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GRAMMAR FOR STUDENTS OF C.O.U. Eloy M. Cebrin

ENGLISH
GRAMMAR FOR STUDENTS OF C.O.U. Eloy M. Cebrin

Contents:
UNIT I: THE CONDITIONAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 I.1. CLASSIFICATION OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. Type I: Cause and effect = real conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Type II: hypothetical condition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Type III: hypothetical and impossible condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I.2. FURTHER INFORMATION ON CONDITIONAL SENTENCES .................................................................. 8 1. Inversion the conditional sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.-. if so and if not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. if only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Other words with conditional meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.- Unless and if... not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 UNIT II: MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 II.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 II.2. ABILITY: CAN AND COULD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1. Present and future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. Past. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. Conditional could . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Could with the perfect infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 II.3. POSSIBILITY: CAN AND COULD, MAY AND MIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1. Theoretical possibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. Factual possibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. May and might with the perfect infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. Can and could with the perfect infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 II.4. PERMISSION: CAN AND COULD, MAY AND MIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1. Asking for permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. Giving permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3. Past permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 II.5. OFFERS, INVITATIONS, REQUESTS AND COMMANDS: 1

CAN AND COULD, WILL AND WOULD, SHALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a) Offers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b) Invitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c) Requests and commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II.6. OBLIGATION: MUST, HAVE TO AND NEEDN'T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II.7. DEDUCTION: MUST, CAN AND CAN'T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II.8. ADVICE AND DUTY: SHOULD, OUGHT TO AND HAD BETTER. ................................................................. UNIT III: OTHER USES OF PRIMARY AND MODAL AUXILIARIES ........................................................................ III.1. SPECIAL USES OF PRIMARY AUXILIARIES: BE, HAVE, DO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. The BE + INFINITIVE construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The HAVE + OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The HAVE + OBJECT + PRESENT PARTICIPLE construction . . . . . . . . . . . 4. DO: auxiliary verb in affirmative sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III.2. SPECIAL USES OF MODAL AUXILIARIES: WILL, WOULD, USED TO, SHOULD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Commands expressed by will in the affirmative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Present habits expressed by will . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Past habits expressed with used to and would . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Would rather/sooner + infinitive without to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. wish (that) + subject + would . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Should in subordinate clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14 14 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21

UNIT IV: THE PASSIVE VOICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 IV.I. ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 IV.2. PASSIVE VERB-FORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV.3. BY + AGENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV.4. PHRASAL AND PREPOSITIONAL VERBS IN THE PASSIVE ................................................................. IV.5. VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV.6. SENTENCES WITH OBJECT COMPLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV.7. SENTENCES WITH CLAUSE OBJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV.8. VERBS WITH OBJECT + INFINITIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV.9. VERBS WHICH CANNOT BE USED IN THE PASSIVE ................................................................. UNIT V : REPORTED SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.1. REPORTED SPEECH AND DIRECT SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.2. TENSES IN REPORTED SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.3. OTHER CHANGES IN REPORTED SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.4. ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL PHRASES OF TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.5. 'HERE' IN REPORTED SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.6. INFINITIVE AND GERUND CONSTRUCTIONS IN REPORTED SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.7. SAY, TELL AND ALTERNATIVE INTRODUCTORY VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a) say and tell with direct speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B) say and tell with reported speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C) Other useful verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D) murmur, mutter, shout, stammer, whisper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.8. REPORTED QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.9. QUESTIONS BEGINNING SHALL I / WE? AND WILL YOU / WOULD YOU / COULD YOU? 2 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 27 28 28 28 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 33

................................................................. 1) Speculations or requests for information about a future event: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2) Requests for instructions or advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3) Offers: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4) Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.10. COMMANDS, REQUESTS, ADVICE IN INDIRECT SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.12. OTHER POINTS ON REPORTED SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Must and Needn't . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Modal verbs with perfect infinitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.Exclamations and yes and no . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. That . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT VI: RELATIVE CLAUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.1. RELATIVE PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.2. DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Defining relative clauses: persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A) Subject: who or that . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B) Object of a verb: whom or who or that . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C) With a preposition: whom or that. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D) Possessive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Defining relative clauses: things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A) Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B) Object of a verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c) Object of a preposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D) Possessive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The relative pronoun what . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Cleft sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.3. NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Use for persons: who , whom, whose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A) Subject: who . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B) Object: whom, who . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C) Object of a preposition: whom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D) Possessive: whose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Use for things: which, whose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A) Subject: which . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B) Object: which . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C) Object of a preposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D) which with phrasal verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D) Possessive: whose or of which . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. both / some / most / all / several / few etc. + of + whom / which . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.4. CONNECTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.4. WHOEVER, WHICHEVER, WHATEVER, WHENEVER, WHEREVER, HOWEVER ................................................................. UNIT VII: INFINITIVES, GERUNDS, PRESENT PARTICIPLES, AND THAT-CLAUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.1. INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Modal auxiliary verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Let, make, hear, etc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.2. INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.3. INFINITIVE AFTER VERB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.4. VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.5. INFINITIVE AFTER ADJECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.6. FOR + OBJECT + INFINITIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.7. INFINITIVE AFTER NOUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

34 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 45 46 48 48 48 48 48 49 50 50 52 52

VII.8. INFINITIVE AFTER INTERROGATIVE CONJUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.9. INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.10. -ING FORM: TERMINOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.11. -ING FORM WITH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE OR 'S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.12. -ING FORM AFTER A VERB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.13. -ING FORM AFTER PREPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.12. TO + -ING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.13. -ING FORM: SPECIAL CASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.14. -ING FORM OR INFINITIVE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.15. CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY THAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT VIII: ARTICLES AND OTHER DETERMINERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.1. ARTICLES: BASIC INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Determiners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The use of articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.2. ARTICLES: COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.3. TALKING ABOUT THINGS IN GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.4. TALKING ABOUT THINGS IN PARTICULAR: A / THE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.5. SOME, ANY OR NO ARTICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.6. SOME, ANY, NO AND NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.Some and any compared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. No and none . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Compounds with some, any and no . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.7. ARTICLES: SPECIAL RULES AND EXCEPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Common expressions without articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Genitives (possessives) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Nouns as adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Man and woman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Radio and television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Musical instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. All and both . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Illnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Seasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. Exclamations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. Geographical areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. Place-names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. Special Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.8. ARTICLES: GOLDEN RULES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCOURSE MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a) FOCUSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b) STRUCTURING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.- Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.- Contrast with what came before . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.- Logical sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.- Exemplifying and excepting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.- Generalizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.- Clarifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c) DISMISSAL OF A PREVIOUS DISCOURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d) SHOWING OUR ATTITUDE TO WHAT WE ARE SAYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e) ADDING FURTHER DETAILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 60 62 62 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 74 74

f) QUOTING FROM A TEXT IN ORDER TO SUPPORT OR REJECT A STATEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 g) STARTING A SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 APPENDIX II LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Bibliography:
This manual contains material reproduced and adapted from the following sources: Advanced English Practice. Graver, B. D. (O.U.P. 1963) Advanced Use of English. Robinson, C. (Hamish Hamilton, 1977) Counterpoint. Lavin, E. & Snchez Benedito, F. (Alhambra 1978) Crossroads. Hinton, M. & Marsden R. (Nelson, 1982) A Practical English Grammar. Thomson, A. J. & Martinet, A. V. (O.U.P. 1980) Practical English Usage. Swan, M. (O.U.P. 1980) A University Grammar of English. Quirk, R. & Greenbaum S. (Longman, 1973) Ways to Grammar. Shepherd, J., Rossner, R. & Taylor J. (McMillan, 1984)

UNIT I: THE CONDITIONAL


I.1. CLASSIFICATION OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Conditional sentences are conveniently classified into three groups.

1. Type I: Cause and effect = real conditional. Both condition and result are very likely to occur.
a) IF if if if if PRESENT you buy that car you buy that car you buy that car you buy a car FUTURE, IMPERATIVE, CAN, MAY it will cost you 10,000 drive carefully you may get broke you can be home earlier

* May in the main clause denotes that the action will not automatically happen (as when will is used) even if the condition is fulfilled: it expresses a possibility rather than a certainty. If you go to Thailand you may easily catch a venereal disease. If you don't catch an earlier flight you may not arrive in Paris in time for the meeting. * Can in the main clause means 'general ability' -the ability to do something any time you want to, providing the condition is fulfilled. Today you can easily travel abroad if you have enough money. When the meaning is particular ability, i.e., the ability to perform a certain action at one particular moment, will be able to is preferred. If you lend me some money I will be able to travel to England next summer.

b) IF if PRESENT one buys a car PRESENT it costs money

* if + two present tenses is used to express automatic or habitual results. These sentences are statements of universal truth or general validity, and in this type of sentence, if corresponds closely in meaning to when(ever) If you heat ice it turns to water. If there is a shortage of any product prices of that product go up.

C) 6

IMPERATIVE buy a car

AND and

FUTURE it will cost you a fortune

* Joining two sentences with and is a common alternative to using if-clauses. Take my advice and your troubles will be over. (=If you take...) D) IF if if SHOULD he should decide to buy that car he should decide to buy that car FUTURE / IMPERATIVE please, tell me I will be surprised

*We can suggest that something is unlikely to happen, or is not particularly probable by using should with if. If you should run into Peter Bellamy, tell him he owes me a letter.

2. Type II: hypothetical condition.


It is called so either because the condition is contrary to the facts (like in the first example) or because it is very improbable that it takes place (like in the second example). In general it is used for speculating what would happen if things were different. If I were the President, I would end unemployment in two weeks (It implies that the speaker is the President) If I won the lottery I would buy a Ferrari. (It implies that the speaker finds it very improbable that he will ever win the lottery). A) IF if if if PAST you bought a car you bought a car you bought a car CONDITIONAL, COULD, MIGHT it would cost you a lot of money I could advise you you might die in an accident

* Note that could and might can replace would in conditional structures. In this case, could means would be able to, and might means would perhaps or would just possibly. If I had another 500, I could buy a car. If you asked me nicely, I might take you out to lunch. * Were is often used instead of was after if, especially in a formal style, and in the expression If I were you... If my nose were a little shorter I would be quite pretty. If I were you I'd start packing now. B)

IF if

WERE TO you were to buy a car

CONDITIONAL, COULD, MIGHT it would cost you a lot of money

* We can use were to + infinitive in the if-clause. This makes a future possibility sound less probable; it can also be used to make a suggestion more tentative. What would you do if war were to break out? If you were to move your chair a bit to the right we could all sit down.

3. Type III: hypothetical and impossible condition (since the condition was not fulfilled in the past, the result of that condition never took place either). This is used for speculating about what would have happened if things had been different.
A) IF if B) IF if if PAST PERFECT they had been stronger they had been stronger COULD HAVE OR MIGHT HAVE they could have lifted the box they might have lifted the box PAST PERFECT you had bought a car a year ago PERFECT CONDITIONAL it would have cost you much less than now.

I.2. FURTHER INFORMATION ON CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


1. Inversion the conditional sentence
In type I: SHOULD INVERTED Should it prove to be true In type II: WERE TO INVERTED Were they to arrive tomorrow type III: PAST PERFECT INVERTED Had you bought that car PERFECT CONDITIONAL you wouldn't have had all that trouble CONDITIONAL we would be quite unprepared FUTURE OR IMPERATIVE (I shall) sell all my shares

2.-. if so and if not These are two useful expressions which are used instead of complete clauses. Have you go a free evening next week? If so, let's have dinner. (=if you have, let's...) You may have some difficulty operating the machine at first. If so do not hesitate to telephone our service department. Is anybody feeling cold? If not, let's put the central heating off.

3. if only
If is used with only (usually with a past or past perfect tense) to suggest a strong wish or regret. If only I had more money, I could buy some new clothes. If only we can get to the next petrol-station we'll be all right. If only you hadn't told Jackie what I said, everything would have been all right.

4. Other words with conditional meaning


Many words and expressions can be used with a meaning similar to if, (and with similar verb forms). Some of the commonest are provided, providing, supposing, as long as, on condition that. Supposing you fell in love with your boss, what would you do? You can borrow my bike provided/providing you bring it back. I'll give you the day off on condition that you work on Saturday morning. You are welcome to stay with us, as long as you share the rent.

5.- Unless and if... not


Very often, unless can be used instead of if not. Come tomorrow if I don't phone/unless I phone. He'll accept the job if the salary's not too low/unless the salary's too low. However, there are some cases where unless is impossible. In general, unless can be used in sentences that say 'A will happen if it not stopped by B', but unless cannot be used in sentences that say 'A will result from B not happening.' Compare: I'll be back tomorrow unless there's a plane strike. (Or:... if there's not). Let's have dinner out - unless you're too tired. (Or: ...if you're not...) I'll be quite glad if she doesn't come this evening. (unless is impossible.) She'd be pretty if she didn't wear so much make-up. (unless is impossible.) I'll be surprised if he doesn't have an accident.

UNIT II: MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS


II.1 INTRODUCTION
* Auxiliary verbs can be classified into two groups: 1) Primary auxiliary verbs (be, have, do): these are used to make tenses, passive and questions. They have an important grammatical meaning but no real lexical meanings. 2) Modal auxiliary verbs (can, could, may, might, must, will, would, shall, should, ought and need): these verbs have lexical meaning and can be used to express a wide variety on senses. * Modal auxiliaries have several points in common which make them quite different from other verbs: 1) They are not used (except sometimes in the negative) to talk about things which are definitely happening, or have definitely happened. Modal verbs are used when we say that we expect things to happen, or that events are possible, or necessary, or improbable, or impossible, or when we say that things did not happen, or that we are not sure whether they happened. I can't swim. She could be in London or Paris or Tokyio - nobody knows. I may come tomorrow if I have time. You might have told me Frances was ill. What would you do if you had a free year? I think they should have consulted a doctor earlier. 2) Modal verbs have no -s on the third person singular; questions and negatives are made without do; they are followed by the infinitive without to of other verbs (except for ought). You needn't look at me like that. He must be here by nine o'clock. Can your mother drive? That ought to be enough.

3) Modal verbs have no infinitives, and other expressions are used instead, when necessary. I'd like to be able to skate. (Not: ...to can skate.) You're going to have to work harder. (Not: ... to must work harder.)

4) Modal verbs have no past forms. Could and would are used with past meanings in some cases but otherwise other expressions are used. After climbing for six hours, we managed to reach the top. I had to go to Chester yesterday. 5) Modal verbs can be used with perfect infinitives to talk about things which did not happen, or which we are not sure about, in the past. You should have told me at once. Her car may have broken down.

10

II.2. ABILITY: CAN AND COULD


1. Present and future. * Can is usually used to talk bout the present, or about 'general ability' - the ability to do something any time you want to. Look! I can do it! I can do it! You can certainly cook, even if you can't do anything else. Note that the only possible uncontracted negative o can is cannot (can not is not correct). * To talk about future ability, will be able to is normally used. I'll be able to speak German in another few months. One day people will be able to run a kilometre in two minutes. If I have a good sleep, I'll be able to work out the problem. But can is often possible when people make present decisions about future ability. We're too busy today, but we can repair your car tomorrow. We can talk about that later. Can you come to a party on Saturday? 2. Past.* Could is used for 'general ability', to say that you could do something any time you wanted to. She could sing like an angel when she was a kid. My father could speak ten languages. * Could is not used to talk about particular ability (to do something on one occasion) in the past. Instead, we use was able to, managed to, or succeeded in. How many eggs were you able to get. I managed to get 10% off the price. After six hours' climbing, we succeeded in reaching the top of the mountain. Compare the following two sentences: He was a terrific liar: he could make anybody believe him.(General ability - could is correct.) I talked for a long time, and in the end I managed to make her believe me. (One particular action - could is impossible here). * Note that the negative couldn't is used for both general and particular ability. When I was younger I couldn't decide what I wanted to do. Simon was so drunk that he couldn't find the front door. 3. Conditional could.Could is also used in a conditional sense (meaning 'would be able to'). I could have a really good time if I had a flat of my own. We could do it by midday if we had the tools. I could break your neck! 4. Could with the perfect infinitive 11

Sometimes we want to say that we had the ability to do something, but we didn't try to do it. There is a special structure for this could + perfect infinitive (=could have + past participle) I could have married anybody I wanted to. (=I was able to marry anybody..., but I didn't.) I could have killed her! (=I was so angry that I was capable of killing her, but I didn't.) You could have helped me! (=You were able to help me - why didn't you?)

II.3. POSSIBILITY: CAN AND COULD, MAY AND MIGHT


Two different types of possibility must be distinguished: a) It's possible to feed everyone if we share the world's resources. b) It is possible that he will not arrive in time for the auction a) Theoretical possibility: in the first example, we are saying that something can be done, but we are not talking about the chances that it will happen. In this type of sentences can is normally used: everyone can be fed if we share the world's resources. b) Factual possibility: in the second example there is suggestion that somebody will not perhaps arrive in time: we are talking about the chances of something actually happening, or being true. In this case may, might or could are normally used: he may (might, could) not arrive in time. 1. Theoretical possibility.* Can is used to say that events and situations are possible (without talking about the chances of them actually happening). Anybody who wants to can become a volunteer. How many elephants can fit into a mini? This door can be closed. (= it is possible to close this door) Sentences with can often give information about the characteristic behaviour of people of things. Scotland can be very warm in September. Gold can't be dissolved in hydrochloric acid. To talk about the past could is used. My grandmother could be very unpleasant at times. 2. Factual possibility.a. Future possibility. We don't use can to say that there is a chance that something will happen. Instead, we usually use may or might (without any significant difference in meaning in modern English). We may go climbing this summer. He might fail his driving test. I think he hasn't had enough practice. The door might be closed (=it is possible that the door is closed) Could is used to give the idea that something is just possible, but not particularly likely. We could go climbing this summer, but I doubt if we'll have time. It could rain later on this evening. b. Present possibility. May, might and could are also used to say that something is possibly true at the moment of speaking. You may be right. 12

You could be right, but I don't think you are. This might be your big chance. 3. May and might with the perfect infinitive.Both may and might can be used with perfect infinitives to talk about the possibility that past events happened. 'Polly's very late.' - 'She may have missed her train.' 'What do you think that noise was?' 'It might have been a cat. Might can also be used in this structure to say that a past event was possible, but didn't happen. You were stupid to try climbing up there. You might have killed yourself. 4. Can and could with the perfect infinitive.* Can and could are both used with the perfect infinitive for speculating or guessing about the past. Can is only used in questions and negative sentences. Where can she have gone? She can't have gone to school - It's Saturday. She could have gone off with some friends. (Not She can have gone...) * Could with the perfect infinitive is also used (as might was) to talk about an unrealized past possibility: something that was possible but didn't happen. You were stupid to go skiing there - you could have broken your leg. It wasn't a good idea to throw the TV out of the window - it could have hit somebody. This structure can be used to criticize people for not doing things. You could have told me you had invited people to dinner. (=Why didn't you tell me ...?) * To say that something was not a possibility, we say it couldn't have happened. My parents wanted me to be a doctor, but I couldn't have put up with all those years of study.

II.4. PERMISSION: CAN AND COULD, MAY AND MIGHT


1. Asking for permission.* Can, could, may and might are all used in asking for permission. Can is probably the commonest of the four. Can I have a drop more whisky? * Could is rather more hesitant that can, and is used when you are not sure that you will get permission (or when you don't want to sound too sure). Could I ask you something, if you're not too busy?.

* May and might are used in a more formal style; they often suggest respect. Might is more hesitant, and is not very common. 13

May I make a suggestion? May I stop work a little earlier tonight. Might I take the liberty of pointing out that you have made a small mistake? Note that, in asking for permission, could and might are not past tenses; all four words refer to the future. 2. Giving permission. When we give permission, we use can and may, but not could or might. 'Could I use your phone?' - 'Yes, of course you can.' 'Might I trouble you for a light?' - 'You may indeed.' 3. Past permission.In the past, could is used to say that one was allowed to do something at any time ('general permission'). When I lived at home, I could watch TV whenever I wanted to. But we don't use could to talk about permission for one particular action in the past. I was allowed to see her yesterday evening. He had permission to go out for an hour.

II.5. OFFERS, INVITATIONS, REQUESTS AND COMMANDS: CAN AND COULD, WILL AND WOULD, SHALL
*Can and could are often used to offer to do things for people, and to ask other people to do things. Could is more 'hesitant', less definite, than can , and it is used when we want to make an offer or a request seem more polite or respectful. Statements and questions are both common. *Invitations can be expressed by will you? would you? or would you like? * Requests can be expressed by will you? would you?. They can also be used without infinitives, placed after an imperative. Come here, will you? Shut the door, would you?

But this is not very polite except when used between people who know each other very well. * Commands can be expressed by will in the affirmative. This is a formal, impersonal type of command. It implies the speaker's confidence that the order will be obeyed and is therefore much used in schools and in military etc. establishments. * Requests for orders or advice, offers, suggestions can be expressed by shall I? shall we?

a) Offers I can lend you a pound till Wednesday, if that will help. I could do the shopping for you, if you're tired. Can I carry your bag? Could I give you dinner one of these days. In questions, may is also possible. 14

May I buy you a drink? b) Invitations Will you have a drink? Would you like a drink? Will you come to lunch tomorrow? c) Requests and commands You can start by doing the washing up, and then you can clean the car. Celia can do the shopping, and I'll do the cooking. Harold can do the washing-up. You could phone Alice and see what time she's coming. Can you come here a minute, please? Could you help me with this letter? You might is possible instead of you could. You might see if John's free this evening. Will you type this letter, please? Will you give him this letter? Will anyone who saw the accident please telephone the nearest police station? (radio announcement) Would you show me the way to the station? Would you open the window, please? 'You will stay here till you are relieved,' said the officer. All boys will attend roll-call at 9 o'clock (school notice). How shall I cook it? Where shall I put this? Which one shall I buy? Shall I wait for you? Shall I help you to pack? Shall we meet at the theatre?

II.6. OBLIGATION: MUST, HAVE TO AND NEEDN'T


* Must can be used to give strong advice or order, to oneself or other people. I really must stop smoking. You must be here by 8 o'clock at the latest. * Generally, when must is used, the obligation comes from the speaker (as in the two examples above). If we talk about or report an obligation that comes from 'outside' (a regulation or an order from somebody else, for example) must is possible, but have to is more common. You must clean your own boots (these are my orders). You will have to clean your own boots when you join the army (the army will oblige you to do it). That boy has to practice the piano every day (his parents insist). Mr Pitt has to work very hard (circumstances make this necessary). If the speaker adds his support or approval to the existing external authority he may use must. Children must obey their parents (the speaker approves). Children have to obey their parents (the speaker merely states the fact). Note that have is used here as an ordinary verb, so we must use auxiliary do in the interrogative and negative.

15

Do you have to carry that heavy briefcase every day? Have got is widely used nowadays instead of have to. I've got to finish this report for tomorrow. Have you got to read all these books?

You don't have to come tomorrow.

* In negative sentences, don't need to, needn't or don't have to are used to say that there is no obligation; mustn't is used to tell people not to do things. Compare: You needn't work tomorrow if you don't want to (absence of obligation). You mustn't move any of the papers on my desk (prohibition). You don't have to bring your textbooks tomorrow (absence of obligation). You mustn't open your textbooks during the exam (prohibition). Peter doesn't need to pay for his lunch. He gets his meals free (absence of obligation). You mustn't leave the restaurant without paying (prohibition). * In the past the distinction between the speaker's authority and external authority disappears. a) We use had to to express obligation. I had to study pretty hard for my final exams. b) We use didn't have to, didn't need to and hadn't got to to express absence of obligation. I put in a claim and didn't have to pay that fine. You didn't need to bring a present for my birthday. c) Prohibition is expressed with wasn't/weren't to, wasn't/weren't allowed to or expressions with similar meaning. You were not to arrive later than ten yesterday evening, so I must punish you. Many Russians were not allowed to leave the USSR until "perestroika" arrived. * In the future, however, the difference between the speaker's authority and external authority persists. We use must for the first, and will have to for the second. You must hand in your essays before Friday. He will have to return the loan within the next two months.

II.7. DEDUCTION: MUST, CAN AND CAN'T


* Must can be used to say that we are sure about something (because it is logically necessary). Mary must have some problem: she keeps crying. I'm in love.' - 'That must be nice.' There's the doorbell. It must be Roger. * Must is only used in this way in affirmative sentences. In questions and negatives, we use can and can't instead. That can't be the postman - it's only seven o'clock. What do you think this letter can mean? * Must is used with the perfect infinitive for deductions about the past (can and can't in questions and negatives). 'We went to Majorca.' - 'That must have been nice.' 16

'The lights have gone out.' - 'A fuse must have blown.' I don't think he can have heard you. Call again. Where can John have put the matches? He can't have thrown them away.

II.8. ADVICE AND DUTY: SHOULD, OUGHT TO AND HAD BETTER.


* Should and ought to have very similar meanings. They are used to express obligation and duty, to give advice, and in general to say what we think it is right or good for people to do . You ought to/should go and see 'Jurassic Park' - it's a great film. You should have seen his face! People ought to vote even if they don't agree with any of the candidates. * In most cases, both should and ought to can be used with more or less the same meaning. There is, however, a very slight difference. When we use should, we give our own subjective opinion; ought to has a rather more objective force, and is used when we are talking about laws, duties and regulations (or when we want to make our opinion sound as strong as a duty or law). Compare: We should/ought to go and see Mary some time. (Both possible). We ought to go and see Mary tomorrow, but I don't think we will. (Should doesn't sound right here. It would be strange to give oneself advice and say that one was not going to follow it). * Should and ought to can also be used to talk about strong probability. I've bought thirty pints of beer - that ought to be enough. That should be Janet coming upstairs now. * A fairly common alternative to the should/ought to constructions in the sense of advice or recommendation is the expression had better followed by the infinitive without to. The meaning is present or future, not past. When we say that somebody had better do something, we don't usually mean that the action recommended would be better than another one - we simply mean that he ought to do it. (In other words, there is not usually an idea of comparison in this expression, despite the use of the word better). Good heavens - it's seven o'clock! I'd better put the meat in the oven. You'd better hurry up if you want to get home before dark. In negative structures, better comes before not (we don't say hadn't better). You'd better not wake me up when you come in. 'Let's take Harry's car.' 'No, we'd better not.' * To talk about things which did not happen, although they were supposed to, we use should and ought to with the perfect infinitive, or the was to construction. The taxi should/ought to have arrived at 8.30... The taxi was to arrive/have arrived at 8.30...

UNIT III: OTHER USES OF PRIMARY AND MODAL AUXILIARIES


III.1. SPECIAL USES OF PRIMARY AUXILIARIES:
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BE, HAVE, DO
1. The BE + INFINITIVE construction
* This structure is often used to talk about arrangements which have been planned. The Queen is to visit Japan next year. (=It has been arranged that the Queen...) There's to be a rail strike on July 18th. The structure can also be used in the past, to talk about arrangements which were planned. If the expected event did not happen, the perfect infinitive can be used. I felt nervous because I was to leave home for the first time. I was to have started work last week, but I changed my mind. Sometimes the reference is not to planned arrangements, but to 'destiny - things which were hidden in the future, 'written in the stars'. When we said goodbye, I thought it was for ever. But we were to meet again, many years later, under very strange circumstances. * Be + infinitive can also be used to give orders. (Parents often tell children to do things in this way.) You're to do your homework before you watch TV. (You must do your homework...) Tell her She's not to be back late. * Be about + infinitive can express the immediate future: They are about to start = They are just going to start/They are on the point of starting.

2. The HAVE + OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE construction


This construction can be used to express more neatly sentences of the type 'I employed someone to do something for me'; i.e. instead of saying I employed someone to clean my car we can say I had my car cleaned, and instead of I got a man to sweep my chimney, we can say I had my chimney swept. Note that this order of words, i.e. have + object + past participle must be observed as otherwise the meaning will be changed: He had his hair cut means he employed someone to do it, but He had cut his hair means he cut it himself sometime before the time of speaking (past perfect tense) When have is used in this way the negative and interrogative in its present and past tenses are formed with do. Do you have your windows cleaned every month? I don't have them cleaned; I clean them myself. He was talking about having central heating put in. Did he have it put in in the end? Get can be used in exactly the same way as have above but is more colloquial: I must get my clothes laundered urgently. I look like a tramp. Get is also used when we mention the person who performs the action. In this case we use an infinitive 18

construction: She got poor old Jim to dig away the snow. The have + object + past participle construction can also be used colloquially to replace a passive verb, usually one concerning some accident or misfortune. The meaning here is to experience an event or action by means of an external agent. He had two of his teeth knocked out in the fight = Two of his teeth were knocked out in the fight. He had his fruit stolen before he had a chance to pick it up = His fruit was stolen before he etc.

3. The HAVE + OBJECT + PRESENT PARTICIPLE construction


This construction is used with two different meanings: 1.- I'll have you driving in three days = as a result of my efforts, you will be driving in three days. 2.- If you give all-night parties you'll have the neighbours complaining. If film-stars put their numbers in the telephone books they'd have everyone ringing them up. you'll have in the first example conveys the idea 'this would happen to you'. Similarly they'd have in the second example conveys the idea 'this would happen to them'.

4. DO: auxiliary verb in affirmative sentences


Do is often used as an auxiliary verb in affirmative sentences. This happens especially in three cases: 1.- When we want to avoid repeating a verb which we have already used. It's important to listen to people carefully, and I usually do. She said she'd help me and she did. 'Do you like anchovies?' - 'Yes I do.' - 'So do I.' 'Do you mind if I sit here?' - 'No, do.' 2.- For 'emotive emphasis', to show that we feel strongly about what we are saying. You do look nice today. I do like you. She does talk a lot, doesn't she? Do sit down! Do shut up! When do is used with imperatives (e g Do sit down!), it often makes an invitation sound more polite, welcoming or friendly. Do come in! Do have another potato! 3.- For 'contrastive emphasis', to show a contrast between, for example, true and false, or present and past, or a rule and an exception. 'Why didn't you tell him?' - 'I did tell him.' I don't take much exercise now, but I did play football quite a bit when I was younger. I don't have much contact with my family. I do see my mother occasionally, though.

III.2. SPECIAL USES OF MODAL AUXILIARIES:


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WILL, WOULD, USED TO, SHOULD


1. Commands expressed by will in the affirmative
'You will stay here till you are relieved,' said the officer. 'All boys will attend roll-call at nine o'clock (school notice) This is a formal, impersonal type of command, similar to must or is/are to but more peremptory. It implies the speaker's confidence that the order will be obeyed and is therefore much used in schools and in military, etc. establishments.

2. Present habits expressed by will


Habits in the present are normally expressed by the simple present tense; but will+infinitive can be used instead when we wish to emphasize the characteristic behaviour of the performer rather than the action performed. It is chiefly used in general statements: An Englishman will usually show you the way in the street (it is normal for an Englishman to act this way).

3. Past habits expressed with used to and would


* The structure used to + infinitive only exists in the past. It refers to past habits and states. If we say that somebody used to do something we mean that some time ago he did it habitually but that he does not do it now. To express the same idea in the present, the present simple tense is usually enough. Compare: He used to play cards a lot. He plays cards a lot. Used to can have the forms either of an auxiliary verb (questions and negatives without do) or of an ordinary verb (with do). The do-forms are more informal. Did you use to play cricket at school? (or: Used you to play...?) I didn't use to like opera, but now I'm getting interested. (Or: I used not to like opera..) * Do not confuse used to + infinitive with the construction be used to. Be used to can be followed by a noun or an -ing form. It has quite a different meaning for used to + infinitive. If you say that somebody is used to (doing) something, you mean that he has done it or experienced it so often that it is no longer strange to him. I've lived in Paris for six years now, so I'm quite used to the traffic. When I was younger I was used to walking long distances, but now I'm out of practice.

* Would can also be used to talk about past habits On Sundays he used to/would get up early and go fishing. He used to/would spend the whole day by the river and in the evening used to/would come home marvellous stories of the fish he had nearly caught. with

Used to can be used to talk about states and situations as well as actions. Would can only be used for repeated actions. I used to have an old Rolls Royce. (I would... is impossible in cases like this.)

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4. Would rather/sooner + infinitive without to


There is no difference in meaning between these forms, but would rather is more often heard. would rather/sooner is a very useful way of expressing preference. I/he etc. would rather/sooner can be used instead of I prefer/he prefers. He prefers reading to talking = He would rather read than talk I prefer being wise to rich = I'd rather be wise than rich He prefers wine to beer = He would rather drink wine than beer

5. wish (that) + subject + would


* wish + subject + past tense can express regret for a present situation. I wish I knew his address = I'm sorry I don't know his address I wish that he wrote more regularly = I'm sorry he doesn't write more regularly. * wish + subject + past perfect tense expresses regret for a past situation or action. I wish I hadn't said that. * wish + subject + would can be used similarly, but only with actions which the subject can control, i.e. actions he could change if he wished. wish + would here expresses interest in the subject's willingness/unwillingness to perform the action: I wish he would write more often = I'm sorry he isn't willing to write more often. I wish he would wear a coat = I'm sorry he refuses to wear a coat.

6. Should in subordinate clauses


1.- Should is often used in subordinate clauses after in case, and sometimes after if. It makes an event sound less probable (see unit III). Compare: I'll get some beer in case Aunt Mary comes. (She may come.) I'll get some beer in case Aunt Mary should come. (She might come). If you see Harry, give him my regards. (You may see him). If you should see Harry, give him my regards. (You might see him.) 2.- Should is also used in adverbial clauses of purpose: a) with so that / in order that in past sentences. b) with in case / lest (for fear that) for all tenses. He turned the stereo very low so that he shouldn't disturb the old lady downstairs. (Or: ...in order that he shouldn't...) I always keep candles in the house in case there should be a power cut. (Or: ...in case there is...) He didn't dare to leave the house lest someone should recognise him 3.- Should can be used in subordinate clauses when we are expressing the idea that something must be done, or is important. This happens after verbs like command, order, insist, request, ask, suggest, advise, recommend (especially in past sentences), and after adjectives like important, vital, essential, necessary, eager, anxious, concerned.

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He insisted that the contract should be read aloud. I recommended that you should reduce your expenditure. Was it necessary that my uncle should be informed? I'm anxious that nobody should be hurt. Ideas of this kind can also be expressed with the subjunctive (especially in American English) or in other, simpler ways. Was is necessary that my uncle be informed? Was it necessary to inform my uncle? (Or: ...for my uncle to be informed?) 4.- Should is also used in subordinate clauses in sentences where we express personal reactions to events (for instance, with words like amazing, interesting, shocked, sorry, normal, natural, it's a shame). In these cases, too, should is more common in past sentences. The subjunctive is not possible here instead of should. It's astonishing that she should say that sort of things to you. I was shocked that she shouldn't have invited Phyllis. I'm sorry you should think I did it on purpose. Do you think it's normal that the child should be so tired? Sentences like these can be made without should. (I was shocked that she hadn't invited Phyllips; I'm sorry you think...)

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UNIT IV: THE PASSIVE VOICE


IV.I. ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE
* Compare the following two sentences: Your little boy broke my kitchen window this morning. That window was broken by your little boy. In the first sentence, the person who did the action (your little boy) is the subject, and comes first; then we say what he did ( with the verb, broke) and what he did it to (the object, my kitchen window). In the second sentence, the opposite happens: we start by talking about the window (the object of the first sentence has become the subject of the second); then we say what was done to it, and who this was done by. The first kind of sentence, and the kind of verb form used in it, are called 'active'. The second kind of sentence, and the kind of verb-form used, are called 'passive'. * The choice between active and passive constructions often depends on what has already been said, or on what the listener already knows. We usually like to start sentences with what is already known, and to put 'new' information later in the sentence. In the first example above, the listener does not know about the broken window, so the speaker makes it the object of the sentence. In the second example, the listener knows about the window - it is being pointed out to him, he can see it- so the speaker uses a passive construction; in this way he can put the window first, and keep the new information (who broke it) for later in the sentence. Another example: John's just written a play. This play was probably written by Marlowe. In the first sentence, John is somebody that the hearer knows; the news is that he has written a play. The speaker prefers to put this at the end, so he begins with John and uses an active verb. In the second sentence, a passive structure allows the speaker to begin with the play (which the hearer already knows about), and to put the news (who wrote it) at the end. * We often prefer to put longer and 'heavier' expressions at the end of a sentence, and this can be another reason for choosing a passive structure. Compare: Mary's behaviour annoyed me. (Or: I was annoyed by Mary's behaviour.) I was annoyed by Mary wanting to tell everybody else what to do. The first sentence can easily be active or passive. But if the second sentence was active, the subject would be very long (Mary wanting to tell everybody else what to do annoyed me). In this case, a passive structure is more natural. Passive structures are also used when we want to talk about an action, but we are not interested in saying who (or what) did it. Those pyramids were built around 400 A.D. Too many books have been written about the second world war. The passive is especially common in descriptions of processes or rules, where the language used is formal and the personal element is to be avoided. In football the ball may be kicked or headed; it must not be handed. Consequently, the Passive is very often used in business or technical English. The decision on next year's budget will be made soon. 23

Copper sulphate is made by mixing coper oxide and sulphuric acid.

IV.2. PASSIVE VERB-FORMS


Passive verb forms are made with the different tenses of to be, followed by a past participle. The tenses, and the rules for their use, are the same as for active verb-forms. Note, however, that we usually avoid saying be being and been being, so that future progressive and perfect progressive passive tenses are very uncommon. Present simple: Present progressive: Past simple: Past progressive: (Present perfect progressive): Past perfect: (Past perfect progressive): Future: (Future progressive): Future perfect: (Future perfect progressive): Going to structure: Modal structures: English is spoken here. Excuse the mess, the house is being painted. I wasn't invited, but I've come anyway. I felt as if I was being watched. (How long has the research been being done?) I knew why I had been chosen. (I wondered how long I'd been being followed.) You'll be told in advance (You'll be being told in the near future.) Everything will have been done by the 26th. (By next Christmas, that bridge will have been being built for three years.) Who's going to be invited? He ought to be shot. You might have been hurt.

Note the passive infinitive - to be invited, to be shot - and the perfect passive infinitive - (to) have been hurt - in the last three examples. Passive -ing forms also exist. She likes being looked at Having been rejected by everybody, he became a monk.

IV.3. BY + AGENT
In sentences like The trouble was caused by your mother, the part of the sentence introduced by by is called the agent. The agent in a passive sentence is the same person or thing as the subject of an active sentence. Compare: I was shocked by her attitude Her attitude shocked me. The agent is only expressed when it is important to say who or what something is done by. In most passive sentences, there is no agent. A new supermarket's just been opened. I'm always being asked for money. After some past participles which are used like adjectives. other prepositions are used instead of by to introduce the agent. We were worried about (or by) her silence? I was excited at (or by) the prospects of going abroad. Are you frightened of spiders? With is used when we talk about an instrument (tool, etc) which helps the agent to do an action.

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He was shot (by the policeman) with a revolver. The room was filled with smoke. The lock was covered with paint.

IV.4. PHRASAL AND PREPOSITIONAL VERBS IN THE PASSIVE


When a verb + preposition + object combination is put into the passive, the preposition will remain immediately after the verb: Active: Passive: Active: Passive: We must write to him. He must be written to. You can play with these cubs quite safely. These cubs can be played with quite safely.

Similarly with verb + preposition / adverb combinations: Active: Passive: Active: Passive: The threw away the old newspapers. The old newspapers were thrown away. He looked after the children well. The children were well looked after.

IV.5. VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS


Many verbs, such as give, send, show, lend, can be followed by two objects, which usually refer to a person and a thing (indirect and direct object, respectively). These are called di-transitive verbs.

She gave her sister the car


INDIRECT O. DIRECT O.

When these verbs are used in the passive, there are two possibilities: Her sister was given the car. (The indirect object -person- has become the subject of passive verb.) The car was given to her sister. (The direct object -thing- has become the subject.) Most often in such cases the person becomes the subject of the passive verb. I've just been sent a whole lot of information. You were lent ten thousand pounds last year. We were shown all the different ways of making whisky. Other verbs used like this are pay, promise, refuse, tell, offer.

IV.6. SENTENCES WITH OBJECT COMPLEMENTS


After some verbs, the direct object can be followed by an object complement - a noun or adjective which describes the object. Queen Victoria considered him a genius. They elected him president. We regarded him as an expert. 25

Most people saw him as a sort of clown. The other children called him stupid. I made the room beautiful These sentences can become passive. He was considered a genius (by Queen Victoria). He was elected president. He was regarded as an expert. He was seen as a sort of clown. He was called stupid. The room was made beautiful.

IV.7. SENTENCES WITH CLAUSE OBJECTS


The object of a sentence can be a clause. People believed that witches communicated with the devil Nobody knew whether there was gold left in the mine. Passive sentences can be made with that or whether clauses as subjects. It is usually used as an introductory subject. It was believed that witches communicated with the devil. It wasn't known whether there was gold left in the mine.

IV.8. VERBS WITH OBJECT + INFINITIVE


Many verbs can be followed by an object and infinitive. She asked me to send a stamped addressed envelope. I consider Moriarty to be dangerous. Everyone wanted Doris to be the manager. We like our staff to say what they think. Sentences like these cannot usually be made passive. We cannot say, for example, *Doris was wanted to be the manager or *Our staff are liked to say what they think. There are a few exceptions: 1) Verbs of asking, ordering, allowing etc can usually be used in the passive with a following infinitive. I was asked to send a stamped addressed envelope. She was told not to come back. We are allowed to visit Henry once a week. Other verbs in these group: advise, expect, forbid, mean, order, request, require, teach. 2) Many verbs of thinking, saying, etc can be used in the same way. Moriarty is considered to be dangerous. He is known to be violent.

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Other verbs in this category: believe, feel, presume, report, say, understand. Note that with say the infinitive structure is only possible in the passive. Compare: They say that he is famous in his own country. (Not: *They say him to be ...) He is said to be famous in his own country. With the other verbs in this group, too, the that-structure is more common than the infinitive structure in active sentences. 3) A few verbs are followed, in the active, by an object and an infinitive without to. Examples are hear, help, make, see. In the passive, the to-infinitive is used. Compare: Active: I saw him come out of the house. Passive: He was seen to come out of the house. Active: They made him tell them everything. Passive: He was made to tell everything.

IV.9. VERBS WHICH CANNOT BE USED IN THE PASSIVE


Not all verbs have passive forms. Intransitive verbs cannot be used in the passive: since they do not have objects, there is nothing to act as a subject of a passive verb. Some transitive verbs cannot be used in the passive, at least in certain of their meanings. Most of these are 'stative' verbs (verbs which refer to states, not actions, and which often have no progressive forms). Examples are fit, have, lack, resemble, suit. They have a nice house. (But not: *A nice house is had...) I was having a bath. (But not: *A bath was being had...) My shoes don't fit me. (But not: *I'm not fitted by my shoes.) Sylvia resembles a greek goddess.(But not: *A Greek goddess is resembled by Silvia.) Your mother lacks tact. (But not: *Tact is lacked ...) Not all prepositional verbs (see IV.8) can be used in passive structures. For example, we can say That chair's not to be sat on or The children have been very well looked after, but we can't say *I was agreed with by everybody or *The room was walked into. There are no clear rules about this; the student has to learn, one by one, which expressions can be used in the passive.

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UNIT V : REPORTED SPEECH


V.1. REPORTED SPEECH AND DIRECT SPEECH
* When we want to quote somebody's words or thoughts, we can do it in two ways. First of all, we can try to give the exact words that were said (or that we imagine were thought). So he comes into the pub and says 'I'll have a pint'. And then I thought 'Well, does he really mean it'. This way of quoting is called 'direct speech'. Usually the words quoted are introduced by one of the words say or think put before the quotation. In writing, quotation marks ('...' or "...") are used. In literary writing, a large number of other verbs are used (to add variety and to give additional information); for example, ask, exclaim, suggest, reply, dry, reflect, suppose, grunt, snarl, hiss, whisper. And in literary writing the word order is more free; the reporting verb can come in the middle or at the end of the quotation. 'Your information,' I replied, 'is out of date.' 'I suppose so,' grunted Jack. * The other way of quoting somebody's words or thoughts is to use the 'reported speech' construction (also called 'indirect speech'). In this case, we talk about the idea that was expressed without quoting the exact words that were used, and we connect it more closely to our own sentence (for example, by using that or whether). So he comes into the pub and says (that) he'll have a pint. And then I wondered whether he really meant it. In reported speech, the tenses, word-order, pronouns and other words may be different from those in the original sentence. Compare: He said, 'I'm going home.' He said he was going home. Mum says, 'Why aren't you at school. Mum wants to know why you aren't at school. He said, 'I love you.' He said he loved me. Peter said, 'Why don't we phone him now?' Peter suggested phoning him straight away. In some cases, words may disappear or be expressed in other ways (yes, no, well, exclamations and questions-tags, for example, cannot be fitted into the reported speech construction.) Compare: 'Yes, I suppose so,' he said. 'It's difficult, isn't it?' He agreed unenthusiastically, saying that it was difficult.

V.2. TENSES IN REPORTED SPEECH


* When the 'reporting' verb is past (eg she said; I thought; we wondered; Max wanted to know), we do not usually use the same tenses as the original speaker. The verbs are 'more past' (because we are not talking at the same time as the speaker was). Compare:

DIRECT SPEECH

REPORTED SPEECH
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Present Simple Past simple 'I like peaches' He said he liked peaches. Present Progressive Past Progressive 'Is it raining?' He asked if it was raining. Past Simple Past Perfect 'I didn't recognize you' She explained that she hadn't recognized me. Present Perfect Past Perfect 'You've annoyed the dog.' I told her she'd annoyed the dog. Past Progressive Past Progressive or Past Perfect Progressive 'I was joking.' He said he was joking (or:had been joking) about the price about the price. Past Perfect Past Perfect 'I hadn't seen her You said you hadn't seen her before that day.' before that day.' Shall / will Should / would 'We'll be late.' I was afraid we'd be late. Can, may Could, might 'I can swim.' She thought she could swim. 'It may rain.' They said it might rain. Would, could, might, Would, could, might, ought, should ought, should 'You could be right.' I felt he could be right. 'That should be interesting.' She said it should be interesting. Must Must or Had to 'I must go.' He said he must go. (or: ...had to go) Note that we may have shall or should in direct speech, and would in reported speech (because of the difference of person). 'I should be delighted to come.' He said he would be delighted to come.

* When the 'reporting' verb is present, future, or present perfect, the tenses used are usually the same as those in the speaker's original words. Compare: 'Will I be in time?' She wants to know if she'll be in time. 'Was your operation successful?' He'll certainly ask you if your operation was successful. * Sometimes, even after past reporting verbs, the tenses are the same as the original speaker's. This happens when we are reporting people saying things that are still true when we report them. Compare: 'The earth goes round the sun.' Galileo proved that the earth goes round the sun. 'I'm only 28.' She told me the other day that she's only 28. However, past tenses are also possible in these cases. 'How old are you?' - 'I beg your pardon?' - 'I asked how old you were.' In sentences like these, we often use present tenses if we feel that we are reporting facts; we prefer past tenses if we are not sure of the truth of what we report. Compare: She told me she's getting married next June. (And I believe her.) She told me she was getting married next June. (It may be true, it may not.)

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V.3. OTHER CHANGES IN REPORTED SPEECH


* Pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change from first or second person to third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words. I said, 'I like my new house.' I said that I liked my own house (speaker reporting his own words.) He said, 'I've forgotten the combination of my safe.' He said that he had forgotten the combination of his safe. 'You've overcooked the steak again, Mary.' he said. He told Mary that she had overcooked the steak again. Pronoun changes may affect the verb when it is in the future or conditional. He says, 'I shall be there.' = He says that he will be there. He said, 'I shall be there.' = He said that he would be there. * this used in a time expression usually becomes that. He said, 'She is coming this week' He said that she was coming that week. Otherwise this and that used as adjectives usually change to the. He said, 'I bought this pearl / these pearls for my mother.' He said that he had bought the pearl / pearls for his mother.

V.4. ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL PHRASES OF TIME


Direct
today yesterday the day before yesterday tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/year etc. last week/year etc. a year etc. ago

Indirect
that day the day before two days before the next day / the following day in two days' time the following week/year etc. the previous week/year etc. a year before / the previous year

'I saw her the day before yesterday,' he said. He said he'd seen him two days before. 'I'll do it tomorrow,' he promised. He promised that he would do it the next day. 'I'm starting the day after tomorrow, mother,' he said. He told his mother that he was starting in two day's time. She said, 'My father died a year ago.' He said that his father had died a year before/the previous year.

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But if the speech is made and reported on the same day these time changes are not necessary. At breakfast this morning he said, 'I'll be very busy today' At breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today. Logical adjustments are of course necessary if a speech is reported one/two days after it is made. One Monday Jack said to Tom: I'm leaving the day after tomorrow. If Tom reports this speech on the next day (Tuesday) he will probably say: Jack said he was leaving tomorrow. If he reports it on Wednesday, he will probably say: Jack said he was leaving today.

V.5. 'HERE' IN REPORTED SPEECH


* here can become there but only when it is clear what place is meant. We met at the bridge and he said, 'I'll be here again tomorrow.' We met at the bridge and he said that he'd be there again the next day. Usually here has to be replaced by some phrase. She said, 'You can sit here, Tom' She told Tom that he could sit beside her on the rug etc But He said, 'Come here, boys' would normally be reported He called the boys.

V.6. INFINITIVE AND GERUND CONSTRUCTIONS IN REPORTED SPEECH


A) agree, refuse, offer, promise, threaten + infinitive can sometimes be used instead of say (that)... = ANN: Would you wait half an hour? TOM: All right. Tom agreed to wait or Tom said he would wait. ANN: Would you lend me another 50? TOM: No, I won't lend you any more money. Tom refused to lend her any more money. Tom said he wouldn't lend her any more money. PAUL: I'll help you if you like. Paul offered to help her/me or Paul said that he'd help her/me. ANN: I'll pay you back next week. Really I will. 31

= or

= or = or

Ann promised to pay him/me etc. back the following week. or Ann said she would pay him back. Ann assured him that she would pay him back. KIDNAPPERS: If you don't pay the ransom at once we'll kill your daughter. The kidnappers threatened to kill his daughter if he didn't pay the ransom at once. The kidnappers said that they would kill etc.

B) accuse + object + of, admit, deny, apologize for, insist on + gerund can sometimes be used instead of say that: 'You took the money! might be reported by He accused me of taking the money. 'Yes, I took it' or 'I did take it' might be reported I admitted taking it. 'No, I didn't take it' might be reported I denied taking it. TOM: I'll pay for both of us. BILL: Let's each pay or own share. TOM: No, I'll pay. 'No, I'll pay' could be reported as Tom insisted on paying.

V.7. SAY, TELL AND ALTERNATIVE INTRODUCTORY VERBS


a) say and tell with direct speech
1.- say can introduce a statement or follow it: or Tom said, 'I've just heard the news' 'I've just heard the news,' Tom said. Inversion of say and noun subject is possible when say follows the statement: 'I've just said the news,' said Tom. say + to + person addressed is possible, but this phrase must follow the direct statement; it cannot introduce it: 'I'm leaving at once,' Tom said to me. Inversion is not possible here. 2.- tell requires the person addressed: Tell me. He told us. I'll tell Tom.

except with tell lies / stories / the truth, when the person addressed need not be mentioned: He told (me) lies. I'll tell (you) a story.

tell used with direct speech must be placed after the direct statement:

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'I'm leaving at once.' Tom told me. Inversion is not possible with tell.

B) say and tell with reported speech


Indirect statements are normally introduce by say or tell + object. say + to + object is possible but much less usual than tell + object: He said he'd just heard the news. He told me that he'd just heard the news. Note also tell ... how / about: He told us how he had crossed the mountains. He told us about crossing the mountains. He told us about his journey.

C) Other useful verbs are: add, admit, answer, argue, assure + object, boast, complain, deny, explain,
grumble, observe, point out, promise, remark, remind + object, reply. These can be used with direct or indirect speech. With direct speech they follow direct statements: 'It won't cost more,' Tom assured us. They can all introduce indirect statements. that should be placed after the verb: But Tom assured us that it wouldn't cost more. Bill objected/pointed out that it would take longer.

D) murmur, mutter, shout, stammer, whisper can precede or follow direct statements or questions. Noun
subjects can be inverted as shown above: 'You are late,' whispered Tom / Tom whispered . They can introduce indirect statements. that is usually necessary: Tom whispered that we were late. There are, of course, a lot of other verbs describing the voice or the tone of voice, e.g. bark, growl, snarl, sneer, roar, scream, shriek, yell. But these are more common with direct speech than with reported speech.

V.8. REPORTED QUESTIONS


* Reported questions do not have the same word-order (auxiliary verb before subject) as direct questions often have. Do is not used. Questions marks are not used. The nurse asked how I fell. I wondered why my mother was driving so fast. Rosemary couldn't understand where all the people were living. 33

* Before questions which do not have a question-word (like who, where, why), if or whether is used in reported speech. Although normally we can use either, if is more usual than whether. The bus driver asked if / whether I wanted the town centre. I don't know if/whether I can help you. Whether can emphasize that a choice has to be made. 'Do you want to go by air or sea?' the travel agent asked. The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or sea. Note whether or not. 'Do you want to insure your luggage or not?' he asked. He asked whether or not I wanted to insure my luggage. Whether + infinitive is possible after wonder, want to know. Shall / Should I wait for them or go on?' he wondered. He wondered whether to wait for them or go on. He wondered whether he should wait for them or go. * Say can be used to introduce direct questions, but not reported questions. Compare: She said, 'Do you want me to help you?' She asked if I wanted her to help me. (Not: *She said...)

or

V.9. QUESTIONS BEGINNING SHALL I / WE? AND WILL YOU / WOULD YOU / COULD YOU?
* Questions beginning shall I / we? can be of four kinds. 1) Speculations or requests for information about a future event: 'Shall I ever see them again?' he wondered. 'When shall I know the result of the test?' she asked. These follow the ordinary rule about shall / will. Speculations are usually introduced by wonder: He wondered if he would ever see them again. She asked when she would know the result of her test.

2) Requests for instructions or advice: 'What shall I do with it?' = 'Tell me what to do with it.? These are expressed in indirect speech by ask, inquire etc., with should or the be + infinitive construction. Requests for advice are normally reported by should. = 'Shall we sent it to your flat, sir?' he said. He asked the customer if they were to send/if they should send it to his flat.

34

= possible.

'What shall I do, mother?' she said. She asked her mother what she should do. (request for advice) When a choice is required we normally use whether in indirect speech, whether + infinitive is sometimes

'Shall I lock the car or leave it unlocked?' he said. = He asked whether he should/was to lock the car or leave it unlocked. or He asked whether to lock the car or leave it unlocked. 3) Offers: 'Shall I bring you some tea?' could be reported He offered to bring me some tea. 4) Suggestions: 'Shall we meet at the theatre?' could be reported He suggested meeting at the theatre. * Questions beginning with will you / would you / could you? may be ordinary questions but may also be requests, invitations, or, very occasionally, commands: = But = = or or or = = or = He said, 'Will you be there tomorrow?' (ordinary question) He asked if she would be there the next day. He said, 'Will you help me, please?' (request) He asked me to help him. He said, 'Will you have a drink / Would you like a drink? (invitation) He offered me a drink. He asked if I would have / would like a drink. He said, 'Will you have lunch with me tomorrow?' 'Would you like to have lunch with me tomorrow?' he said Could you have lunch with me tomorrow? (invitations) He invited me/asked me to lunch with him the following day. 'Will you post this for me?' he said. He asked if I would post it for him. He asked me to post it for him. 'Could you/would you wait a moment?' he said. He asked me to wait a moment.

V.10. COMMANDS, REQUESTS, ADVICE IN INDIRECT SPEECH


Direct command: He said, 'Lie down, Tom.' Indirect command: He told Tom to lie down. Indirect commands, requests, advice are usually expressed by a verb of command / request / advise + 35

object + infinitive. A) Tell and ask are the reporting verbs normally used. As an alternative to these we can also use: advise, beg, command, encourage, entreat, forbid, implore, invite, order, recommend, remind, request, urge, warn. (Note that say is not normally used). He said, 'Get your coat, Tom!' = He told Tom to get his coat. 'You had better hurry, Bill!' she said. = She advised Bill to hurry. B) Negative commands, requests etc. are usually reported by not + infinitive: 'Don't swim out too far, boys,' I said. = I warned/told the boys not to swim out too far. forbid can also be used for prohibitions, but is more common in the passive than in the active: The boys were forbidden to swim out too far. C) Examples of indirect commands, requests, advise. = = 'If I were you, I'd stop taking tranquilizers,' I said. I advised him to stop taking tranquilizers. 'Why don't you take off your coat?' he said. He asked me to show him my passport. (He asked me for my passport/He asked to see my passport.) 'You might post some letters for me,' said my boss. My boss asked me to post some letters for him. 'Yes, we have a room for you,' said the receptionist. 'If you'd just sign the register!' The receptionist said that they had a room for him and asked him to sign the register. 'Do sit down,' said my hostess. My hostess asked/invited me to sit down. 'Would you like to come for a drive with me?' said Andrew. Andrew asked/invited her to come for a drive with him. 'Please, please don't take any risks,' said his wife. His wife begged/implore him not to take any risks.

= = = = =

'Forget all about this young man,' said her parents. 'Don't see him again or answer his letters.' = 'His parents ordered her to forget all about the young man and told her not too see him again or answer his letters. In the passive we could say: 'She was ordered to forget all about the young man and forbidden to see him again or answer his letters. = = = 'Don't forget to order the wine,' said Mrs Pitt. Mrs Pitt reminded her husband to order the wine. 'Try again,' said Ann's friend encouragingly. Ann's friends encouraged her to try again. 'Go on, apply for the job,' said Jack. Jack urged/encouraged me to apply for the job.

36

'You had better not leave your car unlocked,' said my friends; 'there's been a lot of stealing from cars' My friends warned me not to leave my car unlocked as there had been a lot of stealing from cars. 'will you...?' sentences are normally treated as requests and reported by ask: 'Will all persons not travelling please go ashore, as the gangways are about to be taken away,' said one of the ship's officers over the loudspeaker. One of the ship's officers asked all persons not travelling to go ashore...

E) suggest is another useful reporting verb, but note that it cannot be followed by the infinite: = or 'Why don't you get a job in a bank?' said my uncle My uncle suggested (my/me) getting a job in a bank. My uncle suggested that I should get a job in a bank.

V.12. OTHER POINTS ON REPORTED SPEECH


1. Must and Needn't
A) After a past reporting verb, must does usually change. = He said, 'It must be pretty late. I really must go.' He said that it must be pretty late, and he really must go. Had to is also possible in reported speech, but this is really the past of have to, not must. He said, 'I have to go.- I've got an appointment in half an hour. = He said he had to go, because he had an.. . B) needn't can remain unchanged and usually does. Alternatively it can change to didn't have to / wouldn't have to just as must changes to had to / would have to: = = = I said, 'If you can lend me the money I needn't go to the bank I said that if he could lend me the money I needn't / wouldn't have to go to the bank. He said, 'I needn't be in the office till ten tomorrow morning' He said that he needn't / didn't have to be in the office till ten the next morning. He said, 'You needn't wait.' He said that I needn't wait.

2. Modal verbs with perfect infinitives


'Past' modal verbs (would, could, might, ought and should) do not normally change in reported speech. Do not change ordinary modal structures to modal + perfect infinitive structures after past reporting verbs. = He said , 'I might come.' He said that he might come. (Not: *... he might have come.)

3.Conditional

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After a past reporting verb, we can sometimes use a 'conditional perfect' structure (past perfect in the main clause, conditional perfect in the other). It depends on the meaning. Compare: 1 2 He said, 'If you called on me tomorrow, I could see you for half an hour'. He said that if I called on him the next day he could see me for half an hour. He said, 'If I had any money, I'd buy you a drink.' He said if he'd had any money, he'd have bought me a drink.

In the first example, the speaker was talking about something that might happen, and the conditional perfect is not possible because it is only used for 'imaginary' situations. In the second example, the conditional perfect is possible, because the speaker was talking about something that could not happen.

4.Exclamations and yes and no


A) Exclamations must become statements in reported speech. Various constructions are possible: Exclamations beginning what a... and how... such as He said, 'What a dreadful night!' or 'How dreadful!' are expressed in indirect speech by He said that it was ... So this example becomes: He said that it was a dreadful night. Exclamations such as ugh! heavens! are usually reported by He exclaimed with / gave an exclamation of disgust/surprise etc. Note also: He said, 'Thank you!' He thanked me. He said, 'Curse this wind.' He cursed the wind. He said ,'Welcome!' He welcomed me. He said, 'Happy Christmas.' He wished me a happy Christmas. He said, 'Congratulations!' He congratulated me. He said, 'Liar!' He called me liar. He said, 'Damn!' He swore. B) yes and no are expressed in indirect speech by subject + appropriate auxiliary verb: = = He said, 'Can you swim?' and I said 'No' He asked (me) if I could swim and I said that I couldn't. He said, 'Will you have time to do it?' and I said 'Yes' He asked if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.

5. That
After the commonest verbs of saying and thinking, that can be left out, particularly in a conversational style. I said I wanted to get drunk. Jane thought it was time to buy some new clothes. I suppose we ought to go. Deborah tells me you're leaving. That is not so often left out in a more formal style, and there are also many verbs (e.g. reply, telegraph) after which that is necessary. 38

He replied that we ought to invest half the profits. (Not: *He replied we ought to...)

39

UNIT VI: RELATIVE CLAUSES


VI.1. RELATIVE PRONOUNS
* Relative pronouns do two jobs at once. They are used as the subjects or objects of verbs, like other pronouns; at the same time, they join clauses together, like conjunctions. Compare: What's the name of the blonde girl? She just came in? What's the name of the blonde girl who just came in? In the second example, who replaces she as the subject of came, and also allows to join the two sentences into one. * The most common relative pronouns are who, whom, which and that. Who and whom are used for people; which is used for things. I don't like people who lose their tempers easily. Mexico City, which has a population of over 10 million, is probably the fastest growing city in the world. * Whom (which refers to the object of a verb or a preposition) is rather unusual, especially in conversational English. It is generally either left out, or replaced by who or that. It is almost impossible in clauses that end with a preposition. Compare: I think you should stay faithful to the person you're married to. (Or: ... the person who / that you're married to.) (Conversational style). Do you think one should stay faithful to the person to whom one is married? (Formal style). * That can often (but not always) be used instead of whom or which, and quite often instead of who. The trumpet's the instrument that really excites me. She's the only person that understands me. * After nouns referring to times and places, when and where can be used to mean at which or in which. After the word reason, why is used to mean for which. Can you suggest a time when it will be convenient to meet? I know a wood where you can find wild strawberries. Is there any reason why you should have a holiday? * Whose is a possessive relative word. This is Henry, whose wife works for my brother-in-law

VI.2. DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


These describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. A clause of this kind is essential the clear understanding of the noun: The man who told me this refused to give me his name. 'who told me this' is the relative clause. If we omit this, it is not clear what man we are talking about. Notice that there is no comma between a noun and a defining relative clause: 40

The noise that he made woke everybody up. The forms of relative pronouns used in defining relative clauses are as follows.

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


SUBJECT For persons For things who that which that OBJECT who / whom that which that POSSESSIVE whose whose / of which

1. Defining relative clauses: persons


A) Subject: who or that who is normally used: The man who robbed you has been arrested. The girls who were in the shop are the owner's daughters. The policeman who reported the accident thinks it was Tom's fault. The book is about a man who deserts his wife. The film is about a group of people who are trapped in a lift. that is much less usual than who except after superlatives and after all, nobody, no one, somebody, someone, anybody etc., when either who or that can be used. He was the best king who / that ever sat on the throne. All who / that heard him were delighted. B) Object of a verb: whom or who or that The object form is whom, but this is considered very formal and seldom used in spoken English. Instead of whom, therefore, in spoken English we use who or that (that being more usual than who) and it is still more common to omit the object pronoun altogether: or or or or or The man whom I saw told me to come back today. The man who I saw... The man that I saw... The man I saw... (relative pronoun omitted) The girls whom he employs are always complaining about their long hours. The girls that he employs... The girl he employs... (relative pronoun omitted).

C) With a preposition: whom or that. In formal English the preposition is placed before the relative pronoun, which must then be put into the form whom: The man to whom I spoke... In informal speech, however, it is more usual to move the preposition to the end of the clause. whom then 41

is often replaced by that, but it is still more common to omit the relative altogether: or or or or or The man from whom I bought it told me to oil it. The man who/whom I bought it from... The man I bought it from... The French with whom I was travelling could speak French. The friend who/whom I was travelling with... The friend that I was travelling with... The friend I was travelling with...

D) Possessive whose is the only possessive form: People whose rents have been raised can appeal. The film is about a spy whose wife betrays him.

2. Defining relative clauses: things


A) Subject Either which or that; which is the more formal; This is the picture which / that caused such a sensation. The stairs which / that lead to the cellar are rather slippery. B) Object of a verb which or that, or no relative at all or The car which / that I hired broke down after five kilometres The car I hired broke down after five kilometres.

c) Object of a preposition The formal construction is preposition + which, but it is more usual to move the preposition to the end of the clause, using which or that or omitting the relative altogether: or or The ladder on which I was standing began to slip. The ladder which/that I was standing on began to slip. The ladder I was standing on began to slip. Note that when can replace in / on which (used of time): the day when they arrived the year when he was born

where can replace in / at which (used of place): the hotel where they were staying why can replace for which: The reason why he refused is... when, where and why used in this way are called relative adverbs. D) Possessive

42

whose + a clause is possible but can often be replaced by with + a phrase. Living in a house whose walls were made of glass would be horrible. Living in a house with glass walls would be horrible.

3. The relative pronoun what


what = the thing that/ the things that etc.: = = The things that we was astonished us. What we saw astonished us. When she sees the damage that you have done she will be furious When she sees what you have done she will be furious.

Be careful not to confuse the relative what with the connective relative which. Remember that which must refer to a word or group of words in the preceding sentence, while what does not refer back to anything. The relative what is also usually the object of a verb, while the connective which is usually the subject. He said he had no money, which was not true. Some of the roads were flooded, which made our journey more difficult.

4. Cleft sentences
If we want to give a special importance to one part of a sentence, we can put it into a separate clause. There are two common ways of doing this. One is to use the structure It is / was...that...; the other is to use What...is / was.... Compare: Harry told the police. It was Harry that told the police. I need a beer. What I need is a beer. The sentence with it gives special importance to Harry; the sentence with what emphasizes a beer. Sentences like these are called 'cleft sentences' by grammarians (cleft means 'divided').

VI.3. NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


Non-defining relative clauses are placed after nouns which are definite already. They do not therefore define the noun, but merely add something to it by giving some more information about it. Unlike defining relative clauses, they are not essential in the sentence and can be omitted without causing confusion. Also unlike defining relatives, they are separated from their noun by commas. The pronoun can never be omitted in a non-defining relative clause. The construction is fairly formal and more common in written than in spoken English. The relative pronouns used in non-defining relative clauses are as follows.

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


SUBJECT OBJECT POSSESSIVE

43

For persons For things

who which

who / whom which

whose whose / of which

1. Use for persons: who , whom, whose A) Subject: who No other pronoun is possible, note the commas. My neighbour, who is very pessimistic, says there will be no apples this year. Peter, who had been driving all day, suggested stopping at the next town. B) Object: whom, who The pronoun cannot be omitted. whom is the correct form, though who is sometimes used in conversation: Peter, whom everyone suspected, turned out to be innocent. C) Object of a preposition: whom The pronoun cannot be omitted. The preposition is normally placed before whom: Mr Jones, for whom I was working, was very generous about overtime payments. It is however possible to move the preposition to the end of the clause. This is commonly done in conversation, and who then often takes the place of whom: Mr Jones, who/whom I was working for,... If the clause contains an expression of time or place, this will remain at the end: Peter, with whom I played tennis on Sundays, was fitter than I was could become Peter, who / whom I played tennis with on Sundays, was fitter than I was. D) Possessive: whose Ann, whose children are at school all day, is trying to get a job. I congratulated Mrs Jones, whose son had won the high jump.

2. Use for things: which, whose


A) Subject: which that is not used here: That tower block, which cost 5 million to build, has been empty for five years. The 8.15 train, which is usually very punctual, was late today. B) Object: which that is not used here, and the which can never be omitted: She gave me this jumper, which she had knitted herself. These books, which you can get at any bookshop, will give you all the information you need. 44

C) Object of a preposition The preposition comes before which, or (more informally) at the end of the clause: Ashdown forest, through which we'll be driving, isn't a forest any longer Ashdown Forest, which we'll be driving through, isn't... His house, for which he paid 10,000 ten years ago, is now worth twice as much. His house, which he paid 10,000 for ten years ago, is now...

or or

D) which with phrasal verbs Combinations such as look forward to, look after, put up with should be treated as a unit, i.e. the preposition/adverb should not be separated from the verb: This machine, which I have looked after for twenty years, is still working perfectly. Your inefficiency, which we have put up with far too long, is beginning to annoy our customers. D) Possessive: whose or of which whose is generally used both for animals and things. of which, for things, is possible but unusual except in very formal English: His house, whose windows were all broken, was a depressing sight. The car, whose handbrake wasn't very reliable, began to slide backwards.

3. both / some / most / all / several / few etc. + of + whom / which


This form can be used for both people and things: Her brothers, both of whom work in Scotland, ring her up every week. I met the fruit-pickers, several of whom (or five etc. of whom) were university students. The house was full of boys, ten of whom were his own grandchildren. The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd. I picked up the apples, some of which were badly bruised. He went up the mountain with a group of people, few of whom were correctly equipped for such a climb.

VI.4. CONNECTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES


These have the same form and take the same pronouns as non-defining relative clauses. They are usually placed after the object of the main verb: I told Peter, who said it wasn't his business. or after the preposition + noun: I threw the ball to Tom, who threw it to Ann. Connective clauses do not describe their nouns but continue the story. They can be replaced by and or but: I told Peter, but he said... I threw the ball to Tom and he threw it... Sometimes it may be difficult to say whether a clause in this position is non-defining or connective. But there is no need for students to make this distinction, as there is no difference between the two forms. 45

More examples of connective clauses: He ate fungus, which made him ill. He went with Peter, whose car broke down before we were halfway there. We can use one / two etc., some / several / few etc. + of + whom / which, as shown before. I bought a dozen eggs, six of which broke when I dropped the box at my door. He introduced me to his children, one of whom offered to go with me as a guide. The lorry crashed into a queue of people, several of whom had to have hospital treatment. what cannot be used as a connective relative.

VI.4. WHOEVER, WHICHEVER, WHATEVER, WHENEVER, WHEREVER, HOWEVER


These have a variety of meanings and can introduce relative and other clauses. A) whoever, whichever (pronoun and adjective) can mean 'the one who', 'he who', 'she who': Whoever gains the most points wins the competition. Whichever of them gains the most points wins (whichever used as a pronoun). Whichever team gains the most points wins (whichever used as an adjective). B) whatever (pronoun ad adjective), whenever, wherever You can eat whatever you like (anything you like). When you are older you can watch whatever programme you like. My roof leaks whenever it rains (every time it rains). You will see this product advertised wherever you go. (everywhere you go). C) whoever, whichever, whatever, whenever, wherever, however can mean 'no matter who' etc.: If I say 'heads, I win; tails you lose', I will win whatever happens or whichever way the coin falls. Whatever happens don't forget to write. I'll find him, wherever he has gone (no matter where he has gone). whatever you do is often placed before or after a request / command to emphasize its importance: Whatever you do, don't mention my name. however is and adverb of degree and is used with an adjective or another adverb: I'd rather have a room of my own, however small (it is), than share a room. However hard I worked she was never satisfied. D) whatever, wherever can indicate the speaker's ignorance or indifference: He lives in Wick, wherever that is. (I don't know where it is, and I'm not interested.) He says he's a phrenologist, whatever that is. (I don't know what it is and I'm not very interested). E) who ever? when ever? what ever? etc. may be written as separate words, but the meaning then changes. ever here is not necessary in the sentence but is added to emphasize the speaker's surprise / astonishment / anger / 46

irritation / dismay. It has the same meaning as on earth / in the world. A: I lost seven kilos in a month. B: How ever did you lost so much in such a short time? A: (suspiciously): I know all about you! B: (indignantly): What ever do you mean? Where ever did you buy your wonderful carpets?

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UNIT VII: INFINITIVES, GERUNDS, PRESENT PARTICIPLES, AND THAT-CLAUSES


VII.1. INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO
The infinitive is used without to in several different cases.

1. Modal auxiliary verbs


After the modal auxiliary verbs will, shall, would, should, can, could, may, might, and must, we use the infinitive without to. It is also used after the expressions would rather and had better, and after need and dare when they are used as auxiliary verbs. I must go now. Can you help me? I'd rather go alone. You'd better see what she wants. Need I do the washing up? How dare you call me a liar. After ought, used, be and have, the to-infinitive is used.

2. Let, make, hear, etc


Certain verbs are followed by an object and the infinitive without to. They are: let, make, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, help (in an informal style). She lets her children stay up very late. I made them give me the money back. I didn't see you come in. I heard her say that she was fed up. Did you feel the earth move? Could you help me unload the car? When these verbs are used in the passive, they are followed by the to-infinitive. He was made to pay back the money. She was heard to say that she disagreed.

VII.2. INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE


In older English, an infinitive subject could easily be put at the beginning of a sentence, like any other subject. To err is human, to forgive divine. (Pope) In modern English, it is more common to begin the sentence with it ('preparatory subject'), and to put the infinitive later. 48

It's easy to make mistakes. (Instead of To make mistakes is easy.) It was impossible to explain what I meant. An -ing form is often used instead of an infinitive as the subject of a sentence, particularly when we are talking about an activity in general. The -ing form can be put at the beginning of a sentence. Selling insurance is a pretty boring job. But if we are talking about one particular action, the infinitive is more usual. It was difficult to sell my car.

VII.3. INFINITIVE AFTER VERB


It is very common for one verb to be followed directly by another. This happens, for instance, if we talk about our attitude to an action: the first verb describes the attitude, and the second refers to the action. I enjoy playing cards. I hope to see you soon. In some of these cases, the second verb is the infinitive; in others, the -ing form is used. The choice depends on the first verb. For instance, hope can be followed by an infinitive (or by a that-clause); enjoy is always followed by an -ing form. Some verbs (eg try, remember) can be followed either by an infinitive or by an -ing form, with a difference of meaning. Some verbs (eg think) cannot be followed directly by another verb. In order to know what structures are possible after a particular verb, you should consult a good dictionary. The commonest verbs which are followed directly by an infinitive are: afford agree appear arrange ask attempt bear beg begin care choose consent dare decide determine expect fail forget happen hate help hesitate hope intend learn like love manage mean neglect offer prefer prepare pretend promise propose refuse regret remember seem start swear trouble try want wish

Some of these verbs can also be followed by the -ing form, often with a different meaning. Some of these verbs, and a number of others, can be used in the construction verb + object + infinitive (for example, I wanted her to come back early). Note that these verbs are all followed by an infinitive with to (except sometimes dare).

VII.4. VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE


49

Want, allow, and some other verbs are normally used with an object and an infinitive. She didn't want me to go. (Not: *...that I go.) They don't allow people to smoke. I didn't ask you to pay for the meal. The following list contains the commonest verbs which are used in this construction. Many of them can also be used in other constructions (for instance, with an -ing form or a that-clause); for detailed information about each verb you should consult a dictionary. advise allow ask bear beg cause command compel encourage expect forbid force get hate help instruct intend invite leave like mean need oblige order permit persuade prefer press recommend request remind teach tell tempt trouble want warn wish

Think, believe, consider, know, fine, imagine, suppose and feel can be followed by object + infinitive, but the structure is rather literary and not very common (though it is more frequent in the passive). These verbs are more often used with a that-clause. I thought him to be an excellent choice. (More normal: I thought that he was...) She was believed to have taken part in activities. (Or: It was believed that she had taken part...) There are some common verbs that cannot be used in the structure verb + infinitive; for instance, suggest. or I suggested that she (should) go home. I suggested her going home.

VII.5. INFINITIVE AFTER ADJECTIVE


* Many adjectives can be followed by infinitives. The combination adjective + infinitives can express various meanings, depending on which adjective is used. A) After it is / was + adjective + of you / him etc. It is good of you to help me. It is stupid of him to smoke so much careless, clever, brave, wise, king, good, nice, honest, generous, cowardly, selfish, silly, wicked etc. can also be used in this way. B) After it / that + is / was/would be + adjective + noun. That's a stupid place to park a car. That would be a very rude thing to say. It was a queer time to choose. 50

Adjectives in A above can be used here, and also strange, crazy, mad, odd, funny (= odd), extraordinary, astonishing, amazing, pointless, ridiculous etc. Comments of this type can also be expressed as exclamations. What a terrible night to be out in! What a funny name to give a dog! What an odd place to have a picnic! C) After adjectives expressing emotions I was delighted to see him. He'll be angry to find that nothing has been done. I'm sorry to say I can't find your keys anywhere. Other adjectives of this type are happy, glad, relieved, astonished, amazed, surprised, horrified, disgusted, disappointed, sad. D) it is / was + adjective can also be followed by an infinitive in such sentences as: It is lovely to see so much open country. It was dreadful to find oneself alone in such a place. It is easy to talk; you haven't got to make a decision. It is easy for you to talk; you haven't got to make a decision. E) An infinitive is often placed after the adjectives easy, hard, difficult, awkward, impossible, etc.: The book is easy to read. This car is hard to park. Some questions are awkward to answer. His actions are impossible to justify. F) apt, anxious, bound, due, inclined, liable, prepared, ready, reluctant, unwilling, willing can be followed by an infinitive. He is bound to win = He is sure to win / I am sure that he will win. He is reluctant to make any decision. The train is due to leave in ten minutes. You are inclined to judge people too hastily. We are all liable to make mistakes. I am prepared to help you = I am willing to help you. * When a verb is used with a preposition, this often comes at the end of the sentence in adjective + infinitive structures. She's easy to get on with. It's not a bad place to live in. * Enough and too are often used with an adjective + infinitive construction. Do you think the water's warm enough (for us) to go swimming? My mother's getting too old to travel. Would you be kind enough to open the window?

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VII.6. FOR + OBJECT + INFINITIVE


* After certain adjectives, the special structure for + object + infinitive is often used. It is important for the accounts to be ready by Friday. It's unusual for her door to be open - I wonder if something's wrong. I'm anxious for the party to be a success. The same meaning could often be expressed with a that-clause (I'm anxious that the party should be a success), but this is usually more formal in style. This for-structure is used after three kind of adjectives: A) Adjectives that express importance or urgency, for instance. important, essential, vital, necessary, pointless, unimportant, unnecessary. The sentence is often introduced by It is. It is essential for the classroom to have plenty of light. It is pointless for the three of us to go: one will be enough. B) Adjectives that express frequency, for instance, common, normal, unusual, rare. The It is structure is often used. It is unusual for foxes to come so close to the town. Do you think it's normal for a child to get so tired? C) Adjectives that express personal reactions to the future, for instance, anxious, eager. I'm anxious for the painting to be ready on time. They say they'll be delighted for Mary to go and stay. * A for-structure is often used after too and enough. It's too heavy for you to lift. I think it's late enough for us to put Philip to bed. * The for-structure can also be used after certain nouns, for instance, plan, idea, suggestion. Have you heard about the plan for Jack to stand for the Liberals in the General Election? His idea is for us to travel in two different cars.

VII.7. INFINITIVE AFTER NOUN


Infinitives can often be used directly after nouns in English. This may happen in several ways. A) Nouns related to verbs: some nouns, like wish, refusal, offer, can be followed by infinitives, just like the related verbs. Compare: I don't wish to change. I have no wish to change. He refused to co-operate. His refusal to co-operate... However, in many cases the verb and the noun are used in different structures. I intend to go. My intention of going... I hope to arrive. There's no hope of arriving... 52

B) Other nouns: an infinitive is often used to say what will be done with something, or what effect it will have. Have you got a key to unlock this door? I need a box to hold my chessmen. Have you anything to cure a bad cold? It was a war to end all wars. When we are talking in general (and not about a particular action), we can use for + -ing instead of the infinitive, with a similar meaning. A vase is a kind of pot for holding flowers. 'What's that stuff for?' - 'Cleaning silver.' C) When the infinitive is used with a preposition, another structure is possible: preposition + whom / which + infinitive. This is more common in a formal style. Mary needs a friend to play with. Or: ...a friend with whom to play. He's looking for a place to live in. Or: ...a place in which to live. I'm looking for something to clean the carpet with. Or: ... something with which to clean the carpet.

VII.8. INFINITIVE AFTER INTERROGATIVE CONJUNCTION.


After certain verbs it is possible to use the interrogative conjunctions how, who, where, when or whether with a to-infinitive I wonder who to invite. Can you tell me how to get to the station. Show us what to do. I don't know whether to answer his letter. Ask my brother where to put the car. Did you find out when to pay? The verbs are know, ask, tell, explain, show, wonder, consider, find out, understand, and others with similar meanings.

VII.9. INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE.


The infinitive with to is used to talk about people's purposes, the reasons why they do things. My brother got a job to earn money for his holiday. He started drinking to forget. He stopped for a minute to rest. The same idea can be expressed by using in order to or so as to. I got up early in order to have time to pack. We went via Worcester so as to miss the traffic jams. He stopped for a minute in order to rest. In negative sentences, in order not to or so as not to are used; the infinitive alone is not usually correct. I'm going to start now, in order not to miss the beginning.

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After come, go, run, hurry up, stay, stop and some other verbs, and can be used instead of an infinitive of purpose. Come and have a drink. Hurry up and get dressed. Stay and have dinner. We ought to stop and think. Would you go and tell the children to shut up?

VII.10. -ING FORM: TERMINOLOGY


The form of a verb ending in -ing (eg writing, arguing) is sometimes called (a) the present participle and sometimes (b) the gerund, depending on whether it is used (a) more like a verb or adjective or (b) more like a noun. I sat smoking and wondering what to do. (present participle) Smoking is bad for you. (gerund) In fact, the distinction is not really as simple as this, and some grammarians prefer to avoid the terms participle and gerund. Since the purpose of this grammar units is mainly a practical one, we will henceforth avoid making the distinction between gerunds and participles, grouping both grammar concepts under the general denomination of -ing forms.

VII.11. -ING FORM WITH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE OR 'S


The possessives my, your etc, and genitives like John's. can be used with -ing forms. Do you mind my making a suggestion? I'm annoyed about John's forgetting to pay. In informal English it is more common to use forms like me, you, John instead, especially when these forms are functioning as the grammatical object of the sentence. Do you mind me making a suggestion? I'm annoyed about John forgetting to pay. Note that the verbs see, hear, feel, smell are not usually followed by possessive + -ing. I saw him letting out of his car. (Not *I saw his getting...)

VII.12. -ING FORM AFTER A VERB.


When one verb is followed by another, the second verb is not always in the infinitive. You can say I want to travel or I hope to travel, but not *I enjoy to travel. Enjoy is usually followed by the -ing form, and so are quite a number of other verbs. The most common are: admit appreciate avoid consider excuse face feel like finish miss postpone practise put off 54

contemplate delay deny detest dislike endure enjoy escape For example:

forgive resent give up can't help imagine involve leave off mention mind

resist risk can't stand suggest understand

I really appreciate having time to relax. Have you considered getting a job abroad? Excuse my interrupting... You mentioned having been in hospital last year. Prevent is followed by object + (from) + -ing. There's nothing to prevent him (from) taking the money. The -ing form is also used in the following cases: to burst out crying / laughing to go swimming / shopping to spend / waste time / money doing something to keep (on) doing something

VII.13. -ING FORM AFTER PREPOSITION


The -ing form is used after all prepositions (including to, when to is a preposition). The infinitive is impossible in these cases. You should check the oil before starting the car (Not: ...*before to start...) He walked away without looking back. (Not: ...*without to look...) You can't make an omelette without breaking the eggs We got the job finished by working sixteen hours a day. He's always talking about moving to the country. I look forward to hearing from you.

VII.12. TO + -ING
Sentences like I look forward to hearing from you may seem strange, if you expect the verb in every to + verb structure to be the infinitive. The point is that to is really two different words. One of them is just a sign of the infinitive. (It is used with most infinitives, but is left out in some cases, for example after can or must.) I want to go home. You can go home alone. The other to is a preposition. Lawrence has gone to Denmark. I'm looking forward to Christmas. Do you object to Sunday work? 55

I'm not used to London traffic. When this preposition is followed by a verb, we use the -ing form (as we do after all prepositions). I'm looking forward to seeing you at Christmas. Do you object to working on Sundays? I'm not used to driving in London. I prefer riding to walking. If you are not sure whether to is a preposition or not, try putting a noun after it. If you can, it is a preposition (and is followed by the -ing form of a verb). Compare: I'm not used to British traffic conditions. I'm not used to driving on the left. I object to music in restaurants. I object to having loud music playing while I eat. If to cannot be followed by a noun, it is not a preposition, and -ing is not used. You cannot say *I want to dinner, so you do not say *I want to eating. Common examples of to + -ing are: look forward to ...-ing, object to ...-ing, be used to ...-ing, in addition to ...-ing, be accustomed to ...-ing (but be accustomed to + infinitive is also possible).

VII.13. -ING FORM: SPECIAL CASES


Note the use of the -ing form after as, like, than, any / some / no etc good , any / some / no etc use and worth. As well as getting on everybody's nerves, he's got a habit of borrowing money and forgetting to pay it back. Why don't you do something useful, like cleaning the flat? There's nothing that depresses me more than waking up with a hangover on a wet Monday. Is it any good trying to explain? It's not much use my buying salmon if you don't like it. It isn't worth repairing the car. (= The car isn't worth repairing)

VII.14. -ING FORM OR INFINITIVE?


Some verbs can be followed by either an -ing form or an infinitive, usually with a difference of meaning. The most important cases are: advise allow attempt hear can't bear begin continue forbid forget propose regret remember intend see like start love stop permit try prefer watch 56 go on hate

This is also the case with certain adjectives: accustomed afraid certain interested sorry sure used

* With remember, forget, stop, go on and regret, the difference is connected with time. the -ing form refers to things that happened earlier (before the remembering, forgetting, etc takes place); the infinitive refers to things that happen after the remembering, etc. A) Remember + -ing = remember what one has done, or what has happened I shall always remember meeting you for the first time. Remember + infinitive = remember what one has to do. Remember to go to the post office, won't you. B) Forget + -ing = forget what one has done, or what has happened I shall never forget seeing the Queen. Forget + infinitive = forget what one has to do. She's always forgetting to give me my letters. C) Stop + -ing = stop what one is doing, or does. I really must stop smoking. Stop + infinitive = make a break or pause in order to do something. Every half hour I stop work to smoke a cigarette. D) Go on + -ing = continue what one has been doing. How long do you intend to go on playing those bloody records? Go on + infinitive = change, move on to something new. He welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the college regulations. C) Regret + -ing = be sorry for what has happened. I don't regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset her. Regret + infinitive = be sorry for what one is going to say. I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment. * With the adjective interested, the -ing form refers to what will (or may) happen, and the infinitive refers to what has happened. Interested in + -ing = interested by the idea of doing something. I'm interested in working in Switzerland. Do you know anybody who could help me? Interested + infinitive = interested by what one learns or experiences. I was interested to read in the paper that scientists have found out how the universe began. * Like + -ing = enjoy I like walking in the rain.

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Like + infinitive = choose to; be in the habit of; think it right to. I like to get up early so that I can have plenty of work done before lunch. I heard you talking and I didn't like to disturb you, so I went away. Note that would like means 'wish' or 'want', and is always followed by the infinitive. What would you like to do tomorrow? (Not: *What would you like doing tomorrow?) * With love, hate and prefer there is not much difference between the two structures. I love lying / to lie on my back and staring / to stare at the sky. Some people hate working / to work in the early morning. Personally, I prefer working / to work in the morning. When we are referring to one particular occasion, it is more common to use the infinitive. Would you like to have lunch now or would you prefer to wait? I'll love to come and see you some time. I hate to break things up, but it's time to go home. I hate to mention it, but you owe me some money. 'Can I give you a lift?' - 'No, thanks, I prefer to walk.' * Allow, advise, forbid and permit are followed by an -ing form when there is no personal object. If we say who is allowed, advised, etc, the infinitive is used. Sorry, we don't allow smoking in the lecture room. We don't allow people to smoke in here. I wouldn't advise taking the car - there's nowhere to park. I wouldn't advise you to take the car... * After see, watch and hear, and -ing form suggests that we observe part of a complete action; when we start looking or listening it is already going on. The infinitive is used when we want to suggest that we observe the whole action from beginning to end. When I walked past his house I heard him practising the violin I heard Oistrakh play the Beethoven violin concerto last week. When I glanced out of the window I saw Mary crossing the road. I watched him step off the pavement, cross the road, and disappear into the post-office. * Try + -ing = make an experiment; do something to see what will happen. I tried sending her flowers but it didn't have any effect. Try putting in some more vinegar - that might make it taste a bit better. Try + infinitive = make an effort; attempt to do something difficult. Please, try to understand. I once tried to learn Japanese. * Afraid of + -ing and afraid + infinitive can often both be used with little difference of meaning. I'm afraid to fly / of flying. I'm afraid to tell / of telling her. However, when we are talking about things which happen to us unexpectedly, without our wanting or choosing them, only the -ing form is possible. 58

I'm afraid of crashing. (Not: *...to crash.) I don't like to speak French because I'm afraid of making mistakes. (Not: *...to make...) Compare: I'm afraid of diving / to dive into the swimming pool. (= I don't want to do it.) I'm afraid of falling into the swimming-pool. (= I don't want it to happen to me. Here *...to fall is impossible.) * Begin and start can be followed by an -ing or infinitive structures, usually with no real difference of meaning. It is perhaps more common to use an -ing form when we are talking about the beginning of a long or habitual activity. How old were you when you first started playing the piano? The -ing form is not used after a progressive form of begin or start. I was beginning to get angry. (Not: *...getting...) After begin and start, the verbs understand and realize are only used in the infinitive. She began to understand what he really wanted. (Not: *...understanding...) * After propose, attempt, intend, continue, can't bear and be accustomed to, both structures are possible with little difference of meaning, but the infinitive is probably more common after propose, attempt and intend. I can't bear getting / to get my hands dirty. He intends to double the advertising budget. * Sorry is used with an infinitive when we apologize for something that we are doing or about to do. Sorry to disturb you? - Could I speak to you for a moment? When we apologize for something that we have done, we use a perfect infinitive or for + -ing, or a that-clause. Sorry to have woken you up yesterday. I'm sorry for waking you up (or for having woken you up) yesterday. I'm sorry that I woke you up yesterday.

VII.15. CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY THAT


* The that + subject + verb construction is possible after a large number of verbs. Some of the most useful are given below. admit agree announce appear arrange assume be afraid be anxious believe command forget guarantee happen hear hope imagine imply indicate inform insist prove realize recognize recommend remark remind resolve reveal say* see 59

confess declare decide demand demonstrate determine be determined discover estimate expect fear feel find

know learn make out mean notice observe occur order perceive presume pretend warn promise propose

seem show stipulate suggest teach tell think threaten turn out vow wish

* And alternatives, eg assure, explain, complain, etc.

Most of the above verbs can also take another construction (see sections on the infinitive and the -ing form). Note however that a verb + that + subject construction does not necessarily have the same meaning as the same verb + infinitive + -ing. but or He saw her sweeping under the beds = He watched her sweeping etc. He saw that she swept under the beds could mean either 'He noticed that she did this' 'He made sure by supervision that she did this.' The tense of the main verb will affect the tense in the noun that-clause: I hope I haven't made a mistake. I promise I will help you. Tom thinks it's going to rain. I hoped that I hadn't made a mistake. I promised I would help you. Tom thought it was going to rain.

appear, occur, happen, seem requite it as a subject. It occurred to me that he might be lying. It turned out that nobody remembered the address. It appears that we have come on the wrong day. that + subject + should can be used after a number of verbs (see unit III): agree, arrange, be anxious, command, decide, demand, determine, be determined, order, resolve and urge instead of an infinitive construction, and after insist and suggest instead of -ing. They decided / agreed to put up a statue. They decided / agreed that a statue should be put up. He suggested offering a reward. He suggested that a reward should be offered. * that + subject + verb can be used after be + adjectives expressing feeling: astonished, delighted, glad, relieved etc. I am delighted that you can come. He was relieved that no one had been hurt. * that + subject + verb can also follow an abstract noun such as belief, fact, fear, hope, report, rumour. The rumour that prices were going to rise led to a rush on the shops. * A that-clause can also be the subject of a sentence. Normally the sentence begins with it + be + adjective / noun.

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It is unfortunate that you were not insured. It is a pity that he didn't come earlier.

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UNIT VIII: ARTICLES AND OTHER DETERMINERS


VIII.1. ARTICLES: BASIC INFORMATION
1. Determiners
Articles are members of a group of words called determiners, that are used before nouns. Other determiners are the possessives (my, your, etc); the demonstrative (this, that, these, those); any, some; Two determiners can not usually be used together. So it is not possible, in English, to say *the my uncle or *the that man. We say either the uncle or my uncle, the man or that man, depending on the meaning. Note also that another begins with the article an, so we cannot say *the another (two articles cannot be used together). We say the other.

2. The use of articles


The use of articles is complicated, because it depends on three different things. a) First of all, it makes a difference what kind of noun we are using. Articles are not used in the same way with singular countable nouns (like cat, bridge), with plural countable nouns (like cats, bridges) and with uncountable nouns (like water, rice). b) Secondly, we use articles in one way if we are talking about things in general (for example or the guitar, or life in general, or whisky), and we use them in a different way when we are talking about particular examples of these things (for example, an Englishman, or a guitar that we want to buy, or the life of Beethoven, or some whisky that we are drinking). c) Thirdly, when we are talking about particular examples, it depends whether these are definite or indefinite. If they are definite (in other words, if our hearer or reader knows exactly which ones we mean), we normally use the. If we are talking about indefinite things (which our hearer doesn't know anything about), we use articles differently (a, some, or no article).

VIII.2. ARTICLES: COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS


* Countable nouns are words like cat, bridge, house, idea. We can count them (one cat, two houses, three ideas), so they can have plurals. The indefinite article a / an really means one, so we can use it with singular countable nouns (a house, an idea), but not with plurals. We live in a small house. I've got an idea. I'm afraid of spiders. (Not: *...a spiders.) She was wearing blue trousers. (Not: *...a blue trousers.) Uncountable nouns are words like water, rice, energy, luck. These are things that we can divide (a drop of water, a bowl of rice, a piece of luck), but not count. You cannot say *one water, *two waters, etc. These words do not have plurals. The indefinite article a / an cannot be used with uncountable words. 62

This is a list of English uncountable nouns which might lead foreign students into error: health, weather, English, advice, information, travel, progress, research, news, luggage, furniture, knowledge, hair, toast. None of these words, therefore, can be used with the indefinite article or take plural forms (news is a plural only in form, not in meaning). It's nice weather. (Not: *...a nice weather.) Water is made of hydrogen and oxygen. Not: *A water...) My father's in very good health. I speak very good English. Can you give me some advice? (Or: ...a piece of advice.) I need some information. (Or: ...a piece of information.) I live travel. Can I have any more toast? Some expressions, however, can be used to quantify or divide uncountable nouns. Here follows a list of the most useful ones: - a piece of news, advice, information, furniture, luck, chalk, iron, chocolate, toast, etc. - a loaf bread. - a clap of thunder. - a kilo / pound / etc. of flour, etc. - a pint / litre of beer, water, milk. - a lump of sugar, earth, etc. - a spoonful of sugar, medicine, etc. - a sheet of paper. - a great deal of money, enthusiasm, etc. - a slice of bread, cake. Note 1) A lot of words can be both countable and uncountable, with different meanings or uses (e.g. iron, an iron; coffee, a coffee). 2) Some plural words have no singular (e.g. trousers, scissors).

* The complete rules for the use of articles with countable and uncountable nouns are: A) a / an can only be used with singular countable nouns (a cat). B) the can be used with all kind of nouns (the cat, the cats, the water). C) Plural nouns and uncountable nouns can be used with no article (cats, water), but singular uncountable nouns cannot.

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a /an singular countable plural countable uncountable a cat

the the cat the cats the water

no article

cats water

A very important point: singular countable nouns must always have an article (or another determiner like my, this). We can say a cat, the cat, this cat my cat, but not *cat. There are some exceptions in expressions with prepositions like by car, in bed. Do not leave out the article before the names of professions. Alice is studying to be a doctor. (Not: *...to be doctor.)

VIII.3. TALKING ABOUT THINGS IN GENERAL


1)When we want to talk about things in general (e.g. all music, or all literature) we usually use a plural or uncountable nouns with no article. Carrots are my favourite vegetable. I love music, poetry and art. When we use an article with a plural or uncountable noun, the meaning is not general, but particular. Compare: He likes cars, girls, food and drink. (Not particular cars or girls - he likes them all.) The cars in the garage belong to the girls who live next door. (Particular cars and girls.) She loves life. (A very general idea - she loves everything in life.) He is studying the life of Beethoven. (A particular life). Books are expensive. (All books.) Move the books off the chair and sit down. (Particular books.) Note that society is usually used without an article when it means 'the society that we are living in', and space has no article when it means 'the empty space between the stars'. Society turns people into criminals and then locks them up. Man has just taken his first steps into space. Most (when it means 'the majority of'') is used without an article. Most birds can fly. Some expressions are 'half-general' - the middle between general and particular. If we talk about eighteen-century music or poverty in Britain, we are not talking about all music or all poverty, but they are still rather general ideas (compared with the music we heard last night or the poverty that I grew up in). In these 'half-general' expressions, we usually use no article. However, articles are often used when the noun is followed by of. Compare:

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eighteen-century art African butterflies

the art of the eighteen century the butterflies of Africa

2) Another way of generalizing is to use a singular countable noun with an article. The indefinite article (a / an) is often used in this way to talk about things in general. A baby deer can stand as soon as it is born. One should give a child plenty of encouragement. A healthy society can tolerate a lot of criticism. A, here is rather like any. The sentences would mean almost exactly the same if we used plural nouns with no article (e.g. One should give children plenty of encouragement.) The definite article (the) is often used in generalizations with singular countable nouns. This is common when we are talking about science and technology. Galileo claimed that he had invented the telescope. I hate the telephone. The whale is a mammal, not a fish. Man's greatest discovery is the hot bath. We also talk about musical instruments in this way. I'd like to learn the guitar. In Heaven, Miles Davis will play the trumpet every night. We also talk about the cinema and the theatre as general ideas. I prefer the cinema to the theatre . 3) We use the with a few adjectives to refer to general classes of people. the blind the rich the Irish

VIII.4. TALKING ABOUT THINGS IN PARTICULAR: A / THE


When we talk about particular thing (not things in general), there is an important difference between the articles. 1) The has a 'definite' meaning. We say the car, the girls, etc in two cases: (i) when our listener already knows which car, which girls, etc we mean, and (ii) when we are telling him which car, which girls etc we mean. Shut the door! (It is obvious which one - there is only one open.) I had trouble with the car this morning. (I mean my car, of course.) How did you like the film? (The listener knows which film is meant.) Those are the girls who live next door. (The end of the sentence makes it clear which girls are meant.) We use the with words like sun, moon, stars - if we talk about the sun, it is obvious which one is meant (there is only one); and when we say the stars, it is the same (we mean all the stars). 2) Things can be particular (not general), but 'indefinite'. If we say Pass me a piece of bread or Let me buy 65

you a drink, the piece of bread or the drink are not definite - it could be any one of several pieces of bread, any one of several kinds of drink. If we say I met a friend of yours yesterday, it could also be any one of several - the listener does not know which one. In cases like these, we do not use the. With singular countable nouns, we use a / an. I've lost a button. Shall we go and see a film? There's a letter for you. Could I have a p stamp, please? I've got a headache. With uncountable and plural nouns, we express this 'indefinite' meaning by using either some / any or no article. Would you like some cheese? I haven't got any problems. We need beer. I think we've got mice. We also use a / an when we say that a person or thing is a member of a particular class or group. or when we say what people or things are like. She's a doctor. A sailor is a man who works is ships. 'What's that?' - 'It's an adjustable spanner.' You're a beautiful girl. No article is used with uncountable and plural words in this case; some and any are not used. What's that?' - 'It's petrol.' They're original Russian icons. You're fools. 3) When we mention something for the first time, we will probably use an indefinite article (or some or no article with uncountables and plurals), because our listener knows nothing about it. But when we mention the same thing again, it becomes definite (because now he knows which one we mean). A man came up to a policeman and asked him a question. The policeman didn't understand the question, so he asked the man to repeat it.

VIII.5. SOME, ANY OR NO ARTICLE


1) Uncountable and plural nouns can often be used either with some / any or with no article at all, without much difference of meaning. Would you like (some) cheese? Did you buy (any) screws? Some / any are mostly used when we are talking about uncertain, indefinite or unknown numbers or quantities. Compare: You've got some great jazz records. You've got beautiful toes (...some beautiful toes would suggest an indefinite number, perhaps six or 66

seven.) Is there any more beer in the fridge? (indefinite quantity.) We need beer, sugar, butter, eggs, rice and toilet paper. (The usual quantities.) 2) There is a special use of the strong form of some ([sm] ) with singular countable nouns. She's going out with some footballer. There's some man at the door for you. His got some plan for changing the world. In cases like these, some means 'I don't know about him / her / it, and I'm not very interested.'

VIII.6. SOME, ANY, NO AND NONE


1.Some and any compared
some is used: - With affirmative sentences. They took some honey. - With questions when the answer 'yes' is expected. Can I have some coffee? Can you give me some information about interesting places? - In offers and request. Would you like some wine? Could you do some typing for me?

any is used: - In negative sentences. I haven't any matches and Tom hasn't any either. - With hardly, barely, scarcely (which are almost negatives). I have hardly any time. - With questions except those noted above. Have you any money? Did you see any eagles? - After if / whether, and in expressions of doubt. I don't think there's any petrol in the tank. If you have any difficulty, let me know.

2. No and none
no (adjective) and none (pronoun) can be used with affirmative verbs to express a negative; they are 67

therefore an alternative to negative verb + any. I have no apples = I haven't any apples. Tom has none = Tom hasn't any. I took no photos = I didn't take any photos. On the whole a negative verb + any is more usual than an affirmative verb + no / none.

3. Compounds with some, any and no


someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing Compounds with some, any and no follow the rules in 2 and 3 above. A: Somebody / Someone gave me a ticket for a pop concert. B: No one / Nobody has ever given me a free ticket for anything. Does anyone know the time the concert starts? Do you want anything from the chemist's? Would anyone like a drink?

VIII.7. ARTICLES: SPECIAL RULES AND EXCEPTIONS


1. Common expressions without articles
In a number of common expressions, an article is dropped after a preposition . to school at school from school in / to class to / at / from university / college to / in / into / from church to / in / into / out of prison / hospital / bed to / at / from work to / at sea to / in / from town at / from home for breakfast at lunch to dinner etc at night by car / bus / bicycle / plane / train / tube / boat on foot Note the use of home instead of *to home (e.g. I'm going home) When the above expressions are used with articles they have special meanings. Compare: He's in prison. (as a prisoner) He's in the prison. (perhaps as a visitor) When with or without is followed by a singular countable noun, an article is normally necessary. We say You can't get there without a car, not *...without car. However, articles are often dropped in double expressions with prepositions, like with knife and fork, with hat and coat, from top to bottom, on land and sea, arm in arm, inch by inch, day after day.

2. Genitives (possessives)
Articles are not normally used in genitive expressions when the first word is a proper name.

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John's coat. America's economic problems.

3. Nouns as adjectives
When a noun is used as an adjective (before another noun), the first noun's article is dropped. Lessons in how to play the guitar are guitar lessons; a spot on the sun is a sun spot.

4. Man and woman


When we generalize with singular countable nouns, we normally use an article (the telephone, a whale). Man and woman are exceptions: they can be used without articles. God created man and woman for each other.

5. Radio and television


When we talk about radio and television in general, we do not use articles. It's easier to write plays for television than for radio. Articles are used in the expressions listen to the radio, on the radio, but not in watch television, on television (or on TV).

6. Musical instruments
We normally use the definite article in expressions like play the guitar, learn the piano. Note the difference in the use of articles between the languages of classical music and jazz / rock. with Alfred Brendel at the piano. with Eric Clapton on guitar, Phil Collins on drums... (The definite article is not used with the names of games. compare play the piano, play the guitar, play chess, play football)

7. All and both


Articles are sometimes dropped after all and both. All (the) eight students in the class passed the exam. Both (the) children are good at maths. We can say all year, all week, all day, all night, all summer, all winter, but not *all hour or *all century. I've been waiting for you all day.

8. Illnesses
The names of illnesses are usually uncountable, and we talk about them with no article. 69

I think I've got measles. She's had appendicitisWe say a cold, I've got a cold. We say a headache, but other aches (toothache, earache, etc) are uncountable, with no article, in British English.

9. Numbers
The indefinite article is used in a hundred, a thousand, a million, a billion, etc. It'll cost about a hundred pounds. Note the use of the article in expressions like sixty pence a pound, seventy miles an hour, forty hours a week.

10. Seasons
We can say spring or the spring, in summer or in the summer, etc. There is very little difference between the expressions with and without the article. The article is usually used in in the fall (US).

11. Positions
In certain constructions, the names of positions that people can occupy are used without articles. Elizabeth II, Queen of England. They elected George chairman. Henry was made captain of the team. Mr Lewis was appointed chief clerk in 1968. Note (i) the name of the position is the complement, not the subject of the sentence (you cannot say *Chairman came to lunch, with no article) (ii) these are 'unique' positions - there is only one Queen of England, only one captain of the team. Do not drop the indefinite article before the name of a profession or job in other cases. We say He's a doctor or I don't want to be a secretary.

12. Exclamations
We don't leave out a / an in exclamations after what. What a lovely dress!

13. Ships
The definite article is used in the names of ships. The Titanic. The Queen Mary.

14. Geographical areas


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We often use the with the words country, sea, seaside and mountains, even when we don't say which sea, or which mountains, etc. are meant. I'm going to the country for a week. I love the mountains, but I hate the sea.

15. Place-names
We usually use the with the following kinds of place-names: seas (the Atlantic) mountain groups (the Himalayas) island groups (the West Indies) areas (the Middle East, the Ruhr, the Midwest, the Gulf) rivers (the Rhine) deserts (the Sahara) hotels (the Grand Hotel) cinemas (the Odeon) theatres (the Albert Hall) We generally use no article with: continents (Africa) counties, states, departments, etc (Berkshire, Westphalia, Texas) towns (Oxford) streets (High Street) lakes (Lake Windermere) countries (Andorra, Brazil) Exceptions: countries whose name contains a common noun (The People's Republic of China; The United Kingdom of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland; The United Arab Emirates; The USA; The USSR) Note also The Netherlands, and its capital The Hague. We do not usually use articles in expressions which refer to the principal buildings of a town: Oxford University Cambridge Polytechnic Westminster Abbey Salisbury Cathedral Bognor Town Hall Wigan Police Station Birmingham Airport Names of single mountains usually have no article (Everest, Snowdon). But we use the with the names of European mountains if their name has an article in the local language: Das Matterhorn = The Matterhorn; La Meije = The Meije. Exception: the is not used before Mont(e): Le Mont Blanc is called Mont Blanc in English.

16. Special Styles


There are some styles in which articles are dropped. For instance: Newspaper headlines: MAN KILLED ON MOUNTAIN Titles in notices, posters, etc: SUPER CINEMA; RITZ HOTEL Instructions: Open packet at other end. Telegrams: WIFE ILL MUST CANCEL HOLIDAY 71

Dictionary entries: palm inner surface of hand between wrist and fingers. Lists: Take car to garage; buy buttons; pay phone bill... Notes: In 17th century, balance of power between King and Nobles changed.

VIII.8. ARTICLES: GOLDEN RULES


If the rules for the use of articles seem to complicated, just remember these three: 1) Do not use the (with plural and uncountable nouns) to talk about things in general. Life is hard. (Not: *The life is hard.) 2) Do not use singular countable nouns without articles. the car a car but not *car 3) Use a / an to say what people's professions or jobs are. She's a bank manager. (Not: *She's bank manager.) Most mistakes with articles are made through breaking one of these rules.

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APPENDIX I DISCOURSE MARKERS


These are words and expressions used to show the structure of a discourse. a) FOCUSING.-talking about -with reference to -regarding -as regards -as far as... is concerned b) STRUCTURING.1.- Divisions: -firstly,... secondly,... thirdly,.... finally -first of all -to begin with -for a start -in the first place -for one thing ..., for another thing -on the one hand ..., on the other hand -moreover -in addition -similarly -besides -as well as that -on top of that 2.- Contrast with what came before: -all the same -yet -still -however -on the other hand -though -by contrast -in spite of that 3.- Logical sequence: -thus -therefore -so -for that reason -because of that 4.- Exemplifying and excepting: -for instance -for example -such as -including -apart from -with the exception of -etc -and so on -and so forth 5.- Generalizing: -on the whole -in general -as a rule -at large -by and large -all in all considered -in broad outline -broadly speaking -roughly speaking -generally speaking -in most cases -in many cases -to some extent -to such an extent that... -in short -to cut a long story short -in a word 6.- Clarifying: - I mean -that is to say -in other words -everything -namely -in particular -nevertheless

c) DISMISSAL OF A PREVIOUS DISCOURSE- expressions often used to mean 'what is said before doesn't really matter -the main point is as follows'.

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-at any rate -anyway -anyhow -in any case

-the real point is

d) SHOWING OUR ATTITUDE TO WHAT WE ARE SAYING.-frankly honestly (often used to introduce critical remarks) -I think -I feel -I reckon -to my mind -in my view -in my opinion (these are ways of making our opinions sound less definite). -according to the text -according to the author -in the author's view -after all -undoubtedly -no doubt -it goes without saying that... (these are ways of making our arguments sound more categorical and persuasive) -I'm afraid (shows an apologetic attitude) - I approve of... / I disapprove of... e) ADDING FURTHER DETAILS: -actually -in fact -as a matter of fact -what's more

f) QUOTING FROM A TEXT IN ORDER TO SUPPORT OR REJECT A STATEMENT: - I think this statement is true / false since... -according to the text... -the text states that... -according to the author... - the text mentions that... -in the author's words...

-This statement is supported by the following sentences in the text.... g) STARTING A SUMMARY: - The text deals with... - The author's point / view / opinion is that... - I think the text could be summarized in the following way: WARNING!: avoid by all means *the author wants to say.

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APPENDIX II LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS


Here follows a alphabetical list of the most common irregular verbs. Students should provide the corresponding translations into Spanish.
INFINITIVE be bear beat begin bend bet bite bleed blow break bring build burn burst buy catch choose come cost creep cut deal dig dive do dream draw drink drive PAST was were bore beat began bent bet bit bled blew broke brought built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug dove did dreamt drew drank drove PAST PART. been borne beaten begun bent bet bitten bled blown broken brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug dived done dreamt drawn drunk driven MEANING

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INFINITIVE eat feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive forsake freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lead lean learn leave lend let lie light lose

PAST ate fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave forsook froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew led leant learnt left lent let lay lit lost

PAST PART. eaten fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known led leant learnt left lent let lain lit lost

MEANING

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INFINITIVE make mean meet mow pay put quit read ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set sew shake shine shoot show shut sing sink sit sleep smell speak spell spend spill

PAST made meant met mowed paid put quit read rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook shone shot showed shut sang sank sat slept smelt spoke spelt spent spilt

PAST PART. made menat met mown paid put quit read ridden rung risen run sawn said seen sought sold sent set sewn shaken shone shot shown shut sung sunk sat slept smelt spoken spelt spent spilt

MEANING

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INFINITIVE spin spit split spoil spread stand steal stick stink strike swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear weep win write

PAST spun spat split spoil spread stood stole stuck stank struck swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore wept won wrote

PAST PART. spun spat split spoil spread stood stolen stuck stunk struck sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn wept won written

MEANING

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