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BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND

ECONOMICS
FINAL PROJECT
APPLICATION OF THE CONTROL UNIT PWM
(PULSE WIDTH MODULATION)
Lszl Arany

2009

2


BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


FINAL PROJECT
Mechatronics
BSc, Integrated Engineering
Assigned to: Lszl ARANY (H8QF9G) e-mail: arany.laszlo39@gmail.com
..........................................................................
First Name Surname
Application of the control unit PWM (Pulse-width modulation)
Supervisors: Kroly Zabn, Department of Automation and Applied Informatics
Phone: +36-1-463-2338, e-mail: jrk@get.bme.hu
Final exam subjects:
1. Mechatronics
2. Power electronics and motion control
3. Analog and digital electronics
Date of issue: 9 September, 2009
Deadline for submission: 11 December, 2009
Outline:
The student has to study the technical literature of the PWM and has to study the control unit PWM of LEYBOLD
DIDACTIC GMBH. The student has to build some different experiments using this model.
Tasks in detail:
1. Study the theory of the PWM
2. Study control unit PWM by the model of LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH.
3. Design and build simple applications of the control unit PWM by this model
4. Write a laboratory instruction for students
..................................................................................
Research professor Dr. Istvn Nagy
Department of Automation and Applied Informatics
Confirmed by
..................................................................................
Prof. Dr. Stpn Gbor
Dean, Faculty of Mechanical engineering
Final project is received by:
..................................................................................
Student

3
DECLARATION
I, the undersigned, hereby declare that the Final Project submitted contains the
results of my own work, assisted by my supervisor(s) and that all other results
taken from the technical literature or other sources (eg. Internet) are clearly
identified and referred to. I acknowledge that the results described in the Final
Project can be used by the Department of the Supervisor.
Budapest, ................. month ...........day ................year
.................................................
Students signature

4
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................... 8
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF PULSE-WIDTH MODULATION........................................................ 10
I. WHAT IS PWM?................................................................................................................................................ 10
A. Basics of PWM............................................................................................................................................. 10
B. History and application of PWM.................................................................................................................. 11
C. Advantages and drawbacks of PWM............................................................................................................ 14
II. PWM METHODS ............................................................................................................................................. 15
A. Single pulse width modulation ..................................................................................................................... 15
B. Multiple pulse width modulation.................................................................................................................. 16
C. Sinusoidal pulse width modulation............................................................................................................... 17
III. PWM SWITCHING STRATEGIES ................................................................................................................ 18
A. Natural Sampled PWM................................................................................................................................. 18
B. Regular Sampled PWM................................................................................................................................ 19
C. Optimized PWM........................................................................................................................................... 20
D. Suboptimal PWM......................................................................................................................................... 20
IV. SUMMARY..................................................................................................................................................... 21
ESSENTIAL DC-DC CONVERTERS.................................................................................................................... 22
I. BASICS .............................................................................................................................................................. 22
A. Converter technologies ................................................................................................................................. 22
B. History of DC/DC conversion technologies ................................................................................................. 22
C. Classification of power supplies ................................................................................................................... 23
D. Efficiency and power relationships of the DC/DC converter ....................................................................... 26
II. PRINCIPLES OF PWM DC/DC CONVERTERS............................................................................................ 27
A. Relationship among Current, Voltage, Energy, and Power .......................................................................... 27
B. Electromagnetic Compatibility ..................................................................................................................... 28
C. The topologies of DC/DC converters............................................................................................................ 29
III. THE BUCK CONVERTER............................................................................................................................. 30
A. Circuit description ........................................................................................................................................ 30
B. Analysis of the Buck Converter for CCM.................................................................................................... 33
C. Buck converter in DCM................................................................................................................................ 35
IV. THE BOOST CONVERTER........................................................................................................................... 36
A. Circuit description ........................................................................................................................................ 36
B. Analysis of the Boost Converter for CCM.................................................................................................... 38
C. Boost converter in DCM............................................................................................................................... 40
VI. THE BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER............................................................................................................... 41
A. Circuit description ........................................................................................................................................ 41
B. Analysis of the Buck-Boost Converter for CCM.......................................................................................... 42
C. Buck-Boost converter in DCM..................................................................................................................... 45
DESCRIPTION OF THE MEASUREMENT KIT................................................................................................ 47

5
I. LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH MEASUREMENT KIT.................................................................................. 47
A. Stabilized Power Supply............................................................................................................................... 47
B. Reference Variable Generator....................................................................................................................... 48
C. Control Unit PWM/PFM.............................................................................................................................. 49
D. MOSFET ...................................................................................................................................................... 51
E. IGBT............................................................................................................................................................. 51
F. Diode............................................................................................................................................................. 52
G. Panel of different loads................................................................................................................................. 52
II. OTHER INSTRUMENTS USED...................................................................................................................... 52
A. Digital Oscilloscope ..................................................................................................................................... 53
B. Analog Voltmeter and Ammeter, Digital Multimeter ................................................................................... 53
C. Voltage Divider Probe .................................................................................................................................. 53
D. Current Clamp .............................................................................................................................................. 53
E. Isolation Transformer.................................................................................................................................... 53
MEASUREMENTS AND EVALUATION............................................................................................................. 54
I. THE BUCK CONVERTER................................................................................................................................ 54
A. The Minimal and the Maximal Voltage........................................................................................................ 55
B. The voltage across the diode......................................................................................................................... 55
C. The boundary between CCM and DCM....................................................................................................... 56
D. Output voltage in case of DCM.................................................................................................................... 57
E. Output voltage in case of CCM..................................................................................................................... 58
II. BOOST CONVERTER..................................................................................................................................... 59
A. The Minimal and the Maximal Voltage........................................................................................................ 60
B. The voltage across the diode......................................................................................................................... 60
C. The boundary between DCM and CCM and output voltages ....................................................................... 61
III. BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER........................................................................................................................ 62
A. The Maximal and the Minimal Voltages ...................................................................................................... 63
B. The voltage across the diode......................................................................................................................... 64
C. Boundary of CCM and DCM........................................................................................................................ 64
D. Output voltage in case of CCM and in case of DCM................................................................................... 65
IV. THE SINGLE PHASE POWER INVERTER.................................................................................................. 66
CONCLUSION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................................. 68
REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................................... 70
APPENDIX A............................................................................................................................................................ 71
APPENDIX B............................................................................................................................................................ 83
APPENDIX C............................................................................................................................................................ 86

6

ABSTRACT
The main aim of the final project was to write a measurement guide for MSc students, mainly for
the subject Selected Chapters of Electrical Engineering. A deeper study of the PWM methods
were required, then the testing of the instruments of the Department. After getting acquainted
with the operation and principles of the essential DC/DC converters, measurements were done to
investigate the DC/DC converter setups using the instruments of LD DIDACTIC GMBH. These
elements are designed for educational purposes. Done with testing a measurement guide was
written, containing the required information and instructions to execute basic measurements to
investigate the basic converter types. These are the Buck converter, the Boost converter, and the
Buck/Boost converter. During the semester an additional task occurred, which was not part of
the original outline of the thesis. The single phase power inverter circuit was built of the LD
DIDACTIC GMBH elements. The task was to execute Fourier transformation on the result
waveforms, and to analyze the harmonic distortion for different values of the PWM frequency.
During the measurements I learned the operation of the digital oscilloscope.

7
ABSZTRAKT
A szakdolgozat clja az volt, hogy egy mrsi tmutat kszljn MSc-s hallgatk rszre,
elssorban a Vlogatott fejezetek az elektrotechnikbl cm trgy laboratriumi mrseihez.
A PWM technolgik s mdszerek mlyebb tanulmnyozsval kezddtt a project, ezutn a
tanszken tallhat eszkzk tesztelse volt a feladat. Az alapvet DC/DC konverterek
mkdsnek s elmletnek megismerse utn a LD DIDACTIC GMBH ltal gyrtott
eszkzkbl sszerakott DC/DC konverter ramkrkkel kapcsolatos mrsek kvetkeztek.
Ezeket az eszkzket specilisan oktatsi clokra terveztk. A tesztels vgeztvel elkszlt a
mrsi tmutat, amely tartalmazza a mrs elvgzshez szksges informcikat s
utastsokat. A mrsek hrom alapvet konverterre vonatkoznak: a feszltsg-cskkent
konverter, a feszltsg-nvel konverter, s a feszltsg-cskkent/nvel konverter. A
szemeszter sorn a project bvlt egy feladattal, ami nem szerepelt az eredeti kirsban. Az
egyfzis inverter kimen jelt kellett analizlni a MATLAB szoftverrel. A Fourier
transzformci utn a harmonikus torzts vizsglatt kellett elvgezni klnbz PWM
frekvencikra. A mrsek sorn megismerkedtem a digitlis oszcilloszkppal.

8
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Pulse Width Modulation is a technology
dating back to the early 1960s. Its usage was
common in analog techniques, and with years
it became widely used in digital devices, such
as microcontrollers and programmable
circuits. Pulse width modulation is mainly
used to generate a desired output voltage level
as an average of a rectangular voltage
waveform. This is used for example in DC
motor speed control, voltage regulation,
DC/DC converters and inverters, audio
amplification, sound effects, and also in
telecommunication, however, in that case the
pulse widths are carrying information, the
average output voltage is not important.
In this thesis the practical applications that are
dealt with are the DC/DC converter circuits.
Power conversion technologies play a very
important role in the operation of electrical
devices. The energy generated in power plants
is driven through several steps of power
conversion before it reaches the homes and
other consumers. The line voltage is a
alternating voltage with a frequency of 50Hz
in Europe, and a frequency of 60Hz in the
USA, and with an effective value of 230V in
Europe and an effective value of 110V in the
USA. This voltage can be used directly for
many applications and devices, but in most
cases power transformers are required. AC/AC
transformers transform the alternating current
to an alternating current of another amplitude
and/or frequency. AC/DC rectifiers convert
the AC voltage to an unregulated DC voltage.
DC/DC converters convert the unregulated
DC voltage to a regulated, stable voltage. The
output voltage can be adjustable or a fixed
value. DC/AC inverters convert the DC
voltage to an AC voltage of a certain
amplitude and frequency. In the focus of this
project are the DC/DC converters.
In the field of power electronics and drives
DC/DC conversion technology is a major
subject area, and has been going through
serious development for six decades. The most
important applications of DC/DC converters
are the computer power supplies,
programmable circuits, cellular phones, LED
power sources, solar cell battery charging
circuits, laser power supplies, and motor
control. Laboratory measurements, laser
applications, and motor speed control usually
require adjustable voltage DC/DC converters.
With the increasing popularity of wireless
technology and the effort to reduce the size of
devices have a positive effect on the
development of both PWM technologies and
DC/DC conversion. DC/DC converters are
widely used nowadays, and the application
and the market of these converters are
increasing rapidly. The quick development of
DC/DC conversion techniques resulted in a

9
large CAGR (Compound annual growth rate)
of 9% in recent years, which compares to the
AC/DC power supply market, which had a
CAGR of only about 7.5% during the same
period. The DC/DC converter market is
undergoing some serious changes as a result
of two main trends in the electronics industry:
low voltage and high power density. [1]
The LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH elements
on the department are suitable for basic
measurements and for the investigation of the
operation of PWM and DC/DC converters.
With the help of the measurement guide
written it may be easier for students to get
acquainted with this rapidly developing
technology, which will probably dominate the
market of conversion technology for several
years, according to the widespread use of
computers and wireless technologies.
The number of figures is like x.y, where x
means the chapter, and y means the number
of the figure within that chapter. For example
Figure 3.12 means the 12
th
figure in chapter 3.
The equations are numbered in the same way,
Equation 2.8 for example means the 8
th

equation of Chapter 2.
The citation numbers are not connected to
chapters, [13] means the 13
th
citation in the
whole document. Citation numbers are usually
at the title of sections. This means that the
following section is based on those
books/articles/websites, or further reading is
available in those items.
At several points of the thesis the LEYBOLD
DIDACTIC GMBH name is mentioned. The
company is called LD DIDACTIC today, but
the guides and instruments used were
produced with the companys former name.


10
Figure 2.1 Pulse width and duty cycle
CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF PULSE-WIDTH
MODULATION
I. WHAT IS PWM?
PWM is a method to deliver power to the load,
it is a way of delivering energy through a
succession of pulses rather than a continuously
varying (analogue) signal. Using continuously
varying signal the power losses highly depend
on the output power. At the extremes (0 or
maximal output) the efficiency is high, but it
is bottoming out at midrange where the power
dissipated as heat roughly equals to that
delivered to the load. Using PWM we can
calculate with a constant loss percentage. The
efficiency of PWM is usually above 90%.
A. Basics of PWM
Using Pulse Width Modulation we add the
maximum voltage to the load during the ON-
state, and zero during the OFF-state. The
average voltage present at the output depends
on the ratio of the on state duration and the
switching period. The switching period (T
s
)
can be calculated from the switching
frequency (f
s
) with the following equation.
(See Figure 2.1)
s
s
f
T
1
= (2.1)
The ratio of the ON-state duration and the
switching time period is called duty cycle (or
duty ratio), and usually given in percentage.
S
ON
T
T
D = (2.2)
We see that the PWM signal is a rectangular
pulse wave and modulating the pulse width we
modify the average value of the output.
Considering that v
min
is the minimum and v
max

is the maximum value of the waveform ) (t f ,
while D is the Duty cycle, we can calculate the
average value ( v ). The switching period is T
S
.
dt t f
T
v
S
T
S

=
0
) (
1
(2.3)
The wave has a value of v
max
for
S
T D t < < 0
and a value of v
min
for
S S
T t T D < < . With
these and the basic rules of integration
Equation 2.3 becomes:

11

Figure 2.2 Average output voltage
|
|

\
|
+ =

dt v dt v
T
v
S
S
S
T
T D
T D
S
min
0
max
1
(2.4)
Executing the integration we get the following
equation:
S
S S
T
T D v T D v
v
+
=
) 1 (
min max

min max
) 1 ( v D v D + = (2.5)
(Figure 2.2 shows this in a graph.)
The second part of the sum is not necessary in
many cases, e.g. considering DC technology,
0
min
= v , so Equation 2.5 becomes:
max
v D v = (2.6)
Considering these, it is evident that the
average value v is directly dependent on the
Duty cycle (D)
B. History and application of PWM [2]
PWM technology is used since the early
sixties, although it is considered to be a
relatively modern technology. At the
beginnings the simplest methods were used,
because of the ease of implementation using
analog techniques. These technologies were
hard to implement using microprocessors, and
with the transcendental equations this process
faced difficulties in computer aided design, so
new sampling processes were created.
In the late 1970s the Optimized PWM
technology was developed, which used
numerical methods, that was easy to
implement in digital techniques, although an
analogue implementation was not possible.
Suboptimal PWM followed, and today PWM
is used in many different technologies.
Telecommunications. In the field of
telecommunications, the widths of the
different pulses generally correspond to
specific values of the data encoded at one end
as well as decoded at the other. There are
various lengths of the pulses and the
information will be sent after regular intervals.
At the receiving side with a simple RC or LC
circuit can remove the high frequency square
wave and execute the A/D conversion. By
keeping the signal digital (as the value is 0 or
1 in pu.) noise effects are minimized. Noise
can only affect the signal if it is strong enough
to change a 1 to 0 or vice versa. [2] [3]
Power delivery, motor drives. With
semiconductor switches high frequency PWM
power control systems are easy to design The
ON/OFF states of the modulation are used to
control the switches that will set the voltage
across or current through the load. The major
advantage of this system is that in ideal case

12
there is no power dissipation. The switches are
either OFF and not conducting any current, or
ON and have (ideally) no voltage drop across
them. The product of the current and the
voltage at any given time defines the power
dissipated by the switch, thus the power
dissipation of the switch is ideally zero. More
precisely, semiconductor switches such as
MOSFETs, IGBTs or BJTs are non-ideal
switches, but a relatively high efficiency can
be reached. During the transitions between on
and off states, considerable power is
dissipated in the switches, but the change of
state between ON and OFF is quite rapid
relative to typical ON or OFF times, so the
average power dissipation is quite low
compared with the power being delivered.
PWM is also often used to control the supply
of electrical power to another device such as
in speed control of electric motors,
fundamental operation audio switching
amplifiers or brightness control of light
sources and many other power electronics
applications. PWM is widely used for speed
control of DC motors, and it is because the
speed and rotation of the motor will be much
smoother than in case of continuous analogue
DC voltage control. The motor gets pulses
with high frequency, thus because of the
inertia of the rotating part the speed will be
smooth. For example, in case of a car driven
by a DC motor, if we increase an analogue
voltage linearly until the torque is high enough
to overcome the stiction, the car will start
roughly (with inappropriate speed), as the
stiction is higher than the friction. If we use
PWM, the motor will give out its maximal
torque, as the voltage is always the maximum,
and the pulse duration is changed at a constant
frequency. This will result in a much smoother
operation. From this point of view the main
advantages of the PWM are:
High efficiency
Wider operational range
Longer lived motors
Using this method, the current is limited to a
safe value for the windings. PWM allows a
very linear response in motor torque even
down to low PWM% without causing damage
to the motor. Most motor manufacturers
recommend PWM control rather than the older
voltage control method. [2] [4]
Voltage regulation. A PWM controller is also
used in the efficient voltage regulators. If
voltage is switched to the load with an
appropriately tuned duty cycle, a desired level
of the voltage at the output can be
approximated. The switching noise is filtered
with the help of a capacitor and an inductor.
DC-DC converters use several methods for the
control of the semiconductor switches. PWM
is the simplest and most widely used one of
them. [2]
Audio effects and amplification. PWM is
sometimes used in sound (music) synthesis, in
particular subtractive synthesis, as it gives a

13
sound effect similar to chorus or slightly
detuned oscillators played together. (In fact,
PWM is equivalent to the difference of two
sawtooth waves.) The ratio between the high
and low level is typically modulated with a
low frequency oscillator, or LFO. In addition,
varying the duty cycle of a pulse waveform in
a subtractive-synthesis instrument creates
useful timbral variations. Some synthesizers
had a duty-cycle trimmer for their square-
wave outputs, and that trimmer could be set by
ear; the 50% point was distinctive, because
even-numbered harmonics essentially
disappeared at 50%.
In recent years there is a new type of
amplifiers on the market called Class D
amplifiers. The operation of these instruments
is based on the PWM technology. Its input is a
standard audio line level signal. This audio
line level signal is sinusoidal with a frequency
ranging from 20Hz to 20kHz typically. This
signal is compared with a high frequency
triangle or sawtooth wave to create a PWM
signal. This PWM signal drives the power
stage creating an amplified digital signal. A
low pass filter is applied to the amplified
signal to filter out the PWM carrier frequency
and retrieve the sinusoidal audio signal. Most
Class D amplifiers switch from about 300kHz to
2MHz.
Class D amplifiers are very efficient (usually
between 90 and 95%), they provide the best
use of energy stored in limited power sources
(such as a battery). The high efficiency
decreases heat-sink requirements, and Class D
amplifiers do not heat their neighbouring
components as much as other topologies.
Its main drawback is that the switching of the
outputs causes high EMI (Electromagnetic
interference). Another concern is that their
sound quality is not as good as Class AB
topologies.
Historically, a crude form of PWM has been
used to play back PCM digital sound on the
PC speaker, which is only capable of
outputting two sound levels. By carefully
timing the duration of the pulses, and by
relying on the speaker's physical filtering

Figure 2.3 - DC PWM Motor Speed Controller

Figure 2.4 Class D 3000W car amplifier

14
properties (limited frequency response, self-
inductance, etc.) it was possible to obtain an
approximate playback of mono PCM samples,
although at a very low quality, and with
greatly varying results between
implementations. In more recent times, the
Direct Stream Digital sound encoding method
was introduced, which uses a generalized form
of pulse-width modulation called pulse density
modulation, at a high enough sampling rate
(typically in the order of MHz) to cover the
whole acoustic frequencies range with
sufficient fidelity. This method is used in the
SACD format, and reproduction of the
encoded audio signal is essentially similar to
the method used in class-D amplifiers. [5] [6]
C. Advantages and drawbacks of PWM
In the previous sections several advantages
and disadvantages of PWM techniques were
mentioned, let this section be a summary of
them.
Main advantages:
High efficiency, usually above 90%
Low power dissipation causes lesser
heating, so PWM systems do not need
complicated cooling.
Because of the cooler operation, the
power amp requires much less heat
sink mass, thus the Class D amplifiers
that use PWM are more compact and
weigh less than other solutions.
In motor control, PWM methods drive
the DC motor always with maximal
torque, so a smoother operation is
possible.
With limited flowing current, PWM
control can extend the DC machines
lifespan.
PWM provides wider operational
range for DC motor drives
PWM allows very linear response in
motor torque, even at lower duty
cycles (without damaging the motor).
Considering the control of
semiconductor switches in DC-DC
converters, PWM is one of the
simplest and most efficient methods of
control.
In microcontroller technology (and
other digital solutions) it is a much
simpler and therefore much cheaper
solution to keep the signal digital
rather than convert it into a continuous
analog signal. Microcontrollers can
give out analog signals using PWM
with a clock and a simple counter, thus
no D/A converter is necessary (which
is relatively expensive).
Considering telecommunication, the
noise effects are minimized, as the
noise level must be high enough to
change a 0 to 1 or vice versa to affect
the PWM signal.

15
Drawbacks:
Considering power amplifiers, the
main disadvantage of PWM is that it
causes large EMI (Electromagnetic
Interference), which is not acceptable
in many cases.
Another aspect is that PWM
amplifiers sound quality is not as
good as the other topologies. This
should be considered only in high
quality sound technology, as the
quality in general is mainly determined
by the quality of loudspeakers.
Abrupt changes in current (and also in
voltage) are present at high-frequency
switching, so special techniques are
required to protect the elements of the
circuit, such as shielding and filtering.
This may call for more complicated (or
expensive) circuits.
II. PWM METHODS [7] [8] [9]
In this section the basic methods of PWM
signal generation are detailed. The output
average value depends on the duration of the
ON time and the OFF time. The ratio can be
changed in three ways:
Maintaining a constant pulse width,
and varying the number of pulses per
half cycle
Varying the pulse width for fixed
number of pulses per half cycle
Varying both the pulse width and
number of pulses per half cycle
A. Single pulse width modulation [7]
The basic type of voltage control method.
Using this technique, only one pulse per cycle
is present, and the width of the pulse is varied
to control the output voltage. Maximum
voltage is present if =180 . Reducing the
pulse width the mean voltage decreases and
the harmonic content of the output increases.
The width of the pulse is varied by varying the
gating signals as shown in Figure 2.5. A
rectangular signal of amplitude A
r
is compared
with a triangular carrier wave of amplitude A
c
.
Several parameters need to be calculated,
these are shown below. [10]

Figure 2.5 Single Pulse Width Modulation

16
The modulation index:
c
r
A
A
M = (2.7)
The RMS output voltage:

=V V
O
(2.8)
Fourier analysis of the resultant waveform
yields due to symmetry:
0 =
n
a , (2.9)
and:
|

\
|

=

=
2
sin
4
... 5 , 3 , 1

n
n
V
b
N
i
n
(2.10)
Distortion factor:

=
|

\
|
=
N
i
n
n
V
V
DF
1
2
1
1
(2.11)
Total harmonic distortion:

=
=
,... 3 , 2
2
1
1
i
n
V
V
THD (2.12)
B. Multiple pulse width modulation [7]
Using this method, the harmonic content is
reduced due to the several pulses in each half
cycle. The inverter output with multiple pulse
width modulation is as shown in Figure 2.6.
Modulation is achieved by a comparison of
triangular wave with a DC voltage. Switching
instants are determined by the intersection of
the two waves. By changing the amplitude of
the control signal, pulse width may be varied
thereby varying the output voltage.
The number of pulses per half cycle:
r
c
f
f
p

=
2
(2.13)
The pulse width varies from 0 to
p


The RMS value of the output voltage:


=
p
V V
O
(2.14)
Using the following expressions

=
n
V
B
2
(2.15)
2

+ =
m
(2.16)
the Fourier analysis of the resultant waveform
gives:

Figure 2.6 Multiple Pulse Width Modulation

17
0 =
n
a (2.17)
( ) ( ) [ ]

=
+

=
1
sin sin
2
sin
n
n
n n
n
B b

(2.18)
These equations suggest that the distortion
factor is reduced significantly compared to
single pulse modulation. Also, it may be
observed that if p is large, amplitudes of the
lower order harmonics would decrease.
Although, in the process, higher harmonics
increase, they may be filtered out easily.
C. Sinusoidal pulse width modulation [7]
In this method, pulses over a half cycle of
unequal widths are generated. Pulse width is a
sinusoidal function of the angular position of
each cycle. This is done by comparing a
sinusoidal wave against a triangular carrier
wave. This method is mainly used because of
its simplicity and the ease of implementation.
The number of pulses per half cycle is being
decided by the triangular carrier frequency to
that of the modulated sinusoid, f
r.
The waveform in Figure 2.7 is a 2-level
waveform with the output changing from +V
to V.
The fundamental component of the PWM
output waveform with N chops per quarter
cycle is:
( ) [ ]

=
+

=
N
i
i
i
V
V
1
1
1
1 cos 1 2
4

(2.19)
The waveform of Figure 2.8 is a 3-level
waveform, where the output voltage ranges
form +V to V.

From Figure 2.7 if
m
is the width of the m
th

pulse:

=
=
p
m
m
O
V V
1

(2.20)
Due to symmetry:
0 =
n
a (2.21)
Using Equation 2.15 and Equation 2.16:
( ) [ ]

+ =

=
n n n B b
m
p
m
n
sin sin
2
1
(2.22)
Observing the harmonic profile, the distortion
factor is significantly reduced compared to
multiple pulse width modulation. This

Figure 2.7 Sinusoidal 2-level PWM

18

Figure 2.8 Sinusoidal 3-level PWM
modulation type reduces all harmonics less
than or equal to 2p-1. This means that the
PWM pushes all harmonics into a high
frequency range around the switching
frequency and its multiples, around harmonics
m
f
, 2m
f
. 3m
f
, and so on.
The 3-level waveforms can be generated either
by combining two suitably phased 2-level
waveforms or directly. In the direct method,
pulse widths in each half cycle are modulated
according to the positive half cycle of the sine
wave. A polarity discriminator provides the
gating logic necessary to correctly apply the
PWM sequence to the switching devices of the
inverter. Natural and regular sampled PWM
types are of sinusoidal modulation.
III. PWM SWITCHING STRATEGIES [8]
There are various available strategies applied
to generate the switching edges of the PWM
waveform. These are listed and detailed in this
section.
These strategies are:
Natural Sampled PWM
Regular Sampled PWM
Optimal PWM
Suboptimal PWM
A. Natural Sampled PWM [7]
As mentioned before, it is possible to compare
a sine wave of required frequency with that of
the carrier wave, and the signals derived
therefrom can be used to trigger the power
devices of the half-bridge or the full-bridge
inverter which will result in the 2- or 3-level
waveforms.
This PWM strategy was popular in the early
1960s because of its simplicity and easy
implementation using analog techniques.
This strategy is based on the continuous real
time comparison of the sinusoidal modulating
signal and a triangular (or saw tooth) carrier.
The instantaneous intersection of the carrier
and modulating signals determines the
switching instants by a natural selection or
sampling, called natural sampled PWM.
Natural sampled PWM has the advantage of a
simple and well defined modulation

19
procedure, which makes it suitable for
analogue implementation, but the natural-
sampling process is non-linear, and the pulse
widths of the PWM are defined by
transcendental equations, thus its use in
computer-aided design, analysis and also in
microprocessor technology faces difficulties.
This is the direct result of the non linear
sampling modulation process, making it
unsuitable for digital hardware or
microprocessor implementation.
2 level PWM. Pulse widths are proportional to
the amplitudes of the modulating signal at the
switching instants. The centres of the pulses
are neither equidistant nor uniformly spaced.
Pulse width is given by a transcendental
equation.
( ) ( ) [ ]
)
`

+ + =
1 2
sin sin
2
1
2
t t
M T
t
p
(2.23)
As the waveform switches between two levels
(that is +V and V), it is termed as 2-level
PWM. This contains carrier frequency
components.
The RMS output voltage:
2
V
V
O
= (2.24)
3-level PWM. With proper phase-shift, we
can combine two of the 2-level PWM, so a 3-
level PWM can be obtained. Another solution
is the use of a full-bridge inverter. The main
advantage of this solution over the 2-level
PWM is that
V V
O
= . (2.25)
Output power for a full-bridge inverter is 4
times higher and the fundamental component
is twice that of the half-bridge inverter
(although the peak reverse blocking voltage of
each transistor and the quality of output
voltage of half-bridge and full-bridge inverters
are the same.)
The expression for the pulse-width in case of
3-level PWM:
( )
1 2
sin sin
2
t t
TM
t
p
+ = (2.26)
B. Regular Sampled PWM [7]
Using regular-sampled PWM techniques, the
problems of the natural-sampled PWM can be
totally eliminated. The linear sampling process
of the regular-sampled PWM allows the
samples of the modulating wave to be taken at
regularly spaced intervals. The popularity of
this method peaked in the 1970s, it was
dominating until the end of that decade. This
improved method made the digital realization
possible.
In this method, the modulating wave does not
vary continuously during the sampling period,
it either remains constant or changes its level
at a certain distant within the sampling period,
according to which two types of regular
sampled PWM are defined.
If the modulating signal has a constant value,
then the pulse widths are proportional to the
amplitude of the modulating wave at the

20
uniformly spaced switching instants, hence the
name uniform or regular sampling. In case of
regular sampled PWM, the relationship
between the fundamental component of the
PWM waveform and the modulation index is
linear.
With the leading and trailing edges of the
resulting pulse determined by the constant
level of the modulating wave, the PWM is
symmetric sampled, the centres of the pulses
are equidistant.
With the leading and trailing edges defined by
different levels of the modulating wave, the
result is an asymmetric regular-sampled
PWM. The sampling rate is twice the carrier
frequency, the pulse widths are proportional to
the modulating signal amplitudes at the
switching instants. The centres of the pulses
are neither equidistant nor uniformly spaced.
The natural sampled and the regular sampled
PWM techniques are based on a well defined
modulation process, thus can be implemented
using analog, digital, or microprocessor
techniques.
C. Optimized PWM [7]
Analog implementation of this technique is
not possible, because it uses numerical
techniques rather than definable modulation
process. It was popular mainly in the late
1970s.
As a result of numerical minimization search
techniques, optimized PWM signals are more
complex to generate. It allows the PWM
harmonic spectrum to be tailored to achieve a
particular performance specification.
A general PWM waveform is defined by a set
of angles, the switching angles are determined
to get required characteristics using different
optimization techniques. Optimization can be
performed with respect to a variety of
parameters (THD, elimination of particular
harmonics, etc). Choosing a particular
parameter and substituting in the general
PWM equation will yield a set of equations,
which are then solved to yield the values of
switching angles. These angles are stored in a
look-up table and PWM waveforms could be
generated. On-line computation is hard
(almost impossible) in optimal PWM.
The disadvantage of optimal PWM is that a
wave which is optimal with respect to one
parameter doesnt need to be optimal with
respect to another. This method is more
complex and needs large memory as the
switching angles for each frequency of
operation will have to be stored separately.
D. Suboptimal PWM [7]
This method was developed to maintain a well
defined modulation process which can be
easily and efficiently implemented in
microprocessor software and still reproduces
the desirable characteristics of the optimized
PWM. Suboptimal is so termed because
approximations are made to optimized
characteristics to make the digital method of
realization possible. There are several methods

21
of suboptimal PWM, which I do not describe
in detail in this thesis, although it is to be
mentioned that difficulties are encountered in
the implementation of these methods.
IV. SUMMARY
In this chapter the basics of Pulse Width
Modulation were described. In the first section
the basic principles of generating the average
DC value with PWM, the definition of duty
cycle, the applications of PWM and the
advantages and drawbacks of PWM were
detailed. The second section presented the
basic Pulse Width Modulation methods, and
the third section the basic techniques of
generating the PWM signal were mentioned.

22
CHAPTER 3
ESSENTIAL DC-DC CONVERTERS
I. BASICS
This section gives an overview of the possible
converters, and classifies the DC-DC
converters.
A. Converter technologies
In everyday life, industry, research and
development we can find applications of the
equipments for power conversion. In the field
of power electronics conversion technique is
an important research area. The equipment can
be separated to four technologies:
AC/AC transformers
AC/DC rectifiers
DC/AC inverters
DC/DC converters
AC/AC transformers are used to transform a
voltage of a certain amplitude and frequency
to another amplitude and/or frequency level.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts
alternating current (AC) to direct current
(DC), a process known as rectification.
Rectifiers have many uses including
components of power supplies and detectors
of radio signals.
An inverter is an electrical device that
converts direct current (DC) to alternating
current (AC); the resulting AC can be at any
required voltage and frequency with the use of
appropriate transformers, switching, and
control circuits.
A DC to DC converter is an electronic circuit
which converts a source of direct current (DC)
from one voltage level to another, usually they
are used to convert an unregulated DC voltage
to a regulated, stable voltage value. This type
of converters is the main topic of this chapter.
B. History of DC/DC conversion
technologies [1]
In the field of power electronics and drives
DC/DC conversion technology is a major
subject area, and has been going through
serious development for six decades. DC/DC
converters are widely used in industrial
applications and computer power supplies.
The quick development of DC/DC conversion
techniques resulted in a large CAGR
[17]

(Compound annual growth rate) in the recent
years. The worldwide market of DC/DC
converters has grown from U.S. $3336 million
in 1995 to U.S. $5128 million in 2004. This
means a compound annual growth rate of 9%,
which compares to the AC/DC power supply
market, which had a CAGR of only about

23
7.5% during the same period. The DC/DC
converter market is undergoing some serious
changes as a result of two main trends in the
electronics industry: low voltage and high
power density.
DC/DC conversion techniques date back to the
1920s, when the voltage conversion was
solved by a simple voltage divider (e.g.
potentiometer or rheostat). This technology
can only lower the voltage level and it works
with poor efficiency.
The multiple-quadrant chopper is the second
step in the development of DC/DC
conversion. It was taking a long time for
engineers to design an equipment to convert
DC voltage for actuators, like transformers do
in AC/AC conversion.
The Second World War delayed the
development of DC/DC converters, but after
the war communication technologies went
through a rapid development, which resulted
in the evolution of DC/DC converters.
C. Classification of power supplies [11]
All active electronic circuits, both analog and
digital require power supplies. Many
electronic systems require several different
level DC supply voltages. DC power supplies
are widely used in computers,
telecommunication, instrumentation
equipment, aerospace, medical, and defence
electronics. A DC supply is derived from a
battery or an AC utility line using transformer,
rectifier, and filter. The resultant raw DC
voltage is not constant enough and contains
high AC voltage ripple. Because of this, the
raw DC voltage is not appropriate for most
applications, thus voltage regulators are used
to make the DC voltage more constant and to

Figure 3.1 Classification of power supplies

24
attenuate the AC ripple.
There are two main types of power supplies:
regulated and unregulated. The regulated
voltage is kept within a narrow range of 1-2%
of the desired nominal value, in spite of line
voltage, load current, and temperature
variations. Regulated DC power supplies are
called DC voltage regulators (there are also
DC current regulators).
Figure 3.1 shows the classification of
regulated power supplies.
In linear voltage regulators transistor are
operated in the active region, as dependent
current sources with relatively high voltage
drops at high currents, dissipating a large
amount of power and resulting in low
efficiency. Linear regulators are heavy and
large, but they exhibit low noise level and are
suitable for audio applications.
Switching mode converters operate the
transistors as switches, thus they dissipate
significantly lesser power than transistors
operated as dependent current sources. When
the transistors conduct high current, the
voltage drop is very low on them (0 in ideal
case), and they conduct (nearly zero or) no
current when the voltage drop is high on them.
Because of this, the conduction loss of the
switching mode converters are low, their
efficiency is usually above 80-90%. It is to be
mentioned that the switching losses reduce the
efficiency at higher frequencies, losses
increase proportionally to switching
frequency. Linear and switched capacitor
regulator circuits (except for large capacitors)
can be fully integrated and are used in low-
power and low-voltage applications, usually
below several watts and 50 V. PWM and
resonant regulators are used at high power and
voltage levels. They are small in size, light in

Figure 3.2/a AC/DC power supply with linear regulator

Figure 3.2/b AC/DC power supply with switching-mode voltage regulator

25
weight, and have high conversion efficiency.
Two typical power supplies are shown in
Figure 3.2. The power supply in Figure 3.2/a
contains a linear DC voltage regulator while
the power supply in Figure 3.2/b contains a
switching-mode DC voltage regulator.
The first one consists of a low-frequency step-
down power line transformer, a front-end
rectifier, a low-pass filter, a linear voltage
regulator, and a load. The nominal AC voltage
of the mains network is 110V
RMS
in the USA
and 230V
RMS
in Europe, but the actual voltage
varies within a range of 20% of the nominal
voltage. The frequency of the AC line voltage
is 50Hz in Europe, and 60Hz in the USA
(however spacecraft applications use 20kHz,
in aircraft applications 400Hz is typical). The
line transformer reduces the relatively high
voltage of the mains network to a lower level,
usually ranging from 5 to 28V
RMS
. Because of
the low frequency of the AC line voltage, the
transformer is heavy and bulky. The output
voltage of the rectifier and the filter is
unregulated, and varies because of the peak
voltage of the power line varies, therefore a
voltage regulator is required between the filter
and the load.
The second power supply shown in Figure
3.2/b consists of a front-end rectifier, a low-
pass filter, an isolated DC/DC switching mode
voltage regulator, and a load. Such a circuit is
called an off-line power supply, as the AC
voltage is rectified directly from the AC
power line, thus no bulky low-frequency line-
transformer is needed. The switching-mode
voltage regulator contains a high-frequency
transformer to obtain DC isolation for the
entire supply, but since the switching
frequency is much higher than that of the AC
line frequency, the weight and size of the
transformer as well as inductors and capacitors
is reduced. The switching frequency usually
ranges from 25kHz to 500kHz (to eliminate
audio noise effects, it should be above
20kHz). A PWM switching mode voltage
regulator generates a high-frequency
rectangular voltage wave, which is rectified
and filtered. The duty cycle of the rectangular
wave is varied to control the output voltage,
therefore these voltage regulators are called
PWM DC/DC converters.
Power converters are used to convert one form
of electric energy to another. DC/DC
converters are applied to convert a regulated
or unregulated input DC voltage to an output
DC voltage of constant value, and keep its
value within a narrow range of the desired
value even if the line voltage, the load current,
or the temperature vary. This input voltage is
usually a battery or a rectified AC line
voltage. Different from the linear voltage
regulators, the output of PWM DC/DC
converters may be either lower or higher than
the input voltage, thus there are step-down and
step-up converters. Step-down converters
always decrease the input voltage value to a
lower level, while step-up converters increase
the input voltage to a higher average value
(the minimal output voltage is the input
voltage). There are so called step-up/step-

26
down converters. Their output voltage can be
either higher or lower than the output.
Considering the polarity of the output voltage,
there are inverting (opposite polarity) and
non-inverting (same polarity) DC/DC
converters. The dcdc converters may have
common negative or common positive input
and output terminals, and may have a single
output or multiple outputs. There are fixed
output and adjustable output voltage supplies.
E.g. 1.8V fixed voltage supplies are required
in some power electronics applications (e.g.
FPGAs or CPLDs, computer power supplies),
power supplies with adjustable output voltage
are necessary for several laboratory
measurements, He-Ne lasers, motor control
and so on. In some applications,
programmable power supplies with digitally
selected output voltages are required. Power
supplies may be non-isolated or isolated,
transformers can be used to obtain dc isolation
between the input and output and between the
different outputs. The most important
requirements of power supplies are: high
efficiency, high power density, high
reliability, and low cost.
D. Efficiency and power relationships of the
DC/DC converter [11]
The following letters will be used in this
section:
I
I (Average value of the) input current

I
i Function of input current
I
P Input power
I
V (Average) input voltage
O
P Output power
LS
P Power loss on the converter
Efficiency
O
LS
P
P
Normalized power loss
The input currents of switching-mode DC/Dc
converters are usually pulsating. The DC
component of the input current is given by:

Figure 3.3/b Adjustable voltage power supply

Figure 3.3/a DC/DC converter

27

=
T
I I
dt i
T
I
0
1
(3.1)
The DC input power of a converter is:
I I
T
I I
T
I I I
I V dt i
T
V i V
T
P = = =

0 0
1 1
(3.2)
Neglecting the AC components of the output
voltage and current (which are very small), the
output power of the DC/DC converter is
O O O
I V P = , (3.3)
and the power loss on the converter is
I O LS
P P P = (3.4)
The efficiency of the DC/DC converter can be
expressed by the following equation:
O
LS
LS O
O
I
O
P
P
P P
P
P
P
+
=
+
= =
1
1
(3.5)
From which:
1
1
=

O
LS
P
P
(3.6)
The normalized power loss decreases if the
efficiency increases.
II. PRINCIPLES OF PWM DC/DC
CONVERTERS [11]
In this section the basic equations of the
DC/DC converters and the methods of EMI
optimization will be discussed.
A. Relationship among Current, Voltage,
Energy, and Power
The average value of current i(t) is given by

=
T
AV
dt t i
T
I
0
) (
1
, (3.7)
and the RMS value of the current is

=
T
RMS
dt t i
T
I
0
2
) (
1
. (3.8)
Likewise, the average value of the voltage v(t)
can be expressed by the following equation

=
T
AV
dt t v
T
V
0
) (
1
, (3.9)
and the RMS value is

=
T
RMS
dt t v
T
V
0
2
) (
1
. (3.10)
The instantaneous power is given by
) ( ) ( ) ( t v t i t p = . (3.11)
The energy dissipated in a component or
delivered by a source over the time interval t
1


= =
1 1
0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
t t
dt t v t i dt t p W . (3.12)
For periodic waveforms in steady state the
power absorbed by a component or delivered
by a source is the time-average of the
instantaneous power over a period T of the
operating frequency,
W f
T
W
dt t v t i
T
P
T
= = =

0
) ( ) (
1
(3.13)

28
The average charge stored in a capacitor is
zero for periodic waves in steady state,
0 ) (
0
= =

T
C
dt t i Q (3.14)
This is called the principle of capacitor charge
balance or capacitor ampere-second balance.
Thus, the average current through a capacitor
for steady-state operation is zero,

= = =
T
C AV C
dt t i
T T
Q
I
0
) (
0 ) (
1
. (3.15)
For periodic waveforms in steady state, the
average magnetic flux linkage of an inductor
over one period is zero,

= =
T
L
dt t v
0
0 ) ( . (3.16)
This is called the inductor linkage balance or
inductor volt-second balance. The average
voltage across the inductor in steady state is
zero,

= = =
T
L AV L
dt t v
T T
V
0
) (
0 ) (
1
. (3.17)
The instantaneous energy stored in a capacitor
is
) (
2
1
) (
2
t Cv t w
C C
= , (3.18)
And in an inductor is
) (
2
1
) (
2
t Li t w
L L
= . (3.19)
B. Electromagnetic Compatibility
The switching of the semiconductor devices
causes current pulses at the input of the power
supplies. In technology of switching-mode
power supplies it is a very important problem
to understand and optimize the
electromagnetic compatibility. Because of the
switching of transistors and diodes PWM
converters work with rectangular waveforms,
thus with short rise time and fall time and high
dt dv / and dt di / . Therefore, these
waveforms exhibit a wide and strong
harmonic spectrum. PWM converters are
notorious sources of noises, radio frequency
interference and electromagnetic interference.
Suppressing the EMI is a important issue in
the design of switched-mode converters.
The mentioned strong harmonics may
interfere with electronic devices. The IEC
61000-3-2 international standard sets the
available level of harmonics.
Depending on the noise transmission there are
two main categories of noises:
conducted noise (450 kHz to 30 MHz);
radiated noise (30MHz to 1 GHz).

Figure 3.4 Electromagnetic compatibility

29
There are two types of conducted noise, these
are differential-mode noise and common mode
noise. Conducted noise can be suppressed by
adding appropriate filters to reduce the power
levels of unwanted frequencies in a specific
frequency band. Metallic shields are used to
prevent radiated noise. Another solution is the
spectral modification of EMI at source. This
affects both radiated and conducted
interference. These methods spread the
spectrum of the converter waveforms, thus the
power levels at specific frequencies are
reduced below the required levels to meet the
requirements of the EMI standards, without
additional filters and shields. One solution for
the problem is random modulation of the
converter switching frequency, this produces
random jitter around normal periodic voltage
and current waveforms, thus spreading the
spectrum and reducing the spectral peaks.
Another method is the converter operation
under chaos and chaotic modulation. All
switching mode converters are strongly
nonlinear systems, the occurrence of chaos is
quite common in them. The occurring chaotic
behaviour in switching-mode converters lead
to some inherent problems in practical
applications.
The current ripple and the power level of AC
components increase under chaotic operation,
reducing efficiency, and on the other hand, the
spectrum has a higher emission floor, and it
spreads into low frequency range, resulting in
audible acoustic disturbances.
These topics are not subjects of this thesis,
thus no further details will be discussed.
C. The topologies of DC/DC converters
In switched-mode technology a lot of
topologies are used. The family of single-
ended PWM DC/DC converters contains the
following topologies:
Buck converter
Boost converter
Buck/Boost converter
Flyback converter
Forward converter
Ck converter
SEPIC (single ended primary input
converter)
Dual SEPIC (also called Zeta or
inverse SEPIC) converter
The flyback converter is a transformer version
of the buck/boost converter, while the forward
converter is a transformer version of the buck
converter. The flyback converter and the dual
SEPIC are identical on the primary side of the
transformer. The SEPIC and the Ck
converters are identical on the primary side of
the transformer. The SEPIC and the flyback
converters are identical on the secondary side
of the transformer. Likewise, the dual SEPIC

30
and the Ck converters are identical on the
secondary side of the transformer.
The multiple-switch PWM DC/DC converters
are the half-bridge, the full bridge, and the
push-pull converters.
Switched-mode converters use duty-cycle
control of switching elements to block the
flow of the energy from the input to the output
and thus achieve voltage regulation. Using this
type of converters, the size of the transformer
and the energy storage components are
significantly reduced. Because of the high
switching frequency, a small transformer with
a ferrite core is appropriate. This size
reduction is very important in several
applications including aerospace, computers,
and wireless technologies. Of course, there is
a penalty paid due to the increased noise level,
which is important both at the input and at the
output of the supply due to the switching of
the semiconductor devices. Also the control
circuit required for PWM applications is much
more complicated than that of the linear
regulators.
III. THE BUCK CONVERTER [11]
In this section the circuit diagram of the buck
converter is explained. The waveforms for
both Continuous Conduction Mode and
Discontinuous Conduction Mode are
presented and derived. The voltage and
current stresses of the components are
calculated. Transfer function of the converter
is given for both modes. The boundary
between CCM and DCM is defined.
A. Circuit description
The circuit diagram of the Buck converter is
shown in Figure 3.5.
The circuit diagram of the Buck converter
contains four elements. These are a
semiconductor switch (S), a diode (D), an
inductor (L) and a filter capacitor (C). The
resistor R
L
represents a DC load. The
semiconductor switch is usually a power
MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field
Effect Transistor) because of its high speed,
however, Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs),
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) or
MOSFET-controlled thyristors are also
commonly used. The diode D is called a
freewheeling (or flywheel) diode. The
switching network consisting of the transistor
and the diode chops the DC input voltage,
therefore this kind of converters are called
choppers. The chopper always reduces the
input voltage to a lower level, therefore it is a
step-down converter.

Figure 3.5 The circuit diagram of the Buck
converter

31
The switch S is controlled by a PWM control
circuit with a switching frequency of
T
f
S
1
= .
The Duty cycle of the PWM is
ON S
OFF ON
ON ON
t f
t t
t
T
t
D =
+
= = , (25)
where
ON
t is the time when the switch is
closed and
OFF
t is the time when the switch is
open. Since the duty cycle D of the drive
voltage v
GS
varies, so does the duty ratio of
other waveforms. This permits the regulation
of the dc output voltage against changes in the
DC input voltage V
I
and the load resistance R
L

(or the load current I
O
).
It is difficult to drive the transistor, because
the gate of the MOSFET is not referenced to
ground. Floating gate drive is needed for the
transistor furthermore with the input current of
the converter being discontinuous an LC filter
may be required at the input.
The buck converter can operate in continuous
and discontinuous conduction mode. In CCM
the current is continuous and flows through
the entire cycle. In DCM the current flows
only during a part of the cycle, there is a time
interval when the current is zero, and only
starts to rise at the beginning of the new cycle.
Boundary of the continuous and discontinuous
operation mode is called critical operation.
Operation in CCM. Figure 3.6 shows the
Buck converter and the equivalent circuits of
the Buck converter for CCM, both for the time
interval when the S is ON and D is OFF
(Figure 3.6/b), and for the interval when S is
OFF and D is ON (Figure 3.6/c).
At time t=0 the switch is turned on by the
driver. The voltage across the diode is
I D
V V = , thus it becomes reverse biased. The
voltage across the inductor is V
L
=V
O
-V
I
,
therefore the current of the inductor begins to
rise with a slope of
L
V V
I O

. The inductor
current
L
i flows through the switch,
S L
i i = .
Energy is transferred from the DC input to the
inductor, capacitor and the load during this
interval. At time t=DT the driver turns off the
switch. Because of the non-zero current of the

Figure 3.6/a The Buck converter

Figure 3.6/b Equivalent circuit for CCM The
switch is ON and the diode is OFF

Figure 3.6/c Equivalent circuit for CCM the
switch is OFF and the diode is ON

32
inductor the current keeps flowing through the
load resistor in the same direction after the
switch-OFF of the transistor, as the current of
the inductor is a continuous function of time.
The inductor acting like a current source, turns
on the diode, thus the voltage across the
switch is V
I
, and the voltage across the
inductor is V
O
. The current of the inductor
begins to decrease linearly with a slope of
L
V
O
. The input voltage source is
disconnected from the circuit for this time
interval, thus no energy is delivered from the
input source to the load. During the time
interval when the switch is OFF, the energy
reservoir formed from the inductor and the
capacitor maintains the load voltage. At time
T t = the switch is turned on again, hence
energy increases. The transistor is turned on at
a high voltage and the switch voltage
waveform is rectangular, accordingly the
PWM converters are operated at hard
switching. The input voltage is converted to a
square wave at the input of the L-C-R
L
circuit.
The L-C-R
L
circuit works as a second order
low-pass filter, and converts the square wave
into a low ripple DC voltage. The average
output voltage equals to the average of the
square wave because the average voltage in
the inductor is zero for steady state. Varying
the MOSFET gate-to-drive voltage duty cycle,
the pulse width and through it the ON-time of
the switch S can be controlled. The average
value of the PWM voltage is almost
independent of the load for CCM operation, it
depends on the duty cycle (and the input
voltage):
I O
V D V = , (3.20)
Theoretically the duty ratio is varied between
0 and 100%, and thus the output voltage
between 0 and V
I
. Practically, due to the
resolution the actual value of D is varied

Figure 3.7 Buck converter in CCM

33
between 5 and 95%. The DC input V
I
may
vary over time while the output voltage should
be kept at a fixed value, therefore the value of
D is controlled so that when V
I
increases D
decreases, and vice versa. This way the
average value of the square wave
I
V D is
held constant. The duty cycle is controlled by
a relatively complex control circuit.
The current of the inductor contains an AC
component independent of the load current in
CCM. The DC component of the current
equals to the load current. Because the DC
output current flows through the inductor,
only one half of the B-H curve of the ferrite
core is exploited, the inductor should be
designed such that the core will not saturate. A
core with an air gap and an appropriate large
volume may be necessary.
B. Analysis of the Buck Converter for CCM
The following will be assumed in the analysis
below:
The power MOSFET and the diode are
ideal components
The transistor output capacitance, the
diode capacitance, and the lead
inductances are zero, and thus
switching losses are neglected.
Passive components are linear, time-
invariant, and frequency-independent.
The output impedance of the input
voltage source V
I
is zero for both dc
and ac components.
The converter is operating in steady
state.
The switching period T=1/f
S
is much
shorter than the time constants of
reactive components.
Time interval T D t < 0 . During this
period the diode is reverse biased. The voltage
across the inductor is
dt
di
L V V v
L
O I L
= = . (3.21)
The current through the inductor equals to the
current flowing through the switch. It is
expressed in Equation 3.22.
In Equation 3.22 ) 0 (
L
i is the initial current in
the inductor L at time t=0.
The peak inductor current becomes
) 0 (
) (
) (
L
O I
L
i
L
T D V V
DT i +

= , (3.23)
The peak-to-peak ripple current of the
inductor L is expressed in Equation 3.24.
The diode voltage is
I D
V v = , (3.25)
The peak value of the reverse voltage of the
diode:
I DM
V V = , (3.26)
The peak value of the switch current:
2
L
O SM
i
I I

+ = , (3.27)
The increase of the stored magnetic energy in
the inductor during the time interval
T D t < 0 :

34
[ ] ) 0 ( ) (
2
1
2 2
) ( L L in L
i DT i L W = (3.28)
At the time t=DT the switch is turned off by
the driver.
Time interval T t DT < . During this
interval the semiconductor switch S is OFF
and the diode D is ON. Figure 3.6/c shows the
equivalent circuit of the Buck converter for
this interval.
The current of the inductor is not zero at the
time DT when the switch turns on, and the
current of the inductor i
L
is a continuous
function of time, the inductor acts like a
current source, and turns the diode on. While
the current through the switch and the voltage
across the diode is zero, the voltage across the
inductor L is:
dt
di
L V v
L
O L
= = , (3.29)
The current through the inductor L and the
diode D is expressed from Equation 3.30:
) ( ) ( DT i DT t
L
V
L
O
+

3.31)
In the previous equation i
L
(DT) is the initial
condition of the inductor L at t=DT. The peak-
to-peak ripple current of the inductor L is
=

= =
L
D T V
T i DT i i
O
L L L
) 1 (
) ( ) (
L f
D V
S
O

=
) 1 (
(3.32)
In CCM the peak-to-peak value of the
inductor current ripple
L
i is independent of
the load current I
O
and depends only on the
input voltage V
I
and thereby on the duty cycle
D. For a certain output voltage V
O
the
maximum output current ripple occurs at the
maximum input voltage, which is present at
the minimal duty cycle.
L f
D V
i
S
O
L

=
) 1 (
min
max
(3.33)
The switch voltage vS and the peak switch
voltage VSM are equal:
I SM S
V V v = = (3.34)
The peak diode and switch currents are the
same:
2
L
O SM DM
i
I I I

+ = = (3.35)
The driver turns on the switch at t=T.
The magnetic energy stored in the inductor is
decreased during this interval. The decrease is
expressed by the following equation:
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
1
0 0
L
O I
L
t
O I
L
t
L S L
i t
L
V V
i dt
L
V V
i dt v
L
i i +

= +

= + = =

(3.22)
( )
L f
D D V
L f
D V V
L
DT V V
i DT i i
S
I
S
O I O I
L L L

= =
) 1 ( ) (
) 0 ( ) ( (3.24)

35
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
1
2 2
) (
T i DT i L W
L L out L
= (3.36)
For steady state operation, the magnetic
energy decrease expressed by Equation 3.36
equals to the energy increase expressed by
Equation 3.28 (
) ( ) ( in L out L
W W = ).
Device Stresses for CCM. The maximum
voltage and current stresses of the
semiconductor components can be calculated.
The voltage stress:
ax DM SM
V V V
Im max max
= = (3.37)
The current stress calculation can be seen in
Equation 3.38.
DC voltage transfer function for CCM. The
voltage transfer function of the lossless Buck
converter:
D
I
I
V
V
M
O
I
I
O
DC V
= = (3.39)
DC V
M ranges from 0 to 1.
The DC current transfer function:
D I
I
M
I
O
IDC
1
= = (3.40)
C. Buck converter in DCM
In this section the equations of the
Dicontinuous conduction mode will not be
derived, only the final forms are mentioned.
Letters used in this section:
VDC
M DC voltage transfer function of the
converter
S
f Switching frequency
L Inductance in the circuit
D Duty cycle
L
R DC load resistance
max SM
I Maximum of the peak switch
current
Figure 3.8 Buck converter in DCM operation

36
max DM
I Maximum of the peak diode
current
max . I
V Maximum of the DC input voltage
of the converter
min L
R Minimum value of load resistance
max
L Maximum inductance for DCM
operation
max B
D maximum duty cycle at the
CCM/DCM boundary
DC voltage transfer function for DCM:
L
S
VDC
R D
L f
M
2
8
1 1
2
+ +
= (3.41)
for
L
S
VDC
R
L f
M
2
1 .
Device stresses for DCM:
L f
D V V
i I I
S
O I
L DM SM
min max .
max max max
) (
= = =
(3.42)
Maximum inductance for DCM:
S
B L
f
D R
L
2
) 1 (
max min
max

= (3.43)
The waveforms for DCM are shown in Figure
3.8.
IV. THE BOOST CONVERTER [11]
In this section the operation of the Boost
converter is detailed. The waveforms for both
Continuous Conduction Mode and
Discontinuous Conduction Mode are
presented and derived. The voltage and
current stresses of the components are
calculated. Transfer functions of the converter
are given for both modes. The boundary
between CCM and DCM is defined.
A. Circuit description
The circuit diagram of the Boost converter is
shown in Figure 3.9/a.
The circuit diagram of the Boost converter
contains four elements. These are a
semiconductor switch (S), a diode (D), an
inductor (L) and a filter capacitor (C). The
resistor R
L
represents a DC load. The
semiconductor switch is a MOSFET in this
case. The diode D is a freewheeling diode. For
steady state the output voltage of the boost
converter is always higher than the input
voltage level, the circuit boosts the input
voltage to a higher level. Therefore it is a step-
up converter.
The switch S is controlled by a PWM control
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
DT i TD t
L
V
DT i dt
L
V
DT i dt v
L
i i
L
O
L
T
DT
O
L
T
DT
L D L
+

= +

= + = =

(3.30)
L f
D V
I
L f
D V V
I
I
I I I
S
O
O
S
O ax
O
L
O DM SM
2
) 1 (
2
) (
2
min
max
min Im
max
max
max max max

+ =

+ ==

+ = = (3.38)

37
circuit with a switching frequency of
T f
S
/ 1 = . The Duty cycle is D=t
ON
/T
The driving of the transistor is simple because
the gate of the MOSFET is referenced to
ground.
The Boost converter can operate in continuous
and discontinuous conduction mode. The
Boost converter cannot operate at =
L
R in
DCM because the filter capacitor has no way
to discharge. Boundary of the continuous and
discontinuous operation mode is called critical
operation.
Operation in CCM. Figure 3.9 shows the
Boost converter and the equivalent circuits of
the Buck converter for CCM, both for the time
interval when the S is ON and D is OFF
(Figure 3.9/b), and for the interval when S is
OFF and D is ON (Figure 3.9/c).
At time t=0 the switch is turned on by the
driver. The voltage across the diode is
O D
V V = , thus it becomes reverse biased. The
voltage across the inductor is V
L
=V
I
, therefore
the current of the inductor begins to rise with a
slope of L V
I
/ . The inductor current
L
i flows
through the switch,
S L
i i = .
Energy is transferred from the DC input to the
inductor, the magnetic energy increases. At
time t=DT the switch turns OFF. Because of
the non-zero current of the inductor the
current starts to flow through the diode, the
capacitor, and the resistor. The voltage across
the inductor is 0 > =
O I L
V V v , hence, the
inductor current decreases with a slope of
L V V
O I
/ ) ( . The diode current equals to the
inductor current. At time t=T, the switch turns
on again, and a new cycle begins.
The boost converter has poor ability to prevent
hazardous transients and failures. When a high
amplitude wave occurs in the input voltage the
phenomena of cycle-skip appears. It means
that because the input voltage is higher than
the output voltage the diode D stays on for
several full cycles. Because of this a large
current spike occurs on the diode which might
destroy it. A similar effect appears at the
initial start-up of the converter. The output
voltage is zero at the beginning, thus the

Figure 3.9/a The Boost converter

Figure 3.9/b Equivalent circuit for CCM The
switch is ON and the diode is OFF

Figure 3.9/c Equivalent circuit for CCM the switch
is OFF and the diode is ON

38
output voltage is lower than the input voltage
until the steady state is reached. To protect the
converter a diode needs to be connected in the
circuit. Its anode is connected to the input
source V
I
and its cathode is connected to the
output filter capacitor. With the capacitor and
the additional diode forming a peak rectifier,
the current flows from the input of the
converter to the output of the converter
through the additional diode. When the output
voltage is higher than the input voltage the
additional diode becomes reverse biased, and
normal converter operation begins.
B. Analysis of the Boost Converter for
CCM
The following will be assumed in the analysis
below:
The power MOSFET and the diode are
ideal components
The transistor output capacitance, the
diode capacitance, and the lead
inductances are zero, and thus
switching losses are neglected.
Passive components are linear, time-
invariant, and frequency-independent.
The output impedance of the input
voltage source V
I
is zero for both dc
and ac components.
Time interval T D t < 0 . During this
period the switch S is ON, the diode is reverse
biased. The voltage across the switch v
S
and
the diode current are zero. The voltage across
the inductor is
dt
di
L V V v
L
O I L
= = . (3.44)

Figure 3.10 Boost converter in CCM

39
The current through the inductor equals to the
current flowing through the switch. It is
expressed in Equation 3.45.
In Equation 3.45 ) 0 (
L
i is the initial current in
the inductor L at time t=0.
The peak inductor current becomes
) 0 ( ) (
L
I
L
i
L
T D V
DT i +

= , (3.46)
The peak-to-peak ripple current of the
inductor L is expressed in Equation 3.47. For
fixed values of f
S
, L, and V
O:
) 2 1 ( D
L f
V
dD
i d
S
O L

, (3.48)
Setting this derivative zero, the maximal value
of
L
i occurs at D=0.5:
L f
V
i
S
O
L
4
max
= (3.49)
As D increases the current ripple also
increases until D becomes 0.5, then it
decreases to zero between 0.5 and 1.
The diode voltage is
O D
V v = , (3.50)
The average value of the inductor current I
L
is
equal to the dc input current I
I
. The peak
value of the switch current
2 1 2
L O L
I SM
i
D
I i
I I

+

+ = , (3.51)
The increase of the stored magnetic energy in
the inductor during the time interval
T D t < 0 :
[ ] ) 0 ( ) (
2
1
2 2
) ( L L in L
i DT i L W = (3.52)
At the time t=DT the switch is turned off by
the driver.
Time interval T t DT < . During this
interval the semiconductor switch S is OFF
and the diode D is ON. Figure 3.9/c shows the
equivalent circuit of the Boost converter for
this interval. The switch current and the diode
voltage are zero. The inductor discharges
during this interval. The inductor voltage is:
0 < = =
dt
di
L V V v
L
O I L
, (3.53)
The current through the inductor L and the
diode D is expressed from Equation 3.54. In
this equation i
L
(DT) is the initial value of the
inductor current at time t=DT.
) ( ) ( DT i DT t
L
V V
L
O I
+

(3.55)
The peak-to-peak ripple current of the
) 0 ( ) 0 (
1
) 0 (
1
0 0
L
I
L
t
I L
t
L S L
i t
L
V
i dt V
L
i dt v
L
i i + = + = + = =

(3.45)
L f
D D V
L f
D V
L
DT V
i DT i i
S
O
S
I I
L L L

= = =
) 1 (
) 0 ( ) ( (3.47)
) ( ) ( ) (
1
) (
1
DT i TD t
L
V V
DT i dt V V
L
DT i dt v
L
i i
L
O I
L
T
DT
O I L
T
DT
L D L
+

= + = + = =

(3.54)

40
inductor L is
=

= =
L
T D V V
T i DT i i
I O
L L L
) 1 )( (
) ( ) (
L f
D D V
S
O


=
) 1 (
(3.56)
Where ) 1 ( D V V
O I
= .
The voltage across the switch S is given by
SM O S
V V v = = (3.57)
The peak current of the diode and the switch is
given by:
2 1 2
L O L
I SM DM
i
D
I i
I I I

+

+ = = (3.58)
This expression for the worst case is:
2 1 2
max max max
max . max max
L O L
I SM DM
i
D
I i
I I I

+

+ = =
(3.59)
This time interval ends at t=T when the switch
is turned on by the driver.
The magnetic energy stored in the inductor is
decreasing during this interval. The decrease
is expressed by the following equation:
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
1
2 2
) (
T i DT i L W
L L out L
= (3.60)
For steady state operation, the magnetic
energy decrease expressed by Equation 3.60
equals to the energy increase expressed by
Equation 3.52 (
) ( ) ( in L out L
W W = ).
DC voltage transfer function for CCM. The
voltage transfer function of the lossless Buck
converter:
D I
I
V
V
M
O
I
I
O
DC V

= =
1
1
(3.61)
DC V
M ranges from 1 to .
The DC current transfer function:
D
I
I
M
I
O
IDC
= = 1 (3.62)
C. Boost converter in DCM
In this section the equations of the
Discontinuous Conduction Mode will not be
derived, only the final forms are mentioned.
Letters used in this section:
VDC
M DC voltage transfer function of the
converter
S
f Switching frequency
L Inductance in the circuit
D Duty cycle
L
R DC load resistance
max SM
I Maximum of the peak switch
current
max DM
I Maximum of the peak diode
current
max . I
V Maximum of the DC input voltage
of the converter
min L
R Minimum value of load resistance
max
L Maximum inductance for DCM
operation
max B
D maximum duty cycle at the
CCM/DCM boundary
DC voltage transfer function for DCM:

41
2
2
1 1
2
L f
R D
M
S
L
VDC
+ +
= (3.63)
for
1 2
3

VDC
VDC
S
M
M
L f
RL
.
Device stresses for DCM:
L f
D V
i I I
S
I
L DM SM
max min .
max max max
= = = (3.64)
O DM SM
V V V = =
max max
(3.65
Maximum inductance for DCM:

<

=
3
1
2
) 1 (
3
1
2
) 1 (
2
max max min
2
min min min
max
D for
f
D D R
D for
f
D D R
L
S
B B L
S
B B L
(3.66)
The waveforms for DCM are shown in Figure
3.12.
VI. THE BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER
[11]
In this section the circuit diagram of the Buck-
Boost converter is explained. The waveforms
for both Continuous Conduction Mode and
Discontinuous Conduction Mode are
presented and derived. Transfer function of
the converter is given for both modes. The
boundary between CCM and DCM is defined.
Voltage and current ripple calculations are
presented in detail.
A. Circuit description
The circuit diagram of the Buck-Boost
converter is shown in Figure 3.10/a.
The Buck-Boost converter circuit contains
four elements. These are a MOSFET switch
(S) operated as a controllable switch, a diode
(D), an inductor (L) and a filter capacitor (C).
The resistor R
L
represents a DC load.
The switch S is controlled by a PWM control
circuit with a switching frequency of
T f
S
/ 1 = . The Duty cycle of the PWM is
T t D
ON
/ = .
Figure 3.11/a The Buck-Boost converter

Figure 3.11/b Equivalent circuit for CCM The
switch is ON and the diode is OFF

Figure 3.11/c Equivalent circuit for CCM the
switch is OFF and the diode is ON

42
It is difficult to drive the transistor, because
the gate of the MOSFET is not referenced to
ground, the gate drive is floating.
The Buck-Boost converter can operate in
continuous and discontinuous conduction
mode. Boundary of the continuous and
discontinuous operation mode is called critical
operation.
Let us consider operation in CCM. Figure
3.10 shows the Buck-Boost converter and the
equivalent circuits of the Buck converter for
CCM, both for the time interval when the S is
ON and D is OFF (Figure 3.10/b), and for the
interval when S is OFF and D is ON (Figure
3.10/c).
At time t=0 the switch is turned on by the
driver. The voltage across the diode is
) (
O I
V V + thus it becomes reverse biased.
The voltage across the inductor is V
I
and gives
rise to a linear increase in the inductor current
with a slope of V
I
/L.
At time t=DT the driver turns off the switch.
The diode turns on, and the inductor drives
current through the circuit. The voltage across
the inductor is -V
O
. This causes the decrease
of the current with a slope of -V
O
/L. The
voltage across the switch is V
I
+V
O
.
At time T t = the switch is turned on again,
hence energy increases, a new cycle begins.
B. Analysis of the Buck-Boost Converter
for CCM
The analysis will be done with the following
assumptions:
The power MOSFET and the diode are
ideal components
The transistor output capacitance, the
diode capacitance, and the lead
Figure 3.12 - Boost converter in DCM operation

43
inductances are zero, and thus
switching losses are neglected.
Passive components are linear, time-
invariant, and frequency-independent.
The output impedance of the input
voltage source V
I
is zero for both dc
and ac components.
Time interval T D t < 0 . During this
period the diode is reverse biased. The voltage
across the inductor is
dt
di
L V v
L
I L
= = . (3.67)
The current through the inductor equals to the
current flowing through the switch. It is
expressed in Equation 3.68. ) 0 (
L
i is the initial
current in the inductor L at time t=0.
The peak inductor current becomes
L f
D V
i
L
T D V
DT i
S
I
L
I
L

= +

= ) 0 ( ) ( , (3.69)
The peak-to-peak ripple current of the
inductor L is expressed as:
L f
D V
L
DT V
i DT i DT i
S
I I
L L L
= = = ) 0 ( ) ( ) (
(3.70)

Figure 3.13 Buck-Boost converter in CCM
) 0 ( ) 0 (
1
) 0 (
1
L
O
L
T
DT
I L
T
DT
L D L
i t
L
V
i dt V
L
i dt v
L
i i +

= + = + = =

(3.68)

44
The diode voltage is
D
V
M
V V V v
O
VDC
O O I D
=
|
|

\
|
+ = + = 1
1
) ( ,
(3.71)
The peak value of the switch current:
2 1 2
) (
L O L
I O peak L SM
i
D
I i
I I I I

+

+ + = = ,
(3.72)
The increase of the magnetic energy stored in
the inductor during the time interval
T D t < 0 :
[ ] ) 0 ( ) (
2
1
2 2
) ( L L in L
i DT i L W = (3.73)
At the time t=DT the switch is turned off by
the driver.
Time interval T t DT < . During this
interval the semiconductor switch S is OFF
and the diode D is ON. Figure 3.10/c shows
the equivalent circuit of the Buck converter
for this interval.
The current of the inductor is not zero at the
time DT when the switch turns on, and the
current of the inductor i
L
is a continuous
function of time, the inductor acts like a
current source, and turns the diode on. While
the current through the switch and the voltage
across the diode is zero, the voltage across the
inductor L is:
dt
di
L V v
L
O L
= = , (3.74)
The current through the inductor L and the
diode D is expressed in Equation 3.75.
In the previous equation i
L
(DT) is the initial
condition of the inductor L at t=DT. The peak-
to-peak ripple current of the inductor L is
=

= =
L
D T V
T i DT i i
O
L L L
) 1 (
) ( ) (
L f
D V
S
O

=
) 1 (
(3.76)
The switch voltage v
S
and the peak switch
voltage V
SM
are equal:
D
V
V V V v
O
O I SM S
= + = = (3.77
The peak diode and switch currents are the
same:
2 1 2
) (
L O L
I O peak L DM
i
D
I i
I I I I

+

+ + = =
) 0 ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
) (
1
L
S
I O
L
T
DT
O L
T
DT
L D L
i
L f
D V
TD t
L
V
DT i dt V
L
DT i dt v
L
i i + +

= + = + = =

(3.75)
2 1 2
max
max
max max
max . max max max
L O L
I O SM DM
i
D
I i
I I I I

+

+ + = (3.79)
L f
D V
D
I i
I I I I
S
O O L
I O DM SM
2
) 1 (
1 2
max
max
max min
max . max max max

+ + = = (3.82)

45
(3.78)
The maximum value of the peak currents are
expressed in Equation 3.79. The maximum
DC input current occurs at D
max
while the
maximum peak-to-peak ripple current of the
inductor occurs at D
min
.
The driver turns on the switch at t=T.
The magnetic energy stored in the inductor is
decreased during this interval. The decrease is
expressed by the following equation:
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
1
2 2
) (
T i DT i L W
L L out L
= (3.80)
For steady state operation, the magnetic
energy decrease expressed by Equation 3.80
equals to the energy increase expressed by
Equation 3.73 (
) ( ) ( in L out L
W W = ).
Device Stresses for CCM. The maximum
voltage and current stresses of the
semiconductor components can be calculated.
The voltage stress:
min
max . max max
D
V
V V V V
O
O I DM SM
= + = = (3.81)
The current stress calculation can be seen in
Equation 3.82.
DC voltage and current transfer function
for CCM. The DC voltage transfer function
can be calculated from the following
expression:
D
D
I
I
V
V
M
O
I
I
O
VDC

= =
1
(3.83)
The DC current transfer function is
D
D
I
I
M
I
O
IDC

= =
1
(3.84)
C. Buck-Boost converter in DCM
In this section the equations of the
Discontinuous Conduction Mode will not be
derived, only the final forms are mentioned.
Letters used in this section:
VDC
M DC voltage transfer function of the
converter
S
f Switching frequency
L Inductance in the circuit
D Duty cycle
Figure 3.14/a The Buck-Boost converter

Figure 3.14/b Equivalent circuit for CCM The
switch is ON and the diode is OFF

Figure 3.14/c Equivalent circuit for CCM the
switch is OFF and the diode is ON

46
L
R DC load resistance
max SM
I Maximum of the peak switch
current
max DM
I Maximum of the peak diode
current
max . I
V Maximum of the DC input voltage
of the converter
min L
R Minimum value of load resistance
max
L Maximum inductance for DCM
operation
max B
D maximum duty cycle at the
CCM/DCM boundary
min
D The minimum duty cycle
max SM
V Maximal peak voltage of the
switch
max DM
V Maximal peak voltage of the diode
DC voltage transfer function for DCM:
L f
R
D M
S
L
VDC
2
= (3.85)
for
L
S
R
L f
D
2
1 .
Device stresses for DCM:
L f
D V
i I I
S
I
L DM SM
min max .
max max max
= = = (3.86)
O I DM SM
V V V V + = =
max . max max
(3.87)
Maximum inductance for DCM:
S
B L
f
D R
L
2
) 1 (
2
max min
max

= (3.88)
The waveforms for DCM are shown in Figure
3.15.

Figure 3.15 Buck-Boost converter in DCM
operation

47
CHAPTER 4
DESCRIPTION OF THE MEASUREMENT KIT
The practical part of the task was to execute
measurements concerning some basic
applications of PWM. These simple examples
are the three basic types of DC/DC converters.
An additional task occurred during the
semester that meant investigation of the single
phase power inverter circuit. To execute these
measurements I used the devices and
measurements of the Department. These were
mainly the elements of the LEYBOLD
DIDACTIC measurement kit, but several
other instruments were also needed. This
chapter gives an overview of the devices and
instruments that are necessary to execute these
measurements.
I. LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH
MEASUREMENT KIT
This section gives an overview of the
operation and functionality of the elements
designed by LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH
for educational purposes. In the next chapter
(Chapter 5 Measurements and evaluation)
the necessary elements are listed at the
beginning of all sections.
The following list contains all the elements
used:
Stabilized Power Supply 15V
(No. 72686)
Reference Variable Generator
(No. 73402)
Control Unit PWM/PFM
(No. 735341)
MOSFET (No. 73542)
IGBT (No. 735346)
Diode (No. 73502)
Panel of different loads
(No. 73509)
A. Stabilized Power Supply [12]
The device supplies the system with the
necessary DC voltage 15V, it has a 0V safety
socket. It is a stabilized power supply, the
output voltage ripple is low. Figure 4.1 shows
the power supply, the numbers refer to the
following:
1. Mains switch, illuminated
2. Mains fuses M 1.0
3. Safety sockets, (+15 V DC) for tapping
of the output voltage
4. Safety sockets, (0V) for tapping of the
output voltage +15 V DC
5. Safety sockets, (15 V DC) for the
tapping of the output voltage
6. LED, for monitoring the output voltage
+15 V DC

48
7. LED, for monitoring the output voltage
15 V DC
8. Connection socket
Technical data:
Input voltage: 230 V AC,
50...60 Hz
Output voltage: 15 V DC/3 A
stabilized, short-circuit proof
Fuse: Mains fuse M 1.0
Output: 8 safety sockets, 4 mm
Connection: Mains connection
cable with earthing-pin plug
B. Reference Variable Generator [13]
The reference variable generator provides the
necessary adjustable DC voltage for the
Control Unit PWM/PFM that controls the
semiconductor switches (these are the
MOSFET and the IGBT in this case). With a
knob we can adjust the output voltage of this
reference variable generator. Its scale allows
us to change the control voltage with a
minimal value of 0.5V. There can be smaller
changes in the control voltage, but in that case
the control voltage cannot be precisely read
from the panel.
Its input voltage is 15V and its output
voltage varies between 10V.
The operation of this panel (the numbers
refer to Figure 4.2):
If switch S1 (1) is in the lower position, the
following signal may be tapped at output (2):
1. With a bridging plug connected to
(3): 10 V to + 10 V
2. With a bridging plug connected to
(7): 0 V to + 10 V
If switch S1 (1) is in the upper position, a
reference voltage or reference variable may be
connected to input (6). If connections (5) and
(7) are plugged in, then positive step changes
from 0 V to the set end value are generated by
the switch (1). Positive or negative outgoing
step functions can be supplied with connection
(5) and (3). The voltage value is determined
by the setting of the reference variable
generator (4).

Figure 4.1 Stabilized Power Supply
(No.72686)

49
Output (2) is buffered.
C. Control Unit PWM/PFM [14]
The control unit provides the control signal for
the semiconductor switches. The unit can
generate the control signal three different
ways, these are:
Pulse Width Control
Pulse Frequency Control
Two-Position Frequency Control
Pulse Width Control. Using this type of
control, the width of the pulse (the ON-time -
or the OFF-time - of the switch) is varied,
while the time period T (and thus the
switching frequency f) is held constant. Pulse
Width Control is the easiest control method to
operate and can be used with every switching
controller.
Pulse Frequency Control. In this type of
control t
ON
the pulse duration is kept constant,
while the t
OFF
and thus the time period T and
the switching frequency f is varied. This type
of control should be used only with low-
setting control. However, it should be noted
here that, usually, low operating frequencies
demand complex application of smoothing
elements if pulsating current is to be avoided.
Two-position Frequency Control. This type
of control is often used with load current or
load voltage closed-loop control. The
corresponding ON or OFF switching pulse is
supplied by the controller as soon as the
current or voltage actual value leaves the
acceptable tolerance range. This type of
control can only be used in conjunction with a
low setting controller.
The control unit consists of four fully
independent elements, the pulse width
modulator, the pulse frequency modulator, the
two-position controller, and the output
amplifier. The numbers used in the description
of these independent elements refer to Figure
4.3.
Pulse Width Modulator. A control voltage is
applied at control input (1). It is only sensible
to set an amplitude between 0 and 10V. This

Figure 4.2 Reference Variable Generator
(No. 73402)

50
amplitude determines the mark-space ratio
(duty cycle) of the square-wave voltage
present at output (9). The duty cycle then has a
value of 0..90%. The pulse frequency can be
set roughly using rotary switch (4) and finely
adjusted using potentiometer (5).
Pulse Frequency Modulator. The control
voltage at (1) also determines the frequency of
the PFM. The 0V value corresponds to the
minimum frequency of 20Hz, while the 10V
value corresponds to the maximum frequency
of 20kHz. The pulse duration tON is set
roughly using rotary switch (6) and finely
adjusted using potentiometer (7). The square-
wave voltage is present at output (10)
The Two-Position Controller. The desired
value of the quantity to be controlled is
present at input (1). Usually, this is achieved
using the set point potentiometer 734 02. The
actual value of the controlled quantity is fed
back to input (2). If necessary, the actual value
must be adjusted to the required amplitude
using voltage divider 20:1 734 20 or the offset
adjust 734 19. (These instruments are not
available at the Department.)
The pulse at output (11) is switched off when
the actual value is larger than the desired value
by the amount of the hysteresis set using
potentiometer (8). When the actual value is
less than the desired value by the amount of
the hysteresis, the pulse is switched on at
output (11). The pulse settles in relation to the
time overload constants.
Output Amplifier. The input of the output
amplifier is connected with one of the three
outputs described previously via a bridging
plug. The signals are then inverted by the
upper amplifier and supplied to the output (13)
via the transformer, in the case of the lower
amplifier, the signals are transformed non-
inverted to output (15). The respective
switching states are displayed with LEDs (14)
and (16). In order to be able to transform long
pulses with a trigger pulse transformer, the
signal is chopped with approx. 60kHz and
rectified again on the secondary side. Because
of this the output voltage has a relatively
strong ripple, which is, however, not a
disturbance factor.
If the control input H N I (3) is connected to
ground, the pulses are inhibited. The voltage
at output (15) then continuously amounts to
0V. Thus output (13) is always switched on.

Figure 4.3 The Control Unit PWM/PFM

51
For this reason output (13) is primarily used
for triggering the gate turn-off thyristor, i.e.
for the turn-off pulse of the GTO thyristor. In
order to do this output (15) and (13) must be
connected in antiparallel configuration.
D. MOSFET [15] [16]
This element is operated in switching-mode.
As a semiconductor switch it is controlled by
the Control Unit PWM (No. 735341). The
MOSFET is shown in Figure 4.4.
Essential features of the MOSFET:
High switching capacity
Easy parallel connection of several
transistors to increase capacity
Extremely short switching times
Adjustable switching time
Linear characteristics
Very high cut-off frequency
High current and voltage stability
High pulse stability (no second
breakdown)
No storage time
Application of MOSFETs
MOSFETs are particularly suitable for
applications requiring fast switching at low
with very few external triggering components
and power levels. The control power depends
on the circuit output. Switched-mode power
supplies are the main application field of
MOSFETs. High cut-off power MOSFETs
(500-1000V) are used for switched-mode
power supplies, and low cut-off power
MOSFETs (100-200V) are used for DC
choppers fed with a direct voltage.
E. IGBT [15] [16]
This element is operated in switching-mode.
As a semiconductor switch it is controlled by
the Control Unit PWM (No. 735341). The
IGBT is shown in Figure 4.5.
Essential features of the IGBT:
Relatively high switching frequency
(30kHz)
Higher current carrying capacity
Goon ON-state response
Triggering requirements are very low
Very good utilization of the chip area

Figure 4.4 Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-
Effect Transistor (MOSFET)

52
Excellent ruggedness and tolerance of
overloads
Application of IGBTs
These switches are used medium to high
power applications, such as switched-mode
power supplies, traction motor control and
induction heating. IGBTs have achieved great
commercial success in switching applications,
particularly in the field of drive technology.
F. Diode
The component is a diode which conducts
current through the circuit in the OFF-state of
the switch. It is a fast recovery diode. Its
maximal current is 11A, and the maximal
voltage stress is 1000V.
G. Panel of different loads
This panel contains three resistors of
resistance R=100, a resistor of R=1000 ,
three capacitors (C
1
=4F, C
2
=8F, C
3
=16F),
and two inductors of an inductance of 50mH.
These can be connected in series or in parallel.
A picture of this panel is seen in Figure 4.6.
II. OTHER INSTRUMENTS USED
Some other equipment needed to be used to
execute the measurement. These are described
below.

Figure 4.5 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
(IGBT)

Figure 4.7 The panel of different loads

Figure 4.6 - Diode

53
A. Digital Oscilloscope
A digital scope was used to save pictures of
the waveforms. The scope pictures in this
thesis were captured by a Digilent
Technologies digital scope. It has a USB
connection, with that the pictures could be
saved directly to a pen drive.
B. Analog Voltmeter and Ammeter, Digital
Multimeter
These instruments were used to measure the
DC voltage in case of the DC/DC converters
and the effective value in case of the inverter.
C. Voltage Divider Probe
This device is used to connect high voltages to
the oscilloscope. The largest scale on the
scope is 5V/div, which is not enough to
display voltages as high as 150-180V. This
instrument divides the voltage value by 10,
thus a voltage value of 180V will be only 18V
on the scope. The device can be seen on
Figure 4.8.
D. Current Clamp
A current clamp was used to generate a
voltage waveform proportional to the current
flowing in cables, thus the Continuous and
Discontinuous Conduction Modes could be
analyzed. From the magnetic field of the
current flowing in the cable this device
generates a voltage waveform that shows the
shape of the current through the wire. This
voltage value can be connected to the scope.
The two settings are 100mV/A and 10mV/A.
Figure 4.9 shows the device working.
E. Isolation Transformer
For security reasons the scope was connected
to the mains voltage through an isolation
transformer.

Figure 4.8 Voltage Divider

Figure 4.9 Fluke Current Clamp

54

CHAPTER 5
MEASUREMENTS AND EVALUATION
The measurements done as a practical part of
this thesis were aimed at finding actual tasks
for the laboratory measurements of the
subject of Selected Chapters of Electrical
engineering. The devices of the department
are designed and manufactured by Leybold
Didactic GmbH. The main task was to
execute and document measurements
available with the equipment of the
department, and to suggest possible
additional elements which could improve
and widen the range of executable
measurements.
I. THE BUCK CONVERTER
The first task was to execute measurements
concerning the Buck (or step-down)
converter. The circuit diagram of the Buck
converter is shown in Figure 5.3, while
Figure 5.2 shows a photo of the actual
Leybold devices and the wiring required for
the Buck converter.
The Buck converter circuit investigated in
this measurement consists of six Leybold
elements: a stabilized power supply -15 to
+15 V (No. 72686), a reference variable
generator (No. 73402), a control unit
PWM/PFM (No. 735341), a MOSFET (No.
Figure 5.2 Wiring of the Buck converter
Buck converter
Output voltage with respect to the duty cycle
(digital multimeter)
0
3
6
9
12
15
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Duty Cycle [%]
O
u
t
p
u
t

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]

Figure 5.1 Buck converter output voltage

55
73542), a diode (No. 73502), and a block
containing different kinds of loads
inductors, resistors, capacitors (No. 73509).
The detailed description of the elements used
during this measurement is found in the
previous chapter (Chapter 4 Description of
the measurement kit).
During the measurements I used a MOSFET
as the semiconductor switch, because of its
good properties at high speeds. As load an
inductance of 50mH, a capacitance of 8F,
and three resistances of 100 connected in
parallel making up a resultant resistance of
3 . 33
&
were used.
The resistor is operating as load resistor, the
capacitance and the inductor are creating an
output filter. The control unit is operated as a
PWM generator.
The measurement tasks and the measurement
results will be presented in the following
sections.
A. The Minimal and the Maximal Voltage
The first task investigating the Buck
converter was to analyze the output voltage
with an oscilloscope. During the
measurement I used a digital scope, so that
the pictures of the waveforms can be easily
saved and used.
Figure 5.3 shows the waveform of the output
voltage for different duty cycles.
It is to be mentioned, that the voltage ripple
is relatively high in the output voltage. The
minimal value of the voltage is found at
D=0%, and the maximal value can be found
at around D=95%, the maximal stable duty
cycle of the control unit PWM. The maximal
and minimal values of the voltage are:
V U 0
min

V U 15
max

Table 2 of APPENDIX B shows the output
voltage values measured with a digital
device with respect to the duty cycle.
Letters used:
V
c
[V] Control signal value in volts.
D [-] Duty cycle in percentage.
V
o
[V] Output voltage
In case of the Buck converter, the maximal
voltage is not a function of the PWM
frequency, its value is always slightly below
15V.
B. The voltage across the diode
The next task was to examine the diode
voltage with the digital scope with respect to
the duty cycle. In case of the Buck converter
the diode voltage is the reverse of the output
Figure 5.3 The Buck converter

56
voltage, because the average voltage on the
inductor equals to zero for the entire period.
(See Chapter 3 Essential DC/DC
converters)
Table 1 of APPENDIX B contains the
measured voltage values.
According to Table 1 of APPENDIX B we
can state, that the diode voltage is roughly
the same as the output voltage of the
converter.
Figure 5.4 shows the diode voltage
waveforms with respect to the duty cycle.
Figure 5.5 shows the diagram of the diode
voltage as a function of the duty cycle. The
function looks like the function of the output
voltage.
C. The boundary between CCM and DCM
The next step was to find the boundary
between CCM and DCM. The measurements
revealed that there is no Discontinuous
Conduction Mode at 500Hz and above.
Therefore the frequencies at which the task
could be executed ranged from 20 to 500Hz.
A frequency of 100Hz was chosen for the
investigation.
Figure 5.6 shows discontinuous conduction
mode, the boundary between the two modes,
and continuous conduction mode.

Figure 5.4 Diode voltage (The duty cycle
decreases from the top to the bottom.)

57
D. Output voltage in case of DCM
The point of this measurement was to check
the output voltages with respect to the duty
ratio for Discontinuous Conduction Mode,
and then compare it to the results of the
calculation of output voltage with the help og
the duty cycle. In the next step these results
are compared to the measurements done at a
higher frequency, where no Discontinuous
Conduction Mode is present. The output
voltage is calculated with the original
equation of the output voltage
I CCM c
V D V =

, (5.1)
Table 3 of APPENDIX B shows the
measured voltage V
m
, the Duty cycle D, and
the calculated output voltage V
c
.
Figure 5.7 shows the graph of the calculated
and the measured voltage values. The
measured values are significantly lower than
the calculated in case of DCM.
Table 3 of APPENDIX B shows that the
error reaches 7% at some voltage levels,
which is not acceptable. The error in optimal
case is around 1-2%. The equation for the
CCM is not suitable for frequencies at which
DCM is present.
Buck converter
Diode voltage with respect to the duty cycle (digital
multimeter)
0
3
6
9
12
15
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Duty Cycle [%]
D
i
o
d
e

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]

Figure 5.5 Diode voltage in buck converter

Figure 5.6 Buck converter - DCM, the boundary, and
CCM at 200Hz PWM frequency

58
In case of DCM, the output voltage is also a
function of the load current and the
inductance.
The output voltage can be calculated from
Equation 5.2.
1
2
1
2
+

=
T V D
I L
V V
I
O
I O
(5.2)
E. Output voltage in case of CCM
The measurements showed that there is no
DCM above around 500Hz. In case of the
DC/DC converters the applied frequency of
the PWM is far above this value, usually
between 25 and 500kHz. It is in most cases
above 20kHz to eliminate audible noise
effects. Therefore the operation in CCM is
more common in DC/DC converter
applications. Lower frequencies are applied
e.g. in motor control, where because of the
inertia of the rotor (and the inductance of the
DC motor) higher frequencies are not
acceptable.
Table 4 of APPENDIX B shows the
measured and the calculated voltage values
with respect to the duty cycle. The table also
contains the calculated errors in percentage.
Figure 5.8 shows the graph of the calculated
and the measured voltages.
Examining the error percentage values, it can
be noticed, that in the range of D=45..75%
the output voltage is more precise, than in
the case of DCM. The relative error in this
section is around 2% (or even lower), while
in the case of DCM the relative error is
constantly around 5% (or above).
Nonetheless it must be acknowledged, that
an undoubtedly large error occurs in both
cases for some values of the duty cycle. The
Buck converter
(Measured and calculated voltage for CCM)
0
1,5
3
4,5
6
7,5
9
10,5
12
13,5
15
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Duty cycle [%]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Measured voltage Calculated voltage

Figure 5.8 Measured and calculated voltage for
CCM
Buck converter
(Measured and calculated voltage for DCM)
0,0
3,0
6,0
9,0
12,0
15,0
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Duty cycle [%]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Measured voltage Calculated voltage

Fig. 5.7 Measured and calculated voltage for DCM

59
reason of this might be the inner errors of the
devices used, and the instability of the input
voltage, or inappropriate value of the filter
capacitance.
II. BOOST CONVERTER
The second setup was the Boost converter
circuit. The Boost (or step-up) converters
output voltage is always greater or equal to
the input voltage. The circuit diagram of the
Boost converter is shown in Figure 5.9. A
photo of the assembly of the Leybold devices
and the wiring is shown in Figure 5.10. The
suggested wiring from the Leybold Didactic
guide is found in Appendix B/2.
The following elements of the Leybold
measurement kit were used in this
measurement:
Stabilized Power Supply 15V
(No. 72686)
Reference Variable Generator
(No. 73402)
Control Unit PWM/PFM
(No. 735341)
MOSFET (No. 73542)
Diode (No. 73502)
Panel of different loads
(No. 73509)
The detailed description of the elements used
during this measurement is found in Chapter
4 Description of the measurement kit.

Figure 5.10 Wiring of the Boost converter

Figure 5.11 - Output voltage of the Boost
converter
(C=28F, L=50mH, R=1000, f
PWM
=20Hz

60
MOSFET was used during this measurement
as well. The load consisted of an inductance
of 50mH, a capacitance of 28F, and a load
resistor of 1000. These values were
suggested by the guide of the PWM device.
The resistor is operating as load resistor, the
capacitance and the inductor are creating an
output filter. The control unit is operated as a
PWM generator. A voltage divider probe is
used in this measurement, because of the
high voltages. The oscilloscopes maximal
scale is 5V/scale, thus the voltage value
connected to the scope is divided by 10 with
this instrument.
A. The Minimal and the Maximal Voltage
The first task was to examine the output
voltage waveform with the help of a digital
scope. One of the waveforms is shown in
Figure 5.11.
The second part of this was to find the
minimal and maximal value of the output
voltage. Theoretically, the minimal value of
the output voltage equals to the input
voltage, and this value is found at D=0. The
maximal value of the output voltage is very
high, the voltage transfer function of the
boost converter for D=1 is infinity in theory.
Practically, the maximal value can be
measured, but its value is highly frequency-
dependent. The efficiency of the boost
converter is poor above D=0.9, and the
maximal voltage is usually found at
D=0.95..0.97.
Table 5 of APPENDIX B shows the maximal
voltages for different frequencies.
Figure 5.12 shows the maximal voltage and
the voltage at D=1 with respect to the
frequency on a logarithmic and on a linear
scale. At low and high frequencies the
maximal voltages are lower than in the case
of frequencies between 100Hz and 2000Hz.
B. The voltage across the diode
The aim of this section was to analyze the
voltage waveform across the diode. In case
of the Boost converter during the ON state of
the switch the diode is reverse biased, during
the OFF state of the semiconductor switch
the diode conducts current in the circuit.
Figure 5.14 shows the waveforms of the
diode voltage.
The voltage stress of the diode is high in this
type of converters.
Figure 5.9/a The Boost converter

61
C. The boundary between DCM and CCM
and output voltages
In case of the Boost converter there is no
DCM above 200Hz for the applied loads.
The next task was to measure the output
voltage with respect to the duty cycle for the
two modes of operation. As the filter
capacitance has a smoothing effect on the
output voltage, I measured for two different
capacitors.
Measurements were executed both for a
frequency where there is DCM, and for
another frequency, where there is no DCM.
(These frequencies are 50Hz for DCM, and
Boost converter
Output voltage for different frequencies and capacitances
0
30
60
90
120
150
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Duty cycle [%]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
f=50Hz, C=0.008mF
f=50Hz, C=0.028mF
f=20kHz, C=0.008mF
f=20kHz, C=0.028mF

Figure 5.13 Boost converter Output voltage at two different frequencies and two different capacitors.
Boost converter
Maximal votlage with respect to the frequency
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500 15000 17500 20000
Frequency [Hz]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Voltage at D=1 Maximal voltage (D=0.95..0.98)

Figure 5.12/a Maximal voltage and voltage at D=1
for different frequencies (Linear scale)
Boost converter
Maximal votlage with respect to the frequency
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Frequency [Hz] (Logarithmic scale)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Voltage at D=1 Maximal voltage (D=0.95..0.98)
Figure 5.12/b Maximal voltage and voltage at D=1
for different frequencies (Logarithmic scale)

62
20kHz for only CCM). The results can be
seen in Table 7 of APPENDIX B.
In Table 7 of APPENDIX B there is a row
marked with max. This means the maximal
reachable voltage at an uncertain value of the
control voltage (and with that an uncertain
value of the duty cycle). This duty cycle
values are usually between 95% and 98%.
Figure 5.13 shows the diagrams of the
voltage values presented in Table 7 of
APPENDIX B. It can be seen, that at 50Hz
(so at lower frequencies) the capacitance of
the capacitors has greater effect on the output
voltage than in the case of higher PWM
frequencies. Thus operation at higher
frequencies reduce the size of the inductors
and capacitors required, therefore the
converters are smaller, which is one of the
most important requirements today.
III. BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER
The final practical task was the
measurements of the Buck-Boost (or step-up
step-down) converter. Figure 5.15 shows the
circuit diagram of the Buck-Boost converter,
and Figure 5.16 is a picture of the devices
and the wiring.
For the Buck-Boost converter circuit the
following Leybold devices are necessary:
Stabilized Power Supply 15V
(No. 72686)

Figure 5.14 Diode voltage (The duty cycle
decreases from the top to the bottom.)

Figure 5.15 The Buck-Boost converter

63
Reference Variable Generator
(No. 73402)
Control Unit PWM/PFM
(No. 735341)
MOSFET (No. 73542)
Diode (No. 73502)
Panel of different loads
(No. 73509)
The detailed description of the elements used
during this measurement is found in the
previous chapter (Chapter 4 Description of
the measurement kit).
The semiconductor switch is a MOSFET in
this case as well. As a load an inductance of
50mH, a capacitance of 8F, and a resistance
of 1000 were used. The resistor is
operating as load resistor, the capacitance
and the inductor are creating an output filter.
The control unit is operated as a PWM
generator.
Because of the high output voltage an
additional instrument, a voltage divider
probe is necessary, so that only ten percent
of the output voltage is connected to the
digital scope. (Its maximal scale of 5V is not
able to display voltages this high, there for
the voltage divider probe divides the output
voltage by 10).
A. The Maximal and the Minimal
Voltages
In the case of the Buck-Boost converter, the
output voltage can be higher or lower than
the input voltage. The transfer function for
D=0 is 0, and for D=1 infinity in theory. In
practice, the minimal value is zero, and the
output voltage can be relatively high:
V U 0
min
=
V U 160
max
=
The efficiency of the converter is poor if
D>85%..90%.
The maximal voltage is the function of the
PWM frequency in the case of the Buck-
Boost converter. Table 9 of APPENDIX B

Figure 5.16 Wiring of the Buck-Boost converter

64
shows the voltage values at D=100% and the
maximal voltages with respect to the duty
cycle. The maximal voltages usually occur
between D=95% and D=98%.
B. The voltage across the diode
Figure 5.17 shows the waveforms of the
voltage across the diode for different duty
cycles. In the ON-state of the switch the
diode is reverse biased, and in the OFF-state
of the switch the diode conducts the current
of the inductor. A high voltage stress occurs
in this kind of converters.
Table 6 of APPENDIX B shows the voltage
values across the diode for three different
PWM frequencies. The maximal voltage is
usually found at D=0.95..0.98, in Table [-] of
APPENDIX B the expression max means
this uncertain value of the duty cycle, where
the diode voltage is maximal
C. Boundary of CCM and DCM
The task was to find the boundary between
Continuous and Discontinuous Conduction
Modes for each frequency. In case of the
Buck-Boost converter there is no CCM
below 100Hz, and no DCM above 2kHz.
Table 8 of APPENDIX B shows the
boundary between CCM and DCM for each
frequency.
In Table [-] of APPENDIX B the control
voltage is proportional to the duty cycle,

Figure 5.17 Diode voltage for different Duty
cycles

65
U
c
=8V means a duty cycle of 80%. To
understand the working of the Leybold
Didactic control unit PWM see Chapter 4
Description of the measurement kit.
D. Output voltage in case of CCM and in
case of DCM
The point of this section is to examine the
load voltage for the two types of operation.
For DCM operation a PWM frequency of
50Hz was chosen, a PWM frequency of
20kHz was suitable for measurements in
Continuous Conduction Mode. Table 10 of
APPENDIX B shows the measurement data
acquainted at 50Hz for two different values
of the capacitance. Table 10 of APPENDIX
B also contains the measurement data for
20kHz and for two different values of the
capacitance.
Figure 5.19/a-b shows the voltages for both
50Hz and 20kHz in diagrams. The
calculation of the output voltage for CCM:
D
D
V V
I O

=
1
(5.3)
Where V
O
is the output voltage, V
I
is the
input voltage, and D is the duty cycle.
In case of DCM the output voltage can be
calculated from
L f
R
D V V
S
L
I O

=
2
, (5.4)
where V
I
is the input voltage, V
O
is the
output voltage, D is the duty cycle, f
S
is the
switching frequency, and L is the inductance.
As seen in Figure 5.18 the measured voltages
are not accurate, the voltage values are
higher than the calculated voltage below
D=85%, and much lower above this duty
Buck-Boost converter
Maximal votlage with respect to the frequency
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500 15000 17500 20000
Frequency [Hz]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Voltage at D=1 Maximal voltage

Figure 5.18/b Maximal voltage and voltage at D=1
for different frequencies (Linear scale)
Buck-Boost converter
Maximal votlage with respect to the frequency
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Frequency [Hz] (Logaritmic scale)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Voltage at D=1 Maximal volt age

Figure 5.18/a Maximal voltage and voltage at D=1
for different frequencies (Logarithmic scale)

66
cycle value. The capacitance has a larger
effect on the output voltage at lower
frequencies.
IV. THE SINGLE PHASE POWER
INVERTER
The single phase power inverter circuit is
shown in Figure 5.20
The circuit requires an inductor (L=50mH), a
capacitor (C=8F), a resistor (R=33), two
MOSFETs, the Control Unit PWM and a
signal generator. The input of this circuit is a
sinusoidal DC voltage with its value varying
between 0 and 10V. The frequency of this
voltage is 50Hz. The inverter circuit has an
output of 15V AC. The input voltage is
generated by a function generator, Figure
5.21/a shows the input voltage. (The CSV
file was saved by the digital scope, then it
was saved in MATLAB as a figure.)
The task was to analyse the amplitude of
different harmonics in the response of the
inverter. The output voltage values were
saved in a CSV file (comma separated
values), and then imported into MATLAB.
In MATLAB the Fourier transform of the
signals was executed. Measurements were
done at different frequencies with different
kind of loads (ohmic, ohmic-capacitive,
ohmic-capacitive-inductive).
Figure 5.22 shows the output voltage
(effective value) as a function of the PWM
frequency on a logarithmic scale. The graph
also contains the DC part of the voltage.
Buck-Boost converter
Measured voltages at 50Hz and calculated voltage
0,0
50,0
100,0
150,0
200,0
250,0
300,0
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100
%
Duty cycle [%]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Measured voltage (C=0.008mF) Measured voltage (C=0.028mF)
Calculated voltage

Figure 5.19/a Measured voltages at 50Hz PWM
frequency and the calculated voltage
Buck-Boost converter
Measured voltages at 20kHz and calculated voltage
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100
%
Duty cycle [%]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Measured voltage (C=0.008mF) Measured voltage (C=0.028mF)
Calculated voltage

Fig. 5.19/b Measured voltages at 20kHz PWM
frequency and calculated voltage.
Figure 5.20 Simple single phase power inverter

67
APPENDIX C contains several figures of
output voltages and the amplitude spectrum
of them.
In general we can say that with a full load
(inductance, capacitance, resistance) the
amplitude spectrum is smoother, higher
harmonics are decreased. Also, at higher
PWM frequencies the amplitude of higher
harmonics are decreasing.


Figure 5.21/a Input voltage of the inverter
Figure 5.21/b Amplitude spectrum of the input
voltage of the iverter
Output voltage as a function of the PWM
frequency
-6,00
-4,00
-2,00
0,00
2,00
4,00
6,00
8,00
10,00
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Pulse Width Modulation frequency [Hz]
L
o
a
d

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
o
u
t
p
u
t

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
)

[
V
]

Figure 5.22 Effective value of the output voltage and the DC component of it

68
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The assigned task. The aim of the project
was to execute basic measurements with
several DC/DC converters as an application
of Pulse Width Modulation, and to write a
measurement guide for MSc students.
All of the assigned tasks were executed
successfully. CHAPTER 5 contains the
measurement results, the measurement guide
can be found in APPENDIX A.
An additional task occurred during the
semester. It was the investigation of the level
of different harmonics at various frequencies
of the pulse-width modulation in case of the
single phase power inverter. Several
measurements were executed concerning this
inverter.
Several errors must be mentioned. The
measurements were not always easy to
execute, as the current and voltage ripples
had very high values, and noises had a large
effect on the measurement results. The
boundary between continuous conduction
mode and discontinuous conduction mode
was very complicated to find, especially in
case of the boost and buck-boost converters,
where higher voltage values occurred.
During these measurements a voltage divider
probe had to be used, thus further error
possibilities occurred resulting in an unstable
high-noise signal on the oscilloscope. With
these affecting the measurement, the analysis
of the critical operation was hard and
inaccurate in case of the boost and buck-
boost converters.
Future development possibilities.
According to a measurement guide written
by LD DIDACTIC GMBH, with additional
elements of the measurement kit the results
of these measurements can be smoothened.
In addition, with these new elements several
other circuits can be measured, for example
the Flyback converter, the Forward
converter, the Half-bridge, and the Full-
bridge converters. Other measurements can
be executed concerning DC/AC inverter
circuits and AC/DC rectifier circuits. With
these elements the range of the executable
measurements of this subject can be
widened, and the elements can be used in
other subjects, for example the subject
Power Electronics of the BSc students.
According to this development idea, we
requested a price list of these elements so
that with these prices the possibilities of the
department become clear.
These elements and their prices are listed
below:

69
Name Cat. No
Net Price
[HUF]
Required
quantity
Rectifier 735 065 53200 1
Power Transformer 735 105 171600 1
Electrolyte capacitor 735 095 75480 1
RMS meter 727 10 353100 1
Fuse, three-fold, super-fast 735 18 54040 1
Interference suppression filter 735 190 94460 1
Isolation amplifier 735 261 489220 1
Transformer 45/90 726 80 249980 1
Sum 1541080
Voltage divider probes, current clamps and
other accessories used during the
measurements were not designed by LD
DIDACTIC GMBH. It is to be considered,
that these measurements might be more
precisely executed with the original
instruments designed by the manufacturer of
the components of the measurement kit.
However, the prices of these instruments are
relatively high, so it would require a large
investment to improve the quality of the
results, the sum of the net price of the listed
devices is 1,541,080 Hungarian Forints.
I would like to thank the department for the
instruments I used and Kroly Zabn for his
help during the execution of the
measurements and his support during the
whole semester. Without his assistance the
completion of my work would not have been
possible.

70
REFERENCES
[1] Fang Lin Luo; Hong Ye,
Essential DC/DC converters
ISBN 0-8493-7238-0
2006 by Taylor & Francis Group,
LLC, pp.1-2
[2] http://www.hydrogencarkits.net/pwm-
controllers/
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-
width_modulation
[4] http://www.myo-p.com/
[5] John Guy,
Class D amplifier FAQ
2009 National Semiconductor
Corporation, originally posted to:
http://www.audiodesignline.com/howto
/212000761
[6] Jun Honda; Jonathan Adams,
Class D Audio Amplifier Basics,
Application Note AN-1071,
International Rectifier, 5 August 2005,
http://www.irf.com
[7] M K Venkatesha; KA Krishamurthy,
Study and design of new
inverter/converter thyristor circuits for
various purposes, a thesis submitted
to the University of Mysore, 10 April
1997, Chapter 2 Review Of Various
PWM Techniques pp.22-51
[8] Dorin O. Neacsu
Power Switching Converters Medium
and High Power,
ISBN 0-8247-2625-1
2006 by Taylor & Francis Group,
LLC, pp.75-151
[9] Jaroslav Dudrik, Juraj Oetter
High-Frequency Soft-Switching
DC-DC Converters for Voltage and
Current DC Power Sources, Acta
Polytechnica Hungarica, Vol. 4, No.
2, 2007, pp.29-44
[10] Graham Holmes; D Grahame
Holmes; Thomas A Lipo,
Pulse Width Modulation for Power
Converters: Principles and
Practice, IEEE Computer Society
Press, ISBN 0471208140, 31 January
2004, pp.57-61
[11] Marian K. Kazimierczuk,
Pulse-width Modulated DC-DC
Power Converters
ISBN 978-0-470-77301-7 (HB)
2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
[12] LD DIDACTIC Instruction Sheet:
http://www.leybold-
didactic.de/ga/7/726/72686/72686E.
PDF
[13] LD DIDACTIC Instruction sheet:
http://www.leybold-
didactic.com/ga/7/734/73402/73402e
.pdf
[14] LD DIDACTIC Instruction sheet:
http://www.leybold-
didactic.de/ga/7/735/735341/735341
de.pdf
[15] LD DIDACTIC
Power Electronics: Switched-mode
power supplies, power-factor
correction and inverters, T12.2.2.2,
ID:565 402
[16] Dorin O. Neacsu
Power Switching Converters
Medium and High Power,
ISBN 0-8247-2625-1, 2006 by
Taylor & Francis Group, LLC,
Chapter 2 High-Power
Semiconductor Devices, pp.19-37
[17]
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c
/cagr.asp

71

BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics
Department of Automation and Applied Informatics
Group of Electrical Engineering
Measurement guide
INVESTIGATION OF DC-DC CONVERTERS

72
Compulsory literature:
1. dr. JRDN, Rafael Klmn: Topics for POWER ELECTRONICS &MOTION
CONTROL I., p. 37-38 and p. 40-47.
http://get.bme.hu/edu/subjects/BMEVIAUA017/Lecture%20Notes%20PE1/PE-1-
Lecture%20Notes.pdf
2. Descripton titled Investigation of DC-DC converters
3. Leybold Didactic instruction sheet
1. Aim of the measurement:
The point of the measurement is to get acquainted with the operation of the 3 main types of
DC-DC converters. We measure the output voltage and the current in the circuit.
2. Theoretical background:
Converters are electric devices that convert a certain type of electric property into another.
Power converters are divided into 4 main types:
AC-DC converters (choppers): convert alternating current to direct current
DC-AC converters (inverters): convert direct current to alternating current
DC-DC converters: modifies a certain voltage level of a DC supply to another voltage
level
AC-AC converter: modifies the amplitude or frequency of an AC supply
During this measurement we will get acquainted with the 3 basic types of DC-DC converters:
Buck converter: the output voltage is lower than the input voltage
Boost converter: produces voltage increase, output voltage is higher than the input
voltage
Buck/Boost converter: the output voltage can be higher as well as lower than the input
voltage
The most important component of all three types is a semiconductor switch which can be
GTO, IGBT or MOSFET. During the laboratory we will use MOSFET and IGBT. We control
the switches with PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). The main point of PWM:
We compare a control signal to a reference signal (e.g. triangle wave). This way we get a
series of constant cycle time pulses. If the control signal is higher than the reference signal,
than the value of the pulse is 1, if the control signal is lower, this value is 0. The ratio of the

73
duration of the switch ON state and the switching period T
S
=1/f
S
is the duty cycle. This value
can be manipulated through setting the control voltage value.

Figure 1 Generation of the PWM signal

Figure 2 PWM signal
Duty cycle:
OFF ON
ON ON
t t
t
T
t
D
+
= =
The panel Nr. 735 341 can generate the switching control signal two more ways beyond
PWM: control by frequency modulation and two-position frequency control. These methods
will not be used during this measurement.

74
Buck converter:
Buck converters decrease the input voltage level; the output voltage is always lower than
the input. Fig. 3 shows the buck converter in both OFF and ON state of the switch.

Figure 3/a The Buck converter in the switch-ON state of the switch

Figure 3/b The Buck converter in the switch-OFF state of the switch
As you can see in this figure if we turn off the switch, the energy stored in the coil drives
current through the diode. If the switch is turned off for enough time, the current falls to
zero and only rises again when we turn on the switch. This is called Discontinuous
Conduction Mode (DCM). If we do not wait till the current fully stops and turn on the
switch earlier, then we are talking about Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM).

Fig. 4 shows the characteristics for both continuous and discontinuous conduction mode.
The connection between the input and the output voltage in case of CCM:

i o
U D U =

o
U Output voltage

75
D Duty cycle

i
U Input voltage
Boost converter
Boost converters produce higher voltage on the output than the input voltage. Fig. 5 shows
the boost converter both ON and OFF state.

Figure 5/a The Boost converter in the ON-state of the switch

Figure 5/b The Boost converter in the OFF-state of the switch
Just as in the case of the Buck converter we can talk about Continuous and Discontinuous
Conduction Mode (Fig. 6)

The connection between the input and the output voltage in case of Continuous
Conduction Mode:
|
|

\
|
=
OFF
i o
t
T
U U

76

o
U Output voltage

i
U Input voltage
T Switching period

OFF
t OFF state duration in a cycle
Buck-Boost converters
In case of the Buck-Boost converter the output voltage can be both higher and lower than
the input voltage. Fig. 7 shows the Buck-Boost converter in both ON and OFF state

Figure 7/a The Buck-Boost converter in the ON-state of the switch

Figure 7/b The Buck-Boost converter in the OFF-state of the switch
Just as in the case of the Buck and the Boost converters we can talk about Continuous and
Discontinuous Conduction Mode (Fig. 8).

The connection between the input and the output voltage in case of CCM:

77

|
|

\
|
=
OFF
ON
i o
t
t
U U
o
U Output voltage

i
U Input voltage

ON
t ON state duration

OFF
t OFF state duration
3. Review Questions
1. What kind of converter types do you know? What do we use them for?
2. List the basic types of DC/DC converters.
3. What is the point of PWM? What do we use it for?
4. What is duty cycle? How can we change its value?
5. Draw the circuit of the Buck converter. How does it work? What is the relation between the
output voltage and the input voltage?
6. What do we call Continuous and Discontinuous Conduction Mode? Is the output voltage
smaller or greater than the input voltage?
7. What is the relation between the output voltage and the duty cycle in case of the Buck
converter?
8. Draw the circuit of the Boost converter. How does it work? Is the output voltage smaller or
greater than the input voltage?
9. What is the relation between the output voltage and the duty cycle in case of the Boost
converter?
10. Draw the circuit of the Buck-Boost converter. How does it work? Is the output voltage
smaller or greater than the input voltage?
11. What is the relation between the output voltage and the duty cycle in case of the Buck-
Boost converter?

78
4. Measurement Tasks
Always have your measurement setups checked by your measurement leader.
1. Build a circuit of a semiconductor switch (MOSFET) and a resistor connected in
series. Examine the control signal of the semiconductor switch and the voltage drop on
the resistor with an oscilloscope. What happens if we change the voltage level of the
control signal? Calculate the duty cycle for three different voltage levels leaving the
PWM signals frequency at a constant value.
The frequency of the PWM signal: f=
=
1
U =
1
D
=
2
U =
2
D
=
3
U =
3
D
2. Now change the frequency of the PWM signal. What happens? Calculate the duty
cycle for three different frequency values leaving the voltage of the control signal at a
constant level.
Voltage level of the control signal: U=
=
1
f =
1
D
=
2
f =
2
D
=
3
f =
3
D
3. Set up the Buck converter circuit shown in Fig. 3 (the PWM generator is connected
like it is shown in appendix 1). =1000 R F C 28 = mH L 500 =
Examine the voltage drop on the output with an oscilloscope. What do you experience
if you change the duty cycle? The voltage varies between two values:
=
min
U
=
max
U
4. Examine the voltage drop on the diode with the help of an oscilloscope. What happens
when you change the duty cycle?
5. Find the voltage value at which the system is on the boundary between Continuous
and Discontinuous Conduction Mode using 100Hz frequency PWM signal.
U
100Hz
=
f
PWM
=

79
6. Set the frequency to a level at which there is discontinuous conduction mode. Now
measure the output voltage for ten different duty cycles. In these same measurement
points calculate the output voltage with the duty cycle and the input voltage.
=
PWM
f

V
m
[V] D [%] V
calc
[V]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
7. Repeat the tasks mentioned in point 6 for a frequency level at which there is no
discontinuous conduction mode. What happens?
=
PWM
f

V
m
[V] D [%] V
calc
[V]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
8. Set up the Boost converter circuit shown in Fig. 5 (the PWM generator is connected
like it is shown in appendix 2). =1000 R F C 28 = mH L 500 =
Examine the voltage drop on the output with an oscilloscope. What do you experience
if you change the duty cycle? The voltage varies between two values:
=
min
U
=
max
U
9. Examine the voltage drop on the diode with the help of an oscilloscope. What happens
if you change the duty cycle?

80
10. Find the voltage value at which the system is on the boundary between Continuous
and Discontinuous Conduction Mode using 100Hz frequency PWM signal.
U
100Hz
=
f
PWM
=
11. Set the frequency to a level at which there is discontinuous conduction mode. Now
measure the output voltage for ten different duty cycles. In these same measurement
points calculate the output voltage with the duty cycle and the input voltage.
=
PWM
f

V
m
[V] D [%] V
calc
[V]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
12. Repeat the tasks mentioned in point 11 for a frequency level at which there is no
discontinuous conduction mode. What happens?
=
PWM
f

V
min
[V] D V
calc
[V]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

81
13. Set up the Buck-Boost converter circuit shown in Fig. 7 (the PWM generator is
connected like it is shown in appendix 3). =1000 R F C 28 = mH L 500 =
Examine the voltage drop on the output with an oscilloscope. What do you experience
if you change the duty cycle? The voltage varies between two values:
=
min
U
=
max
U
14. Examine the voltage drop on the diode with the help of an oscilloscope. What happens
when you change the duty cycle?
15. Find the voltage value at which the system is on the boundary between Continuous
and Discontinuous Conduction Mode using 100Hz frequency PWM signal.
U
100Hz
=
f
PWM
=
16. Set the frequency to a level at which there is discontinuous conduction mode. Now
measure the output voltage for ten different duty cycles. In these same measurement
points calculate the output voltage with the duty cycle and the input voltage.
=
PWM
f

V
min
[V] D V
calc
[V]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

82
17. Repeat the tasks mentioned in point 11 for a frequency level at which the conduction
mode is not discontinuous. What happens?
=
PWM
f

V
min
[V] D V
calc
[V]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
18. Simulate the converters using the Electronics Workbench software.

83
Table 3 Buck converter - Measured and
calculated voltage values for DCM
V
m
[V] D [-] V
c
[V] Error [%]
0,0 0% 0,00 0,0%
0,1 5% 0,75 4,3%
0,6 10% 1,50 6,0%
1,2 15% 2,25 7,0%
1,9 20% 3,00 7,3%
2,7 25% 3,75 7,0%
3,5 30% 4,50 6,7%
4,2 35% 5,25 7,0%
4,9 40% 6,00 7,3%
6,0 45% 6,75 5,0%
6,5 50% 7,50 6,7%
7,3 55% 8,25 6,3%
8,0 60% 9,00 6,7%
8,8 65% 9,75 6,3%
9,5 70% 10,50 6,7%
10,1 75% 11,25 7,7%
11,0 80% 12,00 6,7%
12,0 85% 12,75 5,0%
12,5 90% 13,50 6,7%
13,5 95% 14,25 5,0%
14,0 100% 15,00 6,7%

APPENDIX B
MEASUREMENT DATA

Table 1 Buck converter Diode voltage with respect to
the duty cycle (digital multimeter)
V
c
[V] D[%] V
D
[V]
0,0 0% 0,00
0,5 5% 1,22
1,0 10% 4,45
1,5 15% 7,20
2,0 20% 9,15
2,5 25% 10,69
3,0 30% 11,82
3,5 35% 12,66
4,0 40% 13,26
4,5 45% 13,68
5,0 50% 13,98
5,5 55% 14,23
6,0 60% 14,40
6,5 65% 14,58
7,0 70% 14,70
7,5 75% 14,79
8,0 80% 14,84
8,5 85% 14,90
9,0 90% 14,88
9,5 95% 14,84
10,0 100% 14,82
Table 2 Buck converter - Output voltage with
respect to the duty cycle (digital multimeter
V
c
[V] D [%] V
o
[V]
0,0 0% 0,00
0,5 5% 1,12
1,0 10% 4,36
1,5 15% 7,06
2,0 20% 9,17
2,5 25% 10,66
3,0 30% 11,81
3,5 35% 12,65
4,0 40% 13,25
4,5 45% 13,65
5,0 50% 14,00
5,5 55% 14,22
6,0 60% 14,42
6,5 65% 14,57
7,0 70% 14,69
7,5 75% 14,77
8,0 80% 14,84
8,5 85% 14,89
9,0 90% 14,87
9,5 95% 14,84
10,0 100% 14,81

Table 4 Buck converter - Measured and calculated
voltage values for CCM
V
m
[V] D [%] V
c
[V] Error [%]
0 0% 0,00 0,00%
2 5% 0,75 8,33%
2,75 10% 1,50 8,33%
3,4 15% 2,25 7,67%
4 20% 3,00 6,67%
4,6 25% 3,75 5,67%
5,3 30% 4,50 5,33%
5,9 35% 5,25 4,33%
6,5 40% 6,00 3,33%
7,1 45% 6,75 2,33%
7,8 50% 7,50 2,00%
8,4 55% 8,25 1,00%
9,1 60% 9,00 0,67%
9,7 65% 9,75 0,33%
10,5 70% 10,50 0,00%
11 75% 11,25 1,67%
11,5 80% 12,00 3,33%
12 85% 12,75 5,00%
13 90% 13,50 3,33%
13,5 95% 14,25 5,00%
14 100% 15,00 6,67%


84

Table 5 Maximal output voltage of the Boost
converter for different frequencies
f
PWM
[Hz] V
D=1
[V] V
max
[V]
20 125 122
30 122 120
50 129 142
100 131 155
200 147 160
250 144 160
300 143 161
500 141 161
1000 140 160
2000 137 159
3000 133 157
5000 130 152
10000 123 146
20000 115 126
Table 7 Ooutput voltage of the Boost converter for
different frequencies and capacitors
Table 6 Buck-Boost converter Voltage across the
diode with respect to the duty cycle for different
frequencies
Letters used:
D Duty cycle in percentage.
V
D
Diode voltage in volts.
f
PWM
PWM frequency in Hz.
V
D

D [%]
f
PWM
=
300Hz
f
PWM
=
2kHz
f
PWM
=
20kHz
0% 0,0 0,0 0,0
5% 1,3 2,4 9,1
10% 4,4 3,0 11,5
15% 7,2 3,7 13,5
20% 11,0 4,5 15,0
25% 14,5 5,5 16,5
30% 17,8 6,7 18,5
35% 21,0 8,2 20,5
40% 24,2 9,7 23,0
45% 27,5 12,0 26,0
50% 30,5 14,5 29,5
55% 34,0 17,5 32,0
60% 38,0 21,5 37,0
65% 40,0 26,0 43,0
70% 44,0 32,0 50,0
75% 46,0 40,0 59,0
80% 48,0 52,0 69,0
85% 64,0 68,0 84,0
90% 90,0 93,0 98,0
95% 135,0 135,0 115,0
100% 142,0 130,0 95,0
max 160,0 160,0 115,0

Table 8 Buck-Boost converter The boundary
between CCM and DCM
f
PWM
[Hz] U
C
[V]
100 Hz and
below
no
CCM
200 8,5
250 8,0
300 8,0
500 7,5
1000 6,0
2000 Hz
and above
no
DCM


85
Table 9 Buck-Boost converter - Maximal
voltage and voltage at D=1 with respect to the
PWM frequency
f
PWM
[Hz] V
D=1
[V] V
max
[V]
20 107 121
25 110 121
30 110 126
50 122 148
100 140 155
200 140 158
250 133 158
300 128 157
500 121 155
1000 118 154
2000 114 149
2500 111 148
3000 108 146
5000 104 139
10000 93 127
20000 92 126
Letters used:
f
PWM
[Hz] The PWM frequency
V
D=1
The voltage value at D=1
V
max
The maximal output voltage.
(D=0.95..0.98)
Table 10 Buck-Boost converter - Maximal voltage and
voltage at D=1 with respect to the PWM frequency
V
M

f
PWM
=50Hz f
PWM
=20kHz
D [%]
C=8F C=28F C=8F C=28F
V
C-
CCM

0% 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0
5% 0,0 0,0 8,0 8,1 0,8
10% 0,3 3,5 9,6 9,6 1,7
15% 7,1 8,3 11,0 11,0 2,6
20% 14,5 16,5 12,5 12,0 3,8
25% 20,0 25,0 14,0 13,5 5,0
30% 27,0 32,5 15,5 15,0 6,4
35% 34,0 41,0 17,5 17,0 8,1
40% 40,0 47,0 19,5 19,5 10,0
45% 45,0 54,0 22,0 22,0 12,3
50% 51,0 61,0 25,0 25,0 15,0
55% 56,0 67,0 28,5 28,5 18,3
60% 61,0 74,0 32,5 32,5 22,5
65% 67,0 80,0 38,0 39,0 27,9
70% 72,0 86,0 45,0 45,0 35,0
75% 76,0 92,0 54,0 54,0 45,0
80% 82,0 99,0 64,0 64,0 60,0
85% 86,0 105,0 78,0 79,0 85,0
90% 91,0 110,0 99,0 100,0 135,0
95% 96,0 120,0 125,0 130,0 285,0
100% 120,0 145,0 110,0 105,0 -
max 128,0 155,0 135,0 135,0 -
Letters used:
f
PWM
[Hz] The PWM frequency

86
APPENDIX C
Voltage waveforms and amplitude spectrums for different PWM frequencies in case of a full
load (capacitor, inductor, resistor)