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ARCHITECTURE IN CHINA

3RD CENTURY B.C. TO PRESENT

PREPARED BY:

ADA N. CONCEPCION
BS ARCHITECTURE 5A

INFLUENCES
GEOGRAPHICAL
~ COMPRISED OF THREE (3) PROVINCES & THE
AUTONOMOUS REGIONS OF INNER MONGOLIA AND SINKIANG-VIGUR ~ 1/13TH OF THE TOTAL LAND AREA OF THE WORLD ~ MOUNTAINOUS, W/ EXTENSIVE FERTILE VALLEYS IN THE MIDDLE AND SOUTH-EAST, & GREAT PLAINS IN THE NORTH ~ EXCELLENT HARBOURS PROMOTED MARITIME CONTACT WITH SE ASIA IN EARLY TIMES & WEST DURING THE LAST TWO (2) CENTURIES

INFLUENCES
GEOLOGICAL
~TIN, COPPER, ZINC, ANTIMONY, TUNGSTEN, MANGANESE &
MERCURY ARE ABUNDANT ~TIMBER: PRINCIPAL MATERIAL IN CHINESE ARCHITECTURE ~ BAMBOO, PINE & THE PERSIA NANMU: SERVED AS COLUMNS IN PALACES & TEMPLES ~ CLAY, BRICKS & LIMESTONES WERE ALSO USED ~ ROOFS: COVERED W/ CLAY TILES. GLAZED W/ SYMBOLIC COLORS (BLACK, RED, AZURE, WHITE & YELLOW)

INFLUENCES
CLIMATIC
~ IT EXPERIENCES RANGE OF CLIMATE VARYING FROM EXTREME COLD TO ALMOST TROPICAL
~ RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CHARACTERISTIC OF CHINESE ROOF , W/ ITS ACCENTUATED CURVED EAVES ~ HEATING OF BUILDINGS WAS OFTEN PROVIDED BY CHARCOAL BURNERS W/O FLUES OR FIREPLACES

~ BEDS WERE RAISED ON DIAS (KANG) WERE HEATED UNDERNEATH W/ BURNING CHARCOALS

INFLUENCES
HISTORICAL, SOCIAL & RELIGIOUS
~ CHINESE ARCHITECTURE CONSEQUENTLY SUFFERED LITTLE INFLUENCE FROM THE EXPANSION OF TRADE ~ BUDDHISM STIMULATED & INFLUENCED ARCHITECTURAL FORM ~ CONFUCIANISM, TAOSIM & BUDDHISM: THE MAIN RELIGIOUS AND ETHICAL INFLUENCES IN CHINA

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
ROOF
~THE CHIEF FEATURE ~CONCAVE IN SECTION: GENERALLY COVERED W/ ENAMELLED TILE OF S-SHAPE (PANTILES) SET IN MORTAR. ~COVERED W/ BRIGHTLY GLAZED TILES IN SYMBOLIC COLORS

ROOF RIDGE
~EMPHASIZED W/ HIGHLY COLORED DRAGONS, FISHES & GROTESQUE FIGURES IN GLAZED TERRA-COTTA

ROOF FRAMING
~CONSISTS OF A SYSTEM OF TRUSSES IN RIGID RECTANGLES

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
DOORWAYS
~ ARE SQUARE HEADED, BUT VARIED IN OUTLINE BY FRETTED PENDANTS FROM THE HORIZONTAL TIMBERS

WINDOWS
~ ARE OF SIMILAR FORM, SUITING THE RECTANGULAR FRAMING OF TIMBER POSTS OR THE LASHING TOGATHER OF BAMBOOS ~ RICE PAPER WAS ALSO USED INSTEAD OF GLASS

CHINESE ORNAMENTS
~ EXPRESSES NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

EXAMPLES

TEMPLES
~ CONSISTS OF SUCCESSIVE OPEN COURTS & PORTICOES W/ KITCHENS, REFECTORIES, & SLEEPING CELLS FOR THE PRIESTS ~ NORMAL TYPES: CONSISTS OF 3 LOFTY PAVILIONS OF ONE STOREY, W/ PARALLEL OPEN TIMBER ROOFS APPROACHED BY BROAD FLIGHTS OF STEPS, GATEWAYS & BRIDGES

EXAMPLES

TEMPLE OF THE SLEEPING BUDDHA

EXAMPLES

PAGODAS
~ MOST TYPICAL CHINESE BUILDING ~ USUALLY OCTAGONAL IN PLAN ~ ODD NUMBER OF STORIES, USUALLY 9 OR 13 STOREYS ~ WITH UP TURNED EAVES, SLOPES TO EACH STOREY ~ HAS FORMERLY A RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE, BUT THOSE ERECTED LATER ARE SECULAR IN CHARACTER & ARE SOMETIMES MONUMENTS TO VICTORY

EXAMPLES
PAGODAS

EXAMPLES
PAI-LOUS
~ A CHINESE CEREMONIAL GATEWAY ERECTED IN MEMORY OF AN EMINENT PERSON ~ ARE ENTRANCES TO TEMPLES AND TOMBS, SOMETIMES AS MONUMENTS TO THE DEA AND SOMETIMES TO STAND ACROSS A STREET ~CONSISTS OF TWO OR MORE UPRIGHT POSTS W/ HORIZONTAL FRIEZE, MAKING ONE, TWO OR THREE OPENINGS, SOMETIMES SURMOUNTED BY A SERIES OF BRACKETS (LIKE THOSE UNDER TEMPLE EAVES)

EXAMPLES
PAI-LOUS

EXAMPLES
TOMBS
~ NOT OF GREAT ARCHITECTURAL VALUE

EXAMPLES
PALACES
~ WERE ERECTED & ISOLATED ~ ONE-STOREYED PAVILIONS RESEMBLING TEMPLES IN GENERAL DESIGN & CROWNED W/ THE TYPICAL ROOF & NOT IMPOSING

THE FORBIDDEN CITY (IMPERIAL PALACE IN PEKING)

EXAMPLES
HOUSES
~ GENERALLY OF ONE STOREY LIKE TEMPLES ~ ROOFS: OF STEEP PITCH W/ BOLDLY PROJECTNG EAVES & HIGLY ORNAMENTED RIDGES ~ ROOF FRAMING: IN BAMBOO OR WOOD. FREQUENTLY PAINTED IN RED, GREEN OR BLUE ~ HOUSES FACE SOUTH & OWE MUCH TO NATURAL LANDSCAPE FOR THEIR CHARACTER ~ FRONT DOORS OPEN TO COURTYARD W/ ROOMS ON EITHER SIDE & A HALL AT THE END ~ 3 PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS: VESTIBULE, AUDIENCE CHAMBER & FAMILY ROOMS, KITCHEN & SERVANTS ROOM

EXAMPLES
GREAT WALL OF CHINA
~ 1/20TH OF THE EARTHS CIRCUMFERENCE ~ 8 ft HIGH (2.4M) & 3 ft THICK

SYMBOLIC IDENTIFICATION
TORTOISE & PINE
~ SYMBOLS OF LONGETIVITY

POMEGRANATE
~ INDICATED FERTILITY OR FECUNDITY

FIVE-CLAWED DRAGON
~ RESERVED EXCLUSIVELY FOR THE EMPEROR

PHOENIX
~ RESERVED FOR THE EMPRESS

CRANE & UNICORN


~ FOR IMPORTANT FUNTIONARIES

CHINESE ORNAMENTS