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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR TERM REPORT

INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

WORK STRESS IN ORGANIZATION


SUBMITTED TO: MS.SHAGUFTA RAFIF
[Type the author name] SUBMITTED BY: ALMIRA NAZ BUTT (10427) MAIMONA MOBEEN (10239) ALI ASLAM (10796)

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
We chose this topic because it is relevant to what we see around us everyday. Stress is a problem for individuals at all levels, whether it be students, employees or entrepreneurs. Stress has lethally affected our society and is a source of constant complain for everyone. We decided to take this into consideration and came up with the topic of Stress Management within Organizations. For this purpose we selected a PR and Strategic Management Agency by the name of Syntax Communications. We surveyed fifty employees of the organization regarding their stress levels through a questionnaire developed by us. We present the findings and analysis that we concluded from this survey.
We have analysed the symptoms of work stress that prevail within the organization and how it effects the job satisfaction and productivity levels. We have also analyzed the stress management measures taken by the organization, which included appreciation, leadership empowerment, recreational activities and incentives. We concluded that although the stress levels within the company are high as per job description, the employees are still happy to work at the organization and the the rate of turn over is extremely low in this company. The employees face the difficulties like a challenge and never cease to ecel in their performance.

Institute of Business Management Korangi Creek, Karachi-75190, Pakistan UAN (9221)111-002-004, Fax: (9221) 509-0968 Http://www.iobm.edu.pk

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are truly indebted to Ms. Shagufta Rafif for giving us this incredible opportunity to conduct a survey analysis on Work Stress. We would like to thank her for providing us information and guidance throughout our report in order to materialize our content for the report. She showed commendable gesture of believing in our potentials and guided us throughout the completion of this report. She had faith in us which helped us overcome all the obstacles with regard to the project. We owe our deepest gratitude to Ms. Shagufta Rafif for her constant support and encouragement which provided us the inspiration to complete this survey report. Furthermore we would like to thank Mr. Faheem Ahmed, Head of Operations, Syntax Communications and his employees. He allowed us to conduct the survey within his organization and supported us throughout the process even with the minute details in regard to his organization. It was a pleasure working on such a report and on a topic so enlightening and insightful. This has helped us on how to evaluate and eliminate stress within organizations and increase productivity.

Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................. 0 INTRODUCTION: ............................................................................................................................................ 4 THE TOPIC: ................................................................................................................................................ 4 WHAT IS STRESS? .......................................................................................................................................... 4 STRESS VS PRESSURE .................................................................................................................................... 4 SYNTAX COMMUNICATIONS: ........................................................................................................................ 5 INTRODUCTION: ........................................................................................................................................ 5 VISION AND MISSION:............................................................................................................................... 5 SIGNS/SYMPTOMS OF WORK STRESS: .......................................................................................................... 7 Emotional symptoms ................................................................................................................................ 7 Mental ....................................................................................................................................................... 7 Changes from your normal behavior ........................................................................................................ 7 SIGNS OF STRESS IN A GROUP .................................................................................................................. 8 NARROW DEADLINES: ............................................................................................................................... 8 QUANTUM OF DEPENDENCIES: ................................................................................................................ 8 UNREASONABLE HOURS: .......................................................................................................................... 8 CAUSES OF WORK STRESS:............................................................................................................................ 9 Work Content:........................................................................................................................................... 9 Link between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction ......................................................................................... 10 JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS IN SYNTAX: ................................................................................................... 11 JOB STRESS AND PRODUCTIVITY:............................................................................................................ 11 1. 2. 3. 4. Appreciation:................................................................................................................................... 12 Leadership empowerment: ............................................................................................................. 12 Recreational Activities: ................................................................................................................... 12 Incentives: ....................................................................................................................................... 12

CONCLUSION:.............................................................................................................................................. 13 REFRENCES: ................................................................................................................................................. 14 APPENDIXE: ................................................................................................................................................. 14 QUESTIONAIRE ........................................................................................................................................ 16

INTRODUCTION:
THE TOPIC:
We chose this topic because it is relevant to what we see around us everyday. Stress is a problem for individuals at all levels, whether it is students, employees or entrepreneurs. Stress has lethally affected our society and is a source of constant complains for everyone. We decided to take this into consideration and came up with the topic of Stress Management within Organizations. For this purpose we selected a PR and Strategic Management Agency by the name of Syntax Communications. We surveyed fifty employees of the organization regarding their stress levels through a questionnaire developed by us. We present the findings and analysis that we concluded from this survey.

WHAT IS STRESS?
It is usually defined in terms of the internal and external conditions that create stressful situations, and the symptoms that people experience when they are stressed. Extensive research shows that excessive job stress can adversely affect the emotional and physical health of workers. The result is decreased productivity, less satisfied, and less healthy workers. Work-related stress is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope. Stress occurs in a wide range of work circumstances but is often made worse when employees feel they have little support from supervisors and colleagues and where they have little control over work or how they can cope with its demands and pressures

STRESS VS PRESSURE
There is often confusion between pressure or challenge and stress and sometimes it is used to excuse bad management practice. Pressure at the workplace is unavoidable due to the demands of the contemporary work environment. Pressure perceived as acceptable by an individual, may even keep workers

alert, motivated, able to work and learn, depending on the available resources and personal characteristics. However, when that pressure becomes excessive or otherwise unmanageable it leads to stress. Stress can damage your workers health and your business performance. Stress results from a mismatch between the demands and pressures on the person, on the one hand, and their knowledge and abilities, on the other. It challenges their ability to cope with work. This includes not only situations where the pressures of work exceed the workers ability to cope but also where the workers knowledge and abilities are not sufficiently utilized and that is a problem for them.

SYNTAX COMMUNICATIONS:
INTRODUCTION:
Syntax Communications is an independent Strategic communications company, established in 2004. A professional team well rounded in all aspects of PR, marketing and advertising with definitive expertise in their respective disciplines. Have a work ethic of constantly creating and thinking of opportunities to add value to our clients corporate equity Smart edge over other agencies in terms of quality of human resource and strategic thinking!

VISION AND MISSION:


We constantly strive to empower all relationships of our clients by augmenting them with a combination of the truth, strength of their corporate equity, knowledge and proactive hard work. To change the scope of how public relations and strategic marketing communications is marketed in Pakistan by setting an example of a proactive

and out of the box thinking coupled with hard work that brings greater creditability to brand communication profession.

Heritage
Syntax Communications was established in 2004 as an independent Strategic Communications company. We have a professional team, well rounded in all aspects of PR, marketing and advertising with definitive expertise in their respective disciplines that is constantly creating and thinking of opportunities to add value to our clients corporate equity. We have an edge over other agencies in terms of quality of human resource and strategic thinking! Over the past six years our track record includes providing comprehensive PR services to a number of leading brands and corporations in Pakistan.

VALUES
Timely work Independent thinkers Foresight and Proactive action Simplification Team spirit Attention to detail Fickler for quality Friends Vs. Clients

ACHIEVEMENTS
In a short span of time, Syntax Communications has succeeded in completely turning around the PR scene in Pakistan. Our spot-on PR solutions have helped turn around several organizations marketing practices by building Top of the Mind brands through this tool. We have been instrumental in improving communications for both internal and external stakeholders of our clients. Our insight into the Media and PR scene in Pakistan has prompted us to venture into new PR initiatives many established agencies in Pakistan failed to do; advent into the realm of PR 2.0 by leveraging social media being

one such example. In our early years only, we have managed to take on board blue chip companies both local and multinational as clients.

SIGNS/SYMPTOMS OF WORK STRESS:


If you are suffering from some of the following symptoms it may indicate that you are feeling the effects of stress. If you find that work or aspects of your work bring on or make these symptoms worse, speak to your line manager, trade union representative or your HR department.

Emotional symptoms

Negative or depressive feeling Disappointment with yourself Increased emotional reactions more tearful or sensitive or aggressive Loneliness, withdrawn Loss of motivation commitment and confidence Mood swings (not behavioral)

Mental

Confusion, indecision Cant concentrate Poor memory

Changes from your normal behavior


Changes in eating habits Increased smoking, drinking or drug taking to cope Mood swings effecting your behavior Changes in sleep patterns Twitchy, nervous behavior Changes in attendance such as arriving later or taking more time off.

SIGNS OF STRESS IN A GROUP


Disputes and disaffection within the group Increase in staff turnover Increase in complaints and grievances Increased sickness absence Increased reports of stress Difficulty in attracting new staff Poor performance Customer dissatisfaction or complaints With respect to Syntax Communications following are the symptoms of Work Stress within the organization.

NARROW DEADLINES:
According to the surveys filled, we examined that majority of employees are stressed when they have narrow deadlines for their projects. Since it is an event management and PR company deadlines play a very important role, they have to deliver value to clients at the right time accurately. Even a minutes delay or proponent and can cause the agency to suffer huge losses and more over a bad image in front of clients.

QUANTUM OF DEPENDENCIES:
This means that the entire agencys work is based on the contractors they hire to execute the work. The organization is also effected by uncertainties regarding weather, political issues, changing trends, un-scheduled shut downs and economic fluctuations.

UNREASONABLE HOURS:
The employees find it difficult to put in extra hours of work after the normal working hours but have to deal with this issue anyways due the job requirement of the agency. It is certainly not in the hands of the employer to schedule the timings of the event within working hours nor is it possible to wind up the props and bill the events before they end. Most events in our cultural setting take place at night proposing a great difficulty for employees working in event management and PR agencies.

CAUSES OF WORK STRESS:


Poor work organization that is the way we design jobs and work systems, and the way we manage them, can cause work stress. Excessive and otherwise unmanageable demands and pressures can be caused by poor work design, poor management and unsatisfactory working conditions. Similarly, these things can result in workers not receiving sufficient support from others or not having enough control over their work and its pressures. Research findings show that the most stressful type of work is that which values excessive demands and pressures that are not matched to workers knowledge and abilities, where there is little opportunity to exercise any choice or control, and where there is little support from others. The more the demands and pressures of work are matched to the knowledge and abilities of workers, the less likely they are to experience work stress. The more support workers receive from others at work, or in relation to work, the less likely they are to experience work stress. The more control workers have over their work and the way they do it and the more they participate in decisions that concern their jobs, the less likely they are to experience work stress. Most of the causes of work stress concern the way work is designed and the way in which organizations are managed. Because these aspects of work have the potential for causing harm, they are called stress-related hazards.

Work Content:
Job Content Monotonous, under-stimulating, meaningless tasks Lack of variety Unpleasant tasks Aversive tasks Workload and Work pace Having too much or too little to do Working under time pressures Working Hours Strict and inflexible working schedules Long and unsocial hours

Unpredictable working hours Badly designed shift systems Participation and Control Lack of participation in decision making Lack of control (for example, over work methods, Work pace, working hours and the work environment)

Link between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction


Several studies have tried to determine the link between stress and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and job stress are the two major focuses in human resource management researches. In other study, stated that organization factors such as workload and working condition were negatively related with job satisfaction. Lack of satisfaction can be a source of stress, while high satisfaction can alleviate the effects of stress. Both of job stress and job satisfaction were found to be interrelated. High levels of work stress are associated with low levels of job satisfaction and job stressors are predictive of job dissatisfaction and greater propensity to leave the organization. Individuals who have experienced high work demands with low work-control will have difficulties to meet the job demands; this may lead to increased occupational strains. Inability of individuals cognitive processes and emotional reactions to manage strain environments may lead to increased occupational tensions. Individuals who feel stressful when exposing with an event in particular environments may experience occupational strains. A person who experiences physiological stress (e.g., heart attack) may simultaneously Experience psychological stress (e.g., mental illness). The level of ones physical Stress will determine the persons predictable biological response. For instance, a person who can habitually reduce his/her level of physical stress will be more experience a positive biological response compared to a person who often has high level of physical stress. This situation may lead to higher job satisfaction. Cognitive arousal theory of stress states that a persons feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and inability to cope in stressful situations can trigger lower emotional health, which can potentially lead to feelings of frustration, deprivation or discontentment. For example, if a person feels that he/she is not able to cope with stressful conditions this may invoke his/her feelings of dissatisfaction with job. Banduras (1977) self-efficacy theory proposes that if a person has high self-efficacy (i.e. belief to his/her ability in executing a course of action) this will not invoke his/her negative cognitive thoughts. Application of this theory in a occupational stress model shows that if a person has high self-efficacy (i.e. belief to his/her ability to manage emotions) this will effectively

decrease his/her job stressors, and increase his/her emotional health and lower level of psychological stress. This situation can potentially result in higher job satisfaction.

JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS IN SYNTAX:


The stress levels in the organization are very high but still the employees are both favoring turnover according to our survey. When we questioned them further they respond by saying that although they work in a very stressful environment when the events are taking place, the every day job is very comforting since the environment of the office is very casual and friendly, the employer and their immediate heads of the department are sympathetic and understanding. They consider the employees personal issues and are willing to go out of their way to solve them, therefore the employees prefer to work in this organization.

JOB STRESS AND PRODUCTIVITY:


Work stress and productivity has an inverted U shaped relationship. From the organizations stand point, management may not be concerned when employee experience low to moderate level of stress. Such levels may lead to Inverted U relationship between stress and productivity moderate level of stress. Such levels may lead to higher employee performance. But high levels of stress or even low levels sustained over a long period of time, can lead to reduced employee performance and thus require action by management. From the individuals standpoint even low levels of stress are likely to be perceived as undesirable. What management may consider as a positive stimulus that keeps the adrenaline running is a very likely to be seen as excessive pressure by the employee. Stress has an emotional impact on all type of organizations, regardless of whether it is a manufacturing industry or a service organization. We asked the employees if their quality of work was affected due to stress levels or not, they responded that although they are often stressed due to irregular hours and over time, there dedication to complete task is determined. This is because the company provides them with casual environment that employees require in order to keep them relaxed, the employer is encouraging and supportive during the execution of the event. Since an event management company itself is described as a stressful job, the employees perceive it as a stressful job that needs extra dedication. This motivates them to work rigorously and so their quality of work is not affected.

STRESS MANAGEMENT MEASURES:


1. Appreciation:
The Employees of Syntax Communications are motivated by verbal appreciation. Whenever they accomplish a task everyone from their immediate supervisors to the big Boss compliments them, this boosts their ego and a feeling of self-worth is prevalent among the employees and in return they perform better.

2. Leadership empowerment:
Employees are assigned different tasks in the course of business and they are completely responsible for their part of the work, they are free to take their own decisions and they own the projects they work on. This empowers the employee to think of a successful event as their personal achievement.

3. Recreational Activities:
The company organizes frequent recreational trips for the employees and retreats. Picnics to far houses and trips to the beach are arranged for the employees. The meetings are conducted at clubs and spa locations where the employees take a break from there every day routine and enjoy the surroundings while letting the creative juices flow. Often the company rents chalets for the employees to stay overnight.

4. Incentives:
The employees are given accommodations and transports according to the status of the employee. They are also given all expense paid hotel stays, food and chauffeur services while at work on a particular event. They are also given bonuses for doing extra-ordinary services to the company. Annual bonuses are also given to the employees. Ballots are held and hajj tickets, cars and fully paid vacations are gifted to the employees.

CONCLUSION:
Therefore the employees in Syntax Communication have to face new challenges that requires extra efforts and dedication due to which the stress levels increase proportionately. The nature of the job description itself is stressful and so employee knowing that it is a stressful job, manage to work according to its requirements. The company has provided sufficient facilities to keep the stress minimum and make the employees dedicated. Moreover, this shows that stress may not always result negatively on every employee; it varies from person to person and on their dedication level to the organization.

REFRENCES:
http://www.syntaxcommunications.com/

http://www.workplace-wellness-massage.com/stress-in-the-workplace.htm

http://www.ourstressfullives.com/stress-statistics.html

http://cupe.ca/updir/stress_guideline.pdf

APPENDIXE:
QUESTIONAIRE
GENERAL INFORMATION: 1. Are you: a) Male b) Female 2. What is your age? a) Less than 20 year b) 20-29 years c) 30-39 years d) 40 or more 3. What type of work do you ensure at your organisation? a)Creative b) Co-Ordination c) Decision Making d) Execution e) Social Networking f) Other 4. Do you work: a) Full time b) Part time c) Temporary/Casual

JOB RELATED QUERIES:

Q.1 For how long have you been working in this organization? a) One year or less b) Two or more c) More than five years Q.2 Has your workplace stress increased from the past years? a) Yes b) No c) Somewhat d) Dont know Q.3 In your opinion, has the quality of your work suffered because of workplace stress? a) Yes b) No c) Some what d) Dont know Q.4 In your opinion, has your job satisfaction declined because of workplace stress? a) Yes b) No c) Some what d) Dont know Q.5 What would you consider the most stressful aspect of your work? a) Narrow deadlines b) Unsupportive employer

c) Uncooperative colleagues d) Unreasonable hours of work e) Any other (please specify) Q.6: Do you get the scope of explaining your angst to your employer? a) Yes, frequently b) Sometimes c) Never Q.7 If recommendations have been made by you, has your employer acted on them and made changes in your workplace to solve stress problem? a) Yes b) No c) Dont know Q.8 Do you get sufficient amount of lunch/tea breaks during work? a) Yes b) No Q.9 Do you ever stay late or come in early to complete your work? (I.e. work unpaid outside of your regular hours of work) a) Yes b) No c) some times Q.10 Have you had difficulty taking your vacation/holiday/time off because of your stress levels? a) Yes b) No c) Some what

Q11: Is your work pressure creating differences in your family life? Does your spouse understand and support you with regards to your work troubles? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ______________ Q12: Do you think that these stress areas may force you to rethink about continuing your present job? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ______________