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SPECIES: a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring POPULATION: a group of organisms of the same

species who live in the same area at the same time ECOSYSTEM: a community and its abiotic environment AUTOTROPH: an organism that synthesizes its organic molecules from simple inorganic substances DETRIVORE: an organism that ingests non-living organic matter SAPROTROPH: an organism that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion FOOD WEB: complex network of trophic relationships in a community PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE: if the effects of a human-induced change would be very large, perhaps catastrophic, those responsible for the change must prove that it will not do harm before proceeding; this is the reverse of normal situation, where those who are concerned about the change would have to prove that it will do harm in order to prevent the changes going

HABITAT: the environment in which a species normally lives COMMUNITY: a group of populations living and interacting with each other in the same area ECOLOGY: the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment HETEROTROPH: an organism that obtains organic molecules from other substances CONSUMER: an organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed FOOD CHAIN: sequence of trophic relationships, where each member in the sequence feeds on the previous one TROPHIC LEVEL: position of an organism in the food chain COAST REDWOOD SEQUOIA SEMPERVIRENS: Genus: sequoia Family: taxodiaceae Order: pinales Class: pinopsida Phylum: coniferophyta Kingdom: plantae carrotcarrot flyflycatchersparrowhawk goshawk passionflowerheliconius butterflytegu lizardjaguar sea lettucemarine iguanaGalapagos snake Galapagos hawk BRYOPHYTES = MOSSES: - No roots - Simple leaves and stems - 0.5m - Spores produced in a capsule (at the end of stalk) HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURE: structure that has developed from the same part of a common ancestor but not necessarily serves the same function; e.g. pentadactyl limb (bats and human)

EVOLUTION: cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population

BLUE WHALE BALAENOPTERA MUSCULUS: Genus: balaneoptera Family: balaenopteridae Order: cetacea Class: mammalia Phylum: chordata Kingdom: animalia CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT: maximum population size that can be supported by the environment reached due a shortage of resources

FILICINOPHYTES = FERNS: - Roots, leaves and short non-woody stems - Leaves curled in bud often divided into pairs (pinnate) - 15m - Spores produced in sporangia, usu on the underside of the leaves PORIFERA, e.g. SPONGES: - No clear symmetry - Attached to a surface - Pores through body - No mouth or anus MOLLUSCA, e.g. SNAIL: - Muscular foot and mantle - Shell usually present - Segmentation not visible - Mouth and anus ANNELIDA, e.g. EARTHWORMS: - Bilaterally symmetric - Bristles often present - Segmented - Mouth and anus STANDARD DEVIATION: used to summarize the spread of values around the mean; 68% of the values fall within one standard deviation of the mean t-TEST: used to find out whether there is a significant difference between the means of 2 populations STEM CELLS: cells that retain the capacity to divide and the ability to differentiate along different pathways OSMOSIS: passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to the region of higher solute concentration ENZYME: globular protein acting as a catalyst of chemical reaction DENATURATION: changing the structure of an enzyme (or other protein) so that it can no longer carry out its function GENE: heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic GENOME: the whole of genetic information of an organism

CONIFEROPHYTES = CONIFERS: - Shrubs or trees with roots, leaves and woody stems - Leaves often narrow with a thick waxy cuticle - 100m - Seeds produced, developed from ovules (on female cones); male cones produce pollen PLATYHELMINTHS, e.g. TAPEWORMS: - Bilaterally symmetric - Flat bodies - Unsegmented - Mouth but no anus CNIDARIA, e.g. CORALS: - Radially symmetric - Tentacles - Stinging cells - Mouth but no anus ARTHROPODA, e.g. SPIDERS, CRABS: - Bilaterally symmetric - Exoskeleton - Segmented - Appendages CELL THEORY: - Living organisms are composed of cells - Cells are the smallest unit of life - Cells come from pre-existing cells MAGNIFICATION: Size of image/size of specimen DIFFUSION: passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration ORGANIC COMPOUND: compound containing carbon found in living organism (except hydrogencarbonates and Cox) ACTIVE SITE: region on the surface of an enzyme to which substrates bind and which catalyses a chemical reaction involving the substrates CELL RESPIRATION: controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP ALLELE: one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one of few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene GENE MUTATION: change to base sequence of a gene

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES: chromosomes having the same genes in the same sequence, but not necessarily the same alleles of these genes PHENOTYPE: the characteristics of an organism RECESSIVE ALLELE: an allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state LOCUS: the particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene HETEROZYGOUS: having two different alleles of a gene TEST CROSS: testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive HUMAN GENOME PROJECT OUTCOMES: - Broadened study of how genes influence human development - Easier identification of genetic diseases - Production of new drugs based on DNA base sequences - New insight into the origins, evolution and migration of humans CLONE: a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single parent cell REPETITIVE BASE SEQUENCES (satellite DNA): they are not translated; between 5 and 300 bases repeated up to 10000 times; there is a small proportion of eukaryotic DNA being a SINGLE COPY (unique genes) SENSE STRAND (coding strand): has the same base sequence as mRNA (U-T) ANTISENSE STRAND (template): it is transcribed PRIMARY STRUCTURE of protein: number of sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide; determined by the base sequence of the gene that codes for the polypeptide TERTIARY STRUCTURE of protein: threedimensional conformation of a polypeptide formed when the polypeptide folds up after being produced by translation; stabilized by intramolecular bonds that form between amino acid in the polypeptide

DOMINANT ALLELE: an allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state GENOTYPE: the alleles of an organism CODOMINANT ALLELES: pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote HOMOZYGOUS: having two identical alleles of a gene CARRIER: an individual that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele SEX LINKAGE: association of a characteristics with gender because of location of the gene controlling the characteristic: on a sex chromosome ANGIOSPERMATOPHYTES: - Flowering plants - Usually roots, leaves and stems - 100m - Seeds production, fruits EXONS: sequences of bases that are transcribed and translated INTRONS: sequences of bases that are transcribed but NOT translated NUCLEOSOME: basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes; it consists of DNA wrapped around eight histone proteins and held together by another histone protein; they help to package up the DNA during mitosis/meiosis by supercoiling chromosomes and regulate transcription POLYSOME: a group of ribosomes moving along the same mRNA as they simultaneously translate it SECONDARY STRUCTURE of protein: regular repeating structures, including -helices and pleated sheets stabilized by hydrogen bonds between groups in the main chain of the polypeptide QUATERNARY STRUCTURE of protein: linking together two or more polypeptides to form a single protein; there are proteins (called CONJUGATED PROTEINS) that contain a nonpolypeptide structure called PROSTHETIC GROUP, e.g. hemoglobin (each of the 4 polypeptides is linked to a heme group not being made of amino acids).

CHEMIOSMOSIS: moving of ions across selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient FIBROUS PROTEIN: - Long and narrow shape - Mostly insoluble in water - Examples: collagen (structural), myosin (movement) ALLOSTERIC ENZYME: enzyme inhibited by the end products (negative feedback example)

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN: series of electron carriers GLOBURAL PROTEIN: - Rounded shape - Mostly soluble in water - Examples: hemoglobin (transport), immunoglobulin (defence) PHOTOSYSTEM: functional and structural unit of chlorophyll molecules grouped together