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A Users Guide to Conveyor Belt Safety

Protection from Danger Zones

It's About Making A Difference.

IAPA

RESEARCH AND EDITING Laurent Giraud, Ph.D., Trainee Engineer, Researcher, IRSST Serge Mass, Engineer, Scientifi c Professional, IRSST Julie Dub, Trainee Engineer, Scientifi c Professional, IRSST Luc Schreiber, Engineer, M.Sc., Direction rgionale de la Mauricie et du Centre-du-Qubec, CSST Andr Turcot, Engineer, Direction de la prvention-inspection, CSST CONVEYOR SAFETY COMMITTEE VALIDATION Laurent Giraud, Ph.D., Trainee Engineer, Researcher, IRSST Serge Mass, Engineer, Scientifi c Professional, IRSST Julie Dub, Trainee Engineer, Scientifi c Professional, IRSST Gilles Brouard, Inspector, Direction rgionale de lOutaouais, CSST Yves Desrochers, Inspector, Direction rgionale de lAbitibi-Tmiscamingue, CSST Donald Duchesne, Engineer, Prevention-Inspection Consultant, Direction de la prvention-inspection, CSST Gilles Gagnon, Engineer, Prevention-Inspection Consultant, Direction de la prvention-inspection, CSST Louise Gravel, Engineer, Prevention-Inspection Consultant, Direction de la prvention-inspection, CSST Daniel Macleod, Engineer, Inspector, Direction rgionale de la Chaudire-Appalaches, CSST Andr Marchand, Inspector, Direction rgionale de la Mauricie et du Centre-du-Qubec, CSST Yvon Papin, Prevention-Inspection Consultant, Direction de la prvention-inspection, CSST Luc Schreiber, Engineer, M.Sc., Inspector, Direction rgionale de la Mauricie et du Centre-du-Qubec, CSST Andr Turcot, Engineer, Prevention-Inspection Consultant, Direction de la prvention-inspection, CSST Joseph Wigorski, Inspector, Direction rgionale de lAbitibi-Tmiscamingue, CSST Lyne Beaul, Communications Consultant, Direction des communications, CSST PROJECT MANAGER Donald Duchesne, Engineer, Prevention-Inspection Consultant, Direction de la prvention-inspection, CSST PROJECT PRODUCTION AND DESIGN SUPERVISOR AND COORDINATOR Lyne Beaul, Communications Consultant, Direction des communications, CSST TRANSLATION Goodwill Vezina PROOFREADING Claudette Lefebvre, Direction des communications, CSST GRAPHIC DESIGN AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS Eykel Design and David Gillis ILLUSTRATIONS Steve Bergeron ORIGINAL TITLE Scurit des convoyeurs courroie : guide de lutilisateur Commission de la sant et de la scurit du travail du Qubec 2 e dition revue et corrige Copyright Deposit - Bibliothque nationale du Qubec, 2003 ISBN 2-550-42283-X DC 200-16227-1 (04-01) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to thank all company and union representatives from the following establishments and organizations: Les gravires de Beauce, Abitibi-Consolidated (Belgo Division and Laurentides Division), Produits forestiers Domtar (Val-dOr Division), Uniboard Canada (Val-dOr Division), Mine Jeffrey, ASSIFQ-ASSPPQ, CIFQ and AMQ.
The IRSST makes no guarantee regarding the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information contained in this document. In no case shall the IRSST be held responsible for any physical or psychological injury or material damage resulting from the use of this information. Note that the content of the document is protected by Canadian intellectual property legislation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION APPLICATION SECTION 1 GENERAL INFORMATION
1. Context Analysis and Definitions 1.1 Context Analysis 1.2 Definitions 1.2.1 Tasks 1.2.2 Workers 1.2.3 Areas 1.2.4 Conveyor Components Accident Information Hazards Applicable Acts and Regulations Risk Assessment and Reduction Maintenance Information

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

SECTION 2 SAFEGUARDS AGAINST HAZARDS


1. 2. Risk Assessment and Reduction Safeguards against Mechanical Hazards 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.6.7 2.6.8 2.6.9 General Principles Guards Allowable Dimensions for Guard Openings Fixed Guard Interlocking Guard Interlocked Guard with Guard Locking Deterrent Devices Service Ways and Throughways Falling or Projecting Objects Conveyor Elements Carried Loads Conveyor Belt Safety Requirements for Operating Conditions Power Transmission Moving Parts Belt Upper and Lower Strands in a Straight Run Curved Zone Transition Zone Drums Moving Loads Moving Sub-Assemblies Moveable Conveyors

3.

Safeguards against Other Hazards 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Hazards Generated by Poor Ergonomic Design Heat-Related Hazards Electrical Hazards Fire and Explosion Hazards

4.

Safeguards against Control System Failures or Malfunctions 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Start-Up Regular Stop Emergency Stop Emergency Stop Pull Cords

5.

Safeguards against Maintenance Hazards 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 General Principles Lockout Procedures Safeguards for Maintenance within Operating Danger Zones Summary of Maintenance Safeguards

6.

Operator a n d Maintenance Crew Training 6.1 6.2 Operator Training Maintenance Crew Training

APPENDICES
Appendix A Guard Design Appendix B H o w to Use Table 2-2 Appendix C O n t a r i o Legislation Reference

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 Table 1-2 Table 1-3 Table 2-1 Table 2-2 Table 2-3 Table 2-4 Serious or Fatal Accidents by Areas of Occurrence Serious or Fatal Accidents by Worker Activity Applicable Acts and Regulations Allowable Dimensions for Guard Openings Required Distances for Fixed Barrier Guards Minimum Lengths of In-Running Nip Fixed Guards Safeguards for Maintenance Activities

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Figure 1-2 Figure 1-3 Figure 1-4 Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 Figure 1-7 Conveyor Belt Diagrams Types of Belt Supports Typical Bulk Loading System Typical Power Transmission Moving Part Hazards Typical Mechanical Hazards Typical Hazards of Individual Loads and Fixed Obstacles Typical Hazards of Moving Sub-Assemblies

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Figure 2-1 Figure 2-2 Figure 2-3 Figure 2-4 Figure 2-5 Figure 2-6 Figure 2-7 Figure 2-8 Figure 2-9 Figure 2-10 Figure 2-11 Figure 2-12 Figure 2-13 Figure 2-14 Figure 2-15 Figure 2-16 Figure 2-17 Figure 2-18 Figure 2-19 Figure 2-20 Figure 2-21 Figure 2-22 Figure 2-23 Figure 2-24 Figure 2-25 Figure 2-26 Figure 2-27 Figure 2-28 Figure 2-29 Figure 2-30 Figure 2-31 Figure 2-32 Figure 2-33 Figure 2-34 Figure 2-35 Figure 2-36 Figure 2-37 Figure 2-38 Figure 2-39 Figure 2-40 Figure 2-41 Figure 2-42 Figure A-1 Figure A-2 Figure A-3 Figure B-1 Figure B-2

Risk Assessment and Reduction Flowchart Typical Surrounding Fixed Guard (Partial Cage) Surrounding Barrier Guard for Load Carrying Rollers and Return Rollers Curved Zone Surrounding Fixed Guard Typical Surrounding Fixed Guards (Side Screens with No Protection Underneath) Typical Barrier Guard (Danger Zone is at least 100 mm from the Guard) Illustration for Table 2-2 In-Running Nip Fixed Guard (Form-Fitting Element) In-Running Nip Fixed Guard (Angled Deflector with Side Plates) Operating Principle of Interlocking Guards Operating Principle of Interlocked Guard with Guard Locking Typical Deterrent Devices Surrounding Fixed Guard for Pulleys and Power Transmission Belts Surrounding Fixed Guard for Couplings Surrounding Fixed Guard for Shafts Surrounding Fixed Guard for Shaft Ends Typical Protective Measures for Throughways Mechanical Splices Surrounding Fixed Guard in Loading Area In-Running Nip Fixed Guard for Support Rollers (Plates) Surrounding Fixed Guard for Support Rollers Surrounding Fixed Guards for Return Rollers In-Running Nip Fixed Guards for Return Rollers Typical Protective Devices for Throughways Deterrent Device (Side Plate) for Return Rollers Located less than 700 mm from the Floor Return Roller Retaining Device Surrounding Barrier Guard for Drum and Scraper (Partial Cage) Surrounding Fixed Guards for Curved Zone Curved Zone In-Running Nip Guard Protectors for Head Drum and Transition Zone In-Running Nip Guard for Drum Scraper Serving as an In-Running Nip Guard Surrounding Fixed Guard for Tail Drum Barrier Guard for Gravity-Type Tensioner Fixed Guard at Conveyor Belt Junction Pop-Up Roller at Conveyor Belt Junction Typical Protective Measures against Hazards Associated with Individual Loads and Fixed Obstacles Typical Guard for Individual Loads and Rollers Exceeding Belt Width Typical Protective Devices for Throughways Typical Barriers for Ejectors Moveable Conveyor Standard Symbol Designating Forced to Break Contact Devices Typical Hinged Fixed Guard Typical Quarter-Turn Keyed Spring Latch Captive Fasteners Separation Barrier Guard Example 1 Separation Barrier Guard Example 2

REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY iii

INTRODUCTION
A number of accidents involving conveyor belts can be attributed to accessibility to danger zones. The majority of these occur during maintenance activities with conveyors still in operation and danger zones unprotected. Preventative measures must be implemented in order that work on or near conveyors can be performed safely. Right from the design stage, worker exposure to hazards must be controlled by reducing the frequency of under-conveyor clean-ups, conveyor maintenance, removing jams, etc. This guide suggests possible preventative measures but they are by no means exhaustive. In many situations, the risk must be analyzed before any preventative measures are implemented. This guide is composed of two sections. Section 1 provides definitions, information on conveyor belt accidents, an overview of mechanical hazards and applicable legal requirements. Section 2 discusses risk assessment and hazard control procedures, specific safeguards against mechanical and other hazards, safeguards against hazards encountered during maintenance, and training for operators and maintenance personnel. This guide is directed mainly to workers, technicians, supervisors, joint health and safety committee members, and other interested parties. Conveyor design and modification for enhanced safety are discussed in Scurit des convoyeurs courroie : guide du concepteur (A Designers Guide to Conveyor Belt Safety). An entire chapter is devoted to operational problems and diagnostics and includes suggested solutions for consideration in the problem solving process. In another chapter, a fault tree illustrates links between conveyor defects and accidents. Scurit des convoyeurs courroie : guide du concepteur (A Designers Guide to Conveyor Belt Safety) targets engineers, designers, conveyor belt manufacturers and maintenance managers.

APPLICATION
This guide applies to conveyor belts designed to transport continuous bulk or individual loads along a predetermined path between loading and unloading points. Movable conveyors are also discussed, for example, conveyors that swing around a hopper, on wheels, or used on semi-trailers (or fl oat).