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EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

EE/ME 574 Intermediate Control Systems


On each item, grading is +, Problem # Parts 1 2 Code Plots Extra Credit 3 Values in Table Plots 4 A, p 6.2 B, p 6.3 5 Total: 8 2 4 1 5 10 2 4 1 2 2 4 4 10 or 0 (full points, 1/2 points, 0 points) Your Part Points /16 /4 /16 /5 /20+5 /10 /120 /30 /8 /16 /24 /10 /100 Your Total Points Notes

Homework 3 Solution

Points Each Part 2 2 4

CTM Exercises

Essay Question

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 1

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

1 True or False
A) Feedback control can change the poles of a system B) A Feedback control system will always be stable C) Feedback control can change the zeros of a system D) Some feedback control systems operate with no sensor E) A feedback controller can be implemented with a computer F) Feedback control can correct for imperfections in the plant G) Feedback control can correct for disturbances acting on the plant H) Feedback control can correct for imperfections in the sensor True False False False True True True False

2 CTM: Root locus / Cruise Control


Do the steps for the Root Locus item, under Cruise Control. Turn in a listing of Matlab code and plots. Answer: (Note to grader: student solutions may differ in implementation details. Plots should agree.) >> m = 1000; >> numo=[1]; >> deno=[m b]; >> AxisRL = [ -0.6 0.2 -0.4 0.4] >> AxisStep = [0 20 0 12] >> figure(1), clf >> >> >> rlocus (numo,deno) axis(AxisRL) sgrid(0.6, 0.36) Select a point in the graphics window selected_point = Kp = 350.0022 -0.4000 poles = -0.4000 - 0.0012i b = 50; u = 10;

>> [Kp, poles]=rlocfind(numo,deno)

>> print(-deps2c, RootLocusPlotA)

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 2

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

Root Locus

0.4

0.3

0.6

0.2

Imaginary Axis

0.1
0.36

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
Real Axis

0.1

0.1

Figure 1: Root locus plot, P-type control. >> numc=[Kp]; >> denc=[m (b+Kp)]; >> t=0:0.1:20; >> figure(2), clf >> >> step(u*numc,denc,t) axis(AxisStep)
Step Response 12

10

8 Amplitude

10 Time (sec)

12

14

16

18

20

Figure 2: Step response plot, P-type control.

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 3

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %% Lag Controller %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% >> m = 1000; b = 50; u = 10; >> Zo=0.3; Po=0.03; >> numo=[1 Zo]; >> deno=[m b+m*Po b*Po]; >> figure(3), clf >> >> >> rlocus(numo,deno) axis(AxisRL) sgrid(0.6,0.36)

>> [Kp, poles]=rlocfind(numo,deno)


Root Locus

0.4

0.3

0.6

0.2

Imaginary Axis

0.1
0.36

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
Real Axis

0.1

0.1

Figure 3: Root Locus Plot, lag control. >> axis(AxisRL) >> sgrid(0.6, 0.36)

>> t=0:0.1:20; >> numc=[Kp Kp*Zo]; >> denc=[m b+m*Po+Kp b*Po+Kp*Zo]; >> figure(4), clf >> step(u*numc,denc,t) >> axis(AxisStep)

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 4

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

Step Response 12

10

8 Amplitude

10 Time (sec)

12

14

16

18

20

Figure 4: Step response plot, lag-type control. Extra Credit (5 points): Modify your code to build LTI models (made with the tf() command) and use the LTI model with each rlocus() and step() command. Answer: (Note to grader: This is one implementation with LTI models. Any implementation utilizing LTI models (for example, made with tf command) for the rlocus, rlocnd and step commands is acceptable for full credit. Plots should agree with those above.) (Only the distinct commands for LTI modeling are indicated here.) >> Gps = tf(1, [m, b]) Transfer function: 1 ----------1000 s + 50 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> Gcs = tf(1, 1); figure(1), clf rlocus (Gcs*Gps) [Kp, poles]=rlocfind(Gcs*Gps) Try = feedback(Kp*Gcs*Gps, 1) figure(2), clf step(u*Try)

Figures agree with gures 1-2, above.

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 5

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

>> >> >> >> >> >> >>

Zo=0.3; Po=0.03; Gcs = tf([1 Zo], [1 Po]) figure(3), clf rlocus (Gcs*Gps) axis(AxisRL) sgrid(0.6, 0.36) [Kp, poles]=rlocfind(Gcs*Gps) Kp = 1.2836e+03

Select a point in the graphics window

>> t=0:0.1:20; >> Try = feedback(Kp*Gcs*Gps, 1) Transfer function: 1284 s + 385.1 ------------------------1000 s^2 + 1364 s + 386.6 >> >> figure(4), clf step(u*Try)

Figures agree with gures 3-4, above.

3 Root locus sketches


A control loop is set up as shown in gure 5. Values for the transfer functions are given below. r(t)

+ -

e(t) Kc Gc(s)

u(t) Gp(s)

y(t)

ys(t) Figure 5: Block diagram of a feedback control system. For each transfer function: (1) Fill in the values in the table, as shown in the example (2) Draw a hand sketch showing only the centroid and the asymptotes (3) Hand sketch the root locus. Finally, verify your root locus sketch in matlab, adjust your sketch as needed for correctness. (Turn in items 1-3 for each transfer function, do not turn in Matlab plots). Homework Solution 3
(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 6

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

(Note to grader: students should include hand sketches. Computer-drawn graphs are shown here. Student graphs should be qualitatively similar, but as sketches, need not be exactly the same.) Poles 3.A 3.B 3.C 3.D 3.E -5, -3 -5, -3 0, 0, -8 0, 0, 0, -8 0, 0, -8, -20 Zeros -10 -3 -3 -3, -3 n 2 2 3 4 4 m 0 1 1 1 2 NA 2 1 2 3 2 Centroid c -4 2 -2.5 -1.67 -11 Stable for all values of Kc ? yes yes yes no yes Oscillatory Kc yes no yes - (or no) yes

Table 1: Values indicated for root locus. A) Gc (s) = 1 , G p (s) = 1 (s + 3) (s + 5) (1)

Asymptotes 3

Root Locus

3
2

1
Imaginary Axis

Imaginary

3 6

3 Real

3 6

3
Real Axis

(a) Asymptotes

(b) Root Locus

Figure 6: Asymptotes and root locus, Eqn (1).

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 7

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

B) Gc (s) = (s + 10) , G p (s) = 1 (s + 3) (s + 5) (2)

Asymptotes 8

Root Locus

8
6

6
4

4
2
Imaginary Axis

Imaginary

8 35

30

25

20

15 Real

10

8 35

30

25

20

15
Real Axis

10

(a) Asymptotes

(b) Root Locus

Figure 7: Asymptotes and root locus, Eqn (1). C) Gc (s) = 1 , G p (s) = (s + 3) s2 (s + 8) (3)

Asymptotes 25 25 20 20 15 15 10
Imaginary Axis (seconds )
1

Root Locus

10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 9

5 Imaginary 0 5 10 15 20 25 9

4 Real

3
1

Real Axis (seconds )

(a) Asymptotes

(b) Root Locus

Figure 8: Asymptotes and root locus, Eqn (1).

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 8

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

D) Gc (s) = 1 , G p (s) = (s + 3) s3 (s + 8) (4)

Asymptotes 15 15 10 10

Root Locus

Imaginary Axis (seconds )

5 Imaginary

10

10

15 20

15

10

5 Real

10

15 20

15

10

5
Real Axis (seconds1)

10

(a) Asymptotes

(b) Root Locus

Figure 9: Asymptotes and root locus, Eqn (1). E) Gc (s) = (s + 3) , (s + 20) G p (s) = (s + 3) s2 (s + 8) (5)

Asymptotes 50

Root Locus

50
40

40
30

30
20

20
Imaginary Axis

10 Imaginary 0 10 20 30 40 50 25

10 0 10 20 30 40 50 25

20

15

10 Real

20

15

10
Real Axis

(a) Asymptotes

(b) Root Locus

Figure 10: Asymptotes and root locus, Eqn (1).

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 9

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

4 Text problems,
A) Problem 6.2 Answer: (Note to grader: part (b) calls for a qualitative assessment. Any response based on the data can be marked correct.) A.1) Calculate the Mag and Phase of G (s) = 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 Mag 0.0995 0.0981 0.0894 0.0707 0.0447 0.0196 0.0100 1 s + 10 dB -20.0 -20.2 -20.97 -23.0 -29.99 -34.14 -40.04 Phase 11.31o 26.57o 63.43o 78.69o 84.29o 45o 5.71o

0 dB LF Asymp -20 dB

H F As

-40 dB

ym p

0.10

1.0

10

100

LF Asymp

HF Asymp -90

0.10

1.0

10

100

Figure 11: Sketch of Asymptotes A.2) The magnitude curve agrees quite well. The phase curve agrees well at = 1 and = 100 [radians/second] Homework Solution 3
(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 10

EE/ME 574: Intermediate Control Systems

Solution 3

B) Problem 6.3, (a, c, f, i) Answer: (Only matlab plots shown here, students should include both hand sketches and matlab plots. Hand sketches should qualitatively agree with matlab plots).
Problem 6.3a 50 50 Problem 6.3c

0 Magnitude (dB) 0 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg)


2 3 4

50

50

100

100 90

150 90

Phase (deg)

135

180

180 1 10

10

10 Frequency (rad/sec)

10

270 2 10

10

10 10 Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

6.3 (a)
Problem 6.3f 100 50 Magnitude (dB) Magnitude (dB) 100 0 50 100 150 0 200 90 50

6.3 (c)
Problem 6.3i

150

0 Phase (deg) Phase (deg)


2 1 0 1 2 3

90

90

180

180

270 3 10

10

10

10 Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

10

270 2 10

10

10 10 Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

6.3 (f)

6.3 (i)

Homework Solution 3

(Revised: Feb 16, 2012) Page 11