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Section 4.

Describing Logic Circuits Algebraically
Any logic circuit, no matter how complex, may be completely described using the
Boolean operations, because the OR gate, AND gate, and NOT circuit are the basic
building blocks of digital systems.

This is an example of the circuit using Boolean expression:

If an expression contains both AND and OR operations, the AND operations are
performed first (X=AB+C : AB is performed first), unless there are parentheses in
the expression, in which case the operation inside the parentheses is to be
performed first (X=(A+B)+C : A+B is performed first).

Circuits containing Inverters

Whenever an INVERTER is present in a logic-circuit diagram, its output
expression is simply equal to the input expression with a prime (') over it.

Section 4.2
Evaluating Logic Circuit Outputs
Once the Boolean expression for a circuit output has been obtained, the output
logic level can be determined for any set of input levels.

This are two examples of the evaluating logic circuit output:

Let A=0, B=0, C=1, D=1, E=1
= [D+ ((A+B)C)']
Let A=0, B=1, C=1, D=1 X
X = A'BC (A+D)'
= [1 + ((0+0)1 )']
= [1 + (0*1)'] * 1
= [1+ 0'] *1
= [1+ 1 ] * 1
= 0'*1*1* (0+1)'
= 1 *1*1* (1)'
= 1 *1*1* 0
= 0

In general, the following rules must always be followed when evaluating a

Boolean expression:

1. First, perform all inversions of single terms; that is, 0 = 1 or 1 = 0.

2. Then perform all operations within parentheses.
3. Perform an AND operation before an OR operation unless parentheses indicate
4. If an expression has a bar over it, perform the operations of the expression first
and then invert the result.

Determining Output Level from a Diagram

The output logic level for given input levels can also be determined directly from
the circuit diagram without using the Boolean expression.

Section 4.3
Implementing Circuits From Boolean
If the operation of a circuit is defined by a Boolean expression, a logic-circuit
diagram can he implemented directly from that expression.

Suppose that we wanted to construct a circuit whose output is y = AC+BC' + A'BC.

This Boolean expression contains three terms (AC, BC', A'BC), which are ORed
together. This tells us that a three-input OR gate is required with inputs that are
equal to AC, BC', and A'BC, respectively.

Each OR-gate input is an AND product term, which means that an AND gate with
appropriate inputs can be used to generate each of these terms. Note the use of
INVERTERs to produce the A' and C' terms required in the expression.

Section 4.4
Boolean Theorems
Investigating the various Boolean theorems (rules) can help us to simplify logic
expressions and logic circuits.
Multivariable Theorems
The theorems presented below involve more than one
(9) x + y = y + x (commutative law)
(10) x * y = y * x (commutative law)
(11) x+ (y+z) = (x+y) +z = x+y+z (associative law)
(12) x (yz) = (xy) z = xyz (associative law)
(13a) x (y+z) = xy + xz
(13b) (w+x)(y+z) = wy + xy + wz + xz
(14) x + xy = x [proof see below]
(15) x + x'y = x + y

Proof of (14)

x + xy = x (1+y)
= x * 1 [using theorem (6)]
= x [using theorem (2)]

Section 4.5
DeMorgan's Theorem
DeMorgan's theorems are extremely useful in simplifying expressions in which a
product or sum of variables is inverted. The two theorems are:

(16) (x+y)' = x' * y'

(17) (x*y)' = x' + y'

Theorem (16) says that when the OR sum of two variables is inverted, this is the
same as inverting each variable individually and then ANDing these inverted

Theorem (17) says that when the AND product of two variables is inverted, this is
the same as inverting each variable individually and then ORing them.

X = [(A'+C) * (B+D')]'
= (A'+C)' + (B+D')' [by theorem (17)]
= (A''*C') + (B'+D'') [by theorem (16)]
= AC' + B'D

Three Variables DeMorgan's Theorem

(18) (x+y+z)' = x' * y' * z'
(19) (xyz)' = x' + y' + z'

Implications of DeMorgan's Theorem

For (16): (x+y)' = x' * y'
For (17): (x*y)' = x' + y'
Section 4.6
Universality of NAND & NOR Gates
It is possible to implement any logic expression using only NAND gates and no
other type of gate. This is because NAND gates, in the proper combination, can be
used to perform each of the Boolean operations OR, AND, and INVERT.

In a similar manner, it can be shown that NOR gates can be arranged to implement
any of the Boolean operations.
Section 4.7
Alternate Logic Gate Representations
The left side of the illustration shows the standard symbol for each logic gate, and
the right side shows the alternate symbol. The alternate symbol for each gate is
obtained from the standard symbol by doing the following:

1. Invert each input and output of the standard symbol. This is done by adding
bubbles (small circles) on input and output lines that do not have bubbles, and by
removing bubbles that are already there.

2. Change the operation symbol from AND to OR, or from OR to AND. (In the
special case of the INVERTER, the operation symbol is not changed.)

Several points should be stressed regarding the logic symbol equivalences:

1. The equivalences are valid for gates with any number of inputs.

2. None of the standard symbols have bubbles on their inputs, and all the alternate
symbols do.
3. The standard and alternate symbols for each gate represent the same physical
circuit: there is no difference in the circuits represented by the two symbols.

4. NAND and NOR gates are inverting gates, and so both the standard and
alternate symbols for each will have a bubble on either the input or the output.
AND and OR gates are noninverting gates, and so the alternate symbols for each
will have bubbles on both inputs and output

Section 4.8
Logic Symbol Interpretation

Concept of Active Logic Levels:

When an input or output line on a logic circuit symbol has no bubble on it, that line
is said to be active-HIGH. When an input or output line does have a bubble on it,
that line is said to be active-LOW. The presence or absence of a bubble, then,
determines the active-HIGH/active-LOW status of a circuit's inputs and output, and
is used to interpret the circuit operation.

The Exclusive-OR function

One element conspicuously missing from the set of Boolean operations is that of
Exclusive-OR. Whereas the OR function is equivalent to Boolean addition, the AND function
to Boolean multiplication, and the NOT function (inverter) to Boolean complementation,
there is no direct Boolean equivalent for Exclusive-OR. This hasn't stopped people from
developing a symbol to represent it, though:

This symbol is seldom used in Boolean expressions because the identities, laws, and rules of
simplification involving addition, multiplication, and complementation do not apply to it.
However, there is a way to represent the Exclusive-OR function in terms of OR and AND, as
has been shown in previous chapters: AB' + A'B

As a Boolean equivalency, this rule may be helpful in simplifying some Boolean expressions.
Any expression following the AB' + A'B form (two AND gates and an OR gate) may be
replaced by a single Exclusive-OR gate.

The Laws of Boolean

As well as the logic symbols "1" and "0" being used to represent a digital input or output, we can also use them
as constants for a permanently "Open" or "Closed" circuit or contact. Laws or rules for Boolean Algebra
expressions have been invented to help reduce the number of logic gates needed to perform a particular logic
operation resulting in a list of functions or theorems known commonly as the Laws of Boolean. Examples of
these individual rules or laws are given in the following table.

Truth Tables for the Laws of Boolean

Expression Description Equivalent Circuit Law or Rule
A in parallel with closed =
A+1=1 Annulment

A+0=A A in parallel with open = A Identity

A.1=A A in series with closed = A Identity

A.0=0 A in series with open = OPEN Annulment

A+A=A A in parallel with A = A Indempotent

A.A=A A in series with A = A Indempotent

NOT NOT A (double negative) =

NOT A = A Double Negation

A in parallel with not A =

A+A=1 Complement

A.A=0 A in series with not A = OPEN Complement

A in parallel with B = B in
A+B = B+A Commutative
parallel with A

A in series with B = B in series

A.B = B.A Commutative
with A

de Morgan's
A+B = A.B invert and replace OR with AND
de Morgan's
A.B = A+B invert and replace AND with OR

Description of the Laws and Theorems

• Annulment Law - A term AND´ed with a "0" equals Zero and a term OR´ed with a "1" will equal One.

• Identity Law - A term OR´ed with a "0" or AND´ed with a "1" will always equal that term for example,
A+0 = 0, A.1 = 1

• Indempotent Law - An input AND´ed with itself or OR´ed with itself is equal to that input for example,
A.A = A, A+A = A

• Complement Law - A term AND´ed with its complement equals "0" and a term OR´ed with its
complement equals "1" for example A. A = 0, A+A = 1

• Commutative Law - The order of application of two separate terms is not important for example, A.B =
B.A, A+B = B+A

• Double Negation Law - A term that is inverted twice is equal to the original term.

• de Morgan´s Theorem - There are two "de Morgan´s" rules or theorems,

• (1) Two separate terms NOR´ed together is the same as the two terms inverted (Complement) and AND
´ed for example, A+B = A. B.

• (2) Two separate terms NAND´ed together is the same as the two terms inverted (Complement) and OR
´ed for example, A.B = A +B.

Boolean Algebra Functions

Using the information above, simple 2-input AND, OR and NOT Gates can be represented by 16 possible
functions as shown in the following table.

Function Description Expression

1. NULL 0
3. Input A A
4. Input B B
5. NOT A A
6. NOT B B
7. A AND B (AND) A.B
11. A OR B (OR) A+B
12. A OR NOT B A+B
13. NOT A OR B A+B
14. NOT OR (NOR) A+B
15. Exclusive-OR A.B + A.B
16. Exclusive-NOR A.B + A.B