Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

What culture? Which culture?

Cross-cultural factors in language learning Luke Prodromou

The 'cultural background in language teaching has, for a number of reasons, recently moved to the foreground: there is renewed interest in subjects as varied as the politics of national language policy, sexism in EFL, and the ideology of textbooks and dictionaries. Broadly speaking, there has been a shift in emphasis in course design from a pre-occupation with form to an interest in content. This article describes the results of a survey designed to elicit the views ofstudents on what language teaching should be about. It tests a number of hypotheses expressed by a variety of writers in previous articles in this journal: the importance or otherwise of 1 bilingual, bicultural teachers; 2 native-speaker models of English; 3 the cultural content of English lessons in a context where English is a foreign rather than a second language.1

The importance of English

The burgeoning bibliography on cross-cultural matters in language teaching is a symptom of wider social, political, and technological developments and in particular the increased mobility of people, and therefore of contact between people, brought about by modem communications, electronic media, and international organizations. Thus, there is potential for greater harmony or greater conflict. There is also an increasing awareness of a common global destiny, highlighted by nuclear and environmental disasters of an alarming variety. as the foremost medium of international English, therefore, communication at the present time, is called upon to mediate a whole range of cultural and cross-cultural concepts, to a greater degree than in the past. The international dimension of English language teaching is not only becoming difficult to ignore, but offers ELT a potentially more significant role than traditional ethnocentric views of the language as a peculiarly Anglo-Saxon entity would have allowed.

context:

The historical trivial pursuits

In spite of surface differences, the concept of culture implicit or explicit in most ELT methods and materials until recently, has been predominantly monocultural and ethnocentric; the content of such materials has been criticized for not engaging the students personality to any significant extent. The grammar-translation approach was an easy target for criticisms of cultural triviality, given its obsession, in the early stages of learning, with made-up sentences designed to illustrate the parts of speech
ELT Journal Volume 46/1 January 1992 Oxford University Press 1992 39

articles

welcome

to the detriment of syntax or meaning. Thus, direct methodists such as Sweet poke fun at examples of the pen of my aunt variety with the first prize for meaning-less triviality going to a gem such as: the philosopher pulled the lower jaw of the hen (quoted by Howatt, 1984: 145) However, if we turn to direct method materials themselves, whether their early or later - situational - versions, we find greater sense than grammar-translation materials, but little that is culturally challenging inspiring. Classroom culture (pupils, pens, chalk, and chairs) gives such familiar examples as: Youre standing up. What are you doing? Are you the first pupil or the last? etc. (Palmer, 1940: 64-66) The real world provides descriptive examples and general truths such as: Does a horse pull a cart? Yes, it does. What pulls a cart? A horse does. etc. (Palmer, 1940: 64,77) The audio-lingualists of the 1950s and 1960s claimed to place English in the cultural context of modem Britain or the USA, but their notion of culture is rarely more than superficial. This seems inherent in a method which so dogmatically downgraded lexical meaning in favour of structural form; the contexts are a pre-text for language forms and lead to the blandness of: We have set all the narratives in England. We provide, where appropriate short notes on the cultural background in which Jillian and Martin live , . . They have - we hope - something in common with many young, educated, classless people in many larger cities all over the world. (Barnett et al., 1968: 23) In the communicative models put forward as an alternative to structuralism, cross-cultural content is not given explicit priority: people invite, apologize, make requests, and so on in London, Bristol, or Cambridge. Wilkins concept of authentic material confirms the monocultural limits of early functionalism: by this is meant materials which were originally directed at the native-speaking audience. (Wilkins,
1976: 79).

in in or us

The survey: hypotheses we live by

In suggesting that the cultural content of previous approaches to ELT has been trivial, I am making certain assumptions about the importance of content in ELT materials and implicitly the kind of content which we should be promoting. In the second part of this article, I would like to report the results of a classroom survey designed to test some of these assumptions and others, which have been made by recent writers on cultural content in language teaching.
Luke Prodromou

40

articles

welcome

My survey sought to elicit students reactions to the following hypotheses: 1 The importance 2 The importance 3 The importance diversity. 4 The importance of the cultural background. of the cultural foreground. of a cross-cultural understanding

four

and multi-cultural

of English language teaching as education,

There is, of course, overlap in the four approaches, but each of the writers I quote highlights one feature rather than another. Hypothesis 1: The importance of the cultural background Valette (1986) expresses the first hypothesis: For the classroom teacher, cultural goals may be divided into four categories: developing a greater awareness of and a broader knowledge about the target culture; acquiring a command of the etiquette of the target culture; understanding differences between the target culture and the students culture; and understanding the values of the target culture. (Valette, 1986; see also Brown, 1990, who argues for the importance of cultural knowledge in interpreting texts appropriately.) It is important to bear in mind that Valette is writing in the context of English as a second language in the United States, where the learner may well be seeking to become integrated into the life of the community. It is often claimed, as a kind of collorary of this position, that the successful learner is one who has a positive attitude towards the target culture (see Svanes, 1988). But my question is: How applicable are these assumptions to a context where English is a foreign language? Hypothesis 2: The importance of the cultural foreground It is in the context of English as a foreign rather than second language that Cem and Margaret Alptekin, writing about Turkey, feel that local culture may, regrettably, be submerged into the dominant culture of the foreign language. They question the desirability of identifying the learning of English with the culture of the native speaker, and counter-propose the use of local varieties of English. Implicit in this position is the desirability of bilingual/bicultural teachers of English as a foreign language. (Alptekin and Alptekin, 1984: 14; see also Rampton, 1990, who questions the supremacy of the native speaker at a time when world English is a mosaic of many non-native - and nativized - varieties.) Hypothesis 3: The importance multicultural diversity of cross-cultural understanding and

No-one involved in teaching English is likely to argue for cross-cultural mis-understanding, but some may question the relative emphasis to be given to cross-cultural as opposed to target or local culture components in course design. Robinson (1985) believes in the importance of developing cultural versatility to help learners meet the demands of an increasingly multicultural world; the cultural background approach is criticized for
What culture? Which culture? 41

articles

welcome

its implicitly alienating effect on the learner: Cultural instruction does not usually build bridges between the home and target culture . . . students are asked to role-play and imitate the target behaviour rather than synthesise it with their own experience (Robinson, 1985: 100). Robinson therefore proposes a multilingual/multicultural model of education rather than a bilingual/bicultural one.
Hypothesis 4: The importance of English language teaching as education

The view that ELT has for long been practised in an educational vacuum is expressed by Brumfit (1980), Cook (1983), and Abbott (1987). Abbotts focus, building on Cooks work, is on interesting content: Current views of language teaching are highly instrumental and have led to the creation of speech oriented syllabuses . . . much more thought is needed on what the aims and content of school EFL syllabuses should be.
But what do students think?

At this point, it is time to ask: What about the learners? How do they feel about all the claims made for them, and the concern shown for their cultural improvement? As a recent ELT Journal editorial suggested: A properly conducted survey of students views on the matter of cultural standpoint and credibility of the range of teachers and materials available to them would be very interesting. (Editorial, ELT Journal, April, 1988). In the rest of this paper, I describe one attempt to conduct such a survey.

The survey: background

The survey was in the form of a questionnaire which was distributed to 300 Greek students. The students were asked five questions: 1 2 3 4 5 Do you think your teacher of English should know the students mother tongue? Do you think your teacher of English should know about Greece and Greek culture? Which model of English do you wish to learn: British/American/ other? Is it important for you to speak English like a native speaker? What do you think the content or subject matter of your English lessons should be? a. The English language; b. Facts about science and society; c. Social problems; d. British life and institutions; e. English/American literature; f. The culture of other countries; g. Political problems; h. The experiences of other students in the class; i. Greek life and institutions; j. American life and institutions.

42

Luke Prodromou

articles

welcome

The first two questions sought to elicit their attitude to the bilingual/ bicultural teacher. Questions 3 and 4 aimed to discover how strongly students felt about native-speaker models of the language. The final question was more detailed: it asked students to specify the kind of content they would like their English lessons to be based on. The items in the list of topics are based on Cook (1983), Abbott (1984), and Prodromou (1988): thus, I hoped to find out what students felt about some of the assumptions we teach. The students The subjects were 300 Greek students of English, mostly young adults, studying English as a foreign language in private language institutes or at The British Council Teaching Centre, Thessaloniki. One third of the students were beginners, while the others were intermediate or advanced. They were all working their way towards either the Cambridge First Certificate or Proficiency. I chose to divide the distribution of the private institutes questionnaires between Greek language (frontisteria - as repetition is cumbersome, henceforth PLI) and The British Council (henceforth, BC), in order to establish a possible difference in attitude towards the target culture on the part of students who chose to emole at the BC with its exclusively native-speaker teaching staff, and those who chose to attend lessons at PLI, whose teachers are mostly non-native speakers of English. I included different levels of language ability (beginners to post-First Certificate) largely in order to identify possible differentiation in attitudes towards the use of the mothertongue in the classroom by students with only a little knowledge of English and those, on the other hand, who knew quite a lot. (The questionnaire was given to beginners in a Greek translation.) The results of the questionnaire are summarized in Table 1 on page 44. In the next section, I attempt a summary and initial interpretation of the results. Questions I and 2: The bilingual/bicultural teacher

The results

Just over half of the students thought the (native-speaker) teacher should know the learners mother tongue and know about local culture. There were slightly more BC students who felt the teacher should be bilingual/ bicultural, compared to students in the Greek PLI. On the face of it, one might have expected the result to be the other way round, on the assumption that BC students had paid to be taught by native speakers. A possible explanation for the slight reversal of expectations in this respect is a feeling of frustration felt by BC students when faced with non-Greekspeaking teachers attempting to explain difficult vocabulary or when giving complicated instructions. Beginners feel more strongly than higher-level students (65 per cent compared to 53 per cent) that their teacher should know the students mother tongue. This is predictable, given the limitations of direct method approaches with students who know little English.
What culture? Which culture? 43

articles

welcome

Tab/e 1: Results of questionnaire on cross-cultural factors in language learning

Total number of students: 300 1 Do you think your teacher of English should know the students mother tongue? % total
58

BC
59

PLI
55

Beg
65

Int/Adv
53

Do you think your teacher of English should know about Greece and Greek culture? % total
56

BC
58

PLI
51

Beg
42

Int/Adv
74

Which model of English do you wish to learn? % i ii iii British American Other total
75

BC
76 16 0.5

PLI
72 22 3

Beg
77 17 -

Int/Adv
76 16

18 5

Do you think it is important

for you to speak English like a native speaker? % total


62

BC
58

PLI
78

Beg
64

Int/Adv
52

What do you think the content or subject-matter of your English lessons should be? % total BC PLI Beg Int/Adv a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. I. . The English language Facts: science, society Social problems British life, institutions English/American literature Culture of other countries Political problems Experiences of students Greek life, institutions American life, institutions
84 74 72 60 44 36 31 28 27 26 83 74 66 61 38 33 33 25 24 24 85 73 84 58 56 40 27 32 32 30 80 62 49 57 29 24 19 20 18 18 87 86 83 65 48 43 48 31 31 31

Key

TotaI BS PLI Beg Int/Adv

Aggregate replies of 300 students, all levels, British Council and Greek private language institutes in Thessaloniki. British Council students at all levels. Students in Greek language institutes at FC/Proficiency level. Students at beginner/elementary level (questionnaire issued in Greek). Intermediate and advanced students.

In the case of cultural awareness, it is the intermediate and advanced students who say that their teacher should be familiar with local culture (74 per cent of intermediate/advanced students compared to 42 per cent of beginners). This could have something to do with age and linguistic competence: advanced students, being more adult, may also be more sensitive to questions of cultural identity, or simply have enough language - and successful learning experience - at their disposal to welcome the challenge of discussing local culture in class. Question 3: Native-speaker varieties of English

The overall picture here is of the universal popularity of British English compared to American English. This must surely be a reflection of the bad press the Americans have had in post-war Greece (the presence of 44 Luke Prodromou

articles

welcome

US bases on Greek soil, a history of interference in internal affairs, etc.), as well as the widespread feeling amongst Greeks that British English is a purer, more refined form of English. (The BBC is a byword for clarity of diction.) More PLI students (22 per cent compared to 16 per cent) preferred American English. This, along with the slightly greater preference for British English amongst BC students, suggests that one attractive marketing factor for BC clientele is British English itself. Question 4: Native-speaker pronunciation Only 62 per cent of students overall say they would like to speak English like a native speaker. Even fewer BC students (58 per cent) attach importance to a native-speaker accent than PLI students, which is surprising. This may be due to any one or more of the following factors: - BC students, surrounded by British teachers, take the question of native-speaker pronunciation for granted. - BC students have demystified the attractions of native-speaker accents and discovered the limitations of having exclusively nativespeaker teachers. - In trying to get students to speak with an English accent we are in some way invading their cultural space, in a way which does not apply to grammar or vocabulary. Students are often educated into adopting certain attitudes by the way they are taught: the fact that most teachers still ignore or neglect pronunciation may have something to do with students perception of pronunciation as relatively unimportant. - BC students, faced with a variety of occasionally obscure or even incomprehensible native-speaker accents, may feel a good pronunciation is beyond their reach. Question 5: What should language teaching be about? The fact that most students (84 per cent) said they wanted the lesson to be about the English language may be so obvious as to be insignificant, as all lessons, in a way, are about English. Science and society. Apart from language itself, the most popular source of content was facts about science and society, and the least popular American life and institutions. This is an interesting contrast, in that science and society are the most neutral/universal cultural areas in the list, while American culture is the most marked and, in Greece, emotive. The interest in science, technology, and society revealed in the answers (particularly at advanced levels) may well be a reflection of the fact that the majority of learners in the survey are university students, with a healthy interest in the world around them, and a less healthy obsession with passing their exams at all costs! Social problems are uniformly motivating for both BC and PLI students, but with a significantly lower level of interest amongst beginners (49 per cent compared to 83 per cent for more advanced students). The great Greek paperchase. There is quite strong interest (60 per cent) in British life and institutions amongst all students, both at BC and in PLI, at
What

culture? Which culture?

45

articles

welcome

all levels. There is, however, a significant minority (40 per cent) which is not very interested in British culture. As far as Britain is concerned, young Greeks do not seem over anxious about the threat of cultural imperialism. This is in sharp contrast to attitudes to American culture (26 per cent). Although not justifying an Anglo-centric approach to content, these figures suggest quite a strong association in learners minds between learning a language and learning about the people who speak that language. Why British and not American ? One plausible explanation is the predominance of the British-based Cambridge examinations, and the backwash effect they have. (A massive 45,000 candidates a year take the Cambridge examinations in Greece.) There may be a conception (or misconception) in candidates minds that their chances of passing the examination are greater if they know about British culture. Culturespecific material emanating from the Cambridge Syndicate (less obvious in recent years) may fuel such preconceptions. The cultural foreground. While the unpopularity of American topics may be explicable in terms of post-war Greek history and an exam-oriented society, it is harder to account for the very low rating given to Greek culture (non-British Council students are somewhat warmer towards local culture). The most likely explanation (confirmed by informal discussion with some of the students who completed the questionnaire) is that students go to the BC and PLI to escape from everyday routine; going to foreign language lessons is primarily a social event. The usefulness of the Cambridge First Certificate is, in practical terms, limited, but it certainly gives thousands of Greeks a pretext for going out in the evenings and meeting people. Another reason for the relative unpopularity of Greek subject matter may be the highly charged nature of Greek political life, particularly in recent years. Discussions of political or semi-political topics (such as Greek newspapers) can be unexpectedly divisive: the students affective filter is raised against personal revelations, and normally voluble Greeks are left speechless. There is further evidence for this hypothesis in the low response to political problems as content (31 per cent) and the personal experience of students (28 per cent). The latter result, in an age when humanistic approaches are becoming an orthodoxy, should make us tread carefully when personalizing classroom activities. English and American literature. There is quite a high interest in literature amongst students (44 per cent, but far less at lower levels), which matches the revival of interest in the subject in applied linguistics circles. The culture of other countries. Nearly 4 out of 10 students find a more multicultural approach to content attractive. There is in Greece a mixed tradition of both xenophobia and xenomania, and together with an ethnocentric educational system, this may have helped shape this rather ambiguous result. A multicultural approach, particularly one which involves comparisons between the students culture and other cultures, is
46 Luke Prodromou

articles

welcome

an important area to develop. This is a point I shall raise in my concluding remarks.


British Council versus other students

There are no significant differences between the attitudes of students who pay to come to The British Council and other students. (BC students are slightly more favourably inclined towards British culture, while non-BC students are slightly less hostile towards American culture.) Frontisteria students are somewhat keener (8 per cent) on local culture than BC students. Knowledge of the target culture remains an important part of language learning, especially at higher levels. This may be due to both subjective and objective factors: on the one hand, the sheer, intrinsic delight in discovering more about a culture so different from the students own this includes the escapist factor. On the other hand, there is what Gillian Brown has discussed as the interpretation of discourse: an intuitive competence, drawing on cultural knowledge, which native-speakers possess, but which learners have to be trained in (Brown, 1990). Training students to infer culturally-determined meanings from clues in a text is a particularly valuable approach with advanced students who have to deal with authentic texts. It is an approach to the cultural background very different from the traditional teaching of facts about British life and institutions. My own feeling is that there is still a place for this kind of learning about the target culture, but that wherever possible such fact-based sessions should be integrated with the other work done by the class and should be consistent with a learner-centred methodology, if that is the option adopted by the teacher. Activities in class may take the form of games, quizzes, questionnaires, and project work. For example, at elementary level, a true-false exercise about Britain or the USA may be conducted as a quiz game or as part of project work. Not only are such activities potentially enjoyable in themselves but may also be of practical value to any students planning to travel abroad: True or False? - People drive on the left in the UK. - If you go to Oxford you will see Buckingham Palace. - You cannot use English pounds in Scotland. - The head of the government in Britain is the President. - There are 20 pence in a pound. etc.

Ways forward The cultural background

The cultural foreground

The survey suggests that there is a place for materials based on local culture in the EFL classroom but that, in this context at least, it might not be as predominant as that suggested by Alptekin (1984). Nevertheless, the direction taken by Adaskou et al., (1990) in devising materials for Morocco following an assessment of teachers attitudes to the cultural content of textbooks is consistent with the approach taken here in that they What culture? Which culture? 47

articles

welcome

avoided a top-down strategy in arriving at their decisions. Although most of the texts chosen by the Morocco team involve local uses of English, they also include texts of general interest corresponding to the topics in my English as education category (technology, unemployment, history, science, etc. (Adaskou et al., 1990: 9). A technique I have found useful for drawing on local culture in a natural communicative? way, is a team game which reverses the usual roles of teacher and learners. The students, in teams, prepare questions about local culture for the native-speaker teacher to answer. The group which asks most questions to which the teacher does not know the answer, wins. (If the innocent teacher is new to the country, he or she may be allowed to select a student as informant/advisor.) This kind of activity makes for a more reciprocal relationship between the culture of the teacher and that of the students. It involves a built-in recognition of the value of the learners culture and the value of their contribution to the learning process: As Freire puts it: the literacy process, as cultural action for freedom, is an act of knowing in which the learner assumes the role of knowing subject, in dialogue with the educator (1970: 29). This use of learner input, incidentally, helps the guest teacher develop greater awareness of local historical events and attitudes towards them, thus avoiding certain cultural faux pas, which the Alptekins and Adaskou et al. warn against.

Placing or displacing the native speaker?

Ramptons (1990) assertion that linguistic expertise is more important than notions of who is and who is not a native speaker gains implicit support from the way students responded to question 4 of my survey. In the long run, what seems to matter most to students is the teachers ability to do the job; it is not who you are, but what you know (Rampton, 1990: 99) that students will pay for. Non-native-speaker teachers of English are not necessarily worse off than their native-speaker colleagues: they can be, and often are, as expert in English and ELT methodology as native speakers, and have the added advantage of being able to draw on the vast reservoir of the students first language and culture (see Atkinson, 1987, for practical uses of the first language in the classroom).

What should language teaching be about?

The more advanced the students knowledge of English becomes, the more receptive they are to interesting content and a richer cultural input. A great deal has already been done at higher levels to incorporate into course design content based on school subjects and the learners personal or professional interests. Some materials have demonstrated that a contentbased approach is also possible at elementary level (e.g. Hutchinson, 1985). Materials, wherever possible suggested or contributed by the students themselves, should obviously continue to be about things intelligent people would normally want to read or discuss. Examination classes are particularly prone to the fallacy that the lesson has to be boring, that the testing process is more important than the educational
Luke Prodromou

48

articles

welcome

value of the content. One looks forward to more examination material which successfully balances exam preparation with preparation for living in the real world, multiple choice with personal choice.
Conclusion: towards a future perfect

In finishing, I would like to broaden the perspective somewhat. Beyond facts, however interesting, and beyond the horizons of local or target cultures, there are other cultures, for which English as an international language and English teaching as a global profession are natural media. Broadening students horizons is a traditional objective of educational activity, and the expression takes on a new and more urgent meaning in a time of global environmental disasters and the collapse of international barriers. In the USA, there is a growing interest in Global Education which prompts Finocchiaro to comment: Bilingualism and biculturalism are participating in todays interdependent prepare learners to cope not only with and behaviours, but with its many (Finocchiaro, 1982). not sufficient for living and world. It is our responsibility to the worlds universal problems ethnic and cultural systems.

In teaching any language, we are imparting information and therefore power; in teaching English we can impart to learners not only the present perfect, but also the power of knowing and caring more about the world they live in. English is at the centre of international and global culture. It is a cultural activity; it is an important activity.
Epilogue: whats the use of classroom research?

There are two ways in which I have found the research described in this article useful. First of all, there is the end-product of the survey: insights into the subject under discussion, cultural factors in language learning. Secondly, there is the process itself of going to the students and finding out to what extent the teachers assumptions and theirs coincide. It is both disconcerting and stimulating to discover that our assumptions and those of our students do not always coincide. As one wanders around the mid-career plateau, such shocks to ones complacency are a refreshing form of self-development. Going back to the learners generates a renewed interest in a process which, after fifteen years of language teaching, risks becoming an unexamined ritual.
Received November 1990

Note

1 This article is based on a talk given at the 23rd IATEFL Conference in Warwick, UK, April 1989. References Abbott, G. 1984. Should we start digging new holes? ELT Journal, 38/2: 98-102. Abbott, G. 1987. EFL as education. System, 15/l: 47-53.
What culture?

Adaskou, K., D. Britten, and B. Fahsi. 1990. Design decisions on the cultural content of a secondary English course for Morocco. ELT Journal, 44/1: 3-10. Alptekin, C. and M. Alptekin. 1984. The question of Culture. ELX Journal, 38/1: 14-20. Atkinson, D. 1987. The mother-tongue in the classroom: a neglected resource? ELT Journal, 41/4. 49

Which culture?

articles

welcome

Barnett, J. A., G. Broughton, and T. Greenwood. 1968. Success with English, Teachers Handbook 1. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Brown, G. 1990. Cultural values: the interpretation of discourse. ELT Journal, 44/1: 11-17. Brumfit, C. J. 1980. Problems and Principles in English Teaching. Oxford: Pergamon. Cook, V. J. 1983. What should language teaching be about? ELT Journal, 37/3: 229-34. Finocchiaro, M. 1982. Reflections on the Past, the Present and the Future. Forum, July, 1982. Freire, P. 1970. Cultural Action for Freedom. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Howatt, A. P. R. 1984. A History of English Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hutchinson, T. 1985. Project English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jesperson, O. 1904. How to Teach a Foreign Language, London: Allen and Unwin. Palmer, H. E. 1940. The Teaching of Oral English. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Prodromou, L. 1988. English as cultural action.
ELT Journal, 42/2: 73-83.

Robinson,

ELT Journal, 44/2: 97-101. G. L. N. 1985. Crosscultural Understanding. Oxford: Pergamon.

Svanes, B. 1988. Attitudes and cultural distance in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics,
9/4: 357-371.

Valdes, J. M. (ed.). 1986. Culture Bound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Valette, R. M. 1986. The culture test, in Valdes (ed.). 1986. Whitney, N. 1988 Editorial. ELT Journal, 42/2: 71. Wilkins, D. 1976. Notional Syllabuses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The author

Rampton, M. B. H. 1990. Displacing the native speaker: expertise, affiliation, and inheritance.

Luke Prodromou has a degree in English with Greek MA in Shakespeare Studies (Bristol), an (Birmingham), and a Postgraduate TEFL Diploma (Leeds). He is a teacher trainer for The British Council, Thessaloniki. He is the co-author of Bits and Pieces, a book of sketches for students, On the Move, an advanced course book, Are You Ready? (Use of English), and Medicine (ESP); he is also the author of a forthcoming book on the mixed-ability class.

50

Luke Prodromou

articles

welcome