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CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION

Generally, personal care products are these products which a consumer uses for his personal purpose. It includes different types of cosmetic and skin care products like talc, cold cream, fairness cream, toothpaste, toothbrush, perfume, deodorant, hair oil, shampoo, soap, and all type of baby care and beauty care products. These are the core FMCG products. Any person need for these products every day. Personal care products area part of FMCG industry. In some words we can say that personal care products are the back bone of FMCG industry. As per the time passes away, the demand of personal care products are also increasing day per day and future of these products are also very bright and profitable. There was a time when consumers not spend too much a mouton the personal care products. But in those days, they are not only eager for spending more money on the cosmetic products, but at the same time they are looking for a good and prestigious brand for the particular product. Modern media and advertisement plays an important role in the increasing of demand of personal care goods. People of metro cities are too much brand conscious but if we look at the people of semi urban and rural areas, they are also looking for a good brand for the particular product.

Background of the Study:


The Indian Personal care Industry has witnessed rapid growth over the last couple of decades. In that time the range of cosmetic and beauty products in India has widened tremendously. Beauty products manufacturers in India mostly cater to the great demand for cosmetics and toiletries that fall in to the low or medium price categories as the greatest demand in India has always been for these economically priced products.

However, in recent years in the cosmetics market India competitors have be gun to manufacture products to cater to an International need. For instance, herbal cosmetics from India have a great demand in the over seas market and many cosmetic products that are manufactured in India today are supplied to international suppliers of branded cosmetics products like .The Body Shop for example. New facts that have been unveiled by a series of cosmetics business market analysis India reveal that many International companies are now out sourcing cosmetics to India and that the industry of cosmetic products India is growing at an average rate of almost twenty percent annually. This increase is attributed to two main factors. The first being the increase for the demand in Indian cost-effective products and the second being the increased purchasing power of the average Indian.

There are also many reasons for the increased demand for cosmetic products in particular. With the introduction of satellite television and a wide array of television channels as well as the Internet, the average Indian consumer is constantly bombarded with advertisements and information on new cosmetic products which often translates in to the desire to purchase them. A boom in the Indian fashion industry has also been linked to the increased awareness of Indian people about their appearances and consequently contributed to an increase in the demand for cosmetic products. However, even with the massive surge in the popularity of cosmetic products, statistics have shown that the average Indian consumer spends much less on cosmetic products than consumers from every other part of the world. This means that the Indian cosmetic industry has an even greater potential for growth than it is presently experiencing.

In the entire range of products that fall within the territory of the Indian cosmetic and toiletries market, the most popular items are color cosmetics, of which nail varnish, lipsticks and lip glosses account for the most sales. In this area, popular local brand names include Himalaya and Revlon. Skin-care cosmetics have

experienced as lower growth and products such as anti-wrinkle creams, cleansers and toners, for instance are not as popular as facial creams, moisturizers and fair ness creams in this genre. Companies like Ponds and Fair and Lovely rule the roost in this segment. Few cultures valued beauty and cosmetic products in ancient times as the Egyptians did. The history of ancient cosmetics can also be traced back to the culture of ancient Greece and make-up was also popular in the Roman Empire. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that people from all these three cultures used hair dyes for instance. These people used herbal concoctions with components like henna, sage and chamomile to darken their hair. It was only in the renaissance period that blond hair became fashionable. Although cosmetic products have undergone many changes in modern times, the basic concept of using cosmetics to enhance the features of good health has not changed. For instance, blush-on is used to conceal pale present a picture of rosy cheeks as opposed to pale skin and nail polish can be used to conceal brittle or dry nails. The history of make -up cosmetics however is tarnished by the ill-effects that were often experienced after applying many ancient make up products. This was because many such products were created using dangerous components and also because cleansing lotions are not any where to be found in the early history of cosmetics . HISTORY OF PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN INDIA:The history of the cosmetics industry includes very dark chapters in European and Western countries from about six centuries back. Mixtures and pastes were then used to whiten the face, a practice which remained popular till over four hundred years later. The early mixtures that were used in Europe for this purpose were so potent that they often led to paralysis, strokes or death. In that era, another method that was employed to make the skin appear fairer was to bleed oneself using leeches. Up to the late nineteenth century, women in Western countries may have secretly worn make-up made from mixtures of house hold products, as makeup was then deemed the domain of film stars.

Personal care were only openly put up for sale in the early part of the twentieth century for the first time. Tanned or darker skin tones became popular only as late as the early twentieth century. It was in this era that tanning the skin became a popular fad. The history of cosmetics in the 1930s and 1940s shows how the fashion or trend with respect to lipstick colors was changed annually, getting darker and closer to red every passing year. Personal care products were once the sole domain of film personalities and stage actors. The use of cosmetics in those eras was restricted to the purpose of creating a dramatic effect. However, with the passage of time, women started using Personal care to highlight their facial features as well. In India beetroot was used to redden the cheeks, while in Western countries, certain chemicals were used to darken the hair. Finally, because of the world-wide demand for make-up for the average person, cosmetics finally became Personal care products were once the sole domain of film personalities and stage actors. The use of Personal care in those eras was restricted to the purpose of creating a dramatic effect. However, with the passage of time, women started using personal care to highlight there facial features as well. In India beet root was used to redden the cheeks, while in Western countries, certain chemicals were used to darken the hair. Finally, because of the world-wide demand for make-up for the average person, cosmetics finally became available for sale to the common man. Some common Personal care include shampoo, conditioner, soap, toothpaste, face wash . Lip sticks are made using color pigments, oils, waxes and often fragrances as well. Different cosmetic companies also add various of their substances to create other effects with lipstick. The oldest use of lipstick can be traced back to almost five thousand years ago, when women of the Mesopotamian culture and of the Indus valley civilization are believed to have crushed semi-precious stones and mixed them into a paste to apply to the lips for added color. Through the centuries, lipstick remained popular with women of different cultures and while some ancient lipstick-manufacturing techniques employed the use of potent and toxic chemicals,

others used vegetable or animal extracts. Today, a wide range of lipsticks are available in the cosmetic market to cater to the various needs of the consumer. There are organic and natural lipsticks as well as lip-gloss and lip pencils which come in a wide variety of colors to suit a huge spectrum of skin tones. Worldwide, lipsticks are the most popular cosmetic in the cosmetic market today. Perfume is another popular cosmetic product. It is a fragrant mixture made using various oils and aromatic compounds. Usually every perfume manufacture keeps the exact combination of ingredients a secret, especially in the case of perfumes that are manufactured by large brand names. Rouge or blush-on is a cosmetic which is used to redden the cheeks. In ancient times, women resorted to pinching their cheeks, or using the extracts of mulberries, beet root or other such extracts to color their cheeks and acquire a healthy look. Typically women use this product to highlight cheek bones but newer make-up techniques involve using rouge to add color to the apple of one's cheeks. Rouge is available as a pressed powder or as a cream-based paste. Eyeliner is used to emphasize the shape of the eyes.

1.Increase in the Demand of Beauty products From the last few years, the demand of beauty products in India has been increased in a good speed. Not only women but men are also very conscious towards their face and other personal care. Many companies are engaged in producing the products according to them. So, the market is seeking to be very bright.

2. A Large Rural Urban Penetration

The penetration ratio in rural market is very challenging and prospective. So, there is a good scope in these areas. 3.Opportunity in Semi-Urban Market There is a good opportunity of cosmetic products in the semi-urban market. The people are looking towards a good brand name and quality within them. 4. An Untapped Rural Market There is an untapped market is available for cosmetic products in the rural area in India. It is an awesome opportunity for these companies.

MAJOR INDIAN PERSONAL CARE COMPANIES:


In India, there is a complete range of cosmetic companies. It includes regional companies, national and MNCs. Hindustan Unilever leads the companies which is followed by Godrej consumer care, Procter &Gamble, Emami, Dabur and Calvin Care.

OBJECTIVE
To know about Consumers Behavior and buying behavior about Personal

Care goods when they purchased it.


To determine the actual demand of consumers.

To know about the performance of Himalaya company in market.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The Indian Personal care Industry has witnessed rapid growth in the last couple of years, growing at a FMCG of around 7.5% between 2010 and 2011. With improving purchasing power and increasing fashion consciousness, the industry is expected to maintain the growth momentum (with marginal slow down due to economic slowdown) during our forecast period(2009-2012). It is projected to grow at a FMCG of around 7% during the fore cast period, says' Indian Cosmetic Sector Analysis (2009-2012).

NEED OF THE STUDY :


The study is done forgetting a deep knowledge and idea about Indian personal care sector. The need or objective of the study is to know the how much consumers give preferences to the brand of cosmetic goods whether the customers are satisfied with the cosmetic products of the company and how far the company is able to satisfy the customer in terms of quality and cost factors since in todays modern era customers are the focus for any company, any organization that without satisfying them no company can survive in this global competitive age. Non satisfaction of the potential customers can lead them to switch over to another one. Now the policy every company or organization is to provides at is faction as there exists a lot of competition for them. Hence it becomes necessary to conduct a comprehensive research in terms of customer satisfaction so that it is able to know how far it stands before others. This also helps to judge whether if there is any lag in the policy and could take immediate action to rectify it. The need of this project also a rose because an extensive survey can help the company whether the work done by the company in the area of new products is able to satisfy the customers or not. The major focus of the research conducted therefore is to discover the factors

that people area ware about the upcoming new products and the attribute of the product which attracted them for a trial. The study was restricted to only a round 50-60 percent of our target audience, because the respondents included in the study are people who are regular user of personal care goods.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:Primary Data Primary data is the first hand data, which are selected a fresh and thus happen to be original in character. Primary Data was crucial to know various customers and past consumer views. The research is descriptive type of research survey includes research instrument like questionnaire which can be structured and unstructured. Secondary Data Secondary data are those which has been collected by some one else and which already have been passed through statistical process. Secondary data has been taken from internet, newspaper, magazines and companies websites. SAMPLE DESIGEN AND TYPE: Simple random sampling. UNIVERSE SAMPLE SIZE SAMPLE UNIT STATISTICAL TOOLS SAMPLE: While deciding about the sample of research, it is required from there searchers point to pay attention to these under mentioned points: : : Trichy Sample for questionnaire is 150 persons : : Sampling unit is individual customers. Bar charts, Pie charts.

a. Sample Units: A decision has to be taken concerning a sampling unit before selecting a sample, sampling unit may be age of graphical one such as state, district, village Etc. soin this research sampling unit its individual consumer in ko. b) Source list: It is also called sampling frame from which sample is to be drawn, it caters name of all the items of a universe (incase offinite universe only).Researcher has to prepare it . C) Sampling size:

This refers to the no. of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample. This is a major problem before the researcher. The size of sample should neither excessively large not too small, it should be optimum. This size of population must be kept in view for this also limits the sample size. Sample size in this research is 150 customers. d) Sampling procedure: Finally the researcher must decide the type of sample he must be. That is he must decide about the technique to be used in selecting items for the sample. In fact this technique or procedure stands for the sample design itself. In this we used the random sampling on the basis of first survey results, which is from 150 respondents.

INSTRUMENTS USED:
I collected from primary data through sample survey or census surveys from the selected elements in malls and supermarkets . So for this purpose we have used the most popular tool of primary data collection through direct communication with respondents. The tools we used are questionnaires.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


a) Primary Data: Primary data are those, which are collected a fresh and for the first time and this happen to be original in character. b) Secondary Data: Secondary data are those data which have already been collected by some one else and which have already been used as per required. There are basically two sources to collect secondary data.

a) Internally: Provided by the company/organization b) Externally: Various publication of central, state and local Government. Books, magazines, newspapers Internet After only keeping in mind one can think about what type of data has to be collected during research a source. Search is concerned we have together primary data for Customer behavior.

QUESTIONNAIRE: This method is more popular. The questionnaire is sent to the person concerned to answer the questions formatted and return the same soon. A

Questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or typed in definite order on a form or set of forms. The Questionnaire is sent to the respondents. In order to achieve there search objective it is necessary to collect accurate and relevant data, secondary data are already published data collected for purpose do the than the specific research needs a than Primary data that are collected specifically for the research situation at hand, were collected by surveys, using respondents surveys is one of the ways of collecting primary data namely observations, experiments and surveys.

CHAPTER -II CONCEPTS


Consumer behavior involves the psychological processes that consumers go through in recognizing needs, finding ways to solve these needs, making

purchase decisions (e.g., whether or not to purchase a product and, if so, which brand and where), interpret information, make plans, and implement these plans (e.g., by engaging in comparison shopping or actually purchasing a product). Sources of influence on the consumer. Often, we take cultural influences for granted, but they are significant. An American will usually not bargain with a store owner. This, however, is a common practice in much of the World. Physical factors also influence our behavior. We are more likely to buy a soft drink when we are thirsty, for example, and food manufacturers have found that it is more effective to advertise their products on the radio in the late afternoon when people are getting hungry. A persons self-image will also tend to influence what he or she will buy an upwardly mobile manager may buy a flashy car to project an image of success. Social factors also influence what the consumers buy often, consumers seek to imitate others whom they admire, and may buy the same brands. The social environment can include both the mainstream culture (e.g., Americans are more likely to have corn flakes or ham and eggs for breakfast than to have rice, which is preferred in many Asian countries) and a subculture (e.g., rap music often appeals to a segment within the population that seeks to distinguish itself from the mainstream population). Thus, sneaker manufacturers are eager to have their products worn by admired athletes. Finally, consumer behavior is influenced by learning you try a hamburger and learn that it satisfies your hunger and tastes good, and the next time you are hungry, you may consider another hamburger.

Consumer Choice and Decision Making: Problem Recognition. One model of consumer decision making involves several steps. The first one is problem recognition you realize that something is not as it should be. Perhaps, for example, your car is getting more difficult to start and is not accelerating well. The second step is information search what are some

alternative ways of solving the problem? You might buy a new car, buy a used car, take your car in for repair, ride the bus, ride a taxi, or ride a skateboard to work. The third step involves evaluation of alternatives. A skateboard is inexpensive, but may be ill-suited for long distances and for rainy days. Finally, we have the purchase stage, and sometimes a post-purchase stage (e.g., you return a product to the store because you did not find it satisfactory). In reality, people may go back and forth between the stages. For example, a person may resume alternative identification during while evaluating already known alternatives. Consumer involvement will tend to vary dramatically depending on the type of product. In general, consumer involvement will be higher for products that are very expensive (e.g., a home, a car) or are highly significant in the consumers life in some other way (e.g., a word processing program or acne medication). It is important to consider the consumers motivation for buying products. To achieve this goal, we can use the Means-End chain, wherein we consider a logical progression of consequences of product use that eventually lead to desired end benefit. Thus, for example, a consumer may see that a car has a large engine, leading to fast acceleration, leading to a feeling of performance, leading to a feeling of power, which ultimately improves the consumers self-esteem. A handgun may aim bullets with precision, which enables the user to kill an intruder, which means that the intruder will not be able to harm the consumers family, which achieves the desired end-state of security. In advertising, it is important to portray the desired end-states. Focusing on the large motor will do less good than portraying a successful person driving the car.

Information search and decision making


Consumers engage in both internal and external information search. Internal search involves the consumer identifying alternatives from his or her memory. For certain low involvement products, it is very important that marketing programs achieve top of mind awareness. For example, few people will search

the Yellow Pages for fast food restaurants; thus, the consumer must be able to retrieve ones restaurant from memory before it will be considered. For high involvement products, consumers are more likely to use an external search. Before buying a car, for example, the consumer may ask friends opinions, read reviews in Consumer Reports, consult several web sites, and visit several dealerships. Thus, firms that make products that are selected predominantly through external search must invest in having information available to the consumer in need e.g., through brochures, web sites, or news coverage. A compensatory decision involves the consumer trading off good and bad attributes of a product. For example, a car may have a low price and good gas mileage but slow acceleration. If the price is sufficiently inexpensive and gas efficient, the consumer may then select it over a car with better acceleration that costs more and uses more gas. Occasionally, a decision will involve a noncompensatory strategy. For example, a parent may reject all soft drinks that contain artificial sweeteners. Here, other good features such as taste and low calories cannot overcome this one non-negotiable attribute. The amount of effort a consumer puts into searching depends on a number of factors such as the market (how many competitors are there, and how great are differences between brands expected to be?), product characteristics (how important is this product? How complex is the product? How obvious are indications of quality?), consumer characteristics (how interested is a consumer, generally, in analyzing product characteristics and making the best possible deal?), and situational characteristics (as previously discussed).

Two interesting issues in decisions are:

Variety seeking (where consumers seek to try new brands not because these brands are expected to be better in any way, but rather because the consumer wants a change of pace, and

Impulse purchases unplanned buys. This represents a somewhat fuzzy group. For example, a shopper may plan to buy vegetables but only decide in the store to actually buy broccoli and corn. Alternatively, a person may buy an item which is currently on sale, or one that he or she remembers that is needed only once inside the store.

A number of factors involve consumer choices. In some cases, consumers will be more motivated. For example, one may be more careful choosing a gift for an in-law than when buying the same thing for one self. Some consumers are also more motivated to comparison shop for the best prices, while others are more convenience oriented. Personality impacts decisions. Some like variety more than others, and some are more receptive to stimulation and excitement in trying new stores. Perception influences decisions. Some people, for example, can taste the difference between generic and name brand foods while many cannot. Selective perception occurs when a person is paying attention only to information of interest. For example, when looking for a new car, the consumer may pay more attention to car ads than when this is not in the horizon. Some consumers are put off by perceived risk. Thus, many marketers offer a money back guarantee. Consumers will tend to change their behavior through learning e.g., they will avoid restaurants they have found to be crowded and will settle on brands that best meet their tastes. Consumers differ in the values they hold (e.g., some people are more committed to recycling than others who will not want to go through the hassle). We will consider the issue of lifestyle under segmentation.

The Family Life Cycle. Individuals and families tend to go through a "life cycle:" The simple life cycle goes from for purposes of this discussion, a "couple" may either be married or merely involve living together. The breakup of a non-marital relationship involving cohabitation is similarly considered equivalent to a divorce. In real life, this

situation is, of course, a bit more complicated. For example, many couples undergo divorce.

SCENARIOS:
Single parenthood can result either from divorce or from the death of one parent. Divorce usually entails a significant change in the relative wealth of spouses. In some cases, the non-custodial parent (usually the father) will not pay the required child support, and even if he or she does, that still may not leave the custodial parent and children as well off as they were during the marriage. On the other hand, in some cases, some non-custodial parents will be called on to pay a large part of their income in child support. This is particularly a problem when the non-custodial parent remarries and has additional children in the second (or subsequent marriages). In any event, divorce often results in a large demand for:

Low cost furniture and household items Time-saving goods and services

Family Decision Making: Individual members of families often serve different roles in decisions that ultimately draw on shared family resources. Some individuals are information gatherers/holders, who seek out information about products of relevance. These individuals often have a great deal of power because they may selectively pass on information that favors their chosen alternatives. Influencers do not ultimately have the power decide between alternatives, but they may make their wishes known by asking for specific products or causing embarrassing situations if their demands are not met. The decision maker(s) have the power to determine issues such as:

Whether to buy; Which product to buy (pick-up or passenger car);

Which brand to buy; Where to buy it; and When to buy.

Note, however, that the role of the decision maker is separate from that of the purchaser. From the point of view of the marketer, this introduces some problems since the purchaser can be targeted by point-of-purchase (POP) marketing efforts that cannot be aimed at the decision maker. Also note that the distinction between the purchaser and decision maker may be somewhat blurred:

The decision maker may specify what kind of product to buy, but not which brand; The purchaser may have to make a substitution if the desired brand is not in stock; The purchaser may disregard instructions (by error or deliberately).

It should be noted that family decisions are often subject to a great deal of conflict. The reality is that few families are wealthy enough to avoid a strong tension between demands on the familys resources. Conflicting pressures are especially likely in families with children and/or when only one spouse works outside the home. Note that many decisions inherently come down to values, and that there is frequently no "objective" way to arbitrate differences. One spouse may believe that it is important to save for the childrens future; the other may value spending now (on private schools and computer equipment) to help prepare the children for the future. Who is right? There is no clear answer here. The situation becomes even more complex when more parties such as children or other relatives are involved. Some family members may resort to various strategies to get their way. One is bargaining one member will give up something in return for someone else. For example, the wife says that her husband can take an expensive course in gourmet cooking if she can buy a new pickup truck. Alternatively, a child may promise to walk it every day if he or she can have a hippopotamus. Another strategy is

reasoning trying to get the other person(s) to accept ones view through logical argumentation. Note that even when this is done with a sincere intent, its potential is limited by legitimate differences in values illustrated above. Also note that individuals may simply try to "wear down" the other party by endless talking in the guise of reasoning (this is a case of negative reinforcement as we will see subsequently). Various manipulative strategies may also be used. One is impression management, where one tries to make ones side look good (e.g., argue that a new TV will help the children see educational TV when it is really mostly wanted to see sports programming, or argue that all "decent families make a contribution to the church"). Authority involves asserting ones "right" to make a decision (as the "man of the house," the mother of the children, or the one who makes the most money). Emotion involves making an emotional display to get ones way (e.g., a man cries if his wife will not let him buy a new rap album).

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Consumer Behaviour Christopher (1989) studied the shopping habits of consumers to form an idea of whether or not the store concepts, product ranges and strategies of the companies are appropriate towards consumer requirements. He believed that consumer behaviours are unpredictable and changing continuously changing; while trying to under try to understand how individual or group make their decision to spend their available resources on consumption-related items. These are factors that influence the consumer before, during, and after a purchase (Schiffiman and Kanuk, 1997), for example, feedback, from other customers, packing, advertising, product appearance, and price (Peter & Olsonetc, 2005). The essence of this approach is critical for organisational success, so that they can have a better understanding of their customer behaviours (Solomon et al., 2006). The physical action or behaviour of consumer and their buying decision every day can be measured directly by marketers (Papanastassiu and Rouhani, 2006). For that reason many organisations these days are spending lot of their resources to research how consumer makes their buying decision, what they buy,

how much they buy, when they buy, and where they buy (Kotler, Amstrong, 2001). To get a well coherent result, organisations normally looked at these behaviour base their analysis on difference conceptions; whether customers buying behaviour were measured from different perspectives, such as product quality and better service, lower price structured etc (Papanastassiu and Rouhani, 2006) Different theories and researchers have claimed that when organisation fully meet all aspects of its customer needs, the result enhances their profitability (Chaudhuri, 2006), and also enable them to develop a better tackling strategies for consumer (Asseal, 1998). Possibly, the most challenging concept in marketing deals with the understanding why buyers do what they do and what method or philosophy are they using to evaluate the product after the transactions and what might be the effect on future transaction (Schiffman, 2004). The reason why marketer chooses to learning about consumers buying behaviour is, from a business perspective; to be able to be more effectively reach consumers and increase the chances for success (Sargeant & West, 2001). Therefore the field of consumer behaviour has take a tremendous turn in the commercial world and became the fundamental concepts of achieving company goal (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007). More recently, different researchers and author have given their definition and meaning of consumer behaviour. For Michael R. Solomon (2001) consumer behaviours typically analyse the processes of group selected or individual purchases/dispose of product, service, concept or experiences to satisfy their need and desires. Additionally, Kotler (1996) suggested that consumer behaviours have a huge impact in a firm marketing decision making process every year. There is a risk that what a consumer does will inflict on his or her behaviour and generate consequences. (Snoj, Pisnik Koda & Mumel, 2004). The user and the purchaser can be different person, in some cases; another person may be an influencer providing recommendations for or against certain products without actually buying or using them (Solomon 1999; Solomon et al. 1999).

In this case, most of the large consumer electronics retailers tend to gathered more information about customers motivating factors and what influences their buying behaviours Solomon & Stuart (2000). To get in-depth understanding consumer behaviour concepts will gives us an idea on how its plays significance role in our life and in the whole trend of business profit to various firms which will allow the researcher to get the analysis and determine product positioning, develop the message and targeting strategy in order to reach to the market (Holskins J, 2002). Consumer behaviour involves lot aspects, such as;

COMPLEX BUYING BEHAVIOUR


This kind of buying behaviours significantly involved the consumers when making a purchase decision. This kind of buying behaviours demand consumer to highly involve within the process. In case of high involvement, consumers distinguish salient differences among the competing brands (Kotler, Wong, Saunders, Armstrong, 2005). This phenomenon is particularly essential for Dixons consumers to highly involve, and engage in extensive research about the product category and make a good purchase decision about the firm own manufacturing products, in case they invent a new technology electronics products or audio-video equipment that is too expensive. DISSONANCE REDUCING BUYING BEHAVIOUR This type of buying behaviour also has high consumer involvement. In terms of expensive and infrequent purchase, consumer also undergoes reducing dissonancy behaviour. It is extremely difficult for consumers to differential among brands in this type of buying behaviours (Kotler, Wong, Saunders, Armstrong, 2005). Differentiating Dixons electronics products/equipments in the same store from PCWorld or Currys is a daunting task and consumer buying these products may encounter dissonance reducing buying behaviour, as electronics are usually expensive and self-expressive. Consumer may easily assume that the available

electronics brands in the store/market within a certain price range to be of the same quality. Then if the product does not meet customers expectations, it will result to consumer to experience post purchase dissonance (after sales discomfort) (Kotler, Wong, Saunders, Armstrong, 2005). HABITUAL BUYING BEHAVIOUR Contrariwise, in this type of buying behaviour consumers have lesser levels of involvements. It implies that consumer do not have to bother to retrieved information about the available products and brands in the market. So therefore, there are no potential differences between the different brands. Whether this factor will have damaging effects on Dixons will be analyse at the findings and analysis chapter below. Because of the less level of involvement, in habitual buying behaviour consumers dont often go to the stores to purchase product, (Kotler, Wong, Saunders, Armstrong, 2005). However, some believed that if the consumer persistently purchasing the same product repeatedly, it becomes habit and their mindsets and perceptions changes overtime about the brand and the provider (Cohen and Manion, 1987). This conception will portray the consumer to have unconscientiously developed a brand loyalty to that particular brand due to the consumer regular buying habits (Cohen and Manion, 1987). VARIETY SEEKING BUYING BEHAVIOUR This type of consumer level of involvement is low. However consumer may became critical in terms of brand differences. Additionally, consumer may easily switch from PCWorld to Currys i.e. from one brand to another. The consumers can now have beliefs about the various brands and choose a brand without much evaluation. But they evaluate that product at the time of purchase. In this high technology world, consumer switches their brands not because of dissatisfaction but because of that enormous trend of technological equipment (Aaker, 1991).

Indian Personal care Industry is one of the profitable and stable sector. There is a bright and golden opportunity in this sector. Many of the scholars, research agencies has done their research on this sector and given their own different views and suggestions. The global out look series on Personal Care Products provides a collection of statistical anecdotes , market briefs, and concise summaries of research findings. There port offers exclusive preludes, and primer son the global Cosmetics and Toiletries markets such as Skin Care Products, Hair Care, Oral Hygiene, Shaving Products, Bath & Shower Products, Facial Care, Lip Care, Feminine Hygiene Products, Deodorants, Fragrances & Perfumes , and Baby Toiletries. There port also includes a compilation of recent mergers, acquisitions and strategic corporate developments. Major regional markets discussed include United States, Japan, Europe, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Asia, China, India, SouthKorea, Brazil, and Mexico, among others. There port also includes an indexed, easy-to-refer, fact-finder directory listing the addresses, and contact details of 997 companies worldwide.

The specific product segments analyzed are Stick & Solid Deodorants,Spray Deodorants,Roll-On Deodorants, and Other Deodorants (Creams, Gels and Wipes) . The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East, Latin America, and Rest of World. Annual fore casts are provided for each region and product segment for the period of 2001 through 2015.Aten-year historian alysis is also provided for these market swith annual market analytics. There port profiles 186 companies including many key and niche players world wide such as BeiersdorfAG, Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Colgate-Palmolive Company, HenkelKGaA, KaoCorp., Lion Corporation., Procter & Gamble Company, Sara Lee Corporation, and The Unilever Group. The specific product segments analyzed are Traditional Lip Care Products, Medicated and Therapeutic Lip Care Products, and Sun Care (Lip Care) Products. There port provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe,

Asia-Pacific, Middle East, and Latin America. Annual forecasts are provided for each region for the period of 2001through2 015. Aten-year his toric analysis is also provided for these market swith annual market analytics. There port profiles 127 companies including many key and niche players worldwide such as BeiersdorfAG, BlistexInc., Carma Laboratories, Chattem Inc., Glaxo Smith Kline PLC, Johnson & Johnson, Laboratoire Dermophil Indien, LOreal SA, Rohto Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Mentholatum Company, Inc., The Body Shop International Plc, Unilever NV, Vichy Laboratories, and Wyeth Corporation. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. The major product segments analyzed are Face Care Products (Facial Moisturizers, Facial Cleansers, & Others), Body & Hand Care, and Depilatories (Hand &Body Lotions/ Creams , & Others), and, Sun Care Products. There port provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World. Annual fore casts are provided for each region and product segment for the period of 2001 through 2015.Aten-

year historic analysis is also provided for these market with annual market analytics. There port profiles 697 companies including many key and niche players worldwide such as Amway Corp., Avon Products, Inc., BeiersdorfAG, Chattem,Inc., Clarins, Estee Lauder, Inc., Johnson& Johnson, AMBI Skin care, Neutrogena Corp, Kao Corporation, Kao Brands Company, Kracie Holdings Ltd., LOralS.A, Nu Skin Enterprises, Inc., Oriflame Cosmetics AB, Play tex Products Inc., Procter & Gamble, Revlon, Inc., Sara Lee Corporation, Schering-Plough Corp., Shiseido Co. Ltd., and Unilever NV.Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research.

CHAPTER III COMPANY PROFILE


HISTORY : Eighty one years ago, on a visit to Burma, Himalaya's founder,

Mr. M. Manal, saw restless elephants being fed with a root to pacify them. The plant from which this was taken is fascinated by the plant's effect on elephants, he had it scientifically evaluated. After extensive research, Serpina, the world's first anti-hypertensive drug, was launched in 1934. This legacy of researching nature forms the foundation of Himalaya's operations. Himalaya uses the tools of modern science to create pharmaceutical-grade ayurvedic products. We have pioneered research that has converted Ayurveda's herbal tradition into a complete range of proprietary formulations dedicated to

healthy living and longevity. Today, these products have found acceptance with medical fraternities and serve the health and personal care needs of consumers in 82 countries. MISSION: Establish Himalaya as a science-based, problem-solving, head-to-heel brand, harnessed from nature's wealth and characterized by trust and healthy lives. Develop markets worldwide with an in-depth and long-term approach, maintaining at each step the highest ethical standards. Respect, collaborate with and utilize the talents of each member of the Himalaya family and the local communities where Himalaya products are developed and/or consumed, to drive our seed-to-shelf policy and to rigorously adopt eco-friendly practices to support the environment we inhabit. Ensure that each Himalaya employee strongly backs the Himalaya promise to exceed the expectations of the consumer, each time and every time. Nothing less is acceptable.

ORIGIN: The Himalaya Drug Company was founded in 1930 by Mr. M. Manal with a clear vision to bring Ayurveda to society in a contemporary form and to unravel the mystery behind the 5,000 year old system of medicine. This included referring to ancient ayurvedic texts, selecting indigenous herbs and subjecting the formulations to modern pharmacological, toxicological and safety tests to create new drugs and therapies. Eighty one years ago, on a visit to Burma, Mr. Manal saw restless elephants being fed with a root to pacify them. The plant from which this was taken is

Rauwolfia serpentina. Fascinated by the plant's effect on elephants, he had it scientifically evaluated. After extensive research, Serpina, the world's first antihypertensive drug, was launched in 1934. The legacy of researching nature forms the foundation of Himalaya's operations. Himalaya has pioneered the use of modern science to rediscover and validate ayurveda's secrets. Cutting edge technology is employed to create pharmaceutical-grade ayurvedic products. As a confirmation that Himalaya is dedicated to providing the highest quality and consistency in herbal care, the Company was awarded an ISO 9001:2000 certification in 2003. Since its inception, the company has focused on developing safe, natural and innovative remedies that will help people lead richer, healthier lives. Today, Himalaya products have been endorsed by 300,000 doctors around the globe and consumers in 71 countries rely on Himalaya for their health and personal care needs.

BRAND IDENTITY
The Himalaya brand has much in common with the mountain range from which it draws its name. For centuries, the Himalayas have been an icon of aspiration, of man's quest to unlock Nature's secrets. They represent purity and lofty ideals. The fact that the Himalayas are the source of many of the herbs that are used in our products, makes our brand name all the more appropriate. The Himalaya logo is a visual definition of its brand identity. The leaf that forms the crossbar of the letter H evokes the company's focus on herbal healthcare. The teal green represents proximity to nature, while the orange is evocative of warmth, vibrancy and commitment to caring. The Himalaya brand carries with it the promise of good health and well-being.

PRODUCTION

Himalaya produces quality poly herbal formulations. To monitor quality, many endangered herbs are grown by the Company on its farmland. The principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are rigorously followed in the plant and the Company prides itself on being environment friendly. As part of the environment control system, it had installed a modern effluent treatment plant long before regulations mandated it. A high stress on quality, several quality circles and special project teams working on Total Quality Management (TQM) projects make quality a way of life in Himalaya. The manufacturing plant uses automatic, high-speed punching, coating and filling machines. The tablet coating facility is one of the largest in India. The plant can produce nearly 5 billion tablets and 60 million bottles of liquids annually. This enables Himalaya to produce phyto pharmaceuticals with uniform levels of batch-to-batch consistency. This ensures that the customer gets the same high quality product regardless of where it is purchased

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT:


At Himalaya, we pride ourselves on being a completely research oriented company. Indeed, it is this emphasis on R&D that allows us to produce safe, efficacious and consistent remedies using ayurvedic principles. Our R&D department is focused on product development, quality control and standardization. All our products are derived through rigorous research and produced in state-of-the art facilities. They represent our commitment to continuous investment in the best people, practices and technology. We do not support "Borrowed Science" or the practice of using published literature to substantiate efficacy claims. Each Himalaya product undergoes years of primary research before it reaches the market.

RECOGNITION
1. In March 2001, we were granted a "Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)" Certificate, issued by the Licensing Authority, Directorate of Indian Systems of Medicine, Bangalore. Himalaya is the first Ayurvedic facility to get GMP certification in the country. 2. We are the only phytopharmaceutical company whose ayurvedic product, Liv.52, a hepato-protective formula, is registered as a 'pharmaceutical specialty' in Switzerland. Our R&D wing has been recognized as a Research Center by the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India.

QUALITY ASSURANCE:
Quality covers two areas - Quality Assurance and Quality Control. Pharmaceutical products are designed and developed with the following requirements 1. GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) 2. GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) 3. GCP (Good Clinical Practice) GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) for pharmaceuticals include assessment of quality, safety & efficacy: 1. Crude plant material - pharmacognosy 2. Plant preparation - analytical 3. Finished product - formulation and development 4. Stability - stability studies are conducted on all our products as per ICH (International Conference for Harmonization) guidelines to ensure quality of the product throughout its shelf-life

Safety Assessment 1. Toxicological studies - acute, subchronic, chronic, and teratogenicity Efficacy assessment 1. Activity - pharmacological 2. Clinical studies - phases I, II, & III Formulation of products 1. Identification (Literature surveys of ancient classical texts and scientific literature) 2. Pharmacognosy - microspical identification, macroscopical identification, maceration and cultivation

3. Preclinical pharmacology 4. Standardization - Certificate of analysis, quality assessment, purity 5. Formulation and Development - development of dosage forms, stability studies 6. Clinical studies - Phases I, II & III, and Phase I V (post-marketing surveillance) 1. Regulatory Affairs prepares QA-related documents for product registration, GMP documentation and answering technical queries 2. QA regulates sourcing, site approval, GMP maintenance, transfer of technical documents, training support, product technology transfer, daily reviews and audits For GMP - documentation of critical steps in the manufacturing process and any significant changes made to the process are validated

Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) 1. Organizational process; includes the conditions under which laboratory studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded and reported 2. Purpose - to promote development of quality test data - comparable for mutual acceptance in different countries - to avoid technical barriers to trade - to develop standards for herbal formulations - to protect human health and environment 3. GLP principles - Standard Operating Procedures, test facilities, personnel and test systems Good Clinical Practices (GCP) 1. An international ethical and scientific quality standard for designing, conducting, recording and reporting trials that involve human subjects 2. Compliance with this standard provides public assurance that the rights,

safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected, consistent with principles in the declaration of Helsinki, and that the clinical trial data are credible 3. Objective - to provide a unified standard Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) - A benchmark of acceptable crop production methods - A prerequisite to manufacturing pharmaceutical-grade products - A code of conduct that lays down how crops must be grown right so quality of product is not compromised - Stipulates that use of pesticides and herbicides, if any, be documented, synthetic fertilizer be minimized and banning human sewage sludge in fields - Introduced by European Herb Growers Association - GAP considers parts of plant used, water availability, temperature during growing season, time of harvest, and storage and transport of the raw material as all impact the therapeutic properties of herbal medicine - Good Agricultural Practices are helped by Good Harvesting Practices Good Harvesting Practices (GHP) - Covers wild crafting of medicinal plants - Designed to ensure that wild material is harvested in a sustainable and environmentally acceptable way

PHARMACOGNOSY: 1. Establish bona fides of herbal materials through morphological and microscopic studies 2. Maintain herbarium of phyto-medical materials. 3. Formulation and Development

FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT:


1. formulation studies to check the biochemical action of ingredients. 2. Trials to assess safety and efficacy of formulations.

3. Accelerated stability trials to check physical, chemical, microbiological

and biological aspects of formulations. 4. Standardize processes for uniform quality. 5. Transfer of technology to the production department

IMMUNO-PHARMACOLOGY 1. Study the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level. 2. Attempt to understand the endogenous mediators involved in the activity.
3. Develop immuno-protective agents to counter opportunistic infections in

AIDS, carcinogenic malignancy, septic shock, organ transplantation and chronic


4. infections.

5. Substitute work with in vitro (in the laboratory) cell line models for in vivo (in the body) experiments.

Expenditure
0-500 500-1500 1500-2500 Above 2500

No. of Consumer
40 20 30 10

Percentage
27 13 20 7

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


Expenditure on Personal Care TABLE NO. 4.1 CHART NO 4.1
Expenditure on Hair Conditioner
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0-500 500-1500 1500-2500 Above 2500 No. of Consumer Percentage

INTERPRETATION The above data shows the expense percentage of consumers on personal care products. According to this table 20% of consumer below 500 Rs. On personal care items, 33% peoples spend Rs. 500 1500 on cosmetics 40% consumers spend Rs. 1500 2500 on personal care. At last sum 7% consumers spend more than Rs. 2500 on cosmetics. Value to the Different Purchasing Factors

1. Price

------------------------5

2. Packaging

-------------------------3

3. Ingredients

------------------------5

4. Location of retail store

-----------------------5

5. Promoters service

-----------------------5

6. Function

----------------------5

INTERPRETATION
The above stable shows the measurement of quality factor of a product on the basis of a lickert scale. As the result, there is a good priority has been given to the price of product. An excellent priority is given to the ingredients and function.

Consumer also looking for a very good durability of a product. There is a very average priority is given to the look of a product for purchase criteria.

Trust Worthiness of Brands TABLE NO. 4.3 Factors Product origin Awards received Laboratory reports Editorial recommendation No. of consumers 30 50 50 20 Percentage 20 33 33 13

CHART NO.4.3
Trust Worthiness of Brands
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Product origin Awards received Laboratory reports Editorial recommendation No. of consumers Percentage

INTERPRETATION

The above data shows that the 33% of consumers trust on brands on the basis of awards received by the brands & laboratory reports. consumers want to know product origin. Only 20% of

Sources of Brand Awareness

TABLE NO. 4.4 Sources Internet Seminar Newspaper Samples Leaflets Words of mouth No. of Consumers 20 10 60 25 10 25 % 13 7 40 17 7 17

INTERPRETATION
The above table shows the different sources from where consumers are able to know about cosmetic products. 50% of the consumers are getting aware with the products. 50% of the consumers are getting aware with the products from advertising in T.V or some other medium. 28% of the consumers are get aware about the product by their friends. 23% of consumers are able to know about the

products through some other sources like free sampling, mass media, brand promotion etc.

CHART NO. 4.4

S o u rc e s o f B ra n d A w a rn e s s
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 In t e r n e tS e m i n a re w s p a S e rm p l e L e a fl e t sW o r d s o f N pa s m o u th % N o . o f C o n s u m e rs

Areas Interest the consumer most TABLE NO.4 .5 Area Discount Latest product Product serious Beauty No. of Consumers 60 50 10 30 % 40 33 7 20

CHART 4.5
Interest Consumer most
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Discount Latest product Product serious Beauty % No. of Consumers

INTERPRETATION

The above data shows the customer interest. 40% of customer look for discount and 33% of consumer take interest towards the availability of latest product in the market and 20% are beauty conscious

Brand Consciousness of people TABLE NO. 4.6 Brand consciousness Yes No For some products No. of Consumers 110 15 25 % 73 10 17

CHART NO 4.5
Brand Consciousness of people
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes No For some products No. of Consumers %

INTERPRETATION

The above table shows the brand consciousness of the common consumers. On the basis of above table, at the present time there are 79% people of India are brand conscious 13% consumers are brand conscious for only few brands and remaining 8% people who belongs to backward areas are not brand conscious. Preference of Different Brands (country wise) TABLE NO. 7 Brands National International Local No. of Consumers 82 51 17 % 55 34 11

CHART NO 4.7
Preference of Different Brand
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 National International Local % No. of Consumers

INTERPRETATION
The above data table shows the preference of consumers towards different brands of Personal care products on the basis of country. 55% of consumers prefer the brands of different national companies. The main reason is less price and relatively good quality. 34% consumers prefer the brands international companies

or imported products. These consumers contains models, relatively rich people, professionals etc. last 11% consumers prefers local goods.

Shopping Habit of Consumers for Place

TABLE NO. 8

Places Malls Supermarkets Traditional shops e-shopping

No. of Consumers 32 72 37 9

% 21 48 25 6

INTERPRETATION
The above data shows the different habits of consumers during they are on a way to purchase the products. There was a time when consumers gone to only one or two stores available in an are. They purchase only these things which the retailers give them. At the time, the consumers have very limited choice due to unavailability of more retail stores in an are. But now a day there is a bunch of availability of super markets, malls, and different ways to shopping. At the present time, 48% of people goes to a super market, 25% goes to same old traditional stores, these persons are either from backward area or some Semi Urban areas. 21% peoples goes to malls for shopping, these are the people of Metro cities or good developed City like Chennai, Bangalore etc., Remaining 6% people deals with e-shopping.

CHART NO 4.8

S h o p p in g H a b it o f C o n s u m e r s fo r P la c e
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 M a lls S u p e r m a rTk rea tds i t i o n a l s e -os ph so p p i n g h N o . o f C o n s u m e rs %

Effecting factors responsible for the buying decision of consumers TABLE NO.4. 9 Effection factors Company Packaging Brand name Price No. of Consumers 17 28 57 48 % 11 19 38 32

CHART NO4.9
Effecting factors responsible for the buying decision of consumers

Company Packaging Brand name Price

INTERPREATION
The above table shows the different factors which effects the buying decision of the consumers. At the present time more than 35% (38%) of consumers prefers the brand name before purchasing of a personal care product. 32% of consumers prefers price as a important factor in the purchasing of a personal care product. 19% preference goes to the packaging and remaining 11% preference goes to reputation of companies.

CHAPTER V

FINDINGS

It shows that 40%of respondents told that Personal care expenditure

on 1500 2500 The study reveals that 60% of respondents priority of ingredients and function.
Majority (33%) of respondents said that award received and

laboratory reports.
Majority (50%) of respondents said that aware from Newspaper.

It shows that 40% of respondents told that discount based.


Most (73%)of respondents get the brand consciousness

It is observed that 55% of respondents told that preference to the national company products.
It shows that 48% of respondents told the shopping place is super

market. It shows that 38% of respondents told the brand name influencing the buying decision.

SUGGESTIONS
1. Customer like best quality product on any price, so company should add latest Technology to their product. 2. After sales services is the area where Indian and International Company can Highly satisfy the existing customer, because they can make more customer Through their word of mouth. So Indian and International company should Provide latest and reliable service to their customers. 3. Customers behavior always looks for some extra benefit with purchasing. They demand for affordable price for product and gifts with purchasing. 4. International Company should make strategy to cater every income group Customers in city. Upper income group are affordable to purchase but lower Income group is not. So International company should make policies to send Their product and every home. 5. The Himalaya company should give more emphasis on advertising to create Market awareness and to make a brand image in the mind so investors. 6. Companies should do more publicity through road shows, news paper and Advertisement. As this will create awareness about the fund and schemes That are at present managed by the international company. 7. They should keep a close eye on competitor strategy.

CONCLUSION
As the research has shown the comparison between customer consumer behavior regarding Indian and International product in recent time. Since the consumer consumer behavior is the important factor to forecast the sales of any product in a particular area. So company should keep close eye on the market situation. yet, customer we reprice sensitive, but the changing market trend and customer view and preference shown that customer are now quality sensitive. They want quality product, goods, services, easy availability of product and better performance by the product. These days no of customer buying from malls has been increased. Also the frequency to visit the malls has been increased substantially. People are more brands conscious and they are satisfied with the range of products available there. We can conclude from our study that still more inclinationis towards indigenous product the preference ratio of indigenous to imported products is 7:3 This is because of the relatively higher price of imported product.

BIBILIOGRAPHY Books:

Kotler Philip, Principle of Management Kothari C R, Research Methodology

Website :

www.wikipedia.com www.fmcgmarketers.blogspot.com www.google.com www.azzmba.com

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Name 2. Gender 3. Age Below 18

: :

18 - 22

23 27

28 32

above 32

4. Educational Level Primary 5. Monthly income <10,000 >40000 6. On average how much do you spend on personal care product each month? 0-500 Above 2500 (please indicate the importance of the following criteria in choosing your personal care products 1-most important 5-least important)
7. Price 8. packaging

Secondary

Graduate

Post graduate

10001-20000

20001 30000

30001 40,000

500 1000

1000-1500

1500-2500

9. Ingredients 10. Location in Retail Stores 11. Promoters service

12. How do you determine the trust worthiness of the personal care brand you are using ?

Product origin

Award received

Laboratory recommendation

Editorial recommendation

13. How do you get know your personal care products? Internet Sample Newspaper leaflets Seminars

Words of mouth 14. Which area interest you the most? Discount Latest Product Product reviews Beauty

15.Are you satisfied with the variety of brand availability in the market? Yes 16.If yes you prefer ? National brand International brand No

17.Where do you like to go for shopping? Super market Mail Traditional shop e shopping

18.How do you differentiate one brand from the other? Brand Name Spokesperson Function Leaflets

19. What kind of promotion would you attract you to buy skin care products the most? Newspapers Seminars Promoters Persuasion

Leaflets & TV comments