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It could not fit its markings exactly to such an unnatural ground its skin became covered with fairly

regular light and dark patches. Many tropical fish living in colorful surroundings are themselves brightly colored or markedly striped. Some small fish have large spots on their bodies which look like large eyes; this is to enable them, when half hidden to masquerade as much larger creatures. The body shapes of some animals form a source of protection. Their bodies are shaped or decorated to enable them to blend with their surroundings; when the creatures are still they are virtually indistinguishable as separate objects. Many lizards are very difficult to distinguish against the bark of a tree, and the gecko has a fringe along its sides and tail which helps it to merge with the tree bark. The sea-horse, a kind of sea-horse, has long outgrowths of skin which closely resemble the fronds of the seaweed in which it lives. Protective shapes are especially common among the insects. Many butterflies have leaf-shaped wings so that when they light on a twig they look like a leaf. The various mantids also bear an insects with their thin and nodular bodies have a truly astonishing resemblance to twigs. Some animals possess striking colorations to call attention to themselves: these may be thought of as warning colours advertising the fact that the creatures are unpalatable, dangerous or to be avoided. Wasps, snakes, some toads and the brightly spotted ladybird beetle are some of the animals displaying warning colours. Another kind of warning colour serves as an alarm signal. Many animals, example rabbits and antelopes, raise their tails to show a white patch when disturbed and frightened. Similarly, the springbok, when alarmed, jumps into the air to display long white back hairs which are normally hidden; these form an alarm signal warning the herd of imminent danger. Among the many kinds of adaptations is mimicry. Mimicry in animals takes such fraudulent forms as warning colours, frightening attitudes and imitation. Many small, defenseless creatures adopt mimicry to bluff their enemies; for example, certain species of syrphid flies (hoverflies) imitate the colour pattern of wasps, certain edible mimic those having an obnoxious taste, a species of tropical lantern fly adopts a mask-like growth which resembles in shape and markings an alligators head, while one kind of harmless snake mimics, in its colouring and body pattern, the deadly coral snake. Finally, should note that colour pattern in animals have uses other than camouflage, etc., since they often play an important role in mating. An obvious example is that provided by birds, the males, usually more exotically than the female, displaying their brilliant plumage during courtship. Luminescence in Animals Associated with form and colour in animals is luminescence, the production of light by organisms. Luminescence is widely spread among animals, occurring in more than half of the zoological phyla. Fish, which have developed luminescence to a remarkable degree, are, however, the only group among the vertebrates possessing luminous characteristics. J.A.C. Nicol writes: although luminescence appears to be most abundant among marine animals, it is likely that these are equaled in number by species of terrestrial fireflies that abound in tropical regions. However, for diversity of luminous organs and modes of light-emission we must go to the sea. Luminous species are especially noteworthy among coelenterates such as jellyfish and ctenophores or comb-jellies;

crustacean, such as prawns; and squid and bony fishes. It is in the three latter groups that luminous organs attain the greatest complexity On land, luminescence occurs in some nocturnal creatures, example fireflies, and among some animals which live in dark places, example fungus-gnats. Fireflies, glow-worms and some centipedes are the chief land animals having luminous characteristics. Although there are considerable numbers of luminous animals living in the surface waters of the ocean, luminescence is more especially a feature associated with creatures living in the dimly lit or deeper parts of the ocean. According to Beebe, something like two-thirds of all the species of fish living below 550 meters are luminescent, and, fish apart, there are large numbers of demersal jellyfishes, copepods, prawns and squids that are luminous. According to Nicol light-production in animals occurs in three different ways: it takes place within cellsintracellular luminescence; or a light is produced by luminous symbiotic bacteria within the animal. Commonly an animal exhibits only a single kind of luminescence, but there are certain species, example prawns, which posses both intra and extra-luminescence. Intracellular luminescence takes various forms: some creatures have luminous internal glands; other have luminous circulatory systems; some posses plaques of luminescent cells, as in the case of scale-worms. Extracellular luminescence or the ejection of luminous secretions occurs in many animals, for example in certain types of fish, prawns, squids, molluscs and worms. When symbiotic bacteria are responsible for luminescence are housed in special light organs. Some creature have light organs such as luminous points which can be made to glow, as in the case of the angler fish os some sea lilies; others have light mechanisms capable of casting a beam of light through the water.