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- ajit dalvi -
Published by :
vibha Prakashan
D 17/131 M.I.G. Colony
Bandra (East),
Mumbai - 400 051.
Tel. : 2659 1595
Email : ajitdalvi@rediffmail.com
Date of Publishing
Guru Poornima 21.7.2005
Designed & Printed by
Saidatta Arts
Prabhadevi, Mumbai - 25.
With this I conclude this series of short books an Upanishadas. This is the last in this series
- Katha, Mundaka and Vrihadaranyaka. First fve Upanishadas - Kena, Isha, Prasna, Mandukya
and Taitariya we studied in detail. The rest fve namely-Aitareya, Katha, Mundaka, Chhandogya and
Vrihadaranyaka; we just had an introduction. Other two Upanishadas Garbhopanishad and Suryopanishad,
we studied in detail with modern thought of science in our mind. One more feature of this series is that
I had always Sai principle in my mind as it was Baba who was really writing through me. I was just
His instrument. This was an unique experience to be one with the nature and experience the vedanta
hidden in nature. The sun, moon, rain, lightning all were my companions while I was writing. This is
the truth which is beyond time which I could experience. My study of spiritual literature, blessing of
all my gurus always were a guide to me. The response to this series was not as expected as I know
the content of vedanta is diffcult to understand and then, to experience it. There have been only few
students to vedic studies, so also I had only few students but I felt this to be my duty to document
these in English so that many are motivated to read them and perhaps experience.
Prem Sai will be the next advent. He will be the Shakti Avtar in the Bharadvaja tradition.
First is the Shiva - Shirdi Avatar, nest is the Shiva Shakti - Sri Sathya Sai Baba and next will be the
Shakti Avatar - Prem Sai !
The socio economic factors in the world are important, the Sankalpa of the Avatar is accordingly
framed Baba established the Truth and Reightiousness and in the next advent Peace and Love will
prevail all over the world. World will be one family and the barries of nations may not exist. Women
or the mother will be the governing principle. Education of women will fnd more importance is the
fscal budgets of various nations. Media will correct the image of women all over. Educate will be the
only value to be taught. Development Budgets will exceed the defence. Sathya, Dharma, Shanti, Prema,
Ahinsa will be on the agenda of UNO.
Unless the Truth is establised the Rightionsness can not come and unless the Rightiousness is
present peace can not prevail. Unless the Peace is there the Love can not exist.
Prem Sai as the name suggests will bring the Love amongst the nations and Vasudhaiva
Kutumbakam will be his objective.
I take this opportunity to thank all of them who encouraged me in writing this series. Special
thank to my friend Shri Vijay Vadnere who has been with me all these years like my shadow. I wish
him all the success and health for rest of his life.
Ajit C. Dalvi
iii-ii -i=i
+ |r -||||| + |r -|| -|-|-| + |r ||| ||||r + |-|||-||||||-|| -|| |||a-|||r ++
ciii`-i. ciii`-i. ciii`-i. ++
=:|-r | ||-|||| || |:| ::| + || r -|||||| -||-| -|| ~||| ++++ :| r |-||| |-| :|-|||| -|||-||-|||
|=|::|||:|, ||:-|-|| ++-++ -||||:|| -||||| :|:|r| |-|||-:|| + ~|-|-:| -||-| | =|||||-| |=|| || ::| ++-++
| r|||| |-|| || |-| -|| :|||||| + |a||| |||| || r|||| -||| || ::|-|||| ++++ |r-||-||-| ||-|| |r-||-||-| -||-|+
|||||-|-|| ||| |--|||:-| ||-||| ++-++ ~|-|-|:| ||| -|| |||-|:| |||:-| + |||-|| -|| -||| |||-|||-||||
-|-| ++-++ |||-| |||:||||||||t||| |r|-| + ||||| :|||-| |||-|r |||||:|-| ++++ ~||:|||||-| | || |-|||
||-|| -||-|:||| |||-| + )|a=-| -|=-|||--|-|||| |||-|:-|-| |||| ||t||| |r ++c++ ||-|| ||||:|||||r -|:-|:-|-
|t||||||-|-|| + -|-||:| |t|-||| -|:| |-||||| ||-||-|||-| ++++ :||-||--| |-|-|| ||| ||a||-|-||||-||
-||:|-| -||| + ||| -||:|-| |:|||| )|| ||||| ||-| | || ++++
||| -|||=|||| |||| ~||r|=|||=||-||| + |c|| ||| :||||| |||-|-||| :,|:|||--||-|c|||-|-|-|
++++ || =|| -| -|| ||:|-|||| -| || | -| -||| ||-||| + =-| ||||::|-|||||-|-||| :|||||||| -||:| ||=|| ++-++
| |-||-|| ||-|||-| -||| |||r :| |r||-||| -|r|-| + ||=||| ~|-||| -|-|-| )|: |a|||-| || || ++-++ | |
||||-| |: -| |-|||| ||-||-| -||||| |-||-|-| + ~|-|-|=||||-|-||| |||=||||= |-|| |-||r| |r|||-| ++++ =||||:-||-|
|-|||| |-| || :|| ||||||| ||| || + | |||-| ||||:-|||-|-|||| -|| -|-|||r | ++-++
|-|||||||-|||| -|r|-|| | ||r|-| ::||-| -|| + ||| -||--|| -|||||:|-||-| || |-||-|-||=-|| |r|| ++-++
| |||| || || -|| -| | || -| | ||-| | -|| | -|--|-| | + | t|-|-| : |-|| c| | || :|| | -|||| -||| :||| -|-||-|-| | | ++++
||||||||-||-|||a|:|| | )| ||a||||-|| -||||||-| + | -||-||:||--|| |||-| :|||||||| -||:| ||=|| ++c++ )-|
|:|-|-||||| ||| |-|||||| |a|||-| || + )|-||-| ||| ||-||-| -|-||||||| | -|||||| |||-| ++++ || ||
|||||||| -|-|-|:|||| -|||-||||| || + )||a-||-|-||:||||:r ||||-|-| ||||| ++-++
:||||-| ||||||||| -|| -| |r |||-||-||-| |-| + ~|-| | -|||||| |||-| -|| -||-|||||| -|| |-|-|-| ++-++
:||||-| ||||||||| ||= | | -||| || |||-||-||| + |-|| ||| ||,|-|| -| =-|| -||-|| ||-| )|| |||| ++--++
:||||-| -||-||||-|||-| |r--|:|-r|| |r|-|||-| + -|-|-|r:|||-| |||-| || | -||| :|:| ||||:=|| ++--++ )|-|-|
||: -|-|| | |||-| ||-| ||-|||||| | + -|r|-|-|| -||||||-||| ||-||-|| || ||-|-||-| |||-| ++-++ | | ||-|| :=-||
-||=|| |||-||-|||:=-:| |||||+ :-|| |-|| ||| |||| -| r|,:|| =--|-|||| -|-|-| + ~|||-|-||-|||-| -||||||
-|||||| -|| -||:-|||-|| ++--++
||:-|||| -||| |:-||||||-:|||| -|||-| |-| + ~||-| || -|||||-|--|-|| ||| ||r||| -||||| ++--++ -|
||-|-| |-||||| -|-|-|| =-||-|r ||-|-|:|--| |-|| + -||||-||-|| |||:||:|-||| | || -| |||| | )| ++-++ ~|-|||||-|
-|||-||-|-|| -|||--|| |||| |-||-|-| + ~||-||||-|||||-||:|-|||:|| -||||| || -|| ++-c++ ||-|||: ||||||||-|
-||||||-||| -|r|| ||r -||| + ||:| || |c-|-||||-=| -||-| |-|||||||| |||| ++-++
i`iiii -i=i
~|-|=||:-|:|| ||| =-| -||-||| -|=-|| ||-||| + ||| || ~||::|-|| ||| -|||| r|||:||-| = ||| ||||++++
| || | || -|-| -|-| ||| | -|| | | || |-|| -| || + | || | r || | :| -|| ||| | || | | || -|-:| || |-| -||a || | ++-++ | |
|||||-||=-|||| ||-||-||-||||||||||:|-||-|| + -|||| || ||-|-|||-|||-|| ||| -|--||-| |r|| -|-|-|| ++-++ :-||
||-||| ||-||| ~|||-|| || | ||-||| -|||| + ||-||-|||-|-| -|||||| -|-| -| || ||-|| |r||:=|=-|-|++++ ~|||-||||-|-|
||-||-|| || ||| -||c|-|-|-||-||+ :-:-|-|||| -||||-| -|c| ~|-|-|| -|||-||-|| |||:-|| ++-++
-| ||-||| |||-|||| ||= |-||-|-| ||-|-||r-| -|c-| + ~|| =||| -|||| -| :|| -||-|| -|-| -|-||:|-||-|-|| -| ++-++
|||||||-| |r|-||| -| =-| ||-||:|-| |r|| | -| ||-| + ~||||| |-|| |:|=|:| =||::~||||| -|||| |:|=|-||:|++++
-| -||||| ||-| )-| |||-||| |r|| ||-|-||-| + ~|-|-|||-| |||| -|||||||-r||||-|||-||||| ++c++ -|-|| ||| -||||-|-|||
||-||:-|-|| |-||-||| |= + || |-||-| |||||||||| ||,=-|| -|||||||| || ++++ -||-||-|r| :|||||||-|| -| r|||
||-|| |r || || + ||| -||| -||||||||||:|-||-||:| ||-|||-||-| |-||-| ++++
||-|||::|-| -||| |||=| :||||-|-|-|-||| -||-| + ||-| -|r:=||| |||=| ,|| ||| ||| -||||||:|-||-||
++++ | :::| |c-|-|||| |r||r| |;= -|||-| + ~|||-||||||||-|-| :| -||| ||| r-|:|||| -|r||| ++-++ )|=||
|--|||r| -|| ||r| |-|-||-||-||-| + | -||:| -||:-|||| |r =|| ||||| |<| -|||||| -|-| ++-++ ~|-|| |-||:-||||-||
:-|||-||| ||||||| + ~|-|| -|||| -|||| |-|-|:||| |a: ++++ || |:| |-|:-||-|-||-| |-||||| ||||| | |a:|-|+
||:=-|| |t||| ||-| |-| -|:| |r| |||-|||-|||| ++-++
)|=|||-| |t| )|=|||-| -|-| + )|=|||-| -|||| || ||:=|| || || ++-++ )|:|=-|-| |=-||:|=-|-|
-|-| + )|:|=-|-| -|||| |t|=|| -|r||| ++++ -| -|||| |-||| || ||-|||||| ||||| |-|| |||| + ~|-|| |-|| :|||||:|
-|||| -| r-|| r-|-||-| :|| ++c++ r-|| |--|-|| r-|| r||--|-|| r|-| + =-|| || -| ||-||-|||| -|||| r|-| -| r-||++++
~|||||||--|r|| -|r|||-||-||| -|-|||-||r|| |r|||-|+ |-|:|| -|:||| |||:|||| ||| |||:|--||r-||-|-||-|-|++-++
~||||-|| : |-||| :|||-|| |||| ||| + || -|:|-|: :| -|:-|| -|||-|r|| ++-++ ~|:||| :||-|-|||-|||||-| +
-|r|-| ||-|-||-||-| -||| ||| -| :||||| ++--++ -|||-||-|| |||-|-| =-|| -| -|||| -| |r-|| ||-| + |-||-| ||| |-| =-|||-|
~||-|| ||||| |-|| ||-| ++--++ -|||||| :||||||:||-|| -|||-|||r| + -||:||-|-||-||| ||:|-| |-||-|-|-|-||--||||++-++
|| |t| | -|| | =-| -||| ~||:-| + -|||||-|||-| | :|| |: || | ++--++
iiiii -i=i
|| |-||-|| |||| =|| |r| |||| -|-| -||| + =||||-|| |t|||:| |:|-| -|:||-||| | | ||||||||| ++++ |
|||-||-||-||-|-| |t| |-|-| + ~|-|| ||||-||| -|| -||||||| :||-||r ++-++ ~||-||-|| ||-| |||= :||| |-|| | + ||=
| |||| |||= -|-| ||r-|| | ++-++ :|-:|||| r||-||r||-||||-| ||||-| + ~||-||-:|-|-|||-| -||-|||r-|-|||-|| ++++
||||-||-|||-| -||||-|-| -|-||| |:| + |||-:||||:|||-| :||| :| ||| ++-++
|| ||-||-|||-| -|||| |-|-| -|-||| |:| + |||-:|||| |:|||-| |:|| :| ||| ++-++ ||||-||-|||-| -|||-|-||
|:|::||| + -| | |-|:-||--|||| ||| |||||=|| ++++ || ||-||-|||-| -|||| |-|-|| |:| :||| + | | |-|:-||--||||
|-||=|| -| -|||| ++c++ ||-||-||||||| -|-| ||r|||+ ||:|-| -||-||--|||| ||a-|| -|-| -|:-|++++ :|-:|-| -||
r||| ~||-|| -| -|-| + -|-||| -|| ||=|=|-|| -|r|--| ++++
-|r| -|-||-|-||-||-|=-| -| + -|=-||| -| |||:||| ||=| || -|| ||| ++++ )-| ||-| -||-| |c|::-||
-| |||:|| + ,:|| ||||| | =|| | --||| | --|:| :|| -| ++-++ |= a|= -|-||| ||-||-|= --||-| ~||-|| -| + -||-|-||
-|| -| -|r| | | -||= -|-|= =|-| ~||-|| -| ++-++ =| -|=| -|||| ||-| ||| ||| || + -| | ||| | -|| :||| : ||| : |
-||||||| |:|-| ++++ ~|:|:-|-|:|-|=-|-||| |||:| |-||-||-||| || + ~|-||-|-|-| -|r| -| || |-|||| |--||
-||| || |-| -||c||-| -| | || -|| |-|||-|-| + =| || | || | -| |||| | t|=| | -|r| || ++-++ | :-| -|-| | r| |||| :t|| || :+
||| ||=||= || |:|-|-||| |--|| |:|-|-||| |--|| :|| ++++
-iiii -i=i
-|||:| c|||-| |||||-||-||-||=-|:||| -||-||-|-| + |||=| ||||-||-|-|-|:||-||-|-||||-|=-| ++++
-||| ||-||-|-|||-| ||=|| -|||||-| ||||| -||:|-| + ~|| ||| ~|-||| |||:|| ||-||||-|r -| ||||-| ++-++ |-| =-|
| |-| :|:|--|:|||| -||-||-| + )|-|| ||-||-|||| ||-|| -|||:|-|| + )|a || ++-++ |--||-| -||||||-| ||-|| |-||-|-|:|||+
-|r|-| ||-|-||-||-| -||| ||| -| :|||||++++ | :-| -||: |: ~||-||-| -|||-||-|||| + ::||-| -||-||| -| ||| ||-||-||+
)|a || ++- ++
| -| | |-||| -|||-|=| -| | -|-|||| + | r| || |:| | |=-| || -| | | -|| -|:|| + )|a || ++-++ || ||| -|
|--||||:||:|||-||| + |r| |||:| ||=-|| || -|||-||-|||| + )|a || ++++ ~||||-||r|| -||||:| |-| :| |-|||
||-||||-| + |:| :| :c|| -|||||=r||--||=-|-|-||-||-| + )|a || ++c++ ||||:|| |||:| || | |=|| + | :|| ||
~||-||||: -||||| ||-| )|a || ++++ |:|r |:-|| |:-|| |:|-|r + -||| | -||-||--|||| | :r -||-|| -|:|||++++
-|-|||:-||-|| -|r -||-|||| ||:|-| + -||| | -|| |=|| | :r -||-|| -|:||| ++++ ~|=-||| -|=-|| -|| ~||-||-|
||=|| + ::||-|| -||-||| -| ||| ||-||-|| + )|a || ++-++ ~|=-||| -|=-|| -||||||||-|| + ::||-|| -||-||| |
)||-| | = | + )|a || ++-++ |||:| :| | -|||-| |||||||+ )| |-||--|||-|:|||-|||-| ||||||| ++++ |||:|
:|= :|=-||||-| ||,|| -|||| + )| -|-|||-||-|| ~||-|| -|||| |||-| ++-++
-i>-i-ii -i=i
-|-|||::|a|-|-||||:|||| + ~|-|=|| -| :||||| ||-|-|| ||-||| + )|a || ++++ r|| :|||-|a|-||-||=|||
||:-|:||||:|||| + -|-|a|,||a||-||:-|| ||-|| ||-|| ~||:-|| || |r|++-++ =| |||-||||-||-| |||||| + -||
||-|-|-||||-| ||| :|| =-|||| ++-++ ~|| ||-||-||-|| :|||| :|r-| + :r||a-||-||-|| ||-|| -|||:|-||+ )|a ||
++++ -| |||-| -||-||-|-| -||| -||||| ||-| + :|| | -||||-| ||-|||||-|||||| ++-++
r-| | :: ||-|||-| |r| |t| |-|||-|-| + ||| | -|| ||-| ~||-|| -|||| |||-| ++-++ |||-|-|-| |-|-|-| :|||||
:|r-|+ |||-|-|:-||||-| ||||-| |||||-|++++ | )-||-|-| -||||| ||-| ||-| -|=-|| |-||-|-|||+ |:| :|:| |:t|
|:||-||-|||+ ||-|=||| |||| || |: -||||| ||-| + )|a ||++c++ ~||-||||| -||-| |||-=| =-| =-| |||=-||
|-|| + )|||| ||-|||-||-|| =-| =-| |||=-|| ||r| ++++ ||||||| -||-| |||| =-| =-| |||=-|| |-|| + )||||
||-|||-||-|| =-| =-| |||=-|| ||r| ++++
||| ||| ||=||| |-|-| |=-|| ||-|-|||r|:|-| + )|||| ||-|||-||-|| -| |=-|| =||:c|-| ||r| ++++ )||
|:|| ||-|||-||-|| )| =-| |r|| | |||| + |-||-|| |:-|-|:||-| ||||-|| |c| :|||| -||-||-| ++-++ |-|||:|-|||-||
||-|||-||-||-||| |r-|| || ||:|||| ||-||-| + |-||-|| |:-|-|:||-| ||||-|| :|||-| :||||| -||-||-| ++-++ |:||:||
-|-|-|:|-|::| -|-| |c|-| + || -| ||a-||-|||| ||-| -|||| ||-|||| || ++++ -| || ||| -|||| -| |-:||| -|-|| ||-||| -|||-|
|||:|-||-| + |-|| -||-|-|-| -|||| || || -|||| |||-|: ||-|||| ++-++
i=i -i=i
=|-|=|:|||:||c| )-||:|| |-|||-| + |:| :|:| |:t| |:||-||-||| + ||-|=||| |||| || |: -|||||
||-| + )|a || ++++ ||:: ||:| -|||| ||| )-||| |-|||-| + -|r=| |-|-|-|| | )||a:-|||| -|||-| ++-++
-|||:|||-||-||| -|||-|-||| || + -||||:-:| |||| -||||||| -|:|-| ++-++ :r |::|||:|= |||:||| ||-|| +
|| ||-| =||-| :||||| |--|| ++++ |||::::| |||::-||-| ||| |--| ||| |-||=|| + |||:-| -||| :,:| |||
|-||=|| =||||-||||| |t|=|| ++-++
:|-:|||| -||-|||-|:|||-||| | || + -|||-|-|-||-||-|| -||| ||| -| :||||| ++-++ :|-:|-| -| -|-|| -|-||
|-|-|-|-|-| + |-||:|| -|r|-||-|| -|r||:|-|-|-|-|-| ++++ ~||-||-| -| -|=-|| ||-|||:|= )| | + | -|||| -|||
-|-|-||| | |=|| ++c++ -| |-,:| ||=|| =-|-|| -| |-|-|| -|:||| ||-|-|-| + r:| -|-||-|| -|-|||:|-||=-|| | )||a:-||||
-|||-| ++++ |:| -|:|||||=-| -||-|||-| -|-||| |r + ||=| -| |||| ||-||r -|-|| |||-|++++
|| ||||-||| -|-|-| ||||-||-:|||||-| + ~||-|-||:| -|||| |||| |r |-|||-||| ++++ -|| |||| -| -|-||| ||-|
:|||| -| |-|-|| + ~||||| ||||:-|| || |:-|=-|| ++-++ ~||||||-|=|||-|-|||-| ||-||| + ~||||||-|=||
|-|-||| |||:|| ++-++ |:| || |-||-| ||-|| |:| r|: |||| + ~|| -|||:-||| -|||| |t| |-|:-|| ++++ |:| ||
||-|-|-| r:||r |-|| + ~|| -|||:-||| -||||||=|-|:|||-|-| ++-++
:|| ||| | r:|| -||c||||| -|||-|-||-||-| |||| + ||||-||||-|||-||| ||-|==-|| =:|-|| -|||-| ++-++
~| =-||| -| =-|| :-||-|| |:| -|-||-|| r:| || || | + | -||=| ||| r --| :||| :| -|| || | | |+ | | |-||= :|-|-| | |
||-||=:|-|-|||-||| ++++ -||||-|| -|||||||:| =|| ||-||-||| ||||||| | |-|-| + |t|||-|| ||-|| :-||a-||-||:-||
|| ||:||-|-||++c++
-i; -ii-i-ii + -i; -ii +i-i-i. + -i; -iii -i.r-ii-i; + iii--i-ii-iiii-i-i -ii i`-ii`ii-i; ++
ciii`-i. ciii`-i. ciii`-i. ++
-i -ir -ir-i iii -ig=i-ii -i -ig=-i +
>iii-iiii>i-i -i-iiii -i-iii +i-ii-i ++
Kathopanishad is divided into two adhyayas i.e. two chapters and each chapter is divided into
three parts.
It starts with the famous prayer which means : May the Sacchidanand brahma protect and nourish
both of us. Let both of us attain vigour together. Let what we study be invigorating. May we not cavil at
each other.
Shanti, Shanti, Shanti |
Chapter i
Part i
Once upon a time, the son of Vajashrava, being desirous of fruits, performed a yagnya and gave
away all his wealth. He had, as the story goes, had a son named Nachiketa.||1||
When the cows were being brought to be given as dakshina or gifts to the brahmans faith took
possession of him who was still a boy.||2||
He thought, one goes to naraka loka i.e. to those worlds that are known as joyless are devoid of
happiness who offers such cows that have drunk water and eaten grass for good, which can't be milked
any more and have lost power of their organs, and which are incapable of bearing calves.||3||
Thinking on this he said to his father, "father to whom will you offer me?" He spoke to him a
second time and a third time. The father angrily replied, 'to death, to Yama I offer you.'||4||
Nachiketa thought : Among many I rank as belonging to the highest; among many I rank as
belonging to the middle. What purpose can there be of death that my father will get achieved today
through me? ||5||
(Still, the utterance of the father must not be falsifed, thinking this way, he said sorrowfully to his
father, remorseful as the latter was because of the thought what a thing I have uttered !) Consider how
your forefathers behaved, also how others behave now. Man decays and dies like corn and emerges
like corn.||6||
(Having been addressed this way, the father sent him for the sake of his own veracity. And he,
having gone to deaths abode, lived for three nights, death being out. When Yama returned from his
sojourn, his wives said to him by way of advice :) A brahmana guest enters house like vaishvanar fre.
To appease him please carry water for him. (to wash his feet).||7||
If in anyone's house a brahmana guest abides without food, that brahmana destroys hope and
expectation, the result of holy association and sweet discourse, sacrifce and charities, sons and cattle -
all of these - of that man of little intelligence.||8||
(Having been told thus, Yama approached Nachiketa with adoration and said:) Oh, Brahmana,
since you have lived in my house for three nights without food, a guest and an adorable person as you
are, let my salutations be to you, and let good accrue to me (by averting the fault arising from that lapse).
Ask for three boons - one in respect of each night.||9||
Nachiketa said : Oh ! Yamraj ! of the three boons I ask this one as the frst, viz. that my father
Gautama may become freed from anxiety, get calm of mind, and freed from anger towards me; and he
may recognize me and talk to me when freed by you.||10||
Yama : Having recognised you, your father Auddalaki Aruni (note : he bears two family names)
will be possessed of affection just as he had before. Seeing you freed from the jaws of death, he will
get over his anger and will; and with my permission sleep happily for many a night.||11||
In heaven there is no fear - you are also not there, and nobody is struck with fear of old age. Having
transcended both hunger and thirst, and crossed over sorrow, one rejoices in the heavenly world.||12||
Nachiketa : Oh ! Death, you know that fre which leads to heaven, fre that is the means for
attainment of heaven. The dwellers of heaven get immortality. Of that fre you tell me who is full of faith.
This I ask for through the second boon.||13||
Yama : Oh ! Nachiketa, I being well aware of the fre that is conducive to heaven, shall tell
you of it. That very thing you understand with attention. That fre which is the means for attainment of
heaven and which is the support of the world is established in the hidden place i.e. in the intellect (of
the enlightened ones).||14||
Yama told him of the fre that is the source of the world, the class and number of bricks, that are
to be collected for the sacrifcial altar; as also the manner of arranging them for the fre. And Nachiketa
repeated with understanding all that just as Yama had spoken. Then Yama, being satisfed by his repetition
said again.||15||
Feeling highly pleased at the pronunciations of the disciple; the Mahatma said : out of favour
towards you, I now grant again another boon. This fre will be known by your name indeed. And morever
accept this multiformed necklace as well, it also means an additional knowledge of karma.||16||
Yama praises the karma itself again : One who, gets connection with the three, (i.e. gets his
instructions from the three-mother, father, guru), or through the Vedas, the smritis, and the good people
or through direct perception, inference and the scriptures; follows from them, piles up the Nachiketa fre
thrice or one who is possessed of its knowledge, studies it, performs it and undertakes trikarmas i.e. three
types of karma-tapa i.e. penance, dan - i.e. charity & yagnya i.e. sacrifce; crosses over birth and death.
Gets knowledge of that omniscient, effulgent God who is born from brahma - Hiranyagarbha. Meditating
on that Virat; he realizes Him - as one's own self. And attains this complete peace fully.||17||
One who performs the Nachiketa yagnya thrice after having known these three karmas or factors,
and he who having known thus, accomplishes the Nachiketa sacrifce, casts of snares of death, and
crossing over sorrows rejoices in heaven.||18||
Oh ! Nachiketa, this is for you the boon about the Agni-vidya or the fre that leads to heaven,
for which you prayed through the second boon. This fre will be known by your name. Now ask for the
third boon.||19||
Nachiketa said : doubt arises after the death of a man - some says atma or the self exists, while
some says it does not exists. I would know this, under your instruction. Of all the boons, this one is the
third boon.||20||
With a view of testing if Nachiketa is ft for this knowledge of the self, Yama says : with regard
to this even the gods entertained doubts; for being subtle, this substance, the atma or the self is not
truly comprehended. Oh ! Nachiketa, ask for some other boon; do not press me, give up this boon that
is demanded of me.||21||
Being spoken to thus, Nachiketa said : Oh ! Death, even the gods entertained doubts with regard
to this thing and since you too say that it is not truly comprehended and since any other instructor like
you, of this thing, is not to be had, therefore there is no other boon comparable to this one.||22||
Although told thus, still Yama says by way of tempting, ask for sons and grandsons who will be
centenarians. Ask for many animals, elephants and gold and horses, and a vast expanse of the earth.
And you yourself live for as many years as you like.||23||
Oh ! Nachiketa, if you think some other boon to be equal to this, ask for that. Ask for wealth
and long life. Oh ! Nachiketa, you be a ruler over a vast region. I make you ft for the enjoyment of all
delectable things.||24||
Whatever things there be that are desirable but diffcult to get in mrutyuloka, pray for all those
cherishod things according to your choice. Here are those women with chariots and musical instruments,
such are surely not to be had by mortals. With these things offered by me, you get yourself served. Oh
Nachiketa, do not inquire about death.||25||
Although tempted thus, Nachiketa was not to be perturbed, said : Oh ! Yama, ephemeral are
these, and they waste away the vigour of all the organs that man has. All life without exception, is short
indeed. Let the vehicles be yours alone, let the dances and songs be yours.||26||
Man is never contented with wealth. Now that we have met you, we shall get wealth also. We
shall live as long as you will rule. But the boon that is worth praying for is that alone which is Atma
gnyana i.e. knowledge of the self.||27||
Having understood the principle that man is going to become old and die, which man living on
this earth who knows higher goals, having come in proximity of immortals like you will take delight in a
long life while conscious of the worthlessness of music, disport, and the joy there of?||28||
Oh ! Yama, tell us of that thing about which people have doubts in the context of the next world
and whose knowledge leads to a great result. Apart from this boon, which relates to the inscrutable thing,
Nachiketa does not pray for any other.||29||
PaRt ii
Having tested the disciple, having found his inquisity for true knowledge, Yama said : The shreya
i.e. preferable is different indeed; and so is the preya i.e. pleasurable. These two, serving different
purposes (as they do), bind men. Good befalls him who accepts the preferable among these two. One
who selects the pleasurable falls from the true end.||1||
The preferable and the pleasurable approach man. The man of intelligence, having considered
them, separates the two. The intelligent one selects the electable in preference to the delectable; the
non-intelligent one selects the delectable for the sake of growth and protection of the body etc.||2||
Oh ! Nachiketa ! You have discarded, after consideration, all the desirable things that are
themselves delightful or are the producers of delight. You have not accepted this path of wealth in which
many comes to grief.||3||
That which is known as Vidya i.e. knowledge and that which is known as avidya i.e. ignorance
are widely contradictory and they follow divergent courses. I consider, you Nachiketa to be an aspirant
for knowledge because the enjoyable things, multifarious though they be, did not tempt you.||4||
Living in the midst of ignorance and considering themselves intelligent and enlightened, senseless
people go round and round, following crooked courses, just like blind led by the blind.||5||
The means for attainment of the atma vidya i.e. knowledge of the self does not become revealed
to the non-discriminating man who blunders, being befooled by the care of wealth. One that constantly
thinks that there is only this world, and none hereafter, come under my sway again and again.||6||
That knowledge of the self which is not available for the mere hearing to many, and which many
do not understand even while hearing. The expounder is rare one and the receiver is rare one indeed.
Wonderful is he who knows under the instruction of an adept.||7||
Why so? Because it is not certainly adequately known when spoken of by an inferior person;
for it is thought of variously. When taught by one who has become identifed with it, there is no further
cogitation with regard to it. For it is beyond argumentation, being subtler than the atom.||8||
The wisdom that you have, Oh ! dearest one ! which leads to sound knowledge when imparted
only by a teacher who is versed in the vedas. It can't be attained through argumentation. You are, Oh!
Compassionable one, endowed with true resolution. May our questioner be like you, Nachiketa.||9||
Since I know that this treasure is anitya i.e. impermanent, for permanent entity can't be attained
through impermanent things; therefore knowingly did I pile up the Nachiketa fre with impermanent things
and have thereby attained the relatively permanent abode of brahma.||10||
Oh! Nachiketa! What an unsurpassable quality you are endowed with! Being desirous only of the
supreme one, you have rejected them all, having seen (examined) patiently the highest reach of desires,
the support of the universe, the infnite fruits of yagnyas, the other share of fearlessness, the extensive
course of swargaloka i.e. heaven that is praisworthy and great, as also your own state.||11||
That brahma which is eternal, lodged inaccessibly, located in the cave of heart is understood by
the intelligent man through Adyatma yoga and after withdrawing of the senses from outer world gives
up happiness and sorrow.||12||
Morever, a mortal who is subject to death, after hearing through the teacher this reality of the self,
as one's own self, after separating this righteous thing from the body etc. And after attaining this subtle
thing, that mortal, that enlightened man rejoices, for he has obtained that which is the cause of delight.
I consider that the mansion of Brahman is wide open to you Nachiketa.||13||
Nachiketa : Tell me of that thing which you see as different from dharma i.e. virtues or adharma
i.e. vices, different from this cause and effect and different from the past and the future.||14||
Yama : I tell you briefy of that goal which all the Vedas with one voice propound, which all the
austerities speak of and wishing for which people practise brahmacharya, it is this, viz. OM.||15||
This letter om, indeed is the Brahma, the supreme Brahma. Anybody who is meditating on this
letter Om, wants any of the two either the supreme Brahma or inferior Brahma gets that.||16||
Since this is so, among all the mediums (eg. Gayatri) for the attainment of Brahma this medium is
the most praiseworthy. Meditating on this medium, one becomes adorable in the world of Brahma.||17||
The self is neither born nor does it die. It did not originate from anything, nor did anything originate
from it. It is birthless, eternal, undecaying and ancient. It is neither killed nor injured even when the body
is killed.||18||
If the killer thinks of it in terms of killing and if the killed one thinks of it as killed, both of them
do not know. It does not kill, nor it is killed.||19||
The self that is subtler than the subtle and greater than the great, is lodged in the heart of every
creature. A desireless man who is detached sees that glory of the self through the serenity of the organs,
such as mind etc.; becomes free from sorrow.||20||
While sitting, the self travels for away; while sleeping it goes everywhere. It is possessed of mada
i.e. pride and devoid of mada, who apart from me can know that joyful and joyless Deity?||21||
Having meditated on the self, as bodiless in the midst of bodies, as permanent in the midst of
the impermanent and as great and pervasive, the wise man does not grieve.||22||
This self can't be known through much study, nor through intellect, nor through much hearing. It
can be known through the self alone that the aspirant prays to; this self of that seeker i.e. Parmeshwar
or the supreme self, that Brahma reveals its true nature. ||23||
One who has not desisted from sinful works, whose senses are not under control, whose mind is
scattered and so not concentrated, whose mind is not at rest and free from anxiety, can not attain this
self i.e. Parmeshwar through knowledge.||24||
How can one know this as to where it (the self) is, where brahma or the Parmeshwar is, for which
both the Brahmana and the Kshtriya become food, and for which death takes place of a supplementary
Chapter i
Part iii
The Brahmavid i.e. knower of Brahma and the worshippers of the fve fres (Lok, Parjanya, Prithvi,
Purush & Prakruti these are the fve fres refer ESSAYA on Chandogya by the same author); as well as
those who worship the Nachiketa fre thrice are compared to shade and light - two different principles.
Those two who are enjoyers of the inevitable result of good work, who have entered within the body,
into the cavity of the heart which is the supreme abode of the most high i.e. Brahma get whatever they
wish for.||1||
We have known that Nachiketa fre, which is the bridge for the yagnyakartas or the sacrifcers.
Morever that which is fearless, undecaying Brahma which is the supreme resort for knower of brahma
and is called the self, also for those who want to go to shore of worldly things or the world.||2||
Know the (individual) self as the master of the chariot. Know the intellect as the charioteer, and
the mind as verily the bridle.||3||
Learned call the organs as horses and the objects / subjects as the roads. The discriminating
people call that self the enjoyer when it is associated with body, organs and mind.||4||
If the organs of that person, which if associated with an uncontrollable mind, becomes devoid of
discrimination, becomes unruly like the vicious horses of the charioteer.||5||
But if his organs are ever associated with a restrained mind and also endowed with discrimination,
his organs become controllable like the good horses of the charioteer. ||6||
But he who does not attain that goal through his intellect, being associated with non-discriminating
intellect and an uncontrollable mind remains ever impure; attains worldly existence involving birth &
The one who is associated with discriminating intellect and being endowed with a controlled mind
is ever pure and attains that goal, that supreme pada from which he is not born again.||8||
However that man, who has as his charioteer a discriminating intellect, and who has under
control the reins of the mind, attain the end of the road; and that is the highest place of Vishnu-of the
all-pervading Brahma.||9||
The sense objects are higher than the senses, and the mind is higher than the sense objects; but
the intellect is higher than the mind, and the great soul is higher than the intellect.||10||
The unmanifested is higher than Mahat. He is called Purusha (being cause of all causes and
innermost self of all) who is higher than the unmanifested. There is nothing higher than him. He is the
culmination. He is the highest goal.||11||
He is hidden in all beings and covered by veil of maya and so not seen by all. He is seen only
by seers of subtle things through their pointed and fne intellect.||12||
The discriminating man should merge his organs of speech into the mind; he should merge that
mind into the intelligent self; he should merge the intelligent self into the great soul, then merge that
great soul into the peaceful self i.e. Parmeshwar.||13||
Arise, awake, and learn by approaching the adorable ones, the excellent teachers. The wise one
describe that path to be as impassable as a razor's edge, is diffcult to tread on.||14||
One becomes freed from the jaws of death by knowing that which is soundless, touchless,
colourless undiminishing, tasteless, eternal, odourless, without beginning and without end, distinct from
Mahat and ever constant.||15||
Relating and hearing this eternal ancedotes as received by Nachiketa from Yamraj, the intelligent
man becomes glorifed in the region that is Brahma.||16||
Should anyone, after purifcation, get this highest secret recited before an assembly of brahmans,
or at the time of shraddha i.e. the ceremonies for the dead, then that ceremony becomes conducive to
eternal result.||17||
This concludes the Chapter I, Part III.
Chapter ii
Part iv
The self-existent Lord made the organs of senses eg. eyes, ears etc. to perceive outward things.
Therefore one sees the outer things and not the innerself. A rare discriminating man, desiring immortality,
turns away from all sense objects and then sees the indwelling self.||1||
The unintelligent people follow the external desires. They get entangled in the snares of the
widespread death. Therefore the discriminating people, having known what true immortality is in the midst
of impermanent things, do not pray for anything.||2||
Man through inspiration from God that prime self can perceive colour, taste, smell, sound, touch
and sexual pleasure. Also from the same inspiration can perceive what remains in this world. i.e. nothing.
This indeed is that self i.e. God.||3||
Having realised the great and all-pervading self, i.e. god, through which a man perceives the
objects in both the sleep and the waking states, a wise man does not grieve.||4||
Anyone who knows this self as non-different from oneself - the enjoyer of the fruits of works, the
supporter of life etc. as the lord of the past and the future, does not want to save oneself (save what or
from where or from whom?) just because of that knowledge. This indeed is that.||5||
He sees this very aforesaid Brahma who sees the frst born - Hiranyagarbha - born before the
fve elements inclusive water-born from brahma (characterised by consciousness etc.) as existing in the
cavity of the heart, after having entered there.||6||
He sees that very Brahma, that Goddess Aditi, who is prana or life force of all beings, who takes
birth as Hiranyagarbha, who is manifeted in association with the elements, and who is seated in the
cavity of the heart, after entering there.||7||
The sacrifcial fre lodged in two fre producing pieces of wood, as also the fre lodged in the hearts
of yogis that is well protected - just as much as the foetus by pregnant woman and the fre that is adorable
everyday by vigilant men with oblation and contemplation - that fre too is but this brahma.||8||
On that prana from which the sun rises and in which it sets, are fxed all the deities. None ever
transcends that. This indeed is that.||9||
What indeed is here, is there; what is there, is here likewise. He who sees as though there is
difference here, goes from death to death.||10||
This is to be attained through the mind indeed. There is no diversity here whatsoever. He who
sees as though there is difference here, goes from death to death.||11||
He being the Param Purusha, of the size of a thumb, resides in the body. Knowing Him as the
ruler of the past and the future, one does not want, by virtue of that knowledge, to save himself. This
indeed is that.||12||
The purusha, who is the size of a thumb, is like a light without smoke. He is the ruler of the past
and the future. He exists today and he will exist tomorrow. This indeed is that.||13||
As water rained on an in accessible height gets dispersed on lower hilly regions, similarly one
who perceives the selves differently, runs after them only ||14||
Oh ! Gautama as pure water poured on pure water becomes varily the same, so also does become
the self of the sant or the man of knowledge, who is given to think carefully on the self. That is his atma
or soul or self becomes Parmeshwar / the Supreme Lord.||15||
Chapter ii
Part v
Of the birthless one, whose consciousness is straight, unfickening, varily present forever like the
light of the sun; there is a city of eleven gates. This city that is called a body is possessed of eleven
doors. By meditating on him to whom this city belongs to i.e. on the Parmeshwar one does not grieve
and having become free he does not take up a body again. ||1||
As the moving, sun He dwells in heaven; as air He pervades all and dwells in the inner space; as
fre He resides on the earth; As soma He stays in a jar; He lives among men; He lives among gods; He
dwells in truth; He takes birth from the earth; He is born in the sacrifce; He emerges from the mountains;
He is unchanging; and He is great.||2||
All deities worship that adorable one sitting in the middle, who pushes the prana upword and
impels apana inword.||3||
When this dweller in the body becomes detached, when He is freed from this body, what else
remains here (in this body)? This indeed is that.||4||
No mortal lives by prana or apana; but all live by something else due to which these two fnd
Well, Oh! Gautama ! I shall tell you of this secret, eternal Brahma, and also how the self fares
after death.||6||
Some souls enter the womb for acquiring bodies and others follow the motionless things like trees,
in accordance with their deeds in this life and in confrmity with their knowledge.||7||
That Purusha indeed, who keeps awake and goes on creating desirable things even when outwardly
he falls asleep, is pure; and He is Brahma or Parmeshwar. And he is called the immortal. All the worlds
are fxed on Him; none can transcend Him. This indeed is that.||8||
Just as fre, though one, having entered the world, assumes separate forms in respect of different
shapes, similarly the self inside all beings, though one, assumes a form in respect of each shape; and
yet it is outside just like space.||9||
As air, though one, having entered into this world, assumes separate forms in respect of different
shapes, similarly the self inside all beings, though one, assumes a form in respect of each shape; and
yet it is outside.||10||
Just as the sun, which is the eye of the whole world, is not tainted by the ocular and external
defects, similarly the self that is but one in all beings, is not tainted by the sorrows of the world, it being
Eternal peace is for those and not for others - who are discriminating and who realise in their
hearts Him who being one, the controller, and the inner self of all makes a single form multifarious. And
who being the eternal among the ephemeral, the consciousness among the conscious - alone dispenses
the desired objects to many-out of His own grace.||12|| & ||13||
How shall I know that supreme, unspeakable bliss, which they realise directly as 'This'? Is it self-
effulgent? Does it shine distinctly, or does it not.||14||
There the sun does not shine, neither do the moon and the stars, nor do these fashes of
lightning shine. How can this fre? He shining; all these shine; through His lustre all these are variously
Chapter ii
Part vi
This is the beginningless peepal tree that has its roots above and branches down. That which is
its roots is pure, that is Brahma i.e. Parmeshwar who is immortal. On that are varily fxed all the worlds;
none transcends that. This verily is that.||1||
All this universe that there is, emerges and moves because there is the supreme Brahma i.e. Ishwar
which is greatly terrifying like an uplifted thunderbolt. Those who know this become immortal.||2||
Out of fear of Him Agni i.e. fre burns, the sun shines, Indra, vayu, i.e. air, and Yama i.e. death,
all these fve deities carry on their assigned works.||3||
If one succeeds in realizing here before the falling of the body, one becomes freed, else because
of that failure one becomes ft for embodiment in the worlds of creatures.||4||
As one sees in a mirror, so in one's own intellect (there springs a distinct vision of the self if the
intellect has become spotless like a mirror.) So in a dream, so in pitruloka i.e. world of manes; as it is
seen in water, so in the world of Gandharvas. So in the world of Brahma, in the vision very distinct like
shade and light.||5||
Having known the dissimilarity of the senses that originate separately, as also their rising and
setting, the intelligent man does not grieve.||6||
The mind is superior to the organs, the intellect is superior to the mind; Mahat (the Great Soul)
is superior to the intellect; the unmanifested is superior to Mahat.||7||
But superior to the unmanifested is the Purusha i.e. Formless Parmeshwar who is all pervasive and
is indeed without worldly attributes. By knowing him a man becomes free and attains immortality.||8||
His form does not exist within the range of vision; nobody sees Him with the eye. When the self
is revealed through adequate vision; it is realized by the intellect, the ruler of the mind, that resides in
the heart. Those who know this becomes immortal.||9||
When the fve senses of knowledge come to rest together with the mind, and the intellect too does
not function. That is the intellect characterized by determination; does not engage in its own activities;
that state they call the highest.||10||
They consider that keeping of the senses steady as yoga. One becomes vigilant at that time, for
yoga is subject to growth and decay.||11||
It cannot be attained through speech, nor through mind, nor through eye. How can it be known
apart from the faithful one who, following the scriptures, speaks of it as existing.||12||
The self is frst to be realized as existing and then as it really is. Of these two aspects, the
real nature of the self that has been known as merely existing, becomes favourably disposed for self
When all the desires clinging to one's heart fall off, then a mortal becomes immortal and he attains
Brahma here.||14||
When all the knots of the heart are destroyed, even while a man is alive, then a mortal becomes
immortal. This much alone is the instruction of all the Upanishads.||15||
The nerves of the heart are a hundred and one in number. Of the them one passes through the
crown of the head. Going up through that nerve one gets immortality. The others nerves that branch out
in different directions; become the cause of death.||16||
The Purush, the indwelling self i.e. Parmeshwar, of the size of a thumb, is ever seated in the
hearts of men. One should unerringly separate Him from one's body like a stalk from the munja grass.
Him one should know as pure and immortal.||17||
Having frst become free from virtues and vices and vice, as also desire and ignorance, by acquiring
this knowledge imparted by Yama i.e. Death, as also the process of Yoga in its totality, Nachiketa attained
Brahma. Anyone else, too, who becomes a knower thus like Nachiketa, of the indwelling self, attains
It ends with the same prayer said at he beginning of this Upanishad.
Amongst the ten upanishads which Adi Shankaracharya selected to comment on, Kathopanishad
is one of them where you see beautiful poetic passages on Atma or Soul. It starts with the dialogue
between Yama and Nachiket. Yama is the deity of south direction and generally no deity will like this
work of giving death to those souls whose body has become weak, old and diseased. Nachiket who is
the son of sage Vishwajit had a quest about death and often used to ask his father about it. One day
out of anger he told him, - 'I will give you to Yama, do not trouble me again and again. He will teach
you about death'.
Bhu - (earth), - bhuva (atmosphere), sva (the Sun) these are three lokas or three worlds. Nothing
is immortal, what takes birth on the earth is likely to die one day.
This process of going to bhu loka, giving them the life wherever possible and rest allowing to
die and then not attached with it, coming back to svargaloka is known as - Nachiket Yadnya. This was
taught to him by not other than Yama- the deity of death.
Gita explains us the two ways - one going to the Aditya loka and becoming free and the other
taking the lunar way, choosing your mother and taking rebirth. Those who choose the frst path die on
Uttarayana, Shukla paksha and during the day. However those who take the second path die during
Dakshinayana, Krishna paksha and at night. I hope by now you are acquainted with these terms.
>iii i`-ii. cii+iii:i -iriii
-i ;-ii ;-i-ii-i cirir + (iiii -.-)
Yama explains to Nachiketa that Omkara is the only one akshara which denotes this soul. It does
not take birth nor dies, is ancient and neither kills nor is killed.
He chooses Nachiketa to do this work as he is unattached by the good and bad, death and life,
man and woman, young and old. He has no affnity for the Svargaloka or the pleasures enjoyed by the
deities in the svargaloka. He himself is the real devotee of Gita.
Adveshta sarvabhutanam etc.
We have seen somewhere what is Adhyatma, adhidaivika, and adhibhautika. Omkara is Adhyatma.
The divine world derives from it that is the Adhidaivika and they create this material world which is
As the source is Omkara, at the time of death it also merge back to Omkara. Why then one dies?
He has not discovered that the body is temple. One has to be vegetarian as also engaged in some good
activity and surrendering all your actions to god. One has to also do some sadhana throughout ones
life so as to discover that you yourself are god. At present we see people not following this. They drink
liquo r, eat non vegetarian food & also smoke. These
are the reasons why the death is approaching you.
You have to come out of it. It is not easy I know, but one has to make slow and steady progress
in this direction and come out of these vices. Food and mind has a direct correlation. The food you
take has a straight effect on your mind and thereby the body. Satva guna gives you health, so one has
to always make an attempt to become Satvika. Again revise what satvaguna means as given in 18th
chapter of Gita.
|| -||-| ~|||-|-| ||-|-|-|
|| ||| -|-||||:-|r||:| ||||r
|| |-| |-||| |||r|-|||a-|| ||-|
|| |c| ||-| ||-|-|| -||||-| ~|-|||-||
|| ||: |||-|| |-|||-|| |||||||
-|||-|| ||-| -||-|-| ||| ||-|
I think one has to always keep all these verses of Gita in mind. Perhaps keep these shlokas
typed some where on your study table so that you can always remember them. This is the key to healthy
life. You can live for hundred years if you practise these principles. The Upanishad also explains the
Shreya and Preya way. Shreya which is superior and Preya which is taking you to the sensual pleasures.
Obviously Shreya takes you to the soul, the purity and non-attachment.
Subtler than the body is the mind and subtler than the mind is the budhhi. Then is awareness of
soul. Further as is given here Mahat-Avyakta-Purusha-Kaal principles exists, obviously they are cosmic.
Mahat as we have discussed in Taitariya Upanishad is the mirror image of god himself. Mahat is the
body of Vidnyanamaya kosha.
>i:i -i i`cir.
Vidnyanmaya kosha is explained in the Taitariya Upanishad as above. Faith is the head, Sathyam
and Ritam are the wings, Mahat is the body and yoga is the tail. Here when the jiva is one with Shiva -
that is Mahat. He has complete faith, he is truthful and his words actions and thoughts are in complete
union. In Anandmaya kosha there is a complete bliss - the Avyakta is in this form of bliss. This is a state
of mind which is beyond time so it is said-
-i;i. -ir-i-i-i.-i
>i-i-i.ii -i=i.-ir.
-i=iii -i -ir i`-i.i`-ii -ii
-i.i=i -ii -iri ii`i. +
So one should try to go into deep meditation and become one with god. This is the state of
Omkara is brahma
by understanding it
one gets everything
he wants.
Concentrate on it
Meditate on it
You merge into it
it is all pervasive.
It does not kill
nor is killed
Does not die
nor is born.
Immortal constant
Omnipresent Omnitime
Om is all
the One soul.
Lighter than atom
and bigger than the Sun
One who realise
they only know him.
Wherever you are
Think of Om
Sleep awake deep sleep
All three is Om.
Not in the body
Nor it is the mind
Om is beyond
beyond your reason.
It can not be understood
merely by reading books.
Om is the god
when it chooses you
you are blessed !
Katha 1-2-16 to 25
There are various such beautiful verses in this Upanishad which you can just by heart and
remember for ever, think over their deep meaning and realise it.
Body is the chariot
Budhhi the charioteer
Mind is the rein and
senses are the horses.
This also is very important verse from this Upanishad. Budhhi means not merely intellect but the
Vidnyanamaya kosha. Unless the faith is there you can't see god. You have to be truthful. Yours words,
actions, thoughts have to be in perfect union. You should consider yourself to be the mirror image of god
and you should practise yoga - all these fve principles make the Vidnyanamaya kosha or the Budhhi.
From the individual intellect to the cosmic intellect or the Budhhi the process is long and requires sadhana
of lives together. One has to take up the Shreya path and give up Preya. Choose the path of soul and
deny the path of senses.
A very important concept is explained here which is as well explained in the Mundaka-3 that is
that of 'guhachara'.
i.i i`-ii-ii -i-i.i-i =i-i.
i;i iii`-ii -ir-i -irii
oiiii-ii iii`-i:i -i:i`-i -i-ii-iii
i -i i`iiii`-i-i.ii. +
Katha 1-3-1
One reaches the all pervasive brahma frst and then shrinks down by fvefold agni, this is said to
be secret or guha. Even in the case of Krishna who reaches the brahma, then with his own maya takes
birth and creates work for himself.
As he goes high into brahma by becoming - Mahat - Avyakta and Kaal principle, realises there
that the brahma is all pervasive and then shrinks down to atma or soul through fve fold agni. What is
this fve fold agni. Loka, Parjanya, Pruthvi, Purusha and Prakriti (ref. Prasnopanishad). He then becomes
the Sarathi or Sutratma who controls all the souls. Those who are attached with body are bound by this
world and those who take up the way of Budhhi as explained earlier - become divine.
He is said to be Vanshi or source of all the lives here.
-i-i iii;-ii:ir.
-ii:-i-i. -iir-ii--iii`i
i:i`-iii. -ir-i -i:-i +
Kath 1-3-9
Obviously it indicates how the Vidnyanamaya kosha works as a sarathi or one who governs the
horses of senses, mind being the rein.
I can quote a story of Vivekananda which I often tell in my lectures. He was Narendra then and
his father was a famous lawyer in Calcutta. Hence when some one asked him what he would like to
become? Anybody naturally would expect him to be a lawyer like his father. To take his father to the
offce, those days a victoria used to come driven by a smart coachman. Narendra was impressed by
his dress, he would often reply I will become that smart coachman. Narendra's mother was a wise lady.
She took him inside and showed the famous Mahabharata ratha, driven by Lord Krishna. If you want to
become the sarathi - become him - she would say.
Such soul when incarnates is the form of Shiva. Vivekananda as you know was born on
Mahashivaratri day.
>ii=-iii -i=i
This particular adjective is for this incarnated soul. His thumb is the sun principle itself. His palm
is the universe, his tarjani or the frst fnger is moon, his madhyama or middle fnger is the agni. All
names and forms resides in his last two fngers.
-ii:ii`i :-ii-i
si-iii`i ri+i-ii-i +
Various mudra which he performs by his fngers make the gods happy. His body is such a divine
So in this Upanishad we have studied how only with the help of soul god can control entire
mankind-its death, birth, divine and undivine people all can be segregated by the supreme soul.
He is Vanshi when he is the source of all the life or otherwise he does not incarnate and rests
at the crown chakra.
=-i-i= >ii. ciicii
>i+ii-i iiirr-ii-i +
It is the crown chakra which is the brahma from where the nectar of life springs down to form
this world.
=-i-i= -ii-iciici ii >i+ii. -i-iii-i.
i:-i ci-i. i: ii i:-i-ii-i-ii +
Kath 2-6-1
So those who take up this way of Sanatan Sarathi enjoys the nectar.
;-i i s: ...
-i-ii`-i: i`-i+iii`i +
Katha 5-6 to 15
Sun is as if the eye of all lokas. It is the life principle, it is the source of all the life on the earth. One
who realise it, attains the highest happiness. Only they attain the highest peace and not the others.
Brahma is of course the all pervasive principle which encompasses the sun, moon and all the
women with itself. After death the soul either takes the lunar or solar way and takes rebirth depending
on the incomplete desires in the mind while it passes away. Read these shlokas carefully and you will
feel the rhythm of soul and the poem of Kathopanishad blossomed.
Mundaka means head. This Upanishad explains the status of the mind of a yogi who is engaged
in recreation. There are three parts in this Upanishad and it is the Upanishad of Rigveda.
The upanishad comes to us from - Brahma - Atharvana - Bharadvaja - Angirasa - Shaunak and
so on. In the beginning only it explains the para and apara vidya. Para is Omkara and Apara is the ten
ways of understanding this omkara. These ten ways are - four vedas, vyakarana, shiksha, kalpa, nirukta,
chhanda and jyotish.
When a realised soul achieves authority of creation he can encompass the whole universe in his
Kali - radio waves
Karali - X rays
Manojava - Visible rays
Sulohita - alpha, beta &
Sudhumravarna - gama rays.
Sfullingini -
Vishvarahi -
Devi - Cosmic rays
This is seven fold universe
A scientist generally studies the effects on the universe by objective analysis but the cause is
the will of brahma which remains unknown to him. The will of such a yogi can transform the worldly
The eight fold prakriti, the ashta matrukas are in a way eight forms of energies originating from
the solar energy. They are governed by the Vedic Purusha.
-i-ii-ii-i-i -ii`rii.
i`i -i-i. -ii`-ii. -i.ii. +
(Purush Sukta)
The sun and the earth interact and forms six seasons, the solar energy comes down on earth
in various forms which are integrated in solar energy. We can see that electrical energy in the form
of lightning, one may try to search it in the form of love of shiva shakti portrayed by poet Kalidas in
Ritu Sanhar'. The effects are in the nature and the cause is the mind of Veda Purusha who is all
The scientist look at it in the form of energies where as for a spiritual master they are shakties
namely - bala, maheshvari, kumari, vaishnavi, varahi, aindreyi, chamundeshvari and lakshmi. Solar energy
or the cosmic energy comes down in the form of lightning from clouds when electro magnetic felds are
created. Electro motive force in the chemical reactions, heat, kinetic and potential energy all derive from
it. The ashtadha prakriti of Gita also is the same where Krishna is the cosmic centre, the brahma from
where all these energies derive 'na tat bhasayate suryo'.... gita 15-6. It is His will or sankalpa which
governs the world. If his sankalpa is sathya - dharma -, shanti or peace follows, love is his heart. Nature
of love is truth, action of love is rightiousness, feeling of love is peace - if that is the sankalpa or the divine
resolution the effect leads to universal peace and love. Therefore this universal energy rests in his heart
as that is self less. Kali, Karali are His rightious desires; manojava is his power to travel anywhere in
the world at his will, sulohita is heart-shreemat parabrahma, sudhumravarna is the deity of mantrapushpa
- ayatwan bhavati, vishvarchi is the cosmic energy which rests on the head of Narayana.
i-i-ii i`-iii ii...
His will which is selfessly engaged in good work creates good and divine world. The brahma is
all pervasive and vast. When it goes to extreme vastness and encompasses whole of the universe the
maya shrinks it down to the soul. This maya becomes his mother and the child - the Krishna. 'Karmam
brahmodbhavam' he creates work for himself. There is nothing for him to attain or understand but then
he creates work for himself, plays with the gopas and gopies and creates new gokul.
He being the brahma now shinks down to a soul with utmost purity in him and with a selfess
heart. His divine sankalpa has an ability to create new world. The nature are his lymphs, the sun, moon,
the earth, the blue sky - all become the parts of his body. Saintly souls can see him and they in turn
are inspired to fulfl their share. Gods and human beings have to just follow. Gnyaneshvara was such a
soul who took birth just for humanity to make us understand what divine means. Though his life was full
of sufferings he could even turn the asuras to take a divine path. This duel - divine and undivine - has
been since the beginning. Divine is lead by compassion, forgivance, austerity, peace and similar good
qualities. Undivine is lead by ego and maya. With his sankalpa of pasayadana (ref. Aitareya Upanishad
by the same author) he could change the world.
Social, economic and political conditions are different at different times. Depending on the state of
the condition of the people the incarnated soul modifes his sankalpa. In Ramavatara it was rightiousness, in
Krishnavatara it was prema or love which was his divine resolution or sankalpa. Gita teaches us 'vinashaya
duskrutam' where as now it will be 'na tu vinashay kada'. Instead of destruction it is reformation. Shri
Sathya Sai Baba brings all the humanity together only with His sankalpa of Sathya and Dharma.
In this particular Upanishad two things are highlighted, one-the seven fold universe of Kali, Karali
etc. and the other is - guhachara pada.
The brahma is all pervasive, it is near and far, it is within and out everywhere. From this state of
mind the yogi shrinks down to a particular soul with his own maya. This maya is called as guhachara
pada or a secret principle by which he comes in duality. Krishna and Radha is this prime duality. If he is
the prana she is the rayi. He is the sun and she the moon. He is the purusha and she the prakriti. He
the day and she the night. This is a post realisation state of mind. If he attains the samadhi she brings
him to chetana samadhi and then when he gets an authority of creation it is the chinmaya samadhi. Once
God Brahma destroyed the devotees of Krishna but by his grace he could recreate them. The recreation
was better than the original creation.
You will fnd that the comments are short as there are hardly anybody who has reached this
-ii-ii-ii ii-i-i-i-i =+ii
-i -iiii -i i;ii >ii-i
i-i-ii-ii -iii i-i =+i. +
Not by scholarly knowledge or by listening to discourse, this state of mind is given to you by Devi
herself. Such a yogi is then called "brahmavidam shreyah".
The fve fold agni (ref. Prashnopanishad) comes down or incarnates an earth. Loka, parjanya,
pruthvi, purusha, prakriti is this fve fold agni. When it incarnates it will have in his mind the divine sankalpa
or divine resolution, to fullfll which he has to take the base of earth (this is also the guhachara pada as
explained in this upanishad) when he becomes the incarnated soul. If he does not have such sankalpa
he becomes free soul. There can be many such incarnated souls who come an earth to uplift it. They
can be in various religions at various times, at various parts of the world. The objective is one - make
earth as one family - vasudha eva kutumbakam - but their divine resolutions may differ, the divine love
perhaps joins all the divine resolutions.
i -i-iii
There are two birds, one sitting on the top of the tree and other playing on it. The other has the
desires, it plays, eat fruits, fies here and there but not happy, ever seeking new things. At the end it is
tired and goes back to the frst bird. The frst says-
'Now, look at me and try to concentrate on me, try to merge into me.'
The other bird tries it for a long time, perhaps for lives together and eventually succeeds. It looses
its entity when it mergs. Where then the other bird has gone? It was not there at all !
But in our life it does not happen so early and easily as is explained here. That is why Shri Sathya
Sai Baba has taken a Shiva Shakti avatara or Jiva-Shiva avatara you may say so, where in one part you
all are there with all your desires and in other part you become desireless. There is constant interplay so
the episode of life also constantly changes till it reaches a changeless state. One is bound by time and
the other is beyond time, life is the interplay, different for every one of you as your faiths are different.
Vrihadaranyaka Upanishad
The sun is his eye, the rising dawn is his forehead, the fowing wind is his life and the time his
soul !
Constellations are his bones, the earth his seat, oceans are the directions and his words are the
origin of all languages. Such is the vastness of his being - the prime soul - the Veda Purusha.
Vrihadaranyaka means the forests in simple words. Hindus believe in four purusharthas-brahmacharya,
gruhastha, sanyasa and vanaprastha. In your young age you are a bramhachari - worshipping brahma
or all pervasiveness, when you enter the family life you are a gruhastha, when you sacrifce it you are
a sanyasi. I may elaborate a little here. Sanyasa does not mean sacrifce of family life or the social life,
it means sacrifcing the doership; doing your duties but not attached with it. You can study in depth the
spiritual scriptures and more important be peaceful by experiencing the truths explained in the scriptures.
The small 'i' merging with universal 'I'. Vanaprashtha means going to forests but where is the forest?
Going to the vastness of nature and eventually discovering that you yourself are nature. The process is
long though explained in brief, perhaps lives together.
>i-iii -ii -i:i-ii +
i-i-ii -ii iii`ii-ii +
-iii-ii-ii i-ii +
This prayer is wellknown. Those who have reached the nectar of life they can understand the cosmic
purusha explained in the beginning of this upanishad. Others have the fear of death. Sanvatsaratma this
is the adjective which is used to explain this purusha. He has conquered death so he in a way became
the universal axis around which the universe revolves. They die and come to him and he gives them
new birth, in fact they take the new birth as per their wish as he has no wish of his own. So the way
is from asat to sat, darkness to light and from death to the nectar of life i.e. Jyoti, we have studied it
earlier. (Ref. Spiritual Terms and Symbols)
The death is in the south and the vidya in the east. The twelve rashies take their way from this
universal axis. Their desire gives them the birth and the horoscopes of all people are inter woven - that is
the play of this universal purusha. Shri Gnyaneshwar addresses this cosmic purusha as-ata vishvatmake
deve. The dhruva is at the top and the saptarshies are revolving around him. Such a soul conquers
Here we fnd a different kind of deity being worshipped - Durnama devata.
-ii -ii ii :-iii :-ii-i :ri
;i-ii -ii:ri ; -ii
>i--ii-i -ii-+i-ii`i i -i -i: +
That is by worshipping when the fear of death is not there. But we have seen the vastness of
Sanvastsara Purusha from whom the births take place as well as after death you merge into him. So the
death is certain for any human being but even after death this deity will give you - the life that is rebirth.
Axis means axha. Daksha is Da - aksha. Da means auspiciousness. Aksha is axis. Now we know the
story in puranas where Daksha had sixty daughters. Thirteen marrying to Aditya. Twenty seven marrying
to Moon.
The interplay of Devas, daityas and danavas goes on endlessly as all of them emerge from
Daksha. So all of them in a way are leading their life which according to them is right, but is a drama
of lives together for this sanvastaratma.
Sahastrakoti yugandharine - this particular adjective in Vishnusahastra nama is also perhaps
addressed to this sanvastaratma. Mahavishnu who is beyond Daksha is blessing good and good alone
for all the time to all the beings. But as the time is illusion our life becomes his play or leela.
-ii-i i;ii i-ii i -ii`i
i--ii: i;--ii`i. +
-ii-i ii i-ii i -ii`i
i--ii: iii--ii`i. +
If one has to create good, frst he has to eliminate the bad. The creation of new world is possible
only with the source as brahma. Brahma is atma (Mandukya), Atmana Jayate pranah (Prashnopanishad)
and the process of creation, prana and rayi or sun and moon being the prime dual. Here also same is
repeated in a different manner. Various rishies had different approaches, in this particular upanishad we
fnd all of them coming together. Maya is the cause of universal creation. Taitariya upanishad can be
made upside down. One who has realised and reached the anandmaya kosha. You can understand this
word maya which climbs down and the brahma climbs up rejecting the maya (4-4.5)
All upanishads put together is this upanishad so it can be the frst.
Graha - Atigraha
1. Prana - Apana
2. Vak - Names
3. Tongue - Rasa
4. Eyes - Vision
5. Ears - Words
6. Mind - Desire
7. Hands - Work
8. Skin - Touch
Graha is to engross. When brahma is engrossed by maya creation starts. The prana, mind, the
fve senses of perception along with all the names are engaged in creation. If the prana is the Sun then
Moon is the mind, the fve elements in nature and earth all are created by the prime soul - brahma.
We read various stories of nine grahas, how they were created. They all elaborate the brahma
only which divided into nine. Here the word - graha - perhaps is applicable to nine grahas as well.
iiiii:-ii-ii -ii-i.
These eight alphabets represent the gayatri. If prana is the Sun, apana is earth and the vyana
is the death. We have learned in Prasna - papen papalokam gachhati, punyen punyalokam gachhati is
udana. So the life is the process of doing good work to reach the nectar of life or you reach death. This
goes endlessly till you take the solar way.
Yagnyavalka had two wives - Maitreyi and Katyayani. The frst seeks the brahma and the latter
is the form of Durga herself. These two ways - brahma and maya creates endlessly various names and
forms. Yagnyavalka himself is the worshipper of Sungod. One can equate various stories in puranas with
the vedic mantra.
This can be equated with Yagnyavalkyas life. In the second chapter and at the end of sixth
brahmana you fnd all the rishies coming together and practising the brahma which is ancient and
interweaving all the thoughts and all the traditions. Various rishies praised various natural principles to
start with but eventually ended with discovery of brahmarshi. The Bharadvajas for example praised the
earth principle. By now you know that Shri Sathya Sai Baba is coming from this tradition. Bharadvaja
married to Earth when he saw her weaping as the evil souls were constantly torturing her. Shandilya
thought all the being are coming from mother so start with maya. They discovered later that the brahma
is beyond maya. Agniveshas worshipped the agni or the mother principle. Parasharas worshipped the
constellation as they thought that gives the birth to all of us and so on.
-i.i`-i i`-iiii`-ii -ii`. -i-ii`. -ir-ii`.
-i-iii-i. ii --ii+i iii -i-i. +
In modern days you fnd people worshipping money or power but nothing comes to their rescue
at the end of life. Vanaprasthashram-Vrihataranayaka Upanishad correspond to the last part of life.
Gargi who was seeking the brahma alone could discover the same. Om mantra is Sun, Moon,
Earth, lightning, time and every aspect of human life (4 - 9). So Om was not the objective of rishies
alone. The brahmavadini Gargi also sought the same. So far all the time, the awake, dream and sleep
state of mind; irrespective of what you are man or woman, Hindu or Christian, Indian or American; Om
is the same for all & all the time. Some rishies however thought word is the prime source of life & they
discovered alphabets or aksharas.
Rudras - Eleven, Ten Senses of perception, action and the life principle.
Aditya - Twelve months, years etc.; or the time factor.
Then these three gods even though only one brahma encompasses the whole domain of
In modern times Shri Sathya Sai Baba's philosophy preaches us truth and rightiousness. These
two principles to be divine and the one who practises it becomes instrument of god.
This upanishad is very lengthy as it is a repeated search for the same brahma and you fnd many
upanishad repeated or quoted again.
iiii-i iiii. -
i`;ri-i -iiii -
-i ii ; i=>i >i=>i --
ii +iii-ii -i-ii r-i. ---
These mantra are from Kena, Isha, Chhandogya respectively. Please refer them to understand
these mantras in detail.
Sanhita, brahmana, aranyaka, upanishadas are four aspects of vedic literature. Sanhita is the
script of veda, brahmana and aranyakas are ways of worshipping the god and the upanishad is the
wisdom of vedas or being one with god. When you chant a particular mantra in the given notes it is
your worshipping the deity of that veda. After constant practice you reach that diety. eg. here is a text
of Aranyka Ganaam.
The numbers on the head of that akshara is the musical note 1 = Ma, 2 = Ga, 3 = Re, 4 = Sa
(Naradiya Shiksha). The numbers in the mantra represents how many times it is to be repeated, the
avagraha (5) prolongs that particular akshara.
The mantra means -
Setunstara - Cross the bridge
Danen adanam - Overcome Greed by donating
Akrodhen - krodham - Overcome Anger by compassion
Shradhaya - ashradham - Overcome ignorance by faith.
Satyen - anrutam - overcome untruth by truth
Cross the bridge of life, conquer greed by selfess donations.
Anger by compassion
Ignorance by faith.
Untruth by truth.
That is the message of this Upanishad for lives together to take rebirths and births again and