate. Two broad belts, one north and one south of the equator, have such a climate. The belt located north of the equator extends from 50 degrees N. to 30 degrees N. The one located south of the equator is narrower, extending from 30 degrees S. to 40 degrees S.

The best-known wine countries located above (or north) of the equator are France, Germany, Italy, the U.S., and Algeria. The lesser-known but also good producers are Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece as well as Russia, Czechoslovakia, China and Japan. Below the equator are the southern wine making areas that include Africa (Algeria, Morocco, South Africa); Australia, Chile, Argentina and Brazil. More than three fourths of the worlds wine is made in Europe. The Romans carried the vine culture into western and eastern France and as far north as the Rhine in Germany, to the southern part of England, and eastward along the Danube. Wine was exported from Italy to the Roman colonies, but as the colonies became better established, particularly in Spain and Southern France they produced the wines they needed with locally grown grape varieties. By 1850 the wine industry was well established in all parts of Europe south of the Rhine and extending into Austria along the Danube and into Crimea and the Caucasus in Russia. Because of the scientific and industrial revolutions, we are living today in the golden age of wines as far as quality and availability are concerned. We are now going to explore some of these less know wine producing countries. Lets start with Europe: RUSSIA


The Soviet Union is rapidly becoming one of the foremost vinicultural countries of the world. Today it ranks third in wine production after Italy and France. The Russian government is trying to eradicate the plaque of chronic alcoholism by trying to switch consumers away from distillates and into wine. Wine making here dates back to ancient times. Researchers have found evidence in Georgia, Armenia and other areas indicating that wine was made there from six to nine thousand years ago when different types of grapes-were grown and different systems of wine making were used. The vineyard areas are located in 11 republics, the most important being the Ukraine, the largest, Moldavia, Georgia, Azerbaidzhan and Armenia. One of the most beautiful wine growing areas is the Crimean peninsula, the Soviets favorite resort area. Popular grape varieties include Aligote, Chasselas, Semillon, and Cabernet Sauvignon. Large state agricultural groups control wine production. Some are responsible for the cultivation, picking, vinification and bottling of the grapes while others in addition have large storage facilities and the equipment to make brandy as well as sparkling wines. Wines are named either after the grape variety used or the area of production. Wines are divided into still and sparkling. Still wines range in taste from dry table wine, semi-dry, fortified, dessert and aromatized. Depending on quality, they are further divided into beverage wines for everyday consumption (marketed at 3 months of age) and brand wines with aging potential, made with select grape varieties in specific growing areas. They must be aged at least 18 months beginning the first of January after the harvest before they can be marketed. Brand wines by law must have varietal characteristics as well as excellent taste characteristics. If aged in the bottle for at least two years they are classified as reserve wines or collectors wines. Sparkling wines are subdivided into naturally sparkling, made according to the charmat or bulk fermentation method or artificially sparkling wines, made with the addition of carbon dioxide. YUGOSLAVIA Its favorable geographic position provides this country with good growing conditions for the vine, making it the tenth largest wine producer in the world. Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia to the north and Macedonia, Bosnia and Montenegro to the south are the most viniculturally important regions. Popular white grape varieties include Traminer, Sauvignon, pinot Grigio, Riesling and Moscato. Among the red grape varieties are cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Frank, Merlot and Pinot Noir. Mostly white wines with northern wine characteristics are produced in the north. The south produces reds and roses possessing southern wine characteristics. Wines are usually named after the grape variety. To be so called, the wine must and contain at least 80% of that variety. Table wines for current consumption are so classified if they are made with a blend of grape varieties grown in different areas of the country. If they are made with specific varieties grown in a defined geographic area, they become regional wines with a specific geographic appellation. Next come Quality wines with denomination of origin, an appellation that closely resembles Italys D.O.C. selections. These wines may bear either the geographic or the varietal name. At the top of the line are superior wines with a controlled denomination of origin, bearing either the name of the vineyard or of the grape variety used. A governmental viticultural division controls these appellations. Some sparkling wines are also made. ROMANIA


Romania is situated in the Balkan Peninsula, surrounded by Russia and the Black Sea to the north and east, Bulgaria to the south, and Yugoslavia and Hungary to the west. Romania occupies 91,700 square miles, slightly less than the state of Oregon, and has a population of 20.39 million inhabitants. Although it is a Balkan nation, Romania has a Latin heritage and has always been the major wine producing nation of the Balkan countries. Winemaking in Romania began many centuries before Christ and prospered during Roman domination of the country. Despite periods of Muslim rule, Romanian winemaking survived, resuming in full force in the 16th century. Today Romania has the ninth largest wine production in the world. The Romanians consume per capita more than four times as much as Americans. Legislation governing the growing of vines and the production of wine in Romania dates back to the middle Ages when a court officer called the Great Glass Filler issued permission each year to begin the grape harvest. In 1915 the first of the modern Romanian wine laws was issued, delaminating wine regions and establishing laboratories for analysis and control of wine production. Romanias most recent wine law was passed in 1971. It sets up an appellation of origin system based on environmental and cultural distinctions unique to individual wine zones, and establishes the following quality grades: VS VSO superior wines superior wines with appellation of origin superior wines with appellation of origin and quality grades. The three quality grades applicable under VSOC are a) full maturity harvest; b) noble maturity harvest, when grapes are attacked by botrytis cinerea; and c) noble berries harvest, when grapes are fully botrytised.


There are four wine regions in Romania, which encompass 17 individual wine zones. These four regions include the southern Sub-Carpathian area, the eastern Sub-Carpathian area, Transylvania and Banat in central Romania, and Dobrudja, near the Black Sea. The Sub-Carpathian mountain range runs through Romania in a horseshoe formation, and the foothills of this range make prime vineyard sites. Seventeen grape varieties figure in the production of Romanian wine. Several are native Romanian grapes but the most important are traditional European grape varieties, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Traminer and Italian Riesling. 111

Compared to domestic consumption, exports of Romanian wine are small. In recent years, however, the federal Romanian agency known as Vinexport, which handles worldwide exports of Romanian wine, has been undertaking an aggressive program to make Romanian wines better known abroad. Modern technology, research, experimentation and quality control are well developed throughout Romanias winemaking industry. As many as ten experimental stations scattered throughout Romania conduct research on vine cultivation. BULGARIA Situated in the Balkan Peninsula of Eastern Europe, Bulgaria is bordered by Yugoslavia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, Romania to the north and the Black Sea to the east. It is a small country, slightly larger than Ohio in area nod somewhat smaller than Ohio in population. Ancient Greek literature indicates that grape growing was common in Bulgaria even 2,000 years ago. In fact Thrace as Bulgaria was then named was one of the earliest regions of the world to grow vines for wine production. Bulgarias winemaking developed slowly but steadily over the centuries, except for periods of Turkish Muslim occupation. The countrys most dramatic strides in winemaking came after World War II when modern technology began changing the face of Bulgarias wine industry. Today Bulgaria ranks thirteenth among all countries of the world for the quantity of wine it produces, and fifth for the quantity it exports. Most of the countrys vineyards are owned by the government or by cooperatives, and the governmental institute called Vinprom orchestrates the production and marketing of Bulgarian wine. Bulgarias major wine-growing regions border the countrys major waterways: The Danube River in the north, the Black Sea in the east and the Maritsa River in central Bulgaria. Each region specialized in different grape varieties, according to its individual climate and soil. Among the numerous grapes cultivated for winemaking in Bulgaria, many are varieties uncommon in the western world, such as the Rikatzeteli of Russian origin, the Misket of Hungarian origin, the native Bulgarian Dimiat and Gamza, Mavrud, Karlova and Pamid. Bulgaria also grows a good amount of betterknown grapes as well, including Cabernet, Chardonnay, Merlot, Riesling and Sylvaner. Three of the four Bulgarian wines available in the U.S. are varietals produced from classic European grapes: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Merlot. The fourth wine, Blanc de Blancs, is made from the white Misket grape. AUSTRIA Another grape-growing country that dates back to pre-Roman times. Austrian grapes are a combination vinifera and native grapes. In the Middle Ages, monasteries grew grape vines and made wines but afterwards, due to the competition from other beverages beer and coffee wine consumption and wine making dropped. Wine making later picked up in the 18th and 19th centuries The best and most important Austrian wines come from vineyards along the Danube the Wachau region. Among the popular grape varieties grown there are Gewurztraminer, Sylvaner, Veltliner, Rulander, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay. The wines are often sold with the name of the variety on the label. If the grapes are late harvested they are labeled Spatlese or Auslese, just as it is done with the German wines. Just south of Vienna, in the villages of Gumpoldskirchen, Baden, Traikirschen among others, interesting wines are produced. Vienna, incidentally, is the home of one of the oldest viticultural and enological experimental stations in Europe. A large percentage of these wines are sold in bulk in wine bars and restaurants where they are enjoyed before, during, and after dinner. Some of the best wines are exported. 112

HUNGARY The wine industry in Hungary dates back from the 8th to the 6th century B.C. There are about 115 different grape varieties planted in this country. Among them are Aligote, Merlot, Gamay and Muscat as well as Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. There are seventeen primary wine producing areas. The most favorable for grape vines climatically is located near Lake Balaton. Another well-known region is Eger, from which comes one of the most famous Hungarian red wines, Egri Bikaver, or Bulls Blood, made with the native Kadarka grape variety. Tokaj of Today is perhaps the best-known wine of the country. It is of ancient origin and expensive to make. It comes from the Tokaj region located in northeastern Hungary. It is the only wine producing region in the world where it is forbidden to bring in bulk wine. The traditional grape variety is Furmint (panted in 58% of the vineyard acreage), which is not harvested until the end of October when some natural evaporation of water and some noble rot (botrytis) has settled on grapes. If the word exzencia appears on the label, it means that the grapes were not mechanically pressed free flow and that the grapes have been attacked by the noble rot. If the grapes are mechanically pressed, the label will bear the word szamorodini. Most of the Tokaj exported is labeled aszu meaning that the juice of shriveled berries was added to the must of the wine. GREECE Wine was an important item of export by the ancient Greeks. They favored wines made with partially dried grapes, as they preferred sweetness, which helped mask acetic characteristics. For this reason the wines were drunk within a year from the harvest. Wine is made in all parts of the mainland. The most widely distributed Greek wines in the U.S. bear varietal names such as the sweet red Mavrodaphne, which comes from the region of Patras and the Ionic Islands; Roditis, which produce dry white wines, considered to be the best grape variety for making Retsina. Other Greek wines available in the U.S. are Demestica, a light red wine and Retsina. Retsina is an everyday red or white wine to which one to three parts of dried powdered resin has been added during fermentation. The turpentine-like taste given by the resin may be considered unpleasant by many drinkers, but is a taste that can be acquired with time. ISRAEL There have been vineyards in the Holy land since the biblical times. Beginning in the 1870s when an agricultural school was established and Baron Rothschild imported French grape varieties and planted them, the wine of modern Israel started to become better known. There are three distinct wine growing areas one in the north, one in the center, between Tel Aviv and Jaffa and a southern one near Judea. The major grape varieties grown in Israel are Carignan, Grenache, Semillon, Clairette and Muscat of Alexandria. A large part of Israels wine production comes from Carmel Wines, a cooperative. SOUTH AFRICA


Vines from Europe were first planted by the Dutch settlers about 300 years ago. Its major export markets are Great Britain, Germany and Canada. A large percentage of the wine produced is distilled. Per capita consumption is more than twice that of the U.S. European varieties are planted in the cool coastal belt in such areas as Stellenbosch, Paarl, Malmsebury and Costantia. They are Cinsault, Steen, Palomino, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Petite Sirah, Gamay and Pinotage. AUSTRALIA

Vines are not native to Australia. The first European varieties were planted near Sydney in 1790 and wine was first shipped to England in 1822. The climatic conditions vary from mild and humid in the Hunter River Valley to cool to warm and dry in the south. Various grape varieties are grown. Among them are Syrah, Grenache, Doradillo, Pedro Ximenes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot and others. These vines are not grafted with American roots, as the phylloxera never invaded the vineyards of this country. 114

The areas where the vineyards are located can be divided into two main sectors those that are irrigated and those that are not. In the non-irrigated sector are located Hunter Valley in the state of Victoria, Adelaide and Swans Valley. The irrigated area is mostly in Murray Valley. SWITZERLAND Appellations of Origin & Quality Standards Main Wine Regions Wallis (Valais) / Western Switzerland : Geneva / Vaud / Neuchtel / Fribourg / Bern / Jura / Eastern Switzerland / Tessin (Ticino) Grape Varieties Pinot Blanc / Pinot Gris (Tokayer / Grigio)/ Pinor Noir (Blauburgunder) / Merlot / Gewrztraminer / Elbling / Auxerrois / Cabernet Franc / Cabernet Sauvignon / Chasselas / Riesling-Sylvaner (Mller-Thurgau) / Gamay (Dle) / Chardonnay / Aligot / Sauvignon / Muscat / Kerner / Freisamer / Completer / Findling / Sylvaner / Gamaret / Granoir / Cabernet / Plant Robert / Smillon / Syrah / Bondola / Clinton / Nostrano Americano This country produces far more white wine than red, but the request for red wine is much greater. Cool climatic conditions limit the areas where grapes can be grown as well as the varieties that can be planted. In the western part of the country mainly white grape varieties (especially Chasselas dore also known as Fendant) are grown. This is an early ripening variety, which seldom attains high sugar. Sugaring of musts is, therefore, necessary. Many of these wines have a slight natural carbonation from malolactic fermentation. The regions around Lake Neuchatel and near Lausanne are also best known for their white wines. They are often sold under the name of a village (Aigle, Dezaley). Gamay is a popular red grape variety in Valais. In eastern Switzerland, the majority of the wines are made with Pinot Noir grapes. In the best of years the wines have a moderate Pinot Noir character and some distinction. SOUTH AMERICA No wines were produced in South America before the Spanish conquest. In the early 16th century vines from Mexico were introduced in Peru and were then planted in the more temperate areas of Chile and Argentina. The reason for planting wines in South America was to have sacramental wines, table wines and a good export item. ARGENTINA Largest producer of wine in the western hemisphere. 115

A wide variety of European varieties are planted Malbec, Merlot, Pedro Ximenes, Trebbiano, Riesling and Sauvignon. Italians, who settled in Argentina at the end of the 19th century, established the present wine-producing areas. 95% of the vineyards are located in the Andean region where the Spanish conquistadors planted vines as well as olive trees. The major viticultural centers are in Mendoza,San Juan and Rio Negro. CHILE The vines were first planted in the middle 1500s. Their growth is favored by cooler climate, the immigration of wine-makers from France in the mid 1800s who sought new growing areas following the blight of the phylloxera in Europe. They planted such varieties as Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Merlot, Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon. Also, some of the Criolla type varieties imported from Peru (and originally from Mexico). Most of the best wines are red. They age well and are made with Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and some Pinot Noir. The white wines are mainly made with Semillon and often aged in wood. The government controls the words Reservado or Gran Vino on the label indicates a high quality wine as these appellation. While many wines are sold under estate or varietal names, many other bear generic names such as Chablis and Burgundy. NEW ZEALAND The cultivation of the vine was one of the first agricultural tasks undertaken by early settlers. An Anglican missionary named Samuel Mardsen planted the first vines in northland in 1819. At first the progress of viticulture was slow. It has picked up in the past 15 years. Almost a third of the vineyards are located near Auckland where a government run experimental station is situated. This country is located within the temperate belt. The climate is influenced by the ocean, which surrounds it.


White wines account for 54% of the total production. The major varieties are Riesling, Sylvaner, Palomino and Chardonnay. The red wines are made with Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage and Pinot Noir.


Fortified Wines
Fortified Wines


What is a fortified wine? Generally over 15% but less than 24% alcohol by volume i. Fortified wines were born of the need to preserve European wines on long trade voyages during the 16th and 17th centuries. Measures of brandy were added before or during the fermentation process to stabilize the wine. On long sea voyages, fortified wines were able to withstand the wildly fluctuating temperatures and constant motion they were subjected to in the ship's hold. ii. Virtually the same process is used to make today's fortified wines. The resulting wines typically contain between 15 and 21 per cent alcohol, and are more stable than ordinary table wines and less likely to spoil once opened. If Brandy is added after the fermentation process, the result is a dry wine. If added before fermentation, the result is a sweet wine with high sugar content. iii. There are four key types of fortified wines: Port, Sherry (named for Jerez, its Spanish birthplace), Madiera [muhDEH-rah] (named for the island southwest of Portugal on which it is made) and Marsala (the best-known fortified wine of Italy). The latter two are often used in cooking, but some drinkable types are available. iv. The most common additive is brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). As mentioned, the original reason for fortification was to preserve wines, as the higher alcohol level and additional sweetness help to preserve the wine (when supplemental alcohol is added before fermentation finishes, it kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar). Even though other preservation methods exist, the fortification process survives, as consumers have developed tastes for wines preserved this way. Fortified wines must be distinguished from spirits made from wine. While both have increased alcohol content, spirits are the result of a process of distillation; while fortified wines have spirits added to them. Fortified wines generally have an alcohol content between that of wines and spirits. Fortified wines are legally called dessert wines in the U.S. but are called liqueur wines in Europe. All Different types Sherry Port Marsala Madeira Vin doux Naturel 118


Vermouth Muscat Sangria 1. Those that are fortified by adding spirit or brandy during the fermentation and hence arresting it and retaining some of the natural sugar: a) Port b) Madeira 2. Those that are fortified by adding spirit or brandy after the fermentation and hence arresting it and retaining some of the natural sugar: c) Sherry d) Marsala

PORT Basic Overview Study Guide


A. B.

Port, the real thing, comes from the region of Oporto in Portugals north-eastern area. Two distinctive areas for production of port 1. The Duoro valley-up the river from the city of Oporto where the grapes are grown and the wine made. 2. Vila Nova de Gaia: Within Oporto, where the port houses store and age the port before selling, bottling and shipping it. Grapes: many ports not just one or two, actually there are over 40! 1. Touriga Nacional 2. Tinta Francesca 3. Bastardo 4. Tinta Cao 5. Souzao 6. Mourisco Vineyards 1. Vineyard site very important: Graded a) A-F: A is the best! b) Soil type Location e) Grapes f) Vine concentration etc Severe climate: hot and cold Production: 119



E. F.

1. Grapes harvested Either into special auto-vinificators, which expedite a quick and vigorous fermentation, or into lagers where they are foot trodden. 2. After approx. 36 hours (well before total fermentation), they must is strained off into vats containing brandy (10 pts: 45 pts. Must) 3. Fermentation is arrested (and later removed from macerating) and the wine is left till the spring when it will be shipped down river to Vila Nova. 4. The port is shortly after further fortified, classified and blended G. TYPES OF PORT 1. Ruby port: Youngest, least expensive most prevalent Blended from more than one year, non vintage and sold after approximately three to four years 2. Tawny port: 2 types-commercial and traditional a) Traditional tawnies are made by blending the ports of several years and maturing them for a long period of time in oak b) Minimal seven or eight year barrel age c) 10, 15, 20 years etc d) Long term ageing has several effects (1) Leaches color from the wine (2) Softens and adds texture (3) Pulls some of the sweetness 3. Vintage port: only in exceptional years a) From only one year, though can be a blend of several lots b) Matured in oak for two years and then into bottle c) Crust will form, later need to decant d) Aged in black bottle to slow the process 4. Late bottle vintage port: LBVs a) As it sounds, a late bottled vintage b) From one year, but aged in cask 4-6 first 5. Single Quinta port: great wine in off years a) From a single special vineyard b) Made in years NOT declared, but that vineyard was of exceptional quality c) Treated as vintage port d) Examples (1) Taylor (Vargellas (2) Graham (Malvedos) (3) Fonseca (Guimaraes)


Port In Detail
Port wine - (also known as Vinho do Porto, Porto, or simply Port) is a sweet fortified wine from the Portuguese Douro Valley in the northern part of Portugal. Port is produced with grapes from the Douro region, fortified with distilled grape spirits, and stored in caves in Vila Nova de Gaia or in the Douro itself. The drink was named Vinho do Porto in the second half of the 17th century when it was first sold in the city of Porto. Much of the wine would then be exported to the rest of Europe from the Leixes docks. The Port Wine protected region was established in 1756, making it the oldest in the world. Similar wines, often also called "Port", are produced in several other countries, notably Australia, South Africa, India and the United States. In some nations, including Canada, after a phase-in period, and the countries of the European Union, only the product from Portugal may be labeled as Port. In the United States, the Portuguese product, by Federal law pursuant to a treaty with Portugal, must be labeled "Porto" or "Vinho do Porto" for differentiation.

Recent archeological excavations have shown evidence of wine production in the Douro valley dating back to the 3rd or 4th century AD, but the industry we know today has its origins in the mid 15th Century. However it was not until the early 18th century that the wine was fortified. Port became very popular in England after the Methuen Treaty of 1703, when merchants were permitted to import it at a low duty, while war with France deprived English wine drinkers of French wine. In 1756, during the rule of the Marqus do Pombal, the Companhia Geral da Agricultura das Vinhas do Alto Douro ( C. G. A. V. A. D. ) (General Company of Viticulture of the Upper Douro) was founded to guarantee the quality of the product and fair pricing to the end consumer. C.G.A.V.A. also was in charge of regulating which Port Wine would be for export or internal consumption and managing the protected geographic indication. Being established in 1756, the Port Wine producing Douro region is the oldest protected region in the world. The long trip to England often resulted in spoiled wines, the fortification of the wine was introduced to improve the shipping and shelf-life of the wine for its journey. The continued English involvement in the port trade can be seen in the names of many port shippers: Cockburn, Croft, Dow, Graham, Sandeman, Taylor and Warre being amongst the best known. Shippers of Dutch and German origin are also prominent, such as Niepoort and Burmester. 121

Viticulture and Vinification:

Located in Northeast Portugal, within the Douro River basin, surrounded by craggy mountains that give it very particular soil and climacteric characteristics, this region spreads over a total area of approximately 250 000 hectares and is divided into three sub-regions that differ greatly from each other not only as regards the weather but also for socio-economical reasons. The characteristics of the climate, topography e soil in the Douro affect the degree to which the natural resources can be profitably used and the activities that develop around them. It was the co-existence of several types of quality wine in the Demarcated Region of the Douro that determined the need for the criteria that are applied to selecting and sharing the musts that are produced in the region. Thus, of the entire amount of land under vines, only 26 000 ha are authorized for Port Wine. The vines that are considered appropriate for this wine are selected according to a criteria of quality based on a Method, and classified according to a scale of quality that ranges from A to F. This method considers soil, climatic and agricultural parameters that are important in determining the quality potential of each vineyard. Vines must be at least 5 years old before they can be considered as apt to produce Port Wine. Furthermore, the benefcio coefficient that is attributed to a vineyard is calculated on the basis of the registered characteristics of each vineyard. Viticulture, the main activity of most farmers in the region, takes place under particularly rigorous climacteric conditions, on stony soil that cannot be put to any other use. Before a vineyard can be planted on the very steep slopes, the land has to be terraces. The manner by which the vines are trained is the one that best overcomes the restraints imposed upon them by the climate, the soil, the needs of the plants and the production goals. In many cases, almond and olives trees are planted around the edges of the vineyards.

Methods for Training the Vines

Traditionally, the vines in the region are grown low, close to the ground. The single or double Guyot and unilateral and bilateral cordons are the methods most frequently used for training the vines. Trellises may be occasionally found but this method is not commonly used nor is it permitted for Port Wine. Training Method Simple Guyot Double Guyot Unilateral cordon Bilateral cordon N of buds/vine 5-6 8 - 12 8 12 Type of Pruning Short Mixed Mixed Mixed

Although traditionally vines reach a height of 1 meter, today the top may be as much as 1m30 to 1m60 above the ground. The first wire is placed at a height of approximately 0m60 and this is followed by a single or double wire 30-35 cm above it, as a first support for the shoots, and the last wire, the top one, at 1m40 to 1m50 from the ground.

Assessment of vineyards Scoring Method

Factors considered Soil and Climate

Minimum score

Maximum score

Location Altitude Slope of land Bedrock Rough matter 122

-50 -900 1 -400 0

600 240 101 100 80

Shelter Agricultural Yield Vine stock Planting density
Training system Age

-30 0 -900 -300 -50

-500 0

100 60 120 420 50

100 60

Classification of parcels
Class A B C D E Score >1200 Between 1001 and 1200 points Between 801 and 1000 points Between 601 and 800 points Between 401 and 600 points Between 201 and 400 points

Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto (IVDP or Port and Douro Wine Institute) Regulates the
Port industry in Portugal. Port wine is typically richer, sweeter, heavier, and possesses a higher alcohol content than most other wines. This is caused by the addition of distilled grape spirits (aquardente similar to brandy) to fortify the wine and halt fermentation before all the sugar is converted to alcohol. It is commonly served after meals as a dessert wine, often with cheese. White and tawny ports are often served as an apritif. It has an alcohol content of roughly 20%. Wine with less than 16% ethanol cannot protect itself against spoilage if exposed to air; with an alcohol content of 18% or higher, port wine can safely be stored in wooden casks that 'breathe', thereby permitting the fine aging of port wine. Until about 1756, the making of shipping wines, as Port Wines were called in those days, followed the so called "ancient winemaking" techniques. The addition of brandy (and only in very limited amounts) only occurred after fermentation was over so that wines that were made were dry. In 1820, a new method for adding brandy the so-called modern winemaking technique was applied whereby brandy was added to stop fermentation, thus creating a sweeter wine in the mouth. This method only became widespread in 1852 when the Ports began to take on the characteristics of the Port Wines we know today. 123

Port from Portugal comes in several styles, which can be divided into two broad categories: 1. Wines that have matured in sealed tanks or bottles, with no exposure to air, and experience what is known as "reductive" aging. The wines very slowly take on a tawny colour, and become smoother on the palate and less tannic. 2. Wines that have matured in wooden barrels, whose permeability allows a small amount of exposure to oxygen, and experience what is known as "oxidative" aging. They too lose colour, but at a faster pace. They also lose volume to evaporation, leaving behind a wine that is slightly more viscous and intense. When white ports are matured for long periods, the color darkens, eventually reaching a point where it can be hard to discern (from appearance alone) whether the original wine was red or white. Wines matured in barrels are sometimes known as 'wood ports'.

Tawny port
Tawny ports are wines made from red grapes that are aged in wooden barrels, exposing them to gradual oxidation and evaporation. As a result, they gradually mellow to a golden-brown color. The exposure to wood imparts "nutty" flavors to the wine, which is blended to match the house style. Tawny Reserve port (without an indication of age) is a basic blend of wood aged port that has spent at least seven years in barrels. Tawny with an indication of age is a blend of several vintages, with the average years "in wood" stated on the label, the official categories being 10, 20, 30 and over 40 years. The cheapest forms of Tawny Port are young wines made from a blend of red and white grapes. Unlike Tawny Reserve and Tawnies with an indication of age, they may have spent little or no time maturing in wood. Tawny ports from a single vintage are called Colheitas (pronounced col-YATE-ah, meaning harvest).

Garrafeira Port
Garrafeira is an intermediate vintage dated style of Port made from the grapes of a single harvest that combines both the oxidative maturation of years in wood, with further reductive maturation in large clear glass demijohns (7 to 11 liter carboys / Persian
qarabah, from Arabic qarraba, big jug).

It is required by the IVDP that wines spend some time in wood, usually between three and six years, followed by at least a further eight years in glass, before bottling. In practice the times spent in glass are much longer.

At present, only one company, Niepoort, markets Garrafeiras. Their black demijohns, affectionately known as bon-bons, hold approximately 11 litres each. The so-called garrafeiras are a specialty of Niepoort. The specialty demijohn bottles are no longer produced today and therefore at Niepoort the 18th century demijohns are used and re-used. This type of ageing adds a unique character derived from prolonged direct contact with the glass demijohns. The Niepoorts garrafeira cellar is secluded from the bustle of the town, filled with tranquility and tradition, and inspires respect for the longevity of the wines. 124

Confusingly, the word Garrafeira may be found on some very old Tawny labels, where the contents of the bottle are of exceptional age.

Ruby port
Ruby port is the cheapest and most extensively produced type of port. After fermentation it is stored in tanks made of concrete or stainless steel to prevent oxidative aging, and preserve its rich claret colour. The wine is usually blended to match the style of the brand to which it is to be sold. The wine is fined and cold filtered prior to bottling, and does not generally improve with age. It is aged for about 3 to 5 years from wines of two or three different vintages.

White port
White port is made from white grapes, and should always be served cool or cold. It can be used as the basis for a cocktail, or served on its own. There is a range of styles of white port, from dry to very sweet.

Vintage port
Although it accounts for only about two percent of production, vintage port is the flagship wine of all Portugal. Vintage port is made entirely from the grapes of a declared vintage year. Not every year is declared a vintage in the Douro, only those when conditions are favourable to the production of a fine and lasting wine. The decision on whether or not to declare a vintage is made in the spring of the second year following the harvest. The decision to declare a vintage is made by each individual port house, often referred to as a 'shipper'. The port industry is one where reputations are hard won and easily lost, so the decision is never taken lightly. During periods of recession and war, potential 'declarations' have sometimes been missed for economic reasons. In recent years, some shippers have adopted the 'chateau' principle for declarations, declaring all but the worst years. More conventional shippers will declare, on average, about three times a decade. If a shipper decides that his wine is of sufficient quality, and wishes to market some of it as Vintage Port, then they will send samples to the IVDP for approval, and declare the vintage. In very good years, almost all the shippers will declare their wines, although there are a small number of independent Quintas who never produce Vintage Port. In good intermediate years, the producers of blended Vintage Ports will not declare their flagship blended wine, but will study the quality of the wine from the component Quintas that make up the blend, to see if they are of sufficient quality to be declared in their own right. Thus from 1996, which was not declared by Dow or Taylor for their main blend, you can find Dow's Quinta do Bomfim, and Taylor's Quinta de Vargellas, amongst others. However, you will not normally find these wines marketed for years when the main blend is declared. Some shippers now choose to declare their wines on all but the worst years. Quinta do Vesuvio, which has been producing Vintage Ports in its own name since it was acquired by the Symington family in 1989, has declared a vintage every year with the exceptions of 1993 and 2002. 125

Although there have been years when only one or two wines have been declared, it is over thirty years since there was a year with no declarations at all. With improved wine making technologies, and better weather forecasts during the harvest, it is possible that we will never again see a year without any Vintage Port to its name. While it is by far the most renowned type of port, from a volume and revenue standpoint, vintage port actually makes up only a small percentage of the production of most shippers. Vintage ports are aged in barrels for a maximum of two and a half years before bottling, and generally require another ten to thirty years of aging in the bottle before reaching what is considered a proper drinking age. Since they are aged in barrels for only a short time, they retain their dark ruby colour and fresh fruit flavours. Particularly fine vintage ports can continue to gain complexity and drink wonderfully for many decades after they were bottled, and therefore can be particularly sought after and expensive wines. Single Quinta Vintage Port This is vintage port produced from a particular vineyard and sometimes from a lesser "undeclared" year. However, some of the most renowned Vintage Ports are Single Quintas. Vintage port should not be confused with 'Late Bottled Vintage, which is a lesser wine Late Bottled Vintage (LBV) Port Late Bottled Vintage (often referred to simply as LBV) was originally wine that had been destined for bottling as Vintage Port, but due to lack of demand was left in the barrel for rather longer than had been planned. Over time it has become two distinct styles of wine, both of them bottled between four and six years after the vintage, but one style is fined and filtered prior to bottling while the other is not. The filtered wine has the advantage of being ready to drink without decanting, and is bottled in a stoppered bottle that can be easily resealed. However many wine experts feel that this convenience comes at a price and believe that the filtration process strips out much of the character of the wine. Unfiltered wines are bottled with conventional corks and need to be decanted. Recent bottlings are identified by the label wording 'Unfiltered' or 'Bottle matured' (or both). Prior to the 2002 regulations, this style was often marketed as 'Traditional', a description that is no longer permitted.

If in doubt, a prospective purchaser can check the cork, and examine the top of the bottle to see if there is a stopper underneath the capsule; the serrated edge of a stopper is usually visible, or can be detected with a thumbnail. LBV is intended to provide some of the experience of drinking a Vintage Port but without the decade-long wait of bottle aging. To a limited extent it succeeds, as the extra years of oxidative aging in barrel does mature the wine more quickly. Typically ready to drink when released, LBV ports are the product of a single year's harvest and tend to be lighter bodied than a vintage port. Filtered LBVs do not improve significantly with age, whereas the unfiltered wines will usually be improved by a few extra years in the bottle. Since 2002, bottles that carry the words 'Bottle matured' must have enjoyed at least three years of bottle maturation prior to release.

Reserve or vintage character Port

Reserve port is a premium Ruby port approved by the IVDP's tasting panel, the Cmara de Provadores 126

In 2002, the IVDP prohibited the use of the term "Vintage Character", as the wine had neither attribute.

Crusted Port
Crusted Port may be considered a poor man's vintage port. It is a blend of full-bodied first class wines from recent vintages, which have been matured in seasoned oak casks for two to three years before being bottled. The wine is bottled (unfiltered) and released after aging an additional three years in the bottle. It is a blend of port wine from several vintages, which, like Vintage Port, is bottled unfiltered, and sealed with a driven cork. Like Vintage Port it needs to be decanted before drinking. Although Crusted ports will improve with age, the blending process is intended to make these wines approachable at a much younger age. The date on a Crusted Port bottle refers to the bottling date, not the year the grapes were grown. The year marked on the label refers to the year it was bottled and not to a specific vintage.
Like Vintage Port, the wine will throw off natural sediment or crust during the bottle aging and this is what gives this style of Port its name. As with Vintage Port the wine should be stored lying down and will require decanting prior to serving. Stand the bottle upright a few hours before opening in order to allow the sediment to settle prior to decanting

Dows Crusted Port, although ready to drink at the time of its release, can be further aged in the bottle for 5-8 years. It will then develop the bouquet and flavor unique to bottle matured wines, and thus offers an excellent value alternative to Vintage Port.

Grapes and the "Port" appellation

The wide range of types of vines that exist in the Douro and that adapt themselves to different climatic conditions is proof of the Region's ability to offer optimal conditions for vines. The varietals, most of them native to the region, are grafted onto different types of rootstock, chosen according to their compatibility with the varietal and the characteristics of the soil in which they are to be planted. The types of vines that may be planted in the Region, as is the case in all demarcated regions, is regulated by a Decree-Law that lists the authorized varietals, those that are recommended, and the percentage according to which each may be planted. Today, winemakers have chosen to plant fewer, carefully chosen varietals in the new vineyards. The most noteworthy red wine varietals are: Tinta Amarela, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Francesa, Touriga Nacional and Tinto Co; predominant white grape varietals are Malvasia Fina, Viosinho, Donzelinho and Gouveio. White Grape Varieties Minimum 60%
Esgana Co Folgaso Gouveio ou Verdelho Malvasia Fina Rabigato Viosinho

Maximum 40%
Arinto Boal Cercial Cdega Malvasia Corada Moscatel Galego Donzelinho Branco Samarrinho

Red Grape Varieties Minimum 60%

Bastardo Mourisco Tinto Tinta Amarela Tinta Barroca Tinta Francisca Tinta Roriz Tinto Co Touriga Francesa Touriga Nacional

Maximum 40%
Cornifesto Donzelinho Malvasia Periquita Rufete Tinta Barca


As regards productivity, the vines grown in the Region are not known for their high yield. The maximum authorized yield is of 55 hl/ha (approximately 7 500 Kg/ha). Average yield is of approximately 30 hl/ha (4 100 kg/ha). Red port can be made from many types of grapes (castas), but the main ones are
Tinta Barroca - a Portuguese red wine grape that is grown primarily in the Douro region with some plantings in South Africa. In Portugal, it is a common blending grape in Port wine while in South Africa it is normally made into a varietal. The vine was introduced to the Douro region in the late 19th century and has the advantages of being able to withstand cool conditions while planted on north-facing slopes. Tinta Co - a Portuguese red wine grape that has been grown primarily in the Douro region since the sixteenth century. The vine produces very low yields which has lead it close to extinction despite the high quality of wine that it can produce. Improvements in bilateral cordon training and experiments at University of California, Davis have helped to sustain the variety. Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo) - is a variety of vitis vinifera, the red grape used commonly in winemaking. It is native to northern Spain, and widely cultivated in both northern and central Spain. It is also fairly common in Argentina, and plays a minor role in the wines of two regions of Portugal, the central Alentejo, where it is known as Aragonez and used in red table wine blends of variable quality, and Douro, where it is known as Tinta Roriz and mainly used in blends to make port wine. Touriga Francesa - (or Touriga Franca) is one of the major grape varieties used to produce port wine. Touriga Francesa is lighter and more perfumed than Touriga Nacional and adds finesse to this powerful wine. Touriga Francesa has been described by Jancis Robinson as playing Cabernet Franc to Touriga Nacionals Cabernet Sauvignon. Touriga Nacional - is a variety of wine grape used predominantly to make port, and considered by many to be Portugal's finest grape. Also occasionally known as Mortgua, the Touriga Nacional grape is unpopular with some vineyards as its grapes are unusually small, leading to comparatively low yields. Nonetheless, it is hard to find a manufacturer of port that does not consider the grape as one of its most important ingredients, and it is the principal variety used in the great vintage ports and table wines of the Douro valley. Recently its use in the production of dry table wines has increased, particularly in the Rio Do region of Portugal. White ports are produced the same way as red ports, except that they use white grapes Esgana-Co Folgaso Malvasia - The Malvasia grape is of Greek origin, but there is some controversy over exactly where it originated and what grape varieties were its ancestors. In exploring this, it is necessary to consider separately Malvasia as a wine style and Malvasia as a grape variety. (also known as Malvazia or Malmsey) is a group of wine grape varieties grown in Italy (including Sicily, Lipari, and Sardinia), Slovenia, Croatia, Corsica, the Iberian Peninsula, the Canary Islands, the island of Madeira, California, Australia and Brazil. These grapes are used to produce white (and more rarely red) table wines, dessert wines, and fortified wines of the same name, or are sometimes used as part of a blend of grapes, such as in Vin Santo. Grape varieties in this family include Malvasia Bianca, Malvasia Negra, Malvasia Nera, Malvasia Nera di Brindisi and a number of other varieties.[ Rabigato Verdelho -is a white grape grown throughout Portugal, though most associated with the island of Madeira, and also gives its name to one of the four main types of Madeira wine. Viosinho

While Porto produced in Portugal is strictly regulated by the Instituto do Vinho do Porto, many wines in the U.S. use the above names but do not conform to the same standards. Thus each genuine port style has a corresponding, often very different, style that can be found in wines made outside Portugal.

There is a unique body of English ritual and etiquette surrounding the consumption of port, stemming from British naval custom. Traditionally, the wine is passed "port to port" -- the host will pour a glass for the person seated at their right, and then pass the bottle or decanter to the left (to port); this practice is repeated around the circle. If the port becomes forestalled at some point, it is considered poor form to ask for the decanter directly. Instead, the person seeking a refill would ask of the person who has the bottle: "Do you know the Bishop of 128

Norwich?" (after the notoriously stingy Bishop). If the person being thus queried does not know the ritual (and so replies in the negative), the querent will remark "He's an awfully nice fellow, but he never remembers to pass the port".

Service: Opening a bottle of Port and the proper temperature for service
Recommended Port Service Temperatures:
Port Wine Service USSA Wine School Vintage LBV Tawny Older Colheitas Garrafeira Vintage Character Ruby Low Celsius 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 High Celsius 17 18 16 16 16 18 18 Low Fahrenheit 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 High Fahrenheit 63 64 61 61 61 64 64

Tc = (5/9)*(Tf-32) Tf = (9/5*TC)+32

Opening a bottle of Port is the same as opening a regular bottle of wine. Technical service is performed in the same manner (please reference wine service section for illustrations). Where the difference can lie in Port wine service is in instances where decanting will improve the taste of the wine after opening, allowing to open up just prior to consumption. Styles of Port that should be decanted are the ones aged in bottle versus those that are aged in wooden casks such as in Vintage dated, Crusted, Traditional or Unfiltered LBV Port (Late Bottled Vintage), older Colheitas, Gerrafeiras and even more youthful styles to reduce tannin grip. Most Port wines are not filtered before bottling (Vintage Port is not fined either) and therefore, age in the bottle. The "crust" or sediment (a.k.a. deposit or dregs) that forms inside of the bottle is nothing more than the dead yeast cells and tannins dropping off in older vintages. They are not in any way harmful but neither are they pleasant to drink. Wood aged Ports such as Tawny Port (10, 20, 30 and 40 years old) have their sediment filtered out before bottling and dont age further. Equipment for decanting is the same as with regular still wines. Tapered candle on base holder to emit light on the neck of the bottle so you can stop pouring when the sediments start coming out is needed. Where special port equipment comes in play is especially needed in older bottles of Vintage or aged in bottle Ports of approximately 20 years or more. The corks especially may have dried out if the wines have not been perfectly stored. So to avoid this the neck of the bottle is severed with a heated port tong right below the mark of where the cork end lies in the bottle. Heated over a Bunsen burner the Port Tongs tip will turn red as the temperatures rises so hot that the glass will make a clean break. Once completed the bottle is decanted through either a filter. Options here abound but our recommendation is fine cheesecloth lay over the mouth of the decanter and slowly pouring the Port through it in one continuous motion. You can pour out the entire bottle in this manner and extract the optimum amount of wine free of sediment.





A. B. C. D. E.

From the Jerez region in the southwest region around Cadiz in Andalucia. Never a vintage, always a special blend. Gapes: Palomino, Pedro Ximenez (PX) and Moscatel (Muscat) Soil is special: Albariza Production of sherry: 1. Grapes are harvested. Palomino directly to the press house. PX and Muscat left to dry and raisin extra concentration 2. Gypsum sometimes added to fermenting wine to enhance dryness and acidity. 3. After wine has almost completed it fermentation, its drawn off into oak barrels to about 2/3 full. 4. 5. Taken to ageing bodegas to finish and age Wines are fortified with spirit and then classified by status a) b) c) Vinegary lots are sold off for vinegar Oxidized and nutty Those with flor, will be finos 131


The solera system: The uniqueness of sherry 1. A sherrys ideal is to be consistent in flavor, like non-vintage champagne or scotch. 2. New wines placed in barrels and placed into lowest level of the criadera. 3. The sherry is drawn off the solera in a house formula, and the barrels are replenished back from the next oldest 4. Solera year sherries refer to the year that a solera was started. EX: 1872 5. Color and sweetness are obtained through the addition of :sweet and color wines made from PX and moscatel.


TYPES OF SHERRY 1. Manzanilla: Driest style (slightly salty) 2. Fino: dry and delicate

3. Amontillado: dry and older darker a) b) Commercial: add color and sweetness Traditional: aged fino

4. Oloroso: less dry and full bodied 5. Cream sherries made by sweetening this 6. Almancenista: old original dry sherries Unblended from special soleras


Madeira In Detail

Most of the top vineyard sites used to produce vintage wines are located in the South Part of the Island. Development though of the tourism industry have increased plantings on the North Part of the Island as a stable long term growth is viewed to be possible although few have realized the quality of the top Southern plantings.

Madeira is a fortified wine made from grapes and wine produced on the Island of Madeira in the country
of Portugal. In making the wines, alcohol is added before fermentation is complete, which stops the process and leaves residual sugar in the wine. Vintage Madeira represents the best-quality wines from a top year and must be aged a minimum of 20 years in cask followed by two in bottle, but on the island some venerable vintage Madeiras are kept in 20-liter glass carboys to avoid any further evaporation. There is much debate about the relative merits of single vintage and dated solera Madeiras, and today only vintage is produced. The solera blends were generally established as phylloxera and powdery mildew (Odium) ravaged the island's vineyards in the 19th century. Solera wines, which have been gently refreshed with younger wines, can taste more vigorous and rounder than the vintage wines which have benefited from no "correction" of the year's shortcomings.

Traditionally, Madeiras have been vintage-dated or made as a non-vintage blend (which may be labeled with the average age of the blend -- such as five, 10 or 15 years old -- or with a solera date, indicating the oldest vintage in the blend).
Colheita ("cuhl-YAY-tah") means "single harvest" in Portuguese and is the equivalent of "vintage," but since the word vintage has been trademarked by Portugal's association of Port shippers, no other wine from Portugal is permitted to use the term. (Port producers use the term colheita for tawny Ports from a single vintage.) Unlike vintage Madeira, which must be aged at least 20 years in cask and two years in bottle, Colheita Madeira may be released after five years in barrel and one in bottle. Madeira producers had petitioned the institute for several years to approve the change, arguing that greater flexibility in the regulations was necessary to compete with the more popular fortified wines, especially Port. 133

Although Maderia had been a fashionable society drink in the United States during the 1700s and 1800s, its popularity declined for a number of reasons in the past century. "Colheita is a new style of single-harvest wine created to encourage appreciation of Madeira as a quality fortified wine," said Bartholomew Broadbent, president of Broadbent Selections, the largest importers of Madeira into North America. "It's ready to drink as soon as it is bottled, although it keeps almost indefinitely." The first Colheita Madeiras to be produced since the Madeira Wine Institute authorized the new designation are began to appear in North American retail wine shops in late 2002. There are four major types of Madeira o Sercial o Verdelho o Bual (or Boal) o Malmsey (or Malvasia)

They are differentiated by two things: the grape varieties from which each was originally made, and the respective sweetness levels of the finished wines. Sercial is the driest style, containing up to 1.5 percent residual sugar. Similar to fino and manzanilla Sherries, Sercial can be served as an aperitif and sometimes with dinner, perhaps accompanying a beef-based consomm. Verdelho may have up to 2.5 percent residual sugar, lending the wine greater richness. Bual, though sweeter still, at 3.5 percent maximum residual sugar, should be balanced by sharp, tangy acidity. Malmsey, made from Malvasia grapes, is the richest style, with upward of 4 percent residual sweetness. Buals and Malmseys resemble tawny Ports, often showing even more richness and concentration, depending on cask aging

Candy, as the Anglo-Saxon lands would call them, or Candia Malvasia was a wine that the city of Candia in Crete had great success selling during Venetian times. Vines of Candia in Crete set the stage for the development of Madeira wines. The vines planted there would eventually be the first of four main varieties that would find its descendants flourish and evolve on the yet undiscovered and uninhabited island of Madeira. During the 13th century Venice had been dominating the commerce of the Mediterranean, including the wine trade. Noticeably, England and other Northern European countries of the time participated vigorously in trade for this much sought after commodity. The market was very strong for the sweet taste of this excellent variety of wine. Unfortunately, there are not many records showing the outward expansion of the seed of the Candia to other regions of post middle-ages Europe, except to say that as the merchants of Venice and Genoa spread their operations across Europe they took with them their resources and assets that would develop their interests further. Prince Henry the Navigator started it all, Madeira Wine, the Americas, the discoveries of the sea route to India...In the 15th century Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal was quick to see the advantages of developing Madeira as an island vineyard. He sent the Malvasia vine to the recently discovered island and ordered the production of wines to commence. Soon enough England no longer had to deal with a monopoly by Venice. New wines started showing promise on Madeira and it became advantageous for the English to switch their trade to the Island where they could get wines of the same level of quality. 134

During this time "Malmsey" became the English word for Malvasia. Boal vines from Burgundy, were called Bual; and the vines imported from the Rhineland, Riesling, were called Sercial. However, the origin of Verdelho vines is not precisely known. All these wines would later be called by their generic name "Madeira". The Venetian Cadamosto, not likely to have been happy about the success of the Madeira adventure, tried to remain objective in his writings about the economic developments of the island during the middle of the 15th century. He spoke of the progress with wine and sugarcane, mentioning that the vines had been imported from Candia by Prince Henry's orders and he could see the impact of the wines on the European commercial markets. According to Cadamosto, bunches of grapes were reaching the size of 80 (sic) centimeters ! During the sixteenth century the old sailing boats that were used to traverse the oceans to and from places like India, China, or Japan rolled back and forth like a piston in an internal combustion engine. Fortunately for the wine, this hot and furious chamber of energy did not help immediately invent the car: What it did do, however, was to invent something just as fortuitous as the vehicle of the twentieth century would be: the design of wine by the hot sauna or estufa method. The hardy barrels of Madeira wine seemed to have enjoyed the ride to India, they came home in better shape than what they had been upon first departure. Their "sauna bath" in the hold was a healthy exercise and improved their good nature. The ships used to sail east to India, around the Cape of Good Hope, passed over the equator subjecting the barrels of wine to sizzling temperatures. Some barrels that would not be sold were returned to Funchal and, when tasted, were found to be superior to wines not taking these extended voyages. An ordinary sailor was apparently responsible for the find. The boat on which he was sailing was carrying crates from Funchal, which, for some unknown reason, were refused in Hong Kong. Shortly before returning to Madeira, the captain ordered that the barrels of "spoilt" wine be thrown overboard. The sailor - and who could blame him - thinking this a tragic waste, opened a cask and tried some of the wine destined to be tipped away. His face lit up as the first taste touched his lips and trickled over his palate. Over the course of the voyage the grape had been tipped in another, completely new, but positive direction and soon the wines were called "Returned Wine" or "India Circuit Wine", among a variety of catchy names that added to the wine's growing popularity in every port. At the time, the general consensus of opinion was that the secret behind this special wine had to be somewhere along the journey over the equator. Was it the rocking of the ship that had done the trick or the great difference between the temperatures recorded during the day and those at night? Or had seawater, either when transporting the wine on to the ship or else just splashing around in the stern, managed to penetrate the barrels of Madeira? Perhaps it was a combination of various factors, which contributed towards the new taste. Even today there is no logical, scientific reason for the change from an ordinary sweet table wine to Madeira wine as we know it. One thing is certain, however, and that is that no other wine would put up with such rough treatment. An ordinary sailor was apparently responsible for the find. The boat on which he was sailing was carrying crates from Funchal, which, for some unknown reason, were refused in Hong Kong. Shortly before returning to Madeira, the captain ordered that the barrels of "spoilt" wine be thrown overboard. The sailor - and who could blame him - thinking this a tragic waste, opened a cask and tried some of the wine destined to be 135

tipped away. His face lit up as the first taste touched his lips and trickled over his palate. Over the course of the voyage the grape had been tipped in another, completely new, but positive direction and soon the wines were called "Returned Wine" or "India Circuit Wine", among a variety of catchy names that added to the wine's growing popularity in every port. At the time, the general consensus of opinion was that the secret behind this special wine had to be somewhere along the journey over the equator. Was it the rocking of the ship that had done the trick or the great difference between the temperatures recorded during the day and those at night? Or had seawater, either when transporting the wine on to the ship or else just splashing around in the stern, managed to penetrate the barrels of Madeira? Perhaps it was a combination of various factors, which contributed towards the new taste. Even today there is no logical, scientific reason for the change from an ordinary sweet table wine to Madeira wine as we know it. One thing is certain, however, and that is that no other wine would put up with such rough treatment. By the end of the 15th century Madeira had attained a distinguished place in Europe, particularly in France, and significantly in England. Madeira was synonymous with the mention of the Elizabethan period. It was classified as being a desirable wine, along with sherry and Canary wine, all called "sack". Exports grew during the 16th century, but the sugarcane was in first place and it was not until the end of the 17th century that wines were to become a powerful export for the island. Another phenomenon was occurring at about the same time though: the unmarshalled seas gave access to pillagers, robbers, and pirate a means and source for their greed. The most brutalizing force was the colorful marauding pirate, and infamous nobleman, Bertrand de Montluc, who, in the 16th century, ravaged Funchal, taking the exquisite gold and silver art pieces from the churches, and stealing sugar and fine wines. Afterwards, Montluc's fellow pirate noblemen sold everything in Europe for high prices! Ironically these and other pirates were a blessing in disguise, as they helped to advance a world market. Madeira wine struggled to sail the seas for centuries, and fame was a long time coming, until the 1650's, when Catherine of Bragana began searching desperately for the right royal mate. Her dowry was double the amount princesses ever had, which not only included 800,000 pounds of gold and silver and an exclusive concession that British merchants could trade with Brazil - she offered Bombay, Tangiers - and, heaven forbid, was even ready to offer Madeira Island to realize wedlock! To Catherine's dismay, she had no luck with Louis XIV, but impoverished Charles II of England perked up his royal ears! As the legend goes, a Madeira scribe could not bring himself to add the island to the official dowry accounting for Charles. He supposedly communicated secretly with Infanta Catarina and judiciously suggested that she should probably keep Madeira as a last resort, in case the other gifts failed to get a 'yes'! Fortunately Charles accepted, being mostly interested in the gold and silver. But after the marriage in 1662, the happy monarch permitted Madeira the right to sell the island wines directly to the British colonies, as well as to many other countries. To increase the purchases, Charles 136

restricted all exports from France, Spain, Italy and Portugal to any English Colony. It was the first time in history that Madeira wine enjoyed a kind of monopoly! By 1663 Charles realized the value of promoting Madeira, which put more money in his pocket. His wife, Catherine, continued to influence her loving husband and convinced him to cut back the sugar trade, pulling up sugarcane and planting more grapevines in order to expand the market. The coming years were tough times for Europe. King Charles would allow only English ships from English ports carrying only English goods to English ports and territories. But Madeira was exempted and could ship directly to America and all other English ports. What an excellent opportunity ! What was most important for England was that only English ships could carry Madeira wines to other parts of the world. By restricting the exports from Portugal, Italy, Spain and even France to English colonies, Charles was creating a teeth-gnashing monopoly that would last for a century. The English Blockade had a positive effect on Madeira, which became extremely popular in America. By 1799, the wines were so much in demand, a fleet of nearly 100 English ships had anchored in the Bay of Funchal to fill their holds with the island wines. In 1695 William Bolton exported Madeira wine to America and the East and West Indies in his own ship. Dated from 1695 to 1714, Bolton's letters, were published by Andre Simon, London, 1928, and they tell the dramatic story. History reveals that as the English had completely dominated the American imports, it was unfair to the winegrowers in Europe, and created ill feelings with the colonists in America who paid high prices for wines while defending their homeland. America's only recourse was to receive more Madeira in quantity and reduce the price Knowing this potential, many English merchants saw the opportunity to expand the wine trade on the island and took up residence to open firms. They convinced the islanders to plant more vines and by the end of the 17th century, and during the entire 18th century, Madeira wine was paying off with regular and impressive shipments to Boston, New York, Philadelphia and to the elegant southern city, Savannah. All of America was drinking Madeira wine, storing it away for the future, and discovering its keeping qualities. The English merchants who came to Madeira to set up wine lodges were benefiting from the precedent of the AngloPortuguese alliance that welcomed them to Portuguese territories. After 1668, and for about one hundred years following the English king's edict forbidding the importation of any other wine except Madeira to America, the wines were in the limelight on the continent. They became the favorites of George Washington, the first President of the United States, of Jefferson, of Anthony Wayne, Stuyvesant and the Roosevelt families. But five years before the "Boston Tea Party" there was a Madeira Wine Party! The sloop "Liberty" had tried to smuggle into Boston Harbor a cargo of Madeira wines detained for John Hancock, who was the first signer of the Declaration of independence. Unfortunately the, British warship, Romney, and that set Hancock into a fury seized the shipment and the sloop. A conflict took place, and, as the story goes, Hancock won out and finally received his precious cargo of smuggled Madeira wines. This successful demonstration supposedly set a precedent for the monumental Boston Tea Party some years later. Historians say that Madeira wine was used for the toast at the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Madeira wine was a big favorite of George Washington. When Washington D.C. officially became the 137

capital of America, Madeira wine joined the celebration. Washington's inauguration included raised glasses of Madeira, as well. The Revolutionary War sent many English back to their homeland with a taste for Madeira wines, and Madeira grew in popularity from its reputation in America, beginning with the soldiers from Wellington's forces, who had demanded monthly rations of Madeira not as a luxury, but as a necessity. The beginning of the nineteenth century saw another revolution in the Madeira Wine industry. In 1800 Napoleons brother Joseph occupied the entire Iberian peninsula, hoping that by blockading the sea route to Madeira the French could strike a nasty blow against Englands prospering trade. The wine stocks in Funchal grew visibly by the day, as did the general fears that all this precious liquid would go to waste. In desperation the tradesmen started to experiment with the stockpile, endeavoring to prolong the wines shelf life by blending it with spirits. It was a method with subsequent sampling that proved to be extremely successful. Further variations of this fortification process improved the quality of Madeira Wine even further. Among the distinguished British coming to Madeira to set up wine businesses was the well-known Francis Newton, who arrived in 1745, exiled from Scotland. He saw the full potential of the yet-to-be-developed wine and was one of those first few people during the Napoleonic occupation of the Iberian peninsula that suggested the process of fortification with brandy, which led to the permanent tradition of making Madeira a fortified vinho generoso. Before that time Madeira had been merely aged in wooden casks. Newton had a good market in England with the veteran officers who had returned from the Revolutionary War and yearned for a glass of Madeira wine like they had enjoyed across the Atlantic. Later, more success was held in consolidating the English market. British soldiers occupied Madeira in 1801 for a year during the Napoleonic activities on continental Europe. They returned to stay another seven years in 1807, till 1814. These soldiers took home with them a taste for the wine, which spurred the market on to try it in England, more. The excitement of the first half of the nineteenth century led to the revival of the vigorous planting and regrowth of vines on rocky terraces and steep mountainsides. Many Madeirans were willing to struggle with the backbreaking tasks of resculpting the rocky surfaces to extend every bit of vine-growing soil available. Importantly too, it was the Methuen Treaty signed by England and Portugal that opened the doors to the English to develop the wine trade with greater force. By the middle of that century, the sugar and wine businesses were mostly owned by English residents, many of who had been born on the islands and were capable of speaking both Portuguese and English. They inextricably blended the customs of the two countries for future generations. By 1840 there were at least 13 English Wine Firms in Funchal with growing Anglo-Madeiran ventures. But, then, disaster struck with a vengeance. The mildew epidemic that occurred in 1852 destroyed a massive 90 percent of all the grapes on Madeira. This time the wine merchants were devastated. Almost all of the established British shippers subsequently left the island for Spain and of the 70 British establishments on the island in 1850 only 15 were left five years later. Staying power and pure British pigheadedness helped the remaining tradesmen survive this period. They used the opportunity to stock up on old wine, a worthwhile investment, because this wine was necessary to blend with the grapes picked from the young vines. In 1873, however, fate dealt another blow. A vine pest, brought from America (Phylloxera vastatrix), completely destroyed the existing plants. It was only by importing resistant American vines, a measure instigated by the Blandy and Leacock families, that the Madeiran vines could be revived at all. This pest had the same disastrous consequences in Spain and France. 138

Madeira's wine-growing industry has suffered the consequences of these two events ever since. The old wine reserves, which could be used for blending with the poorer quality wines, were soon exhausted, and the replacement of such wine could not be expected for many years. This meant that some compromises had to be made in wine production, a trend that led to a general fall in standards. After record shipments at the turn of the century, the market folded in 1914 with the close of the French ports. Thereafter, the Madeira wine trade became dormant. Gradually it picked up momentum and has over the past few decades begun experiencing a renaissance. Madeira is now once more in demand for its natural and enduring characteristics as an excellent before, or after, dinner drink. The popularity has become such that even American, Californian, wine growers have tried to imitate and sell their own version of Madeira wine. In 1979 the new state wine institute was founded (lnstituto do Vinho da Madeira) and this heralded a new start. The role of this Institute is to observe and control the entire process of Madeira's wine production. This means that there is supervision right from the planting of the vine itself, through the fermentation and maturing process and right through to the stopping of the cork as it is pushed into the newly filled bottle. It is the Institutes responsibility to ensure that Madeiras wine is authentic, controlling every step. Only then is the wine granted its official stamp (selo de garantia) and individual number. In addition, it is responsible for the education of wine specialists.

Wine Production The Grapes and Styles

Sercial: Is the palest and driest of the major Madeira grape varieties. The English name Sercial is used for the Portuguese Cerceal. Sercial was not grown very much after Phylloxera, but the number of vineyards with Sercial is growing again. They are the vineyards with the highest altitude, situated in Seixal and Ribeira da Janela on the northern coast of the island. Some people say that because of the high level of acidity Sercial is the same grape as the German Riesling, but this is certainly wrong from an ampelographic point of view. The grapes are very compact, about 18cm long, weighing 170grams. This variety ripens late, producing a wine with volatile fruit and good, sometimes burning acidity. The medium-size leaves have a hairy undersurface and are made of three main parts in the middle with one smaller part to each side. The high level of acidity makes Sercial almost undrinkable in its youth. In the 16th century, this wine was called "Esgana Co" - dog-strangler. To obtain a maximum aroma as a counterpart, Sercial is harvested as the last of the grapes, often as late as the beginning of October. Sercial has to mature for a long time, before it is drinkable. The minimum of twenty years in cask for vintages will just be enough to soften the piercing acidity. Once this wine has found its balance, it makes a perfect aperitif but it can also hold its own very well. On the island, Sercial is often served with soup, nuts, crackers or other snacks. The cocktail "Madeira on the Rocks" is made of 2/3 dry Madeira of a lesser quality and 1/3 Campari. Sercial also goes well after Champagne. Verdelho: The Verdelho is the most difficult of the Noble vines to reproduce in Madeira. Darker and medium dry. Verdelho is also a white grape, the taste being medium dry, tasting between Sercial and Bual. Just like the other Castas Nobres it was very little grown until 1980, when it began being planted again. Verdelho, also known as Gouveio in Portugal, gives a medium dry wine. The grape is also cultivated in 139

Australia. There also is a red variety of Verdelho, the Verdelho Tinto. Verdelho is grown on the south side of the island from Funchal west to Estreito de Cmara de Lobos. On the north side it is grown in the more sheltering pergola style in Ribeira de Janela and So Vicente. The grapes are larger than Sercial, about 20cm long. They are good table grapes and give a mild wine with slightly nutty flavor, becoming drier as it matures. The vine is very strong and relatively high and difficult to cultivate. The leaves are of medium size with small hairs on both surfaces. Verdelho is the main ingredient of a medium dry light wine called "Rainwater" which is very popular in the United States. The cheaper qualities are made from Tinta Negra Mole. The legend around the name tells that the contents of a shipment to Savannah, Georgia, were diluted when a heavy rain hit the casks still standing on the beach. The recipient of the shipment liked the lighter taste and ordered more. Verdelho is also used to make the Atlantis White, one of the two official table wines made on the island. Bual (or Boal) Golden and medium sweet. Bual is the English name for the Portuguese Boal. Bual is a white variety producing a medium sweet wine. The name was used for a whole group of grapes but today is usually connected with the Bual de Madeira. Grown on the north side around So Vicente and on the south side at Campanrio and Cmara de Lobos, it took over for Malmsey in many vineyards. The grapes are large, heavy and are good table grapes because of their sweet aroma. The medium sized vine has three-part leaves like the Sercial. Bual is a good start for those having their first experience with Madeira wine. It is medium sweet but not to sticky, very aromatic with some acidity balancing the sweetness. Malmsey (or Malvasia) Brown, sweet and liqueur like. Malmsey is the most famous Madeira wine for sure. The English name Malmsey is used for the white Malvasia grape, which has its roots in the Greek islands. Malvasia, or more precise, Malvasia Candida spread throughout Europe during the Middle Ages and went down in numbers in the Baroque period. However, around the world sweet and fortified wines are still made from Malvasia. The large grapes with small elliptic berries weigh up to 400 grams and are grown on high and solid vines. The grapes are liked for their sweet aroma as table grapes. The variety ripens fast but can stay on the vine for a long time as they do not easily rot. The vineyards are the lowest in altitude, about 250 m above sea level. The grapes are grown in So Jorge and Santana on the north coast and in Cmara de Lobos and Estreito de Cmara de Lobos on the south coast. The leaves are made of five parts equal in size. There are many stories around Malmsey, which was exported as early as the 15th century. On the European continent the widely grown Malvasia of the Middle Ages had already found many friends like Martin Luther and minnesinger Oswald von Wolkenstein. In times when sugar was not known, this golden and sweet liquid sun fascinated the people. When later the more robust Madeira Malmsey entered the market, it was a complete success. It combined sweetness and aroma with good keeping and easy handling like no other wine. Rainwater A blended style golden and off dry and commercially popular. Rainwater as a wine trademark, has been used for approximately two centuries, especially in the U.S.A. market. In the 18th century, Madeira wine was shipped in casks. Docks did not exist in Madeira then. 140

The casks were taken to the pebbled beach and were left there, awaiting the arrival of the boats, which would then take them to the ships passing Madeira, bound for various destinations. On a certain occasion, a shipment of Madeira wine was to be made to Savannah in the U.S.A. It happened that the casks were left on the beach far a long time. During that year there was heavy rainfall and the wood of the casks absorbed water. In America the buyer noted a different taste in the wine, caused by the rainwater, which altered the alcohol content of the wine. Despite the fact that he initially complained, soon thereafter, he found that he liked it. The shippers explained the reason for the difference in the quality and taste, and thereafter they called it "Rainwater". The wine label that decided to bear the name Rainwater. The company Cossart, Gordon & C, Limitada, was one of the longest standing wine houses in Madeira to use this name. Tinta Negra Mole This vine, accounting for roughly 60% of total grape production in Madeira, was developed from crosses of the Pinot Noir and Grenache varieties. Tinta is a red grape and is very versatile. Often called the working horse amongst the different varieties, it is one of the reasons for the decline of Madeira wine in the 19th and 20th century. It is counted among the Castas Boas, the good varieties. Tinta or TNM is grown around Funchal, So Vicente and Cmara de Lobos and is the most widely grown grape on the island. More than half of the total production is Tinta. Depending on the height of the vineyard and the processing of the wine it can imitate the other varieties to a great degree. This makes Tinta so tempting for many producers, but the class of the other traditional varieties is said to be not fully reached by Tinta. Some vineyards with Tinta are cleared today and replanted with other traditional vines, but it is still widely used, especially for the three-year-old blends. However Tinta is not of low quality, as many good three, five and even some ten-year-old blends show. According to many wine professionals it simply does not quite reach the excellent quality of the other grapes. Several companies planned on introducing higher quality wines made from Tinta Negra Mole. Some companies were even maturing TNM as vintages. So look forward to some surprises with this grape. The vine is robust with durable wood, medium size leaves and small black berries. The must is red at first but the estufagem procedure clears the color so that it acquires a green-white shine. Besides being used for blends, selected Tinta grapes from Campanrio are also used for the Atlantis Ros. Other Grape Varieties Terrantez This white, medium dry, sometimes rather sweet variety is hardly grown anymore. You can still find it in vintages or soleras. Bastardo This variety is still widely grown in Portugal and is identically with the French Trousseau. It is also a grape in the Douro valley used for Port. It is the only red grape among the Castas Nobres and you can only find it in old vintages and soleras Moscatel Moscatel is the white wine of the Moscatel of Alexandria grape, counted among the castas boas. It is apparently not longer grown, but you can still find it in some old vintages. Pereira DOliveira has a 1900 Moscatel vintage that was still available in 2003. Listro Listro is one of the authorized varieties for Madeira wine and is cultivated in small quantities on the neighboring island of Porto Santo. Barros e Sousa makes a five-year-old fruity wine of Listro. 141

Old Wine This does not name a grape variety but a vintage that does not consist of one single grape variety as the rules of the IVM say. This happens, when a year was good enough to declare it as a vintage but the yields of the different varieties were not enough to put them in cask and mature them at an affordable cost. In this case, as an example Bual and Malmsey will be matured together as "Old Wine" since the regulations don't know a Bual-Malmsey vintage. Sometimes Tinta is added as well.

A The Screw B The Center Shaft C The Thread Board D Support Staffs for the Shaft E Support Staffs for the Fulcrum of the Shaft F Wall or Square Paneling to contain the grapes G Sleepers H Nape Boards for weight distribution I Basket to sift the extra sediment J Vat for collection of the wine must K Steps to climb into the press L Skewer Rod to change the height of the screw M Stone Bolt to adjoin the heavy rock to the screw
The lagar is a foot w ine press that is usually found in Madeira, but has become somewhat of a rarity on Continental Portugal. These are all privately owned by the local small w ine growers. None of the Madeira wine that gets bottled for export undergoes this old way of making wine.

Maturing wine is an art. Madeira wines are matured according to each of the grape variety types that they hail from. Because fermentation begins almost immediately after the grapes burst it becomes necessary to control the fermentation process. The process of debilitating fermentation begins earlier for Malmsey and Boal. The drier types - Verdelho and Sercial are fermented longer to create the drier character. The longer the juice is allowed to ferment , the drier the wine will be. The application of excessive heat or cold also affect the fermentation, which must be controlled to obtain precisely the quality of wine desired. Ample quantities of wine alcohol, added massively, halt fermentation, and the natural sweetness of the wine is retained. The treatment of alcohol to the juice cleans the wine, leaving all impurities to settle to the bottom. This prepares the wine to be heated to the style that is so characteristic of Madeira wines. 142

In centuries past the maturing process of Madeira wine by heating it, and later by sauna-bathing it (the estufa), helped realize a valuable commodity. The trips back and forth over the equator did not help to support the demand made for the famous wine. Pantaleo Fernandes in 1794 knew of the ancient fumitories of the Romans and experimented with the cooking process, using hot braziers in a closed area. Eventually pipes were installed along the walls, and by the use of wood fires, the heat could be transported to the wine. Before the end of the eighteenth century, estufas became the best solution to heating wine, as wine makers found that a month in the estufas was equal to two years of ordinary maturing. They then called the wine vinho estufado - heated wine, and the treatment developed then is much the same as it is today. The Heating Treatment After the new wine, called vinho claro - clear wine, is fortified with wine alcohol to control fermentation and to retain the natural sweetness of the grapes it is ready for its boiling in large coated vats, generally holding 30 or 40 thousand liters of wine. These vats are fitted with serpentines of stainless steel to evenly radiate the heat throughout the wine. Then the wine is poured into the huge unheated chambers. The heat is applied very slowly - at a rate of about 5 degrees Celsius per day. This is continued throughout the rest of the month to eventually achieve a temperature of about 40 to 50 degrees Celsius. If the wine is heated too quickly it develops prematurely and acquires a burnt taste or flavor. The heating process continues at this bubbling pace for another 3 months and careful observation and control is maintained, including governmental verification. One practice is the official waxing and sealing of the heating gauges to 55 degrees Celsius - the maximum temperature permissible to broil the wine. At the end of the process, the heat is gradually reduced until the wine reaches room temperature before it is fined and placed in oak casks for quiet and restful maturing. Filters are used to clear the sediments out away from the wine. After the period of initial removal of sediment particles have been removed from the new wine is it ready to be laid aside to rest. The first resting period lasts for about two years, sometimes much longer, and is carefully controlled and watched. Proper rest is essential, but the removal of sediments are also necessary. So slow and gentle processes are applied to filter the wine. Every now and then the wine is also aerated. This treatment involves simply the pumping of the wine from the bottom of the cask through a tube and drawing it up and injecting it through the opening at the top. The spray beats a wooden board suspended above the surface of the wine, and is allowed to splash to catch the air. This stage of aerating or oxygenating the wine is designed principally to avoid stagnation, and to improve aroma and taste. The process is repeated at various intervals when deemed necessary. Also, when checked for cloudiness the wine may need to be fined. Sometimes the wine has been fined several times before it is ready for shipping. Blending is almost always required with all Madeira wines and they are blended in most cases with the Tinta Negra Mole grapes. In general, the wines are initially blended according to origin, age and color amongst themselves. They are assigned lots and left to mature in time. Before, Madeira wines had separate vintage years, but after the phylloxera plaque during the 19th century, the older wines have been used to perfect the new. The old wines are the basis of the Solera system. Yearly, certain wines may be set aside for future soleras. The Solera System Soleras are started with a row of casks of old matured Madeira, one next to the other. The criadeiras are the nurseries, in which selected casks of old matured Madeira (a separate solera for malmsey, boal, and so on) are at floor level. The next tier has the same type of wine, but of later vintage. Then there are third and fourth tiers up on the hierarchy making criadeiras. 143

Wine is taken from the bottom casks and is refreshed from a tier above, and so on. The newer wines are blended with the older ones and the original character is preserved. But between the refresher and the refreshed there may be a period of time from the twenty years of gradual blending. Each tier is in the process of maturing at roughly the same rate, so that the final solera remains consistent in character. After all the hard work and the years of waiting the wine is ready to bottle. As a final preparation the wine is filtered in a specially designed cylinder containing about 200 rings of coarsely woven cotton (several other models of filters are used). At this point, the wine is squeezed through under the pressure through tightly packed rings and into 1/2-centimeter holes in a tube to the bottling machine. Corking and labeling are done manually, and one final piece of handwork is the seal of guarantee of quality from the wine institute. Major Producers Introduction - There are several important wine producers left today. Left, today ? You may ask. The story goes back to the mid nineteenth century. Only a few - mostly those the oldest established - of these firms survived the destruction of the Madeira vineyards, in 1852, by the fungous disease, the Odium, which originated in America and was for the first time discovered by an English gardener, Tucker by the name. The Odium Tuckerii found the Madeira vignerons quite unprepared, and practically the whole of the grapes were destroyed at a fell swoop. After this vicious attack the local farmers in fright decided to plant sugarcane and maize or beans instead. They did not try to replant the vines. Only a limited few replanted with commoner and sturdier vine-stocks, but fate dealt another blow when even these sturdier vines were in turn destroyed by the Phylloxera Vastarix in 1873. The Vastarix was a form of bug that was horrifically ugly and astoundingly prolific that acted on attaching itself to the roots of vines with devastating passion. These subterranean bugs were also the grave for many an ardent vine grower that kept faith after the last vine disease. Two such terrible visitations within less than a quarter than a century may have put an end to the making of Madeira wines, had it not been for the devoted courage, foresight, and pure pigheadedness of some of the English merchants in Madeira, and more particularly Thomas Leacock and Charles Blandy. Their names are now part of the noble wine labels in Madeira wine history. Other well-known and equally deserved reputations include the excellent house of Barbeitos, known as Vinhos Barbeito (Madeira), LDA. Mrio Barbeito de Vasconcelos was passionate about Madeira wine and Madeira history. His personal collection of Madeira miscellany dated back to the earliest times of Madeira colonization. He devoted much to the research and profanation of wine, and Christopher Columbus. The largest wine producer, undoubtedly today, is Henriques & Henriques. H.M. Borges, Sucrs, Lda. Henriques & Henriques, Lda. Vinhos Justino Henriques, Filhos, Lda. Pereira d'Oliveira (Vinhos), Lda. Vinhos Barbeito (Madeira), Lda. Silva Vinhos Madeira Wine Company, S.A. 144 Samples of top rated wines and retail pricing BARBEITO Malvasia Madeira 1900 / 97 / $265 High-toned and complex bouquet. Surprisingly dry, with racy acidity and walnut flavors augmented by treacle and a slight burnt quality. Has finesse, length and intensity. JULIO BARROS Moscatel Madeira 1950 / 96 / $145 A powerful wine, brimming with personality. Assertive on the palate, with burnt treacle and molasses notes and a tanginess that resonates for close to 60 seconds. BARBEITO Malvasia Madeira 1948 / 95 / $150 Fascinating. Velvety in texture, until the tangy finish rushed in like the surf. Mouthwatering finish, with a complex aftertaste. FAVILLA VIERA Malvasia Madeira 1920 / 95 / $195 This has a wild, exotic bouquet. Sweet, yet everything seems to be in the right proportion. Salty, acidic tang, nutty length and fine balance. Well integrated. QUINTA DO SERRADO Boal Madeira 1827 / 95 / $350 Open 2 1/2 weeks. Intense aromas are followed by a medium-sweet, rich palate offset by a salty tang. There's a little astringency and heat, yet this seems young and exuberant. BARBEITO Sercial Madeira 1910 / 94 / $135 Rich, almost lush bouquet. Fills the mouth with a velvety texture, finishing with a tangy acidity that cleanses and refreshes the palate. Like a ballerina. Great length. BLANDY'S Malmsey Madeira 1954 / 93 / $228 The aromas and flavors are concentrated, rich and intense in this well-integrated Madeira that shows balance and class. The long finish is complex. HENRIQUES & HENRIQUES Bual Madeira 10 Years Old NV / 93 / $35 This notches it up. Sweet, with a thick texture moderated by tangy acidity, the flavors accelerate to a long, delineated finish with an aftertaste of the sea. Powerful and complex. D'OLIVEIRA Verdelho Madeira 1900 / 92 / $265 An undercurrent of molasses and a spirit like quality lead to full, rich, sweet flavors, with good balancing acidity and noticeable alcohol that leaves this less harmonious. BLANDY'S Verdelho Madeira Solera 1870 / 91 / $280 Initially quite pungent, with a distinct caramel flavor and a racy undercurrent of acidity that keeps the flavors intense. Medium-bodied, with a lovely, lingering finish. BLANDY'S Malmsey Madeira 15 Years Old NV / 89 / $45 Full-bodied, sweet, complex and long. Burnt caramel and orange peel notes are balanced by sharp, cutting acidity with grip and intensity, followed by a toffee aftertaste. COSSART GORDON Bual Madeira 15 Years Old NV / 89 / $45 A green, eucalyptus note adds dimension to the molasses, smoke and nut flavors in this firmly structured, sleek Bual. Intense and long, with a toffee, clove aftertaste. HENRIQUES & HENRIQUES Sercial Madeira 10 Years Old NV / 89 / $35 Offers full, rich, complex aromas and flavors. Powerful and long, this has substance and a sharpness at the end that's a little astringent


ell after Champagne. A. METHOD OF PRODUCTION 1. 2. 3. 4. Ripe grapes picked (many second passes) and crushed Brought down the hill and ferment for two to four weeks Dry wines fermented as such, sweet styles have fermentation stopped by addition of brandy Wines placed in a hot house (estufagem) they are matured at temperatures anywhere from 95-120 degrees a) b) 5. B. Other facts 1. 2. 3. Madeiras are known in particular for their ability to age Over 100 plus years very common Since phylloxera concept of vintage changed as many old stocks blended in for character. Vintage date on a label means that the wine is of a single labeled variety and has spent at least twenty years in cask and two in the bottle before sale Color goes from purple to amber and much is lost through evaporation Then racked into barrel and aged

Fortified upwards to about 20%

MARSALA A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Italys gift to the world of fortified wines From the island of Sicily Provinces of Palermo and Agrigento Volcanic soil gives tart undertone like Madeira Made from Catarrato, Grillo and Inzolia grapes Method of production is fortification post fermentation Various concentrates added back (a la Sherry) in sweeter styles The dry marsala Vergine is considered by many to be as great as any dry fortified wine made 146

VDN Wines Vin doux Naturel

Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise is a wine-growing AOC in the southern Rhne wine region of France. Since 1943 the village is known for the " Beaumes de Venise Vin Doux Naturel A.O.C", the well known Muscat de Beaumes de Venise, a natural sweet white fortified wines (vin doux naturel) that are made from the Muscat Blanc Petits Grains grape. Since 2005 Beaumes de Venise has been designated one of 4 wine villages to become an A.O.C; i.e. have their own appellation like Chteauneuf du Pape (A.O.C since the beginning of the A.O.C. system in the 1930's). The four Ctes du Rhne villages that have achieved this so far are Gigondas (in 1971), Vacqueryas (in 1995) and Beaumes de Venise and Vinsobres (both in 2005). Rasteau is an ancient wine growing village originally specializing in natural sweet wines. This wine-growing region is an AOC in the southern Rhne wine region of France. "Rasteau Vin Doux Naturel A.O.C." is less known than its cousin in Beaumes de Venise, but received its own A.O.C. label at the same time. Sweet red and white fortified wines (vin doux naturel) are made, mostly from Grenache Noir but sometimes from Grenache Blanc and Grenache Gris grapes. Rasteau is classified as Ctes du Rhne Village and a step up from A.O.C. Ctes du Rhne classification which is at the bottom of the Southern Rhne Valley wine pyramid It is being considered to be receiving the more elevated status of a A.O.C. wine village same as Beaumes de Venise. The wines are thought to possess exceptional natural growing conditions and producers / winemakers are required to adhere to stricter rules for yields, alcohol content, grape varieties and the wine making process. 18 villages have the right to append the Ctes du Rhne Village appellation with the respective village name and Rasteau is one of them. Muscat de Rivesaltes is an Appellation d'Origine Contrle for fortified wines (vin doux naturel) made in the Roussillon wine region of France. They are similar to Rivesaltes AOC wines, except for the grape varieties used. The wines are white, and made from Muscat d'Alexandrie and Muscat Petits Grains grapes, usually in equal quantities. Rivesaltes is an Appellation d'Origine Contrle for fortified wines (vin doux naturel) made in the Roussillon wine region of France. They are similar to Muscat de Rivesaltes AOC wines, except the grape varieties are not restricted to Muscat. The wines are red or white, and made from Muscat, Grenache Noir, Grenache Blanc, Grenache Gris, Macabeu and (rarely) Malvoisie grapes. Banyuls (Appellation d'Origine Contrle) is a fortified aperitif or dessert wine made from 147

old vines cultivated in terraces on the slopes of the Pyrenees in the Roussillon wine region of Southern France, which borders Catalunya in Spain. The name of the wine "Banyuls" was restricted to the four towns in 1904 (Cerbre, Banyuls, Port-Vendres, Collioure). Classified as a sweet red wine : VDN (Vin Doux Naturel). This label guarantees the quality of the wine. Depending on the growing techniques, the alcohol content is around 15% to 16%.This wine is fully appreciated as an aperitif, or with foie gras, or with chocolate desserts. The AOC production area is limited to four communes of the Cte Vermeille: 1. Banyuls-sur-Mer (from which the AOC takes its name). The soil in the vineyards is retained by an amazing 6000km of walls. Because the hillsides are so steep the grapes are all harvested by hand. A few vineyards have reverted to using the old methods and produce organic wines. Grenache is the grape used to make these wines. Wines are different because of the age and the technical breeding mode. They can be rich in golden, garnet, ruby, mahogany or brown cafe reflection. An extraordinary palette of taste remembers crystallized and dry fruits, nuts, and liquorice, peel of orange, and mocha, cocoa. These are naturally sweet wines (Vins Doux Naturels) produced using the Arnau de Vianova method. The color depends on the ageing process and there are dry, sweet and demi-sec varieties 2. Cerbre (in Catalan: Cervera de la Marenda) is a French commune in the dpartement of PyrnesOrientales in the rgion of Languedoc-Roussillon. The agricultural lands are all reserved for vineyard. Started with vines imported by the Greeks ("Empurias"), 300 hectares were developed in 1850. Most of this land is still cultivated. This wine got its fame around 1880 thanks to the Abbot of Banyuls ( the "Abb Rous"), who supplied Banyuls as the mass wine in the churches of France. He created a good wine business using this sacred advertising. 3. Collioure (French: Collioure, pronounced /koljur/; Catalan: Cotlliure) is a seaside Mediterranean town and commune a few kilometers north of the Spanish border in the French dpartement of Pyrnes-Orientales, a part of the ancient Roussillon province and the present-day Languedoc-Roussillon rgion. Collioure is also the name of an AOC wine similar to the famous Banyuls (AOC). The wines are classified as Banyuls A.O.C. Vin doux Naturel and are naturally sweet and velvety wine with a surprisingly savory bouquet, made of different types of vines such as Grenache Noir, Gris, Blanc and Carignan. The addition of alcohol stops the fermentation process, and the Banyuls is then left to mature in oak casks 4. Port-Vendres (catalan: Portvendres) is a commune of the Pyrnes-Orientales dpartement, in France. As the only natural port along the Cte Vermeille between the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees and Spain, the Greek mariners of antiquity knew Port-Vendres already. The port flourished after the French conquest during the 17th century. It was this maritime prosperity, which led to the construction, in the 18th century, of a splendid urban complex around the port, symbolized today by the place de l'Oblisque. The city of Port-Vendres is an owner of twenty hectares of vineyards. The new vineyards are young and producing interesting Banyul A.O.C. wines. It is the smallest Banyul classified sub-region producing wines. Most wines are red, although some white wines are produced. Permitted grape varieties are Grenache Noir (at least 50%, 75% for the Grand Cru), Grenache Gris, Grenache Blanc and Carignan, and also (but rarely used) Macabeu, Muscat and Malvoisie. 148

The production process, known in France as mutage, is similar to that used to make Port. Alcohol is added to the must to halt fermentation while sugar levels are still high, preserving the natural sugar of the grape. The wines are then matured in oak barrels, or outside in glass bottles exposed to the sun, allowing the wine to maderise. The maturation period is a minimum of ten months for Banyuls AOC, and thirty months for Banyuls Grand Cru AOC. The resulting wine bears a similarity to port but tends to be lower in alcohol (~16% vs. ~20%). Other sweet wines produced in the Eastern Pyrenees include Maury, Rivesaltes and Muscat de Rivesaltes. Banyuls Grand Cru is an Appellation d'Origine Contrle for wines made in the Roussillon wine region of France, for superior wines that would otherwise be classified as Banyuls AOC. Wines must be matured for 30 months. Most wines are red, although some white wines are produced. Permitted grape varieties are Grenache Noir (at least 75%), Grenache Gris, Grenache Blanc and Carignan, also (but rarely used) Macabeu, Muscat and Malvoisie. Maury is an Appellation d'Origine Contrle for wines made in the Roussillon wine region of France. Almost all wines are red, made from at least 50% Grenache Noir grapes. Other permitted grapes are Grenache Blanc, Grenache Gris, and (rarely used) Macabeu, Malvoisie and Muscat. Fitou is a large red wine appellation in Languedoc-Roussillon, France. The dominant vine variety is Carignan which has to constitute 40% of any blend. Grenache, Llandoner Pelut, Mourvdre and Syrah are also often blended with it. These wines are made for drinking young, and tend to be tannic with fresh forest fruit flavours. Wines from Fitou may also be 'Rivesaltes', a vin doux naturel. The first "Appellation d'Origine Contrle" wine of Languedoc-Roussillon, is only produced in nine small communal areas: FITOU, CAVES, TREILLES, LEUCATE and LA PALME, which are all beside the sea, between Narbonne and Perpignan, and CASCASTEL, PAZIOLS, TUCHAN, and VILLENEUVE in the Corbires-Massif.

Documents going back as far as Philip Augustus, Louis XIII and Louis XIV bear witness to the long-standing reputation of Fitou wines. Rabelais particularly appreciated "vin de Palme" which now has the "Appellation d'Origine Contrle Fitou" label. The vineyards The vineyards are set out on shaly and argilocalcareous soils with exceptional exposure to the sun. The countryside, whose relief consists in parts of hills and slopes and in others of plateaus, has the advantage of a particularly dry climate and is often swept by a high wind, the "Cers".
The Vines

The Carignan grape is at its very best in this countryside: here it ripens to perfection to give strong, fullbodied wines with real substance and a rich, deep color. The Grenache grape is the ideal complement to the Carignan, bringing its fine, smooth, mellow qualities. A small percentage of Syrah and Mourvdre also bring its richness in flavor and a delicious aftertaste worthy of the greatest of wines. From the marriage of these varieties of vines is born the harmony, which characterizes the Fitou wines.
The Wines

While the region, the climate and the vines enable wines to be produced, which are remarkable for their body and fullness, the enthusiast has the opportunity to discover the nuances, which develop as the wines mature. 149

First we find young, full-bodied wines with the fragrance of flowers and fruit, rich in noble tannins. Then, beyond two years of age, we encounter wines with a real structure, with a dark, deep color and a nose with a hint of violet, liquorices, thyme, rosemary and the flowers of the Provencal moorland. These wines are always elegant and deliciously mellow.
Keeping the wines

Fitou wines may only be brought on to the market after a period of nine months after the harvest. It is then that the National Institute of Appellations Contrles and the Winegrowers Association inspect their quality. However, in most cases, the wines are only made available for consumption after a period of twelve to eighteen months maturation, for the youngest among them. A signal characteristic of A.O.C. Fitou is its capacity to mature and improve with age. Thus, extremely good bottles of Fitou are four or five years old and sometimes much older still. Allow the bottles of Fitou to mature in a cool cellar at a relatively constant temperature and you will be pleasantly surprised. The wine matures and brings to culmination those innate qualities of distinction and elegance, which characterize it.
Fitou and Gastronomy

When young, Fitou wines are a pleasant accompaniment to white meats and cold meat dishes. When fully matured to bring out their bouquet and aromatic flavor, Fitou wines go perfectly with red meats, game and, of course, cheese.
"Omnia fecit deus, Fitou homines"

Without a doubt, one of the symbols of the majesty and munificence of Fitou wines, the Mesnie des Chevaliers, created in 1987, celebrates both the Bacchus land of Fitounia and its finest wines, having contributed to their renown ever since its creation. Thus, constituting a hundred or so chapters, under the direction of its Grand Master, over 600 celebrities have been initiated into the brotherhood. Every year, in its name, a jury of connoisseurs awards a coat of arms to Fitou wines of the highest quality. The coat of arms, appropriately, depicts the 4 villages of High Fitou (red) and the 5 villages of Coastal Fitou (blue), Aguilar castle and a cluster of carignan grapes. Its motto: "Omnia fecit deus, Fitou homines", "God made all, men Fitou", full of southern humor, is a nod in the direction of the "divine origins" of the Fitou A.O.C, the first red wine of Languedoc.


Glossary Wine Terminology
Acetic Acid: All wines contain acetic acid, or vinegar, but usually the amount is quite small--from 0.03 percent to 0.06 percent--and not perceptible to smell or taste. Once table wines reach 0.07 percent or above, a sweet-sour vinegary smell and taste becomes evident. At low levels, acetic acid can enhance the character of a wine, but at higher levels (over 0.1 percent), it can become the dominant flavor and is considered a major flaw. A related substance, ethyl acetate, contributes a nail polish-like smell. Acid: A compound present in all grapes and an essential component of wine that preserves it, enlivens and shapes its flavors and helps prolong its aftertaste. There are four major kinds of acids--tartaric, malic, lactic and citric--found in wine. Acid is identifiable by the crisp, sharp character it imparts to a wine. Acidic: Used to describe wines whose total acid is so high that they taste tart or sour and have a sharp edge on the palate. Acidity: The acidity of a balanced dry table wine is in the range of 0.6 percent to 0.75 percent of the wine's volume. It is legal in some areas--such as Bordeaux and Burgundy, Australia, California--to correct deficient acidity by adding acid. When overdone, it leads to unusually sharp, acidic wines. However, it is illegal in Bordeaux and Burgundy to both chaptalize and acidify a wine. See also chaptalization. Acrid: Describes a harsh or bitter taste or pungent smell that is due to excess sulfur. Aeration: The process of letting a wine "breathe" in the open air, or swirling wine in a glass. It's debatable whether aerating bottled wines (mostly reds) improves their quality. Aeration can soften young, tannic wines; it can also fatigue older ones. Aftertaste: The taste or flavors that linger in the mouth after the wine is tasted, spit or swallowed. The aftertaste or "finish" is the most important factor in judging a wine's character and quality. Great wines have rich, long, complex aftertastes. Aggressive: Unpleasantly harsh in taste or texture, usually due to a high level of tannin or acid. Alcohol: Ethyl alcohol, a chemical compound formed by the action of natural or added yeast on the sugar content of grapes during fermentation. Alcohol By Volume: As required by law, wineries must state the alcohol level of a wine on its label. This is usually expressed as a numerical percentage of the volume. For table wines the law allows a 1.5 percent variation above or below the stated percentage as long as the alcohol does not exceed 14 percent. Thus, wineries may legally avoid revealing the actual alcohol content of their wines by labeling them as "table wine." Alcoholic: Used to describe a wine that has too much alcohol for its body and weight, making it unbalanced. A wine with too much alcohol will taste uncharacteristically heavy or hot as a result. This quality is noticeable in aroma and aftertaste. American Oak: Increasingly popular as an alternative to French oak for making barrels in which to age wine as quality improves and vintners learn how to treat the wood to meet their needs. Marked by strong vanilla, dill and cedar notes, it is used primarily for aging Cabernet, Merlot and Zinfandel, for which it is the preferred oak. It's less desirable, although used occasionally, for Chardonnay or Pinot Noir. Many California and Australia wineries use American oak, yet claim to use French oak because of its more prestigious image. American oak barrels sell in the $250 range, compared to more than $500 for the French ones. See also French oak. American Viticultural Area (AVA): A delimited, geographical grape-growing area that has officially been given appellation status by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Two examples are Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley. See also viticultural area. Ampelography: The study of grape varieties. Appearance: Refers to a wine's clarity, not color. Appellation: Defines the area where a wine's grapes were grown, such as Bordeaux, Gevrey-Chambertin, Alexander Valley or Russian River Valley. Regulations vary widely from country to country. In order to use an appellation on a California wine label, for example, 85 percent of the grapes used to make the wine must be grown in the specified district. See also appellation d'origine contrle. Appellation D'origine Controlee (AOC): The French system of appellations, begun in the 1930s and considered the wine world's prototype. To carry an appellation in this system, a wine must follow rules describing the area the grapes are grown in, the varieties used, the ripeness, the alcoholic strength, the vineyard yields and the methods used in growing the grapes and making the wine.


Aroma: Traditionally defined as the smell that wine acquires from the grapes and from fermentation. Now it more commonly means the wine's total smell, including changes that resulted from oak aging or that occurred in the bottle-good or bad. "Bouquet" has a similar meaning. Astringent: Describes a rough, harsh, puckery feel in the mouth, usually from tannin or high acidity, that red wines (and a few whites) have. When the harshness stands out, the wine is astringent. Austere: Used to describe relatively hard, high-acid wines that lack depth and roundness. Usually said of young wines that need time to soften, or wines that lack richness and body. Awkward: Describes a wine that has poor structure, is clumsy or is out of balance. Backbone: Used to denote those wines that are full-bodied, well-structured and balanced by a desirable level of acidity. Backward: Used to describe a young wine that is less developed than others of its type and class from the same vintage. Balance: A wine has balance when its elements are harmonious and no single element dominates. Balthazar: An oversized bottle which holds the equivalent of 12 to 16 standard bottles. Barrel Fermented: Denotes wine that has been fermented in small casks (usually 55-gallon oak barrels) instead of larger tanks. Advocates believe that barrel fermentation contributes greater harmony between the oak and the wine, increases body and adds complexity, texture and flavor to certain wine types. Its liabilities are that more labor is required and greater risks are involved. It is mainly used for whites. Bin Number: See also cask number. Bite: A marked degree of acidity or tannin. An acid grip in the finish should be more like a zestful tang and is tolerable only in a rich, full-bodied wine. Bitter: Describes one of the four basic tastes (along with sour, salty and sweet). Some grapes--notably Gewrztraminer and Muscat--often have a noticeable bitter edge to their flavors. Another source of bitterness is tannin or stems. If the bitter quality dominates the wine's flavor or aftertaste, it is considered a fault. In sweet wines a trace of bitterness may complement the flavors. In young red wines it can be a warning signal, as bitterness doesn't always dissipate with age. Normally, a fine, mature wine should not be bitter on the palate. Blanc De Blancs: "White of whites," meaning a white wine made of white grapes, such as Champagne made of Chardonnay. Blanc De Noirs: White of blacks, white wine made of red or black grapes, where the juice is squeezed from the grapes and fermented without skin contact. The wines can have a pale pink hue. E.G., Champagne that is made from Pinot Noir or Pinot Meunier. Blunt: Strong in flavor and often alcoholic, but lacking in aromatic interest and development on the palate. Body: The impression of weight or fullness on the palate; usually the result of a combination of glycerin, alcohol and sugar. Commonly expressed as full-bodied, medium-bodied or medium-weight, or light-bodied. Botrytis Cinerea: Called the "Noble Rot." A beneficial mold or fungus that attacks grapes under certain climatic conditions and causes them to shrivel, deeply concentrating the flavors, sugar and acid. Some of the most famous examples come from Sauternes (Chteau d'Yquem), Germany and Tokay. Bottle Sickness: A temporary condition characterized by muted or disjointed fruit flavors. It often occurs immediately after bottling or when wines (usually fragile wines) are shaken in travel. Also called bottle shock. A few days of rest is the cure. Bottled By: Means the wine could have been purchased ready-made and simply bottled by the brand owner, or made under contract by another winery. When the label reads "produced and bottled by" or "made and bottled by" it means the winery produced the wine from start to finish. Bouquet: The smell that a wine develops after it has been bottled and aged. Most appropriate for mature wines that have developed complex flavors beyond basic young fruit and oak aromas. Brawny: Used to describe wines that are hard, intense, tannic and that have raw, woody flavors. The opposite of elegant. Briary: Describes young wines with an earthy or stemmy wild berry character. Bright: Used for fresh, ripe, zesty, lively young wines with vivid, focused flavors. Brilliant: Describes the appearance of very clear wines with absolutely no visible suspended or particulate matter. Not always a plus, as it can indicate a highly filtered wine. Brix: A measurement of the sugar content of grapes, must and wine, indicating the degree of the grapes' ripeness (meaning sugar level) at harvest. Most table-wine grapes are harvested at between 21 and 25 Brix. To get an alcohol conversion level, multiply the stated Brix by .55.


Browning: Describes a wine's color, and is a sign that a wine is mature and may be faded. A bad sign in young red (or white) wines, but less significant in older wines. Wines 20 to 30 years old may have a brownish edge yet still be enjoyable. Brut: A general term used to designate a relatively dry-finished Champagne or sparkling wine, often the driest wine made by the producer. Burnt: Describes wines that have an overdone, smoky, toasty or singed edge. Also used to describe overripe grapes. Buttery: Indicates the smell of melted butter or toasty oak. Also a reference to texture, as in "a rich, buttery Chardonnay." Carbonic Maceration: Fermentation of whole, uncrushed grapes in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. In practice, the weight of the upper layers of grapes in a vat will break the skins of the lowest layer; the resultant wine is partly a product of carbonic maceration and partly of traditional fermentation of juice. Cask Number: A meaningless term sometimes used for special wines, as in Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cask 23, but often applied to ordinary wines. Cedary: Denotes the smell of cedar wood associated with mature Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet blends aged in French or American oak. Cellared By: Means the wine was not produced at the winery where it was bottled. It usually indicates that the wine was purchased from another source. Chaptalization: The addition of sugar to juice before and/or during fermentation, used to boost sugar levels in under ripe grapes and alcohol levels in the subsequent wines. Common in northern European countries, where the cold climates may keep grapes from ripening, but forbidden in southern Europe (including southern France and all of Italy) and California. Charmat: Mass production method for sparkling wine. Indicates the wines are fermented in large stainless steel tanks and later drawn off into the bottle under pressure. Also known as the "bulk process." See also mthode champenoise. Chewy: Describes rich, heavy, tannic wines that are full-bodied. Cigar Box: Another descriptor for a cedary aroma. Clean: Fresh on the palate and free of any off-taste. Does not necessarily imply good quality. Clone: A group of vines originating from a single, individual plant propagated asexually from a single source. Clones are selected for the unique qualities of the grapes and wines they yield, such as flavor, productivity and adaptability to growing conditions. Closed: Describes wines that are concentrated and have character, yet are shy in aroma or flavor. Cloudiness: Lack of clarity to the eye. Fine for old wines with sediment, but it can be a warning signal of protein instability, yeast spoilage or re-fermentation in the bottle in younger wines. Cloying: Describes ultra-sweet or sugary wines that lack the balance provided by acid, alcohol, bitterness or intense flavor. Coarse: Usually refers to texture, and in particular, excessive tannin or oak. Also used to describe harsh bubbles in sparkling wines. Cold Stabilization: A clarification technique in which a wine's temperature is lowered to 32 F, causing the tartrates and other insoluble solids to precipitate. Complexity: An element in all great wines and many very good ones; a combination of richness, depth, flavor intensity, focus, balance, harmony and finesse. Corked: Describes a wine having the off-putting, musty, moldy-newspaper flavor and aroma and dry aftertaste caused by a tainted cork. Crush: Harvest season when the grapes are picked and crushed. Cuvee: A blend or special lot of wine. Decanting : A process for separating the sediment from a wine before drinking. Accomplished by slowly and carefully pouring the wine from its bottle into another container. Delicate: Used to describe light- to medium-weight wines with good flavors. A desirable quality in wines such as Pinot Noir or Riesling. Demi-sec: In the language of Champagne, a term relating to sweetness. It can be misleading; although demi-sec means half-dry, demi-sec sparkling wines are usually slightly sweet to medium sweet. Dense: Describes a wine that has concentrated aromas on the nose and palate. A good sign in young wines. Depth: Describes the complexity and concentration of flavors in a wine, as in a wine with excellent or uncommon depth. Opposite of shallow. Dirty: Covers any and all foul, rank, off-putting smells that can occur in a wine, including those caused by bad barrels or corks. A sign of poor winemaking.


Disgorgement: A step in the traditional process of sparkling wine production wherein frozen sediment is removed from the neck of the bottle. Dosage: In bottle-fermented sparkling wines, a small amount of wine (usually sweet) that is added back to the bottle once the yeast sediment that collects in the neck of the bottle is removed. Dry: Having no perceptible taste of sugar. Most wine tasters begin to perceive sugar at levels of 0.5 percent to 0.7 percent. Drying Out: Losing fruit (or sweetness in sweet wines) to the extent that acid, alcohol or tannin dominate the taste. At this stage the wine will not improve. Dumb: Describes a phase young wines undergo when their flavors and aromas are undeveloped. A synonym of closed. Early Harvest: Denotes a wine made from early-harvested grapes, usually lower than average in alcoholic content or sweetness. Earthy: Used to describe both positive and negative attributes in wine. At its best, a pleasant, clean quality that adds complexity to aroma and flavors. The flip side is a funky, barnyardy character that borders on or crosses into dirtiness. Elegant: Used to describe wines of grace, balance and beauty. Empty: Similar to hollow; devoid of flavor and interest. Enology: The science and study of winemaking. Also spelled oenology. Estate-bottled: A term once used by producers for those wines made from vineyards that they owned and that were contiguous to the winery "estate." Today it indicates the winery either owns the vineyard or has a long-term lease to purchase the grapes. Ethyl Acetate: A sweet, vinegary smell that often accompanies acetic acid. It exists to some extent in all wines and in small doses can be a plus. When it is strong and smells like nail polish, it's a defect. Extra-dry: A common Champagne term not to be taken literally. Most Champagnes so labeled are sweet. Extract: Richness and depth of concentration of fruit in a wine. Usually a positive quality, although high extract wine can also be highly tannic. Fading: Describes a wine that is losing color, fruit or flavor, usually as a result of age. Fat: Full-bodied, high alcohol wines low in acidity give a "fat" impression on the palate. Can be a plus with bold, ripe, rich flavors; can also suggest the wine's structure is suspect. Fermentation: The process by which yeast converts sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide; turns grape juice into wine. Field Blend: When a vineyard is planted to several different varieties and the grapes are harvested together to produce a single wine, the wine is called a field blend. Filtering: The process of removing particles from wine after fermentation. Most wines unless otherwise labeled are filtered for both clarity and stability. Fining: A technique for clarifying wine using agents such as bentonite (powdered clay), gelatin or egg whites, which combine with sediment particles and cause them to settle to the bottom, where they can be easily removed. Finish: The key to judging a wine's quality is finish, also called aftertaste--a measure of the taste or flavors that linger in the mouth after the wine is tasted. Great wines have rich, long, complex finishes. Flabby: Soft, feeble, lacking acidity on the palate. Flat: Having low acidity; the next stage after flabby. Can also refer to a sparkling wine that has lost its bubbles. Fleshy: Soft and smooth in texture, with very little tannin. Flinty: A descriptor for extremely dry white wines such as Sauvignon Blanc, whose bouquet is reminiscent of flint struck against steel. Floral (also Flowery): Literally, having the characteristic aromas of flowers. Mostly associated with white wines. Fortified: Denotes a wine whose alcohol content has been increased by the addition of brandy or neutral spirits. Foxy: A term used to describe the unique musky and grapey character of many native American labrusca varieties. Free-run Juice: The juice that escapes after the grape skins are crushed or squeezed prior to fermentation. French Oak: The traditional wood for wine barrels, which supplies vanilla, cedar and sometimes butterscotch flavors. Used for red and white wines. Much more expensive than American oak, it can cost more than $500 per barrel, as opposed to $250 for American. Fresh: Having a lively, clean and fruity character. An essential for young wines. Fruity: Having the aroma and taste of fruit or fruits. Graceful: Describes a wine that is harmonious and pleasing in a subtle way. Grapey: Characterized by simple flavors and aromas associated with fresh table grapes; distinct from the more complex fruit flavors (currant, black cherry, fig or apricot) found in fine wines. Grassy: A signature descriptor for Sauvignon Blanc and a pleasant one unless overbearing and pungent.


Green: Tasting of unripe fruit. Wines made from unripe grapes will often possess this quality. Pleasant in Riesling and Gewrztraminer. Green Harvest: The trimming of unripe grapes to decrease crop yields, thereby improving the concentration of the remaining bunches. Grip: A welcome firmness of texture, usually from tannin, which helps give definition to wines such as Cabernet and Port. Grown, Produced And Bottled: Means the winery handled each aspect of wine growing. Half-bottle: Holds 375 milliliters or 3/8 liter. Hard: Firm; a quality that usually results from high acidity or tannins. Often a descriptor for young red wines. Harmonious: Well balanced, with no component obtrusive or lacking. Harsh: Used to describe astringent wines that are tannic or high in alcohol. Hazy: Used to describe a wine that has small amounts of visible matter. A good quality if a wine is unfined and unfiltered. Heady: Used to describe high-alcohol wines. Hearty: Used to describe the full, warm, sometimes rustic qualities found in red wines with high alcohol. Herbaceous: Denotes the taste and smell of herbs in a wine. A plus in many wines such as Sauvignon Blanc and to a lesser extent Merlot and Cabernet. Herbal is a synonym. Hollow: Lacking in flavor. Describes a wine that has a first taste and a short finish, and lacks depth at mid-palate. Hot: High alcohol, unbalanced wines that tend to burn with "heat" on the finish are called hot. Acceptable in Port-style wines. Imperial: An oversized bottle holding 4 to 6 liters; the equivalent of eight standard bottles. Jeroboam: An oversized bottle holding the equivalent of six bottles. In Champagne, a jeroboam holds four bottles. Late Harvest: On labels, indicates that a wine was made from grapes picked later than normal and at a higher sugar (Brix) level than normal. Usually associated with botrytis and dessert-style wines. Leafy: Describes the slightly herbaceous, vegetal quality reminiscent of leaves. Can be a positive or a negative, depending on whether it adds to or detracts from a wine's flavor. Lean: A not necessarily critical term used to describe wines made in an austere style. When used as a term of criticism, it indicates a wine is lacking in fruit. Lees: Sediment remaining in a barrel or tank during and after fermentation. Often used as in sur lie aging, which indicates a wine is aged "on its lees." See also sur lie. Legs: The viscous droplets that form and ease down the sides of the glass when the wine is swirled. Length: The amount of time the sensations of taste and aroma persist after swallowing. The longer the better. Limousin: A type of oak cask from Limoges, France. See also French oak. Lingering: Used to describe the flavor and persistence of flavor in a wine after tasting. When the aftertaste remains on the palate for several seconds, it is said to be lingering. Lively: Describes wines that are fresh and fruity, bright and vivacious. Lush: Wines that are high in residual sugar and taste soft or viscous are called lush. Maceration: During fermentation, the steeping of the grape skins and solids in the wine, where alcohol acts as a solvent to extract color, tannin and aroma from the skins. Made And Bottled By: Indicates only that the winery crushed, fermented and bottled a minimum of 10 percent of the wine in the bottle. Very misleading. Maderized: Describes the brownish color and slightly sweet, somewhat caramelized and often nutty character found in mature dessert-style wines. Magnum: An oversized bottle that holds 1.5 liters. Malic: Describes the green apple-like flavor found in young grapes, which diminishes as they ripen and mature. Malolactic Fermentation: A secondary fermentation occurring in most wines, this natural process converts malic acid into softer lactic acid and carbon dioxide, thus reducing the wine's total acidity. Adds complexity to whites such as Chardonnay and softens reds such as Cabernet and Merlot. Mature: Ready to drink. Meaty: Describes red wines that show plenty of concentration and a chewy quality. They may even have an aroma of cooked meat. Mercaptans: An unpleasant, rubbery smell of old sulfur; encountered mainly in very old white wines. Meritage: An invented term, used by California wineries, for Bordeaux-style red and white blended wines. Combines "merit" with "heritage." The term arose out of the need to name wines that didn't meet minimal labeling requirements for varietals (i.e., 75 percent of the named grape variety). For reds, the grapes allowed are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot,


Cabernet Franc, Petite Verdot and Malbec; for whites, Sauvignon Blanc and Smillon. Joseph Phelps Insignia and Flora Springs Trilogy are examples of wines whose blends vary each year, with no one grape dominating. Methode Champenoise: The labor-intensive and costly process whereby wine undergoes a secondary fermentation inside the bottle, creating bubbles. All Champagne and most high-quality sparkling wine is made by this process. See also charmat. Methuselah: An extra-large bottle holding 6 liters; the equivalent of eight standard bottles. Murky: More than deeply colored; lacking brightness, turbid and sometimes a bit swampy. Mainly a fault of red wines. Must: The unfermented juice of grapes extracted by crushing or pressing; grape juice in the cask or vat before it is converted into wine. Musty: Having an off-putting moldy or mildew smell. The result of a wine being made from moldy grapes, stored in improperly cleaned tanks and barrels, or contaminated by a poor cork. Nebuchadnezzar: A giant wine bottle holding 15 liters; the equivalent of 20 standard bottles. Negociant (negociant-eleveur): A French wine merchant who buys grapes and vinifies them, or buys wines and combines them, bottles the result under his own label and ships them. Particularly found in Burgundy. Two wellknown examples are Joseph Drouhin and Louis Jadot. Noble Rot: See Botrytis cinerea. Nonvintage: Blended from more than one vintage. This allows the vintner to keep a house style from year to year. Many Champagnes and sparkling wines are nonvintage. Also, Sherry and the nonvintage Ports, the tawnies and the rubies. Nose: The character of a wine as determined by the olfactory sense. Also called aroma; includes bouquet. Nouveau: A style of light, fruity, youthful red wine bottled and sold as soon as possible. Applies mostly to Beaujolais. Nutty: Used to describe oxidized wines. Often a flaw, but when it's close to an oaky flavor it can be a plus. Oaky: Describes the aroma or taste quality imparted to a wine by the oak barrels or casks in which it was aged. Can be either positive or negative. The terms toasty, vanilla, dill, cedary and smoky indicate the desirable qualities of oak; charred, burnt, green cedar, lumber and plywood describe its unpleasant side. See also American oak, French oak. Off-dry: Indicates a slightly sweet wine in which the residual sugar is barely perceptible 0.6 percent to 1.4 percent. Oxidized: Describes wine that has been exposed too long to air and taken on a brownish color, losing its freshness and perhaps beginning to smell and taste like Sherry or old apples. Oxidized wines are also called maderized or sherrified. PH: A chemical measurement of acidity or alkalinity; the higher the pH the weaker the acid. Used by some wineries as a measurement of ripeness in relation to acidity. Low pH wines taste tart and crisp; higher pH wines are more susceptible to bacterial growth. A range of 3.0 to 3.4 is desirable for white wines, while 3.3 to 3.6 is best for reds. Peak: The time when a wine tastes its best--very subjective. Perfumed: Describes the strong, usually sweet and floral aromas of some white wines. Phylloxera: Tiny aphids or root lice that attack Vitis vinifera roots. The disease was widespread in both Europe and California during the late 19th century, and returned to California in the 1980s. Potent: Intense and powerful. Press Wine (or Pressing): The juice extracted under pressure after pressing for white wines and after fermentation for reds. Press wine has more flavor and aroma, deeper color and often more tannins than free-run juice. Wineries often blend a portion of press wine back into the main cuve for added backbone. Private Reserve: This description, along with Reserve, once stood for the best wines a winery produced, but lacking a legal definition many wineries use it or a spin-off (such as Proprietor's Reserve) for rather ordinary wines. Depending upon the producer, it may still signify excellent quality. Produced And Bottled By: Indicates that the winery crushed, fermented and bottled at least 75 percent of the wine in the bottle. Pruny: Having the flavor of overripe, dried-out grapes. Can add complexity in the right dose. Puckery: Describes highly tannic and very dry wines. Pungent: Having a powerful, assertive smell linked to a high level of volatile acidity. Racking: The practice of moving wine by hose from one container to another, leaving sediment behind. For aeration or clarification. Raisiny: Having the taste of raisins from ultra-ripe or overripe grapes. Can be pleasant in small doses in some wines. Raw: Young and undeveloped. A good descriptor of barrel samples of red wine. Raw wines are often tannic and high in alcohol or acidity. Reduced: Commonly used to describe a wine that has not been exposed to air. Rehoboam: Oversized bottle equivalent to 4.5 liters or six regular bottles.


Residual Sugar: Unfermented grape sugar in a finished wine. Rich: Wines with generous, full, pleasant flavors, usually sweet and round in nature, are described as rich. In dry wines, richness may be supplied by high alcohol and glycerin, by complex flavors and by an oaky vanilla character. Decidedly sweet wines are also described as rich when the sweetness is backed up by fruity, ripe flavors. Robust: Means full-bodied, intense and vigorous, perhaps a bit overblown. Round: Describes a texture that is smooth, not coarse or tannic. Rustic: Describes wines made by old-fashioned methods or tasting like wines made in an earlier era. Can be a positive quality in distinctive wines that require aging. Can also be a negative quality when used to describe a young, earthy wine that should be fresh and fruity. Salmanazar: An oversized bottle holding 9 liters, the equivalent of 12 regular bottles. Smoky: Usually an oak barrel byproduct, a smoky quality can add flavor and aromatic complexity to wines. Soft: Describes wines low in acid or tannin (sometimes both), making for easy drinking. Opposite of hard. Spicy: A descriptor for many wines, indicating the presence of spice flavors such as anise, cinnamon, cloves, mint and pepper that are often present in complex wines. Stale: Wines that have lost their fresh, youthful qualities are called stale. Opposite of fresh. Stalky: Smells and tastes of grape stems or has leaf- or hay-like aromas. Stemmy: Wines fermented too long with the grape stems may Structure: The interaction of elements such as acid, tannin, glycerin, alcohol and body as it relates to a wine's texture and mouth feel. Usually preceded by a modifier, as in "firm structure" or "lacking in structure." Subtle: Describes delicate wines with finesse, or flavors that are understated rather than full-blown and overt. A positive characteristic. Supple: Describes texture, mostly with reds, as it relates to tannin, body and oak. A positive characteristic. Sur Lie: Wines aged sur lie (French for "on the lees") are kept in contact with the dead yeast cells and are not racked or otherwise filtered. This is mainly done for whites, to enrich them (it is a normal part of fermenting red wine, and so is not noted). Originated in Burgundy, with Chardonnay. Popular in Muscadet, Alsace, Germany (Riesling and Pinot Gris) and California. Adds complexity to Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc; can occasionally be overdone and lead to a lees flavor that is off-putting. Tanky: Describes dull, dank qualities that show up in wines aged too long in tanks. Tannin: The mouth-puckering substance--found mostly in red wines--that is derived primarily from grape skins, seeds and stems, but also from oak barrels. Tannin acts as a natural preservative that helps wine age and develop. Tart: Sharp-tasting because of acidity. Occasionally used as a synonym for acidic. Tartaric Acid: The principal acid in wine. Tartrates: Harmless crystals of potassium bitartrate that may form in cask or bottle (often on the cork) from the tartaric acid naturally present in wine. Terroir: The over all environment within which a given varietal grows. Derived from the French word for Earth, "Terre." Thin: Lacking body and depth. Tight: Describes a wine's structure, concentration and body, as in a "tightly wound" wine. Closed or compact are similar terms. Tinny: Metallic tasting. Tired: Limp, feeble, lackluster. Toasty: Describes a flavor derived from the oak barrels in which wines are aged. Also, a character that sometimes develops in sparkling wines. Vegetal: Some wines contain elements in their smell and taste that are reminiscent of plants and vegetables. In Cabernet Sauvignon a small amount of this vegetal quality is said to be part of varietal character. But when the vegetal element takes over, or when it shows up in wines in which it does not belong, those wines are considered flawed. Wine scientists have been able to identify the chemical constituent that makes wines smell like asparagus and bell peppers. Velvety: Having rich flavor and a silky, sumptuous texture. Viniculture: The science or study of grape production for wine and the making of wine. Vinous: Literally means "wine like" and is usually applied to dull wines lacking in distinct varietal character. Vintage Date: Indicates the year that a wine was made. In order to carry a vintage date in the United States, for instance, a wine must come from grapes that are at least 95 percent from the stated calendar year. See also nonvintage. Vinted By: Largely meaningless phrase that means the winery purchased the wine in bulk from another winery and bottled it. Vintner: Translates as wine merchant, but generally indicates a wine producer/or winery proprietor.


Vintner-grown: Means wine from a winery-owned vineyard situated outside the winery's delimited viticultural area. Viticultural Area: Defines a legal grape-growing area distinguished by geographical features, climate, soil, elevation, history and other definable boundaries. Rules vary widely from region to region, and change often. Just for one example, in the United States, a wine must be 85 percent from grapes grown within the viticultural area to carry the appellation name. For varietal bottling, a minimum of 75 percent of that wine must be made from the designated grape variety. See also appellation d'origine cntrole. Viticulture: The cultivation, science and study of grapes. Vitis Vinifera: Classic European wine-making species of grape. Examples include Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. Compare Vitis labrusca, North American grape species used mainly for New York state wines. For example, Concord. Volatile: (or Volatile Acidity) Describes an excessive and undesirable amount of acidity, which gives a wine a slightly sour, vinegary edge. At very low levels (0.1 percent), it is largely undetectable; at higher levels it is considered a major defect. Yeast: Micro-organisms that produce the enzymes, which convert sugar to alcohol. Necessary for the fermentation of grape juice into wine.


Champagne / Wine split: Half bottle wine (Fillet): Wine bottle: U.S Fifth (Spirits): Magnum: Jeroboam: Rehoboam: Methuselah: Salmanazar: Balthazar: Nebuchadnezzar: Sovereign:

bottle= 6.35 oz= 187.7 ml 12.7 oz= 37.5 cl= 375.4 ml 25.4 oz= 75 cl= 750 ml 25.6 oz= 75.7 cl = 756.7 ml 2 wine bottles= 50.7 oz= 1.5 lt 4 wine bottles= 101.6 oz= 3 lt 6 wine bottles= 152.4 oz= 4.51lt 8 wine bottles= 203.2 oz= 6.012 lt 12 wine bottles= 304.8 oz= 90.17 lt 16 wine bottles= 406.4 oz = 12.02 lt 20 wine bottles= 508 oz= 15.03 lt 34 wine bottles= 878.8 oz= 26 lt