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Benner studied clinical nursing practice in an attempt to discover and describe the knowledge embedded in nursing practice; that

is, knowledge that accrues over time in a practice discipline and the difference between practical and theoretical knowledge. One of the first theoretical distinctions that Benner made was related to theory itself. Benner stated that knowledge development in a practice discipline consist of extending practical knowledge (know-how) through theory-based scientific investigations and through the charting of the existence know-how developed through clinical experience in the practice of that discipline. She believes that nurses have been delinquent in documenting their clinical learning and this lack of charting of our practices and clinical observations deprives nursing theory of the uniqueness and richness of the knowledge embedded in expert clinical practice; Benner maintains that practical knowledge may extend theory or be developed before scientific formulas.

Clinical situations are always more varied and complicated than theoretical accounts; therefore clinical practice is an area of inquiry and a source of knowledge development. Clinical practice embodies the notion of excellence; by studying practice, nurses can uncover new knowledge. Nursing must develop the knowledge base of its practice (know-how) and, through scientific investigation and observation; it must begin to record and develop the know-how of clinical expertise. Ideally, practice and theory set up a dialogue that creates new possibilities.

http://www.degree-essays.com/essays/nursingessays/patricia-benner-clinicalnursing.php References

Altmann, T. K. (2007). An evaluation of the seminal work of Patricia Bennr. Theory or Philosophy? Contemporary Nurse: a Joural for the Australian Nursing Profession, 25(1/2), 114-23. Retrieved March 4, 2008, from ProQuest Health & Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1320727201).

Benner, P (2001). From Novice to Expert. Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Commemorative Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Prentice Hall Health.

Larew, C., Lessans, S., Spunt, D., Foster, D., Covington, B.G. (2006). INNOVATIONS IN CLINICAL SIMULATION: Application of Benners Theory in an Interactive Patient Care Simulation. Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(1), 16-21. Retrieved March 9, 2008, from ProQuest Health & Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 988894881).

NurseScribe. (2001-2007). Nursing Theorists. Retrieved March 5, 2008 from: www.enursescribe.com/nurse_theorists.htm.

Tomey, A. M., Alligood, M.R. (2002). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (5th Ed). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

John Dewey's significance for informal educators lies in a number of areas. First, his belief that education must engage with and enlarge experience has continued to be a significant strand in informal education practice. Second, and linked to this, Dewey's exploration of thinking and reflection - and the associated role of educators - has continued to be an inspiration. We can see it at work, for example, in the models developed by writers such as David Boud and Donald Schn. Third, his concern with interaction and environments for learning provide a continuing framework for practice. Last, his passion for democracy, for educating so that all may share in a common life, provides a strong rationale for practice in the associational settings in which informal educators work. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-dewey.htm

The central focus of Deweys philosophical interests throughout his career was what has been traditionally called epistemology, or the theory of knowledge. It is indicative, however, of Deweys critical stance toward past efforts in this area that he expressly rejected the term epistemology, preferring the theory of inquiry or experimental logic as more representative of his own approach.

In Deweys view, traditional epistemologies, whether rationalist or empiricist, had drawn too stark a distinction between thought, the domain of knowledge, and the world of fact to which thought purportedly referred: thought was believed to exist apart from the world, epistemically as the object of immediate awareness, ontologically as the unique aspect of the self. The commitment of modern rationalism, stemming from Descartes, to a doctrine of innate ideas, ideas constituted from birth in the very nature of the mind itself, had effected this dichotomy; but the modern empiricists, beginning with Locke, had done the same just as markedly by their commitment to an introspective methodology and a representational theory of ideas. The resulting view makes a mystery of the relevance of thought to the world: if thought constitutes a domain that stands apart from the world, how can its accuracy as an account of the world ever be established? For Dewey a new model, rejecting traditional presumptions, was wanting, a model that Dewey endeavored to develop and refine throughout his years of writing and reflection. http://www.iep.utm.edu/dewey/

References and Further Reading a. Primary Sources All of the published writings of John Dewey have been newly edited and published in The Collected Works of John Dewey, Jo Ann Boydston, ed., 37 volumes (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967-1991).

Deweys complete correspondence has know been published in electronic form in The Correspondence of John Dewey, 3 vols., Larry Hickman, ed. (Charlottesville, Va: Intelex Corporation).

An authoritative collection of Deweys writings is The Essential Dewey, 2 vols., Larry Hickman and Thomas M. Alexander, eds. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998).

Documentation is an important function of the public health nurses. This provides data which is needed to plan the clients care and ensure its continuity: serves as an

important communication tool for various team members: furnishes written evidence of the quality of care that the clients received and their response to it: whether revisions were made in his/her plan of care and whether such has been effective. They are legal records to protect the agency and the health care provider or the client himself/herself. They also provide data for research and education. Public heath nurse in the Philippines 2007